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Sample records for study examines effects

  1. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Time Constraints on Student Performance in Accounting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects, if any, of time constraints on the success of accounting students completing exams. This study examined how time allowed to take exams affected the grades on examinations in three different accounting classes. Two were sophomore classes and one was a senior accounting class. This limited pilot…

  2. An action research study on the effect of an examination preparation course on Veterinary Technology National Examination scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Jennifer S.

    The action research project used for this dissertation was intended to examine the effect of implementing an examination preparation course for graduates taking the Veterinary Technology National Examination in Louisiana. Previous data showed that scores on the VTNE were declining at not only the state, but also the national level, thus allowing less graduates to enter the workforce as Registered Veterinary Technicians in Louisiana. The research question was "What impact did the exam prep course have on VTNE test scores?" The researcher focused on helping to better prepare graduates from a local community college Veterinary Technology program to take the VTNE by implementing an exam review course in the semester prior to graduation from the program. The focus of the review course was not only content review, but also test taking techniques, help with study habits, as well as presentation of techniques to help deal with test anxiety. Three sources of data were collected by the researcher including pre and post intervention VTNE scores, as well as survey results completed by the graduates participating in the study. There were 13 graduates who participated in the study, and the data for 50 prior graduates was used as a comparison for score improvement. Upon completion of the intervention, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that while the intervention did have a positive effect on the graduates in terms of feeling prepared for the exam, it did not improve VTNE scores. A survey was administered to the participants upon completion of the course, and thematic coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. Overall the results indicated the learners felt the course helped prepare them for the VTNE, and the majority recommended implementing it for future learners.

  3. Effective radiation doses of CT examinations in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Minami, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Chida, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to estimate the effective radiation doses from CT examinations of both adults and children in Japan and to study the impact of various scan parameters on the effective doses. Methods: A questionnaire, which contained detailed questions on the CT scan parameters employed, was distributed to 3000 facilities throughout Japan. For each scanner protocol, the effective doses for head (non-helical and helical), chest and upper abdomen acquisitions were estimated using ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator software v. 1.0.4 (St George's Hospital, London, UK). Results: The mean effective doses for chest and abdominal examinations using 80–110 kV were significantly lower than those using 120 kV. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean effective doses for head scans between facilities employing 80–110 kV and 120 kV. In chest and abdominal examinations, the mean effective doses using CT scanners from Western manufacturers [Siemens (Forchheim, Germany), Philips (Eindhoven, Netherlands) and GE Medical Systems (Milwaukee, WI)] were significantly lower than those of examinations using Japanese scanners [Hitachi (Kashiwa, Japan) and Toshiba (Otawara, Tochigi, Japan)], except for in paediatric chest examinations. Conclusion: The mean effective doses for adult head, chest and abdominal CT examinations were 2.9, 7.7 and 10.0 mSv, respectively, whereas the corresponding mean effective doses for paediatric examinations were 2.6, 7.1 and 7.7 mSv, respectively. Advances in knowledge: Facilities using CT scanners by Western manufacturers commonly adopt low-tube-voltage techniques, and low-tube-voltage CT may be useful for reducing the radiation doses to the patients, particularly for the body region. PMID:26647804

  4. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Gilbert, Gregory E; Sithole, Fortune; Koster, Liza S

    2017-09-27

    Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog's Ear, Volume 1 . Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS) Depression, Fatigue-Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  5. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Artemiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog’s Ear, Volume 1. Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS Depression, Fatigue–Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  6. Students' perceived stress and perception of barriers to effective study: impact on academic performance in examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J; Bartlett, D; Andiappan, M; Cabot, L

    2015-11-13

    To identify students' perceptions of barriers to effective study and the relationship between these and demographic characteristics, levels of perceived stress and examination performance. A questionnaire was distributed to first (BDS1) and final year (BDS5) King's College London dental undergraduates, during Spring 2013. Data were collected on students' social and working environment using a Likert scale from zero to four. Levels of perceived stress and end-of-year examination results were collected. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS® and Stata® software. A response rate of 83.0% (BDS1) and 82.9% (BDS5) was achieved. Social distractions were perceived to hinder study, with median scores of two and three for females and males respectively. The mean perceived stress score differed significantly (p=0.001) between males and females. Difficulties with journey was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p=0.03) as were family responsibilities (p=0.02). Social distractions were significantly related to examination performance (p=0.001). Social distractions were the barrier most highly rated as hindering effective study. Levels of perceived stress were high and were significantly associated with gender, a difficult journey to university and family responsibilities. Social distractions were significantly related to examination performance; students rating social distractions highly, performed less well.

  7. Exposure study to examine chemosensory effects of ɛ-caprolactam in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebig, Gerhard; Triebig-Heller, Isabel; Bruckner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    ε-Caprolactam is an important industrial chemical with a relatively low human toxicity; of importance is the irritations that occur after exposure to ε-caprolactam as aerosols or vapors. The aim of this study was to examine symptoms and objective effects, which occur on the mucous membranes of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. A total of 52 healthy volunteers (26 women and 26 men, aged between 19 and 50 years) were exposed by random to different ε-caprolactam concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 5.0 mg/m³) and the control condition (0.0 mg/m³) for 6 h on four consecutive days. Eye blinking frequency, tear film break-up time, eye redness, nasal flows and resistance, olfactory function as well as total protein and interleukin-8 in nasal lavage fluid were determined daily before, during and after exposure. Questionnaires were used to record both subjective symptoms and personality factors. There were no significant specific effects on the subjective and objective endpoints examined. Statistical analysis yielded no evidence of concentration-response relationships. Evaluation of olfactory symptoms showed that the duration of the stay in the chamber and not the ε-caprolactam concentration was decisive for the perception of "impure air". Personality factors had no significant influence on the reported symptoms. Exposure to ε-caprolactam concentrations of 5.0 mg/m³ at maximum for 6 h did not cause chemosensory effects on the upper respiratory tract or eyes of healthy volunteers. Therefore, the concentration of 5.0 mg/m³ corresponds to the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL).

  8. A longitudinal study examining the effects of a season of American football on lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Joubert, Dustin P; Caldwell, Aaron; Martin, Steve E; Crouse, Stephen F

    2015-04-21

    Dyslipidemia is one factor cited for increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in American football players. However, American football players undergo physical conditioning which is known to influence lipids. This study examined if the physical activity of an American football season is associated with changes in lipids and if a relationship exists between lipids and body composition. Fourteen division I freshmen American football players had blood drawn prior to summer training (T1), end of competition (T2), and end of spring training (T3). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TCHL), HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG). Body composition was assessed via dual-x-ray absorptiometry. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) lipid categorization was used to characterize participants. Pearson correlations were computed to determine relationships. Body mass increased T2 (p=0.008) as a result of increase in fat mass (p=0.005) and remained high despite a decrease T3. Lean mass did not differ significantly at any time. No significant time effects were observed for lipids measured. The number of participants presenting with risk factors attributed to dyslipidemia varied. By T3, no participant was categorized as "low" for HDL-C. TCHL was moderately correlated (r=0.60) with fat mass at T1; whereas a moderate correlation (r=-0.57) was observed between BMI and HDL-C at T2. TG was strongly correlated with fat mass at each time point (T1, r=0.83; T2, r=0.94; T3, r=0.70). The physical activity associated with a season of football results in little change in blood lipids and CVD risk. Further, TG are strongly related to fat mass. Future research should focus on examining the cause of dyslipidemia in American football players.

  9. An Examination of Police Officers' Perceptions of Effective School Responses to Active Shooter Scenarios: A Phenomenological Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Florence E.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to examine police officer perceptions of effective school responses to active shooting scenarios. Creswell's (2013) six step process for analyzing and interpreting qualitative data was used to examine the interview information. The study results support the idea that changes…

  10. Epidemiological Interpretation of Studies Examining the Effect of Antibiotic Usage on Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, Vered; Temkin, Elizabeth; Harbarth, Stephan; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing clinical problem and public health threat. Antibiotic use is a known risk factor for the emergence of antibiotic resistance, but demonstrating the causal link between antibiotic use and resistance is challenging. This review describes different study designs for assessing the association between antibiotic use and resistance and discusses strengths and limitations of each. Approaches to measuring antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance are presented. Important methodological issues such as confounding, establishing temporality, and control group selection are examined. PMID:23554418

  11. Studying the interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth: An examination using e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Green, Barry G; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Jatlow, Peter; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Buta, Eugenia; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    Tobacco products containing menthol are widely used by youth. We used e-cigarettes to conduct an experimental evaluation of the independent and interactive effects of menthol and nicotine among youth. Pilot chemosensory experiments with fourteen e-cigarette users identified low (barely perceptible, 0.5%) and high (similar to commercial e-liquid, 3.5%) menthol concentrations. Sixty e-cigarette users were randomized to a nicotine concentration (0mg/ml, 6mg/ml, 12mg/ml) and participated in 3 laboratory sessions. During each session, they received their assigned nicotine concentration, along with one of three menthol concentrations in random counterbalanced order across sessions (0, 0.5%, 3.5%), and participated in three fixed-dose, and an ad-lib, puffing period. Urinary menthol glucuronide and salivary nicotine levels validated menthol and nicotine exposure. We examined changes in e-cigarette liking/wanting and taste, coolness, stimulant effects, nicotine withdrawal and ad-lib use. Overall, the high concentration of menthol (3.5%) significantly increased e-cigarette liking/wanting relative to no menthol (pnicotine* menthol interactions (p=0.06), with an increase in liking/wanting when 3.5% menthol was combined with 12mg/ml nicotine, but not 6mg/ml nicotine. Importantly, both 0.5% and 3.5% menthol concentrations significantly improved taste and increased coolness. We did not observe nicotine or menthol-related changes in stimulant effects, nicotine withdrawal symptoms or ad-lib use. Menthol, even at very low doses, alters the appeal of e-cigarettes among youth. Further, menthol enhances positive rewarding effects of high nicotine-containing e-cigarettes among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DILTIAZEM IN THE DRE AND PROCTOSCOPIC EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thampan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Digital Rectal Examination (DRE and proctoscopy is an important routine investigation done by surgeons, gastroenterologists’, etc. Most of the patients complain of pain and discomfort during the procedure. Anal sphincter complex contracts to the penetrating index finger as a voluntary reflex try to avoid hurting. A good lubricant jelly (with 2% lignocaine and extreme gentleness should be the rule to this procedure to avoid discomfort and pain to the patients. Even with maximum precautions, majority of patients complain discomfort or pain during the procedure. To overcome this problem, we tried lubricant jelly and diltiazem gel combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 500 patients in this trial during the period 2010 to 2015 from the OPD of our institution with lubricant jelly alone and with diltiazem in the interval of two weeks. Analysis showed most of the patients is comfortable with combination lubricant jelly and diltiazem gel rather than lubricant jelly alone. RESULTS A total of 625 patients were screened for this study, but only 560 considered and enrolled (mean age 40 years. 60 patients failed to attend for the second examination, hence they were excluded from the final analysis. CONCLUSION The importance of DRE and proctoscopy known to every clinician, since it provides valuable information about anorectal pathology. Some patients are reluctant to give consent thinking that it will hurt them. By mixing lubricant jelly with diltiazem, the procedure becomes really comfortable due to good relaxation of anal sphincter complex.

  13. Fur-bearers in the field : study examines cumulative effects of activity at Chinchaga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-08-01

    The challenges facing the oil and gas industry regarding cumulative environmental impacts were discussed. This issue has become important to the oil and gas industry, particularly as communities, governments, environmental groups and investors seek better understanding of the long-term consequences of development and how its effects can be mitigated. Long-term studies and baseline data are important. For the last 8 winters, Ernst Environmental Services (EES) has conducted wildlife monitoring at Chinchaga, which straddles the border between north-Western Alberta and northeastern British Columbia (BC). The area has been described as one of the last boreal wilderness areas in the province. It also has a very rich oil field. There are now more than 140 wells, and this boom has brought along much associated infrastructure, including pipelines, winter roads and a gas plant on the BC side. Each winter, as activity increases, EES uses snow-tracking, photo documentation, remote-camera monitoring and scat collection to capture data about the effects of drilling activities. Scat is collected for stress-level analysis. Although initial studies indicate that wolverines have not been displaced by oil and gas activity, new data has shown that wolverines have returned to territories where oil and gas activity has stopped. Data continues to support the idea that activity does not displace moose, marten, lynx or fisher populations. Using this data, the EES has made several recommendations about wildlife and industry interactions, including no use of recreational vehicles; no harassment of wildlife; the restriction of engine retarder brakes in specified areas; and no idling of vehicles. Additionally, well sites should not be located in old-growth areas, all activities should stop by March 15, and workers should be educated about the consequences of their actions. Controversies concerning the EES's methods were presented. It was suggested that the inefficacy of the procedure was

  14. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  15. A Meta-analysis of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Studies Examining the Reliability of Effects on Language Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy R; McAdams, Harrison; Grossman, Murray; Hamilton, Roy H

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation technique used to examine causal relationships between brain regions and cognitive functions. The effects from tDCS are complex, and the extent to which stimulation reliably affects different cognitive domains is not fully understood and continues to be debated. To conduct a meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of single-session anodal tDCS on language. The meta-analysis examined the behavioral results from eleven experiments of single-session anodal tDCS and language processing in healthy adults. The means and standard deviations of the outcome measures were extracted from each experiment and entered into the meta-analyses. In the first analysis, we examined the effects of single-session tDCS across all language studies. Next, a series of sub-analyses examined the effects of tDCS on specific tasks and stimulation protocols. There was a significant effect from anodal single-session tDCS in healthy adults compared to sham (P = 0.001) across all language measures. Next, we found significant effects on specific stimulation protocols (e.g., offline measures, P = 0.002), as well as specific tasks and electrode montages (e.g., verbal fluency measures and left prefrontal cortex, P = 0.035). The results indicate that single-session tDCS produces significant and reliable effects on language measures in healthy adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 249 The study examined the effect of climate change on the health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Ebong, 2010). In Nigeria just as in many developing countries in the sub-tropical .... Nigeria. The Scientific community should be involved in the studying climate change and forecasting weather and then transmitting this information to all sectors of ...

  17. Effects and Unforeseen Consequences of Accessing References on a Maintenance of Certification Examination: Findings From a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A; Jurich, Daniel; Foster, Lauren M

    2017-10-12

    Increasing criticism of maintenance of certification (MOC) examinations has prompted certifying boards to explore alternative assessment formats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allowing test takers to access reference material while completing their MOC Part III standardized examination. Item response data were obtained from 546 physicians who completed a medical subspecialty MOC examination between 2013 and 2016. To investigate if accessing references was related to better performance, an analysis of covariance was conducted on the MOC examination scores with references (access or no access) as the between-groups factor and scores from the physicians' initial certification examination as a covariate. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate how the new feature of accessing references influenced time management within the test day. Physicians scored significantly higher when references were allowed (mean = 534.44, standard error = 6.83) compared to when they were not (mean = 472.75, standard error = 4.87), F(1, 543) = 60.18, P references affected pacing behavior; physicians were 13.47 times more likely to finish with less than a minute of test time remaining per section when reference material was accessible. Permitting references caused an increase in performance, but also a decrease in the perception that the test has sufficient time limits. Implications for allowing references are discussed, including physician time management, impact on the construct assessed by the test, and the importance of providing validity evidence for all test design decisions.

  18. [Effective dose in X-ray examinations: comparison between spiral CT and urography in the study of renal colic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Denaro, M; Bregant, P; Cupardo, F; De Guarrini, F; Rimondini, A; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the effective dose in patients with renal colic undergoing spiral CT examination and IVU examination, and to verify the ability of the systems to measure the effective dose. Dose measurements were carried out for both diagnostic techniques by employing an anthropomorphic phantom with thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) fitted inside the phantom. The data so obtained were compared with dose estimations based on published tables, which allow to obtain the effective dose on the basis of the experimental value of common dose indicators, the performance of the equipment and the setting of the acquisition parameters for such examinations. The absorbed dose inside the phantom had an homogeneous distribution during the spiral CT examination, while during the IVU there were significant differences in the absorbed dose between different zones of the body, due to the geometry of the x-ray beam. The mean effective dose, which corresponds to the average of values absorbed by males and females, measured by TLD dosimeters for spiral CT examination was 3.3 time that for IVU. For both spiral CT and IVU the dose to the male was significantly lower than that to the female, owing to the anatomic position of female gonads that are completely exposed to the x-ray radiations during the study, while male gonads lie outside of the exposed area. Both methods for estimating the effective dose in spiral CT, based on CTDI value, significantly underestimated the value derived from experimental TLDs measurement. The evaluation of effective dose in IVU, based on the measurement of the skin dose in air, overestimated the measurement performed by TLDs. Dose measurement performed by TLD dosimeters fitted inside an anthropomorphic phantom has the advantage of calculating experimentally the absorbed dose in different anatomic districts. However, the method is quite difficult, and introduces some imprecisions due to the simplified morphology of the phantom and the

  19. Shame in Medical Education: A Randomized Study of the Acquisition of Intimate Examination Skills and Its Effect on Subsequent Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Wolf E; Schröder, Therese; Dannenberg, Katja A; März, Maren; Hölzer, Henrike; Ahlers, Olaf; Thomas, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Although medical students are exposed to a variety of emotions, the impact of emotions on learning has received little attention so far. Shame-provoking intimate examinations are among the most memorable events for students. Their emotions, however, are rarely addressed during training, potentially leading to withdrawal and avoidance and, consequently, performance deficits. However, emotions of negative valance such as shame may be particularly valuable for learning, as they might prompt mental rehearsal. We investigated the effect of shame on learning from the perspective of cognitive load theory. We hypothesized that (a) training modality determines state shame, (b) state shame directly affects the quality of a clinical breast examination as one example of a shame-provoking exam, and (c) students who experience shame during training outperform those who just discuss the emotion during subsequent performance assessments. Forty-nine advanced medical students participated in a randomized controlled, single-blinded study. After a basic, low-fidelity breast examination training, students were randomized to further practice either on a high-fidelity mannequin including a discussion of their emotions or by examining a standardized patient's real breasts. Last, all students conducted a breast examination in a simulated doctor's office. Dependent variables were measures of outcome and process quality and of situational shame. Students training with a standardized patient experienced more shame during training (p Shame interacted with training modality, F(1, 45) = 21.484, p shame (r = .335, p = .022). Students experiencing state shame during training do reenact their training and process germane load-in other words, learn. Furthermore, altering simulation modality offers a possibility for educators to adjust the affective component of training to their objectives.

  20. Examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven Edward

    This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14

  1. Control selection and confounding factors: A lesson from a Japanese case-control study to examine acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Satoko; Okada, Kenji; Nakano, Takashi; Ito, Hiroaki; Hara, Megumi; Kuroki, Haruo; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    When using a case-control study design to examine vaccine effectiveness, both the selection of control subjects and the consideration of potential confounders must be the important issues to ensure accurate results. In this report, we described our experience from a case-control study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids (DTaP vaccine). Newly diagnosed pertussis cases and age- and sex-matched friend-controls were enrolled, and the history of DTaP vaccination was compared between groups. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of vaccination for development of pertussis. After adjustment for potential confounders, four doses of DTaP vaccination showed a lower OR for pediatrician-diagnosed pertussis (OR=0.11, 95% CI, 0.01-0.99). In addition, the decreasing OR of four doses vaccination was more pronounced for laboratory-confirmed pertussis (OR=0.07, 95%CI, 0.01-0.82). Besides, positive association with pertussis was observed in subjects with a history of steroid treatment (OR=5.67) and those with a recent contact with a lasting cough (OR=4.12). When using a case-control study to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines, particularly those for uncommon infectious diseases such as pertussis, the use of friend-controls may be optimal due to the fact that they shared a similar experience for exposure to the pathogen as the cases. In addition, to assess vaccine effectiveness as accurately as possible, the effects of confounding should be adequately controlled with a matching or analysis technique. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Trevor; Russo, Stephen A; Barker, Gaytri; Rice, Mark A; Jeffrey, Mary G; Broderick, Gordon; Craddock, Travis J A

    2017-04-28

    Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool. After applying exclusion criteria and case matching, 204 male and 99 female participants remained. These participants were grouped according to sex and the number of previous self-reported concussions and examined for overall differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. In an effort to further reduce confounding factors due to the varying group sizes, participants were then case matched on age, sex, and body mass index and analyzed for differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. Case matched analysis demonstrated males with concussions experience significantly higher rates of dizziness (p = .027, η 2  = .035), fogginess (p = .038, η 2  = .032), memory problems (p = .003, η 2  = .055), and concentration problems (p = .009, η 2  = .046) than males with no reported previous concussions. No significant effects were found for females, although females reporting two concussions demonstrated a slight trend for experiencing higher numbers of symptoms than females reporting no previous concussions. The results suggest that male adolescent athletes reporting multiple concussions have lingering concussive symptoms well after the last concussive event; however, these symptoms were found to

  3. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  4. An in vivo study examining the antiinflammatory effects of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark in a novel functional beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Jacquier, J C; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of polyphenols are well documented in vitro but there are few human studies. A herbal beverage composed of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark (CMW) was developed and tested for its antiinflammatory effect in a cohort of healthy adults (n = 20) during a 4-week intervention. Subjects were randomised to either the treatment (TG) or placebo group (PG). The three herbs under study, which have been used in traditional and alternative medicine, were delivered in a berry extract matrix. This berry extract was used as a control in the experiment. The objective was to assess the herbs' effects on systemic inflammation and joint function by examining circulating cytokines and mechanical joint flexibility. Blood serum was analyzed for cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα. There was an average decrease of 21.7% IL-1β in the treatment group, whereas the decrease seen in the placebo group was 3% but these were not statistically significant. Quartile analysis based on baseline production of TNFα demonstrated a decrease in the treatment group's IL-6 levels. This group showed improvements in mechanical joint function and pain upon movement of joints specific to the knee and lower back. Overall, no significant antiinflammatory effects were seen. The evidence is therefore inconclusive and further investigations are required using a larger cohort with some degree of elevated inflammatory activity.

  5. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MacNeill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants’ experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Methods Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants’ relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. Conclusion These

  6. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Virginia; Foley, Marian; Quirk, Alan; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-29

    The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants' experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption) and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants' relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. These participants described no dramatic impacts attributable to taking part in

  7. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  8. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents : An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M-age = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the

  9. Loneliness in the daily lives of adolescents: An experience sampling study examining the effects of social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roekel, G.H. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Goossens, L.; Verhagen, M.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M-age = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the

  10. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: Effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772

  11. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Examination of dietary methylmercury exposure in the Casa Pia Study of the health effects of dental amalgams in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, C C; Martin, M D; Woods, J S; Soares, H L; Bernardo, M; Leitäo, J; Simmonds, P L; Liang, L; DeRouen, T

    2001-12-07

    This study examined methylmercury concentrations in blood of children participating in the Casa Pia Study of the Health Effects of Dental Amalgams in Children over a 1-yr period and related them to their diets in terms of fish and other seafood consumption. One hundred and fifty children between the ages of 8 and 10 yr who were residents of the Casa Pia School System of Lisbon, Portugal, participated. Parents or caregivers completed a food frequency questionnaire designed specifically for this study at baseline. Children provided urinary and blood samples for mercury determinations at baseline and at 1 yr following placement of dental tooth fillings. Mercury levels in fish samples from children's diets were also obtained. Mercury determinations in urine, blood, and fish were performed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The mean value of baseline methylmercury concentrations in blood increased as the report of seafood consumption increased, although not statistically significantly. However, blood methylmercury and total mercury concentrations were significantly lower at 1-yr follow-up than at baseline. Sixty-one percent of parents/caregivers reported that their children consumed fish on a weekly basis. The fish offered at a sample of the schools contained low levels of methylmercury (range 13.9-23.6 ng/g). Thus, children participating in the Casa Pia dental amalgam study are exposed to low dietary levels of methylmercury by way of fish consumption, and this finding was reflected in the low mean blood methylmercury concentrations observed. The present findings indicate that dietary methylmercury is not a significant source of mercury exposure and is not likely to confound the association of dental amalgam mercury with potential health effects in the present study.

  13. Applying advanced analytics to guide emergency department operational decisions: A proof-of-concept study examining the effects of boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Taylor, R; Venkatesh, Arjun; Parwani, Vivek; Chekijian, Sharon; Shapiro, Marc; Oh, Andrew; Harriman, David; Tarabar, Asim; Ulrich, Andrew

    2018-01-04

    Emergency Department (ED) leaders are increasingly confronted with large amounts of data with the potential to inform and guide operational decisions. Routine use of advanced analytic methods may provide additional insights. To examine the practical application of available advanced analytic methods to guide operational decision making around patient boarding. Retrospective analysis of the effect of boarding on ED operational metrics from a single site between 1/2015 and 1/2017. Times series were visualized through decompositional techniques accounting for seasonal trends, to determine the effect of boarding on ED performance metrics and to determine the impact of boarding "shocks" to the system on operational metrics over several days. There were 226,461 visits with the mean (IQR) number of visits per day was 273 (258-291). Decomposition of the boarding count time series illustrated an upward trend in the last 2-3 quarters as well as clear seasonal components. All performance metrics were significantly impacted (pboarding count, except for overall Press Ganey scores (pboarding shocks are characterized by changes in the performance metrics within the first day that fade out after 4-5days. In this study regarding the use of advanced analytics in daily ED operations, time series analysis provided multiple useful insights into boarding and its impact on performance metrics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Tolvaptan on Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis for Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Takeyuki; Hobo, Akinori; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Kabu, Koki; Furuta, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    For patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) serves as a possible renal replacement therapy. However, most PD patients, particularly those with ESRD and diabetes mellitus, reportedly discontinue PD early, resulting in shorter survival periods and poorer prognosis because of overhydration. Recently, the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan was approved for volume control in patients with heart failure. The present study aimed to identify the effects of tolvaptan in diabetic PD patients. In this pilot study, the tolvaptan group (n = 12) were treated with 15 mg/day of tolvaptan 2 weeks after PD initiation and were prospectively analyzed for 1 year, and patients in the control group (n = 12) did not receive tolvaptan and were retrospectively analyzed for 1 year. In addition to the biochemical tests, echocardiograms, serum atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, peritoneal Kt/V, and creatinine clearance (CCr) were examined at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after PD initiation. In the control group, the urine volume, renal Kt/V, and renal CCr levels consistently decreased; however, these parameters were stably maintained during the study period in the tolvaptan group. Atrial natriuretic peptide, CRP levels and the left ventricular mass index of the tolvaptan-treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group, whereas total protein and albumin levels were significantly higher at 6 and 12 months in the tolvaptan group. There were no obvious adverse effects. These data suggest that tolvaptan may preserve residual renal function and improve volume control in PD patients with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  15. Using Michael Young's Analysis on Curriculum Studies to Examine the Effects of Neoliberalism on Curricula in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavale, Nelson Casimiro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to examine the effects of neoliberalism on curricula in Mozambique. Despite the fact that the introduction of neoliberal policies in Mozambique has affected the whole system of education, the focus in this article is only on curriculum reforms in secondary and technical/vocational education. The description and…

  16. Examining the Effects of Art Therapy on Reoccurring Tobacco Use in a Taiwanese Youth Population: A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rei-Mei; Guo, Su-Er; Huang, Chun-Sheng; Yin, Cheng

    2018-03-21

    Cigarette smoking is a primary risk factor affecting mental and physical health worldwide. Many chronic diseases are closely related to smoking. Adolescents in Taiwan are increasingly using tobacco, especially in rural areas. This research project used a mixed-method study to examine the effects of art therapy on smoking cessation in rural Taiwanese youth smokers. Participants from years 10-11, were drawn from three senior high schools in Taiwan. The experimental group participated in a six-week smoking cessation intervention using art therapy. The comparison group participated in typical courses on smoking cessation. Quantitative measures included need for smoking, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and smoking cessation status. Qualitative analysis was based on phenomenology. A total of 66 students (n = 40 experimental group; n = 26 comparison group) were the subjects of quantitative analysis. No differences were noted in baseline characteristics of groups. Generalized estimating equation analyses suggested significant between-group differences in change from pre- to follow-up test scores in the "social domain" (B = -5.12, p art therapy on smoking prevention, benefits of art therapy on other outcome measures, and comparison between art therapy and traditional smoking cessation programs. Conclusions/importance: The findings of this study can potentially contribute significantly to existing knowledge regarding the perceptions of art therapy on reoccurring tobacco use in Taiwanese youth.

  17. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  18. Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P.; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the storage vs. composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants were shown the infinitival forms of verbs from either Class I (the default class, which takes new verbs) or Classes II and III (non-default classes), and were asked to produce either first-person singular present-tense or imperfect forms, in separate tasks. In the present tense, the L1 speakers showed inflected-form frequency effects (i.e., higher frequency forms were produced faster, which is taken as a reflection of storage) for stem-changing (irregular) verb-forms from both Class I (e.g., pensar-pienso) and Classes II and III (e.g., perder-pierdo), as well as for non-stem-changing (regular) forms in Classes II/III (e.g., vender-vendo), in which the regular transformation does not appear to constitute a default. In contrast, Class I regulars (e.g., pescar-pesco), whose non-stem-changing transformation constitutes a default (e.g., it is applied to new verbs), showed no frequency effects. L2 speakers showed frequency effects for all four conditions (Classes I and II/III, regulars and irregulars). In the imperfect tense, the L1 speakers showed frequency effects for Class II/III (-ía-suffixed) but not Class I (-aba-suffixed) forms, even though both involve non-stem-change (regular) default transformations. The L2 speakers showed frequency effects for both types of forms. The pattern of results was not explained by a wide range of potentially confounding experimental and statistical factors, and does not appear to be compatible with single-mechanism models, which argue that all linguistic forms are learned and processed in associative memory. The findings are consistent with a dual-system view in which both verb class and regularity influence the storage vs

  19. Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2010-02-17

    This study examines the storage vs. composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants were shown the infinitival forms of verbs from either Class I (the default class, which takes new verbs) or Classes II and III (non-default classes), and were asked to produce either first-person singular present-tense or imperfect forms, in separate tasks. In the present tense, the L1 speakers showed inflected-form frequency effects (i.e., higher frequency forms were produced faster, which is taken as a reflection of storage) for stem-changing (irregular) verb-forms from both Class I (e.g., pensar-pienso) and Classes II and III (e.g., perder-pierdo), as well as for non-stem-changing (regular) forms in Classes II/III (e.g., vender-vendo), in which the regular transformation does not appear to constitute a default. In contrast, Class I regulars (e.g., pescar-pesco), whose non-stem-changing transformation constitutes a default (e.g., it is applied to new verbs), showed no frequency effects. L2 speakers showed frequency effects for all four conditions (Classes I and II/III, regulars and irregulars). In the imperfect tense, the L1 speakers showed frequency effects for Class II/III (-ía-suffixed) but not Class I (-aba-suffixed) forms, even though both involve non-stem-change (regular) default transformations. The L2 speakers showed frequency effects for both types of forms. The pattern of results was not explained by a wide range of potentially confounding experimental and statistical factors, and does not appear to be compatible with single-mechanism models, which argue that all linguistic forms are learned and processed in associative memory. The findings are consistent with a dual-system view in which both verb class and regularity influence the storage vs

  20. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  1. Examining different factors in effectiveness of advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.

  2. A Revised Pilot Study Examining the Effects of the Timing and Size of Classes on Student Performance in Introductory Accounting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of the timing of classes and class size on student performance in introductory accounting courses. Factors affecting student success are important to all stakeholders in the academic community. Previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the effects of class size on student success…

  3. [Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010: typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen; Gruber, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and "typical" radiation doses to the "average patient", which turned out to have 75.6kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the "average patient" were expressed as ratios between 90(th) and 10(th) percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1(st) and 3(rd) quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to be encouraged. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF RETAIL SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY (A Case Study of Toko Progo Yogyakarta)

    OpenAIRE

    Martha, Yulia

    2016-01-01

    The market range of retailers extends rapidly and continuously, and the level of competition is also higher and advanced. The recent market place has become more competitive as customers continually expect retailers to exceed their increasing expectations. To face such a changeable and aggressive environment, one of the effective strategies is to do improvements. Based on those facts, Toko Progo needs a research as a review of its service quality. This study intends to explore the findings of...

  5. Attitudes on cost-effectiveness and equity: a cross-sectional study examining the viewpoints of medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David G; Wong, Gordon X; Martin, David T; Tybor, David J; Kim, Jennifer; Lasker, Jeffrey; Mitty, Roger; Salem, Deeb

    2017-08-01

    To determine the attitudes of physicians and trainees in regard to the roles of both cost-effectiveness and equity in clinical decision making. In this cross-sectional study, electronic surveys containing a hypothetical decision-making scenario were sent to medical professionals to select between two colon cancer screening tests for a population. Three Greater Boston academic medical institutions: Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Centre and Lahey Hospital and Medical Centre. 819 medical students, 497 residents-in-training and 671 practising physicians were contacted electronically using institutional and organisational directories. Stratified opinions of medical providers and trainee subgroups regarding cost-effectiveness and equity. A total of 881 respondents comprising 512 medical students, 133 medical residents-in-training and 236 practising physicians completed the survey (total response rate 44.3%). Thirty-six per cent of medical students, 44% of residents-in-training and 53% of practising physicians favoured the less effective and more equitable screening test. Residents-in-training (OR 1.49, CI 1.01 to 2.21; p=0.044) and practising physicians (OR 2.12, CI 1.54 to 2.92; pmedical students. Moreover, female responders across all three cohorts favoured the more equitable screening test to a greater degree than did male responders (OR 1.70, CI 1.29 to 2.24; pmedical professionals place on equity. Among medical professionals, practising physicians appear to be more egalitarian than residents-in-training, while medical students appear to be most utilitarian and cost-effective. Meanwhile, female respondents in all three cohorts favoured the more equitable option to a greater degree than their male counterparts. Healthcare policies that trade off equity in favour of cost-effectiveness may be unacceptable to many medical professionals, especially practising physicians and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  6. A field study examining the effects of exposure to neonicotinoid seed-treated corn on commercial bumble bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Cutler, G; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2014-11-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been studied as possible contributors to bumble bee declines in North America and Europe. This has potential significance in corn agro-ecosystems since this crop is frequently treated with neonicotinoids and dominates much of the agricultural landscape in North America and Europe where bumble bees and other pollinators are commonplace. We conducted an experiment where commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) hives were placed during pollen shed next to corn (Zea mays) fields that were grown from "conventional" seed that was treated with neonicotinoids, or "organic" seed that was not treated with pesticides. Samples of pollen were collected from corn plants for neonicotinoid residue analysis, pollen types carried by worker bees returning to hives were determined, and in autumn hives were dissected to measure various endpoints that serve as markers of colony vigor. Clothianidin was detected (0.1-0.8 ng/g) in pollen collected from all conventional fields, but was not detected in pollen from organic fields. Corn pollen was only rarely collected from bumble bee foragers and the vast majority of pollen was from wild plants around the corn fields. All hives appeared healthy and neonicotinoid seed treatments had no effect on any hive endpoints measured, except the number of workers, where significantly fewer workers were recovered from hives placed next to conventional fields (96 ± 15 workers per hive) compared to organic fields (127 ± 17 workers per hive). The results suggest that exposure during pollen shed to corn grown from neonicotinoid-treated shed poses low risk to B. impatiens.

  7. An observational study of the effectiveness of practice guideline implementation strategies examined according to physicians' cognitive styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Christine P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviews of guideline implementation recommend matching strategies to the specific setting, but provide little specific guidance about how to do so. We hypothesized that the highest level of guideline-concordant care would be achieved where implementation strategies fit well with physicians' cognitive styles. Methods We conducted an observational study of the implementation of guidelines for hypertension management among patients with diabetes at 43 Veterans' Health Administration medical center primary care clinics. Clinic leaders provided information about all implementation strategies employed at their sites. Guidelines implementation strategies were classified as education, motivation/incentive, or barrier reduction using a pre-specified system. Physician's cognitive styles were measured on three scales: evidence vs. experience as the basis of knowledge, sensitivity to pragmatic concerns, and conformity to local practices. Doctors' decisions were designated guideline-concordant if the patient's blood pressure was within goal range, or if the blood pressure was out of range and a dose change or medication change was initiated, or if the patient was already using medications from three classes. Results The final sample included 163 physicians and 1,174 patients. All of the participating sites used one or more educational approaches to implement the guidelines. Over 90% of the sites also provided group or individual feedback on physician performance on the guidelines, and over 75% implemented some type of reminder system. A minority of sites used monetary incentives, penalties, or barrier reduction. The only type of intervention that was associated with increased guideline-concordant care in a logistic model was barrier reduction (p Conclusion Guidelines implementation strategies that were designed to reduce physician time pressure and task complexity were the only ones that improved performance. Education may have been

  8. Examining Gender Bias in Studies of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Crowden, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of a gender bias in studies of innovation. Using the Innovation Systems Research Network (ISRN) and its interview guide as a case study, this research project examines how accurately and completely such innovation studies present gender differences in the innovation process.

  9. Studies on the health effects of a-bomb radiation exposure appeared in health examinations of adult survivors by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    2006-01-01

    The Research Foundation has conducted the health examinations in the title since 1958, based on which studies of a cohort type have been performed, and their results at present are summarized in this paper. Subjects have included a cohort of about 120000 cases in total. They have been those 4993 initial cases (the center group) exposed to estimated radiation doses of 4 -6 Gy within the distance of 2 km from the hypocenter and with acute exposure symptoms either in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and 19961 cases (exposed ones within 2 km from the hypocenter but without the symptoms, exposed residents in the city 3 km far from the hypocenter, or ones absent in the city at explosion) matched to the above center group in the city, age and sex. Lower statures and weights are noted in some of the center group who were in growing ages at exposure. Increases of prevalence or incidence rate are suggested in malignant tumors, diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid, uterine myoma, chronic liver diseases, cataract, circulatory diseases, abnormal hemoglobin value, and psychological states. Relative risk at 1 Gy for incidence of non-cancer diseases is calculated and presented. Results are not always consistent with those of such population exposed to <6 Gy as that of Chernobyl Accident, of radiation technologist and of people accidentally exposed to environmental radiation. The Foundation is to continue the study and more profound results of radiation effects are expected to be obtainable. (T.I)

  10. A Study of the Effect of Entrance Examination of the Universities (EEOU) on the EFL Teaching Methodology in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hadi; Mustapha, Ramlee; Yunus, Melor Binti Md

    2012-01-01

    Researches and educators' recognition of positive and negative effects of tests on teaching and learning activities goes back at least four decades. Although educators frequently claim that they do not want to teach to a test, the reality is that every educator wants his/her students to be successful. Decision makers, teachers, and students equate…

  11. Examining the Effects of Independent MALL on Vocabulary Recall and Listening Comprehension: An Exploratory Case Study of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terantino, Joe

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scholars have explored the use of mobile devices as potential sources for language learning and teaching. Mobile phones and tablets, especially, have been researched with a focus on effectively building vocabulary primarily among university-level students. Comparable research in other age groups has not been as widespread. This…

  12. Examine the Effectiveness of Marketing Strategies in Improving Credit Card Adoption: An Empirical Study in Klang Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Yong Sin

    2007-01-01

    In view of the globalization, Malaysia is opening parts of its services to greater foreign participation. Local banks have gone one round of consolidations and foreign banks expanding its business in local market have made the competition more intense. As the competition rapidly increases, credit card adoption is getting more challenging to marketers, hence effective marketing strategies are important. The theoretical model of the thesis is based on the model of buyer behavior by Kotler and A...

  13. Establishing a Methodology to Examine the Effects of War-Zone PTSD on the Family: The Family Foundations Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Taft, Casey T.; Proctor, Susan P.; MacDonald, Helen Z.; Lawrence, Amy; Kalill, Kathleen; Kaiser, Anica P.; Lee, Lewina O.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Fairbank, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Military deployment may adversely affect not only returning veterans, but their families, as well. As a result, researchers have increasingly focused on identifying risk and protective factors for successful family adaptation to war-zone deployment, re-integration of the returning veteran, and the longer-term psychosocial consequences of deployment experienced by some veterans and families. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among returning veterans may pose particular challenges to military and military veteran families; however, questions remain regarding the impact of the course of veteran PTSD and other potential moderating factors on family adaptation to military deployment. The Family Foundations Study builds upon an established longitudinal cohort of Army soldiers (i.e., the Neurocognition Deployment Health Study) to help address remaining knowledge gaps. This report describes the conceptual framework and key gaps in knowledge that guided the study design, methodological challenges and special considerations in conducting military family research, and how these gaps, challenges, and special considerations are addressed by the study. PMID:26077194

  14. Examining the effects of social media in co-located classrooms: A case study based on SpeakUp

    OpenAIRE

    Verbert, Katrien; Sharples, Mike; Klobucar, Tomaz; Rodriguez Triana, Maria Jesus; Holzer, Adrian Christian; Prieto Santos, Luis Pablo; Gillet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The broad availability of mobile computing devices has prompted the apparition of social media applications that support teaching and learning. However, so far, there is conflicting evidence as to whether the benefits such applications provide in terms of engagement and interaction, outweigh their potential cost as a source of distraction. To help in clarifying these issues, the present paper presents a case study on the impact of using SpeakUp (an app aimed at promoting student participati...

  15. An intervention study examining the effects of condom wrapper graphics and scent on condom use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Vaida, Florin; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Haubrich, Richard; Chambers, Christina; Shaffer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Free condoms provided by the government are often not used by Botswana Defence Force (BDF) personnel due to a perceived unpleasant scent and unattractive wrapper. Formative work with the BDF found that scented condoms and military-inspired (camouflage) wrapper graphics were appealing to personnel. A non-randomized intervention study was implemented to determine whether condom wrapper graphics and scent improved condom use in the BDF. Four military sites were selected for participation. Two sites in the south received the intervention condom wrapped in a generic wrapper and two sites in the north received the intervention condom wrapped in a military-inspired wrapper; intervention condoms were either scented or unscented. Two hundred and eleven male soldiers who ever had sex, aged 18-30 years, and stationed at one of the selected sites consented to participate. Sexual activity and condom use were measured pre- and post-intervention using sexual behavior diaries. A condom use rate (CUR; frequency of protected sex divided by the total frequency of sex) was computed for each participant. Mean CURs significantly increased over time (85.7% baseline vs. 94.5% post-intervention). Adjusted odds of condom use over time were higher among participants who received the intervention condom packaged in the military wrapper compared with the generic wrapper. Adjusted odds of condom use were also higher for participants who reported using scented vs. unscented condoms. Providing scented condoms and condoms packaged in a military-inspired wrapper may help increase condom use and reduce HIV infection among military personnel.

  16. A CFD-Based Study of the Feasibility of Adapting an Erosion Burner Rig for Examining the Effect of CMAS Deposition Corrosion on Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic and computational fluid dynamics modeling has been conducted to examine the feasibility of adapting the NASA-Glenn erosion burner rigs for use in studies of corrosion of environmental barrier coatings by the deposition of molten CMAS. The effect of burner temperature, Mach number, particle preheat, duct heating, particle size, and particle phase (crystalline vs. glass) were analyzed. Detailed strategies for achieving complete melting of CMAS particles were developed, thereby greatly improving the probability of future successful experimental outcomes.

  17. Effect of number of ultrasound examinations on the assessment of carotid intima-media thickness changes over time: the example of the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Palmer, Mike K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Crouse, John R; Evans, Gregory W; Raichlen, Joel S; Bots, Michiel L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the number and positioning during follow-up of ultrasound examinations on the rate of change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using METEOR (Measuring Effects on Intima-Media Thickness: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin) as an example. METEOR was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial showing that rosuvastatin reduced progression of 2-year change in CIMT among low-risk patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. In the full METEOR protocol, ultrasound examinations were performed twice before randomization, once each at 6, 12, and 18 months after randomization, and then twice at the end of study at 24 months. For the present study, 17 study designs were retrospectively constructed with varying number and position of ultrasound examinations during the study. Differences in the rate of change in maximum CIMT between these study designs were compared. Variations in frequency of ultrasound visits gave results in the same direction and magnitude for the change in maximum CIMT for both groups (i.e. nonsignificant change for rosuvastatin and significant progression for placebo, and a significant difference between treatments). However, standard errors were larger when the number of exams reduced. This finding was consistent over different lengths of follow-up, sample sizes, and with CIMT measurements made on different locations. Protocols with different number and timing of ultrasound examinations minimally affect the direction and magnitude of treatment effects on the rate of change in CIMT. However, reductions in exam frequency increase standard errors of rates of change, suggesting larger sample sizes would be required to have the same level of statistical power.

  18. A Pilot Study Examining the Effectiveness of the PEERS Program on Social Skills and Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Trenesha L; Gray, Sarah A O; Baker, Courtney N; Boggs, Koren; Carey, Elizabeth; Johnson, Corinn; Kamps, Jodi L; Varela, R Enrique

    2017-10-01

    The Program for the Evaluation of the Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS), a social skills intervention for high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has been proven efficacious in randomized control trials. However, the effectiveness of the PEERS program in community settings has not been studied. The present small-scale pilot study examined the effectiveness of the PEERS program in a community setting. Five adolescents and their caregivers participated in the PEERS intervention. Results indicated that the adolescents showed significant improvement in their social engagement, social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and knowledge of PEERS skills and concepts from pre- to post-intervention. Furthermore, adolescents showed significant reductions in their internalizing and autistic symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. The findings from this small-scale pilot study support the effectiveness of the PEERS program in community-based settings.

  19. Cytopathological Examination and Epidemiological Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytopathological Examination and Epidemiological Study of Cervicitis in Commercial Sex Workers (Csws) in Coal City (Enugu), Nigeria. ... was collected from the endocervix of about one hundred and eighteen (n=118) CSWs between November, 2014 and February, 2015 using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) method.

  20. Site-based plaque removal efficacy of four branded toothbrushes and the effect of dental floss in interproximal plaque removal: a randomized examiner-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwath, Balachandran; Vijayalakshmi, Rajaraman; Arun, Dayanathi; Kumar, Vasanth

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sitelevel plaque removal efficacy of four commercially available toothbrushes. The adjunctive benefit of dental floss on interproximal plaque removal was also evaluated. This study was designed as a randomized examiner- blinded clinical study involving 60 subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of 15 participants each, and a particular branded toothbrush was allotted for each group. Brushing technique, toothpaste, and brushing time were standardized for all the subjects. The Turesky- Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index was used to evaluate plaque scores at baseline, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks by one blinded examiner. After 2 weeks, the subjects were provided with dental floss to be used in conjunction with the toothbrush. Buccal, lingual, and interproximal plaque reduction percentages were computed and analyzed for statistical significance. The four toothbrushes showed similar plaque removal scores at the three sites, with no statistical significance (P > .05). The interproximal plaque removal scores of the four toothbrushes were the least at 2 weeks (25%) when compared with buccal (65%) and lingual (60%) percentage scores. The addition of dental floss significantly increased the interproximal plaque removal scores, with 4-week scores revealing 70% removal. These data revealed the lack of significance between the four toothbrushes studied, which is in line with previous studies. The addition of dental floss had a significant effect on the interproximal plaque removal, which could be crucial in the maintenance of gingival health.

  1. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MESSING

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study Jason HOWARTH John MESSING Irfan ALTAS Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master’s degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU. The Industry Master’s degree is an academic program for students currently employed in the IT industry. Using Internet Based Testing (IBT, these students are examined in test centres throughout the world. This offers many benefits. For example, students have the freedom of sitting exams at any time during a designated interval. Computer-based testing also provides instructors with valuable feedback through test statistics and student comments. In this paper, we document CSU’s use of the IBT system, including how tests are built and delivered, and how both human and statistical feedback is used to evaluate and enhance the testing process.

  2. Effects of tube potential and scatter rejection on image quality and effective dose in digital chest X-ray examination: An anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.J.; Crawshaw, I.; Rimmer, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tube potential and scatter rejection techniques on image quality of digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using a range of tube potentials (81–125 kV p ) without scatter rejection, with an anti-scatter grid, and using a 10 cm air gap. Images were anonymised and randomised before being evaluated using a visual graded analysis (VGA) method. Results: The effects of tube potential on image quality were found to be negligible (p > 0.63) for the flat panel detector (FPD). Decreased image quality (p = 0.031) was noted for 125 kV p relative to 109 kV p , though no difference was noted for any of the other potentials (p > 0.398) for computed radiography (CR). Both scatter rejection techniques improved image quality (p p . Scatter rejection improved image quality, but with no difference found between techniques. The air-gap resulted in a smaller increase in effective dose than the anti-scatter grid and would be the preferred scatter rejection technique

  3. A prospective study examining the effects of gender and sexual/physical abuse on mood outcomes in patients with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S.; McDonald, Leah J.; Graff, Fiona S.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Prior research suggests possible gender differences in the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD). This study prospectively examined gender differences in mood outcomes and tested the effects of sexual/physical abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Participants (49 men, 41 women) with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders (92% alcohol, 42% drug) were enrolled in a group treatment trial. They were followed for 8 months, with monthly assessments, yielding 32 weeks of data. Primary outcome measures were number of weeks in each mood state, recurrences to depression or mania, and polarity shifts from depression to mania or vice versa. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the effects of gender, lifetime abuse, and PTSD on these outcomes. Results Participants met syndromal criteria for a mood episode on a mean of 27% of 32 weeks, with depression occurring most frequently. Compared to men, women reported significantly more weeks of mixed mania (RR = 8.53), fewer weeks of euthymia (RR = 0.58), more recurrences to mania (RR = 1.96), and more direct polarity shifts (RR = 1.49) (all p sexual or physical abuse (68% vs. 33%), which partially explained the relationships between gender and mixed mania and direct polarity shifts. Conclusions Participants experienced persistent mood symptoms over time. Women consistently reported poorer mood outcomes, and lifetime abuse may help explain observed gender differences in mood outcomes. Further research is necessary to better understand the treatment implications of these findings. PMID:19392857

  4. Examining the (in)effectiveness of personalized communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.; van den Putte, B.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized communication has become a very popular marketing strategy, but the research on its effectiveness is still limited. This study examined the persuasiveness of personalized digital newsletters in terms of increased attention, cognitive activity, evaluation, attitude, intention, and

  5. Effectiveness of education in point-of-care ultrasound-assisted physical examinations in an emergency department: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae Yun; Kwon, Hyuksool

    2017-06-01

    Implementation of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS)-assisted physical examination (PE) in emergency departments (EDs) was conducted in the ED of an urban tertiary teaching hospital. This study examines the effect of POCUS implementation in emergency medicine departments by using a systematic education program on image acquisition to analyze decision making.Educating staff on POCUS involved a technique related to image acquisition and then accurately diagnosing subsequent POCUS results. The quasi-experimental, uncontrolled before-and-after study was performed to evaluate the education effect. POCUS orders for eligible patients, length of stay (LOS) in ED, and return visits (RVs) to ED between the "before" period (March 1, 2015 to February 28, 2016) and the "after" period (March 1, 2016 to February 28, 2017) were compared. Piecewise regression was used to assess trend differences of LOS and RVs between the periods.A total of 16,942 and 16,287 patients were included in the before and after periods of education, respectively. During the study periods, 966 (6%) and 2801 (18%) POCUS were ordered, respectively (rate difference  =  12%; P education, the median LOS was 6.55 (interquartile rage [IQR]: 6.2-6.75) and the trend slope of LOS was -0.01. After the education, the median LOS was 5.25 (IQR: 4.85-5.45) and the trend slope (the change of which was considered significant, at a P value of .012) was -0.15. Before the education, the median RV rate was 6.4% (IQR: 6.15-6.65) and the trend slope of RVs was -0.01. After the education, the median RVs was 5.25% (IQR: 4.95-5.35) and the trend slope of RVs was also significant, at -0.11.The education of POCUS-PE in ED successfully increased use of POCUS, and reduced the LOS and RV rate in ED.

  6. Mandatory anatomy dissection, effect on examination performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular class attendance is evidence of professionalism. This has led to mandatory class attendance in many disciplines including anatomy. However, there is paucity of data on the effect of mandatory class attendance on student performance in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to determine the ...

  7. A randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of a STOMA psychosocial intervention programme on the outcomes of colorectal patients with a stoma: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lai, Jiunn Herng; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-06-01

    To report a study protocol that evaluates the effects of a psychosocial intervention on patients with a newly formed stoma. With the loss of a significant body function and distorted body image, stoma patients experience physical, psychological and social challenges. Nurses have an important role in helping patients' make a smooth transition to living with their stoma. Limited studies have examined the effects of psychosocial interventions on improving stoma-related health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial is planned. Eighty-four patients with newly formed stoma in a tertiary hospital in Singapore (Research Ethics Committee approval obtained in January 2013) will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to either a control group who receive routine care or an intervention group who receive STOMA psychosocial intervention besides routine care. Outcome variables include stoma care self-efficacy, days to stoma proficiency, length of hospital stay, acceptance of stoma, anxiety and depression and quality of life. Data will be collected at four time points: before randomization and intervention (baseline), on the day of discharge (mid-intervention), at 4 weeks after discharge (postintervention 1) and at 4 months after discharge (postintervention 2). This study will develop a psychosocial intervention programme, which may improve patients' stoma-related outcomes. The findings will provide direction to health professionals about education and the type of support that could be offered to patients concerning stoma care in the hospital setting, which will eventually improve their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of Test Item Disclosure on Medical Licensing Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B.; Lee, Myung Ae; Park, Yoon Soo

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of Korea decided to publicly disclose all test items and answers to satisfy the test takers' right to know and enhance the transparency of tests administered by the government. This study investigated the effects of item disclosure on the medical licensing examination (MLE),…

  9. Examining the Effectiveness of the In-service Training Program for the Education of the Academically Gifted students in Turkey: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Said TORTOP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, examining the effectiveness of in-service training for gifted education has been conducted. In the study, 30 Classroom, Science, Mathematics and Preschool teachers working at schools in different cities of Turkey, took part as volunteer participants. Moreover, some criteria were specified for determining the participants. In this in-service training, teachers have received theoretical and practical training in the academicians who study on gifted education. In this process, they have designed units in groups according to the Education Program for Gifted Student Bridge with University (EPGBU curriculum. The research has been designed as a case-study research which is one of the qualitative research models. In the study, some data tools (scales, interview form and the documents were utilized Two of data collection tools were developed by research. These were Science Fair Mentorship Self-efficacy Scale for Teachers (SFMSST and Gifted Education Self-efficacy Scale for Teachers (GESST. As a result of a one-week in-service training, it has been determined that the teachers’ perception of self-efficacy for scientific research mentorship and gifted education increased.

  10. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  11. A pilot study examining the effects of priming headache illness schema on attentional engagement towards pain relief medication, in those with high and low medication treatment beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Monisha; Hughes, Alicia M; McCracken, Lance M; Chilcot, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Few studies have assessed the underlying theoretical components of the Common Sense Model. Past studies have found, through implicit priming, that coping strategies are embedded within illness schema. Our aim was to evaluate the effect priming 'headache' illness schema upon attentional engagement to pain relief medication and to examine the interaction with illness treatment beliefs. Attentional engagement to the pain relief medication ('Paracetamol') was assessed using a 2 (primed vs. control) × 2 (strong belief in medication efficacy vs. weak belief in medication efficacy) design. During a grammatical decision task (identifying verbs/non-verbs), participants were randomised to receive a headache prime or a control. Response latency to the target word, 'Paracetamol' was the dependent variable. 'Paracetamol' treatment beliefs were determined using the brief illness perception questionnaire. Sixty-three participants completed the experiment. There was a significant interaction between illness-primed vs. control and high vs. low treatment efficacy of Paracetamol (p < .001), suggesting an attentional disengagement effect to the coping strategy in illness-primed participants whom held stronger treatment beliefs regarding the efficacy of Paracetamol. In summary, implicit illness schema activation may simultaneously activate embedded coping strategies, which appears to be moderated by specific illness beliefs.

  12. WWC Review of the Report "A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Aerobic Physical Activity on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Young Children." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Aerobic Physical Activity on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Young Children", researchers examined the effect of a daily before-school physical activity program on behavioral outcomes of students in grades K-2. The study sample included 202 students who…

  13. Using meta-regression analyses in addition to conventional systematic review methods to examine the variation in cost-effectiveness results : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Burgers (Laura); F.T. van de Wetering (Fleur); J.L. Severens (Hans); W.K. Redekop (Ken)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Systematic reviews of cost-effectiveness analyses summarize results and describe study characteristics. Variability in the study results is often explained qualitatively or based on sensitivity analyses of individual studies. However, variability due to input parameters and

  14. Examining Cohort Effects in Developmental Trajectories of Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alison Reimuller; Hussong, Andrea M.; Solis, Jessica M.; Curran, Patrick J.; McGinley, James S.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study demonstrates the application of an analytic approach for incorporating multiple time trends in order to examine the impact of cohort effects on individual trajectories of eight drugs of abuse. Parallel analysis of two independent, longitudinal studies of high-risk youth that span ages 10 to 40 across 23 birth cohorts between 1968…

  15. When Multiplication Facts Won't Stick: Could a Language/Story Approach Work? A Research Study Examining the Effectiveness of the "Memorize in Minutes" Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Joni D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a story/language based method of teaching the multiplication facts would be helpful to students who previously had difficulty with the memorization of those facts. Using the curriculum "Memorize in Minutes" by Alan Walker (Walker, 2000), the researcher taught six fourth-grade students the multiplication facts (3s…

  16. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  17. Examining the Effectiveness of a Ninth-Grade Transition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMetre, Jason Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of a ninth grade transition program at a suburban high school in Louisiana. Student data were analyzed from two groups of first time freshmen who indicated a need for help in mathematics: one without a transition program and one with a transition program. Academic data included standardized test…

  18. Examination of the 'web mode effect'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Sanne Lund; Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte

    Declining response rates is one of the most significant challenges for survey based research today. Seen in isolation, traditional interviewer based data collection methods are still the most effective but also the most expensive, especially the greater difficulty in gaining responses taken...... into account. As a solution, mixed-mode designs have been employed as a way to achieve higher response rates, while keeping the overall costs low. In particular, the use of web based surveys has expanded considerably during the last few years, both as a single data collection method and as a component in mixed...... with telephone surveys, not enabling determination of a “web mode effect”. In this case, differences might as well be due to differences between self-administered and interviewer-administered collection methods. Other parts of literature on mixed-mode design including a web option are using stratified sampling...

  19. Examining effects of vineyard development on bird populations of California's oak woodlands--use of GIS and power analysis to select study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Heaton; Colin Brooks; Adina Merenlender; Mark Reynolds; Mary Chase

    2002-01-01

    Vineyard expansion into California’s oak woodlands is creating an increasingly fragmented and altered landscape for wildlife. This landscape-level study is designed to provide information about the effects of vineyard development and oak habitat retention on oak-associated bird communities in northern coastal California. We have used Geographic Information System (GIS...

  20. Board review course effect on resident in-training examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David

    2008-12-01

    The in-training examination is a national and yearly exam administered by the American Board of Emergency Medicine to all emergency medicine residents in the USA. The purpose of the examination is to evaluate a resident's progress toward obtaining the fundamental knowledge to practice independent emergency medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 40 hour board review lecture course on the resident in-training examination in emergency medicine. A 40 hour board review lecture course was designed and implemented during the weekly 5 hour long resident conferences during the 8 weeks preceding the in-training examination date in 2006. Attendance was mandatory at the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) standard of 70% or greater. A positive result was considered to be a 10% increase or greater in the resident's individual national class percentile ranking among their national peers for their class year for the emergency medicine in-training examination. A resident was excluded from the study if there was no 2005 in-training examination score for self-comparison. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to analyze the results. Of 16 residents, 1 (6.25%; 95% CI: 0-18%) showed a positive result of increasing their national class percentile ranking by 10% or greater. For the PGY2, one of the eight had a positive result (12.5%; 95% CI: 0-35.4%). For PGY3, no resident (0%; 95% CI: 0-35.4%) had a positive result. A 40 hour board review lecture course has no positive effect on improving a resident's in-training examination score.

  1. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...

  2. The effect of botulinum toxin A injections in the spine muscles for cerebral palsy scoliosis, examined in a prospective, randomized triple-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Kristensen, Billy B

    2015-01-01

    as an effect (1 SD). Radiological parameters were measured before and 6 weeks after treatment by 3 experienced doctors separately. Moreover, clinical results were evaluated by the pediatric quality of life (PQL) score and systematic open questioning of the parents about the child's wellbeing. Subjects......, researchers and monitors were blinded during the trial. Appropriate permissions (2008-004584-19) and no funding were obtained. RESULTS: Sixteen cerebral palsy patients (GFMCS III-V) with CPS were consecutively included, whereas 6 patients were excluded. There were no drop-outs to follow-up, but one possible...... demonstrated by this treatment, except for the parent's initial subjective but positive appraisal of the effect. However, the study was terminated due to one possible severe adverse event and scheduled numbers needed to treat (hence power) were not reached....

  3. Estimates of effective dose in adult CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mustafa Awad Elhaj.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of study was to estimate effective dose (E) in adult CT examinations for Toshiba X64 slice using CT. Exp version 2.5 software in Sudan. Using of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patients that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. lack of optimized protocols could be an additional source of increased dose in developing countries. In order to achieve these objectives, data of CT-scanner has been collected from three hospitals ( ANH, ZSH and MMH). Data collected included equipment information and scan parameters for individual patients, who were used to asses. 300 adult patients underwent head, chest, abdomen-pelvis and peivis CT examinations. The CT1 w , CTD1 v ol, DLP, patient effective dos and organ doses were estimated, using CT exposure parameters and CT Exp version 2.5 software. A large variation of mean effective dose and organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning protocols used in different hospitals and scan length. The mean effective dose in this study in the Brain, PNS, Chest, pulmonary, Abdomen-pelvis, Pelvis, KUB and CTU were 3.2 mSv, 2.6 mSv, 18.9 mSv 17.6 mSv 27.1 mSv, 11.2 mSv, 9.6 mSv and 23.7 mSv respectively, and organ equivalent, doses presented in this study in this study for the eye lens (for head), lungs and thymus ( for chest) , liver, kidney and small intest ( for abdomen t-pelvis), bladder, uterus and gonads ( for pelvis), were 62.9 mSv, 39.5 mSv, 34.1 mSv, 53.9 mSv, 52.6 mSv, 58.1 mSv, 37 mSv, and 34.6 mSv, respectively. These values were mostly comparable to and slightly higher than the values of effective doses reported from similar studies the United Kingdom, Tanzania, Australia, Canada and Sudan. It was concluded that patient effective dose and organ doses could be substantially minimized through careful selection of scanning parameters based on clinical indications of study, patient size, and body

  4. Evaluation of effect of self-examination and physical examination on breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lotfi Mohammad; Mahmoud, Noori; Miller, Anthony B; Iraj, Harrirchi; Mohsen, Mirzaei; Majid, Jafarizadea; Reza, Sadeghian Mohammad; Mojgan, Minosepehr

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the number one cancer of women in the world. More than 90% of breast cancers can be cured with early diagnosis followed by effective multimodality treatment. The efficacy of screening by breast self-examination (BSE) and breast physical examination (BPx) is best evaluated using randomized screening trials. A total of 12,660 women aged 35-64 years, 6330 in the intervention group and 6330 in the control group, were randomly selected from four areas of Yazd city, I.R. of Iran. The number of detected cancers along with kind of cancer, staging of cancer, the route of detected cancer and the number of deaths during the first 5 years of the study were collected and analyzed. No significance difference between the two groups was seen in respect to socio-demographic and socio-economic variables (P > 0.05). Subjects in the intervention group had a response rate of 83.5% for attending the health center and 80.2% for visiting the assigned surgeon. A total of 31 and 13 new cases of breast cancer were identified in the intervention and control groups, respectively, of which 48.5% of cases in the intervention group were breast cancer in the two groups with a ratio of 2.4 was observed. BSE & BPx have a significant effect in detecting breast cancers at early stages (<3) suggesting they are effective screening tests with high availability and low costs that can be applied at the community level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of interfacial effects in organic macrocycles Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett layers studied by surface potential and FT-IR spectroscopy examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boguta, Andrzej [Faculty of Technical Physics, Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13a, 60 - 965 Poznan (Poland); Wrobel, Danuta [Faculty of Technical Physics, Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13a, 60 - 965 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: wrobel@phys.put.poznan.pl; Bartczak, Adam [Faculty of Technical Physics, Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13a, 60 - 965 Poznan (Poland); Swietlik, Roman [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60 - 197 Poznan (Poland); Stachowiak, Zdzislaw [Central Laboratory of Accumulators and Cells, Forteczna 12, 61 - 362 Poznan (Poland); Ion, Rodica M. [Department of Chemical Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research ICECHIM, Splaiul Independentei 202, Bucharest 79611 (Romania)

    2004-10-15

    Surface potential (SP) examination and FT-IR (infrared) reflection-absorption spectra were used for the characterization of interfacial effects in organic dye thin layer on solid substrates. Surface potentials of magnesium tetranaphtylporphyrin (MgTNP), magnesium or lead phthalocyanine monolayer on the water subphase were measured and the dipole moments of the investigated dyes were evaluated (1.07 D, 0.52 D and 0.31 D for MgTNP, MgPc and PbPc, respectively). The differences between the dipolar moment values were attributed to the differences between porphyrin and phthalocyanines molecular structures and to the differences in metal electronegativity and metal ion distortion in the molecular frame. Also asymmetry in the covalent linkage and coordination bonding in the center of the molecular skeleton and the differences in polarisablility of the dye molecules as sources of the difference in the dipolar moment values were taken into consideration. The FT-IR reflection-absorption spectra were used for the characterization of the magnesium phthalocyanines Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) layer formed on semiconducting (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or Au substrates. The modification of the IR spectra upon Langmuir-Blodgett dye layer deposition was attributed to the redistribution of electrons at the semiconducting (metallic)/dye layer interface and to different substrate morphology. The difference in the band splitting for dye on Au and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was related to the smaller amount of charge transferred to the dye film from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} than from Au substrate and to the changes in the topology of the different substrates after coating with the dye layer.

  6. Combined pathological effects of cocaine abuse and HIV infection on the cardiovascular system: an autopsy study of 187 cases from the Fulton County Medical Examiner's office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosunjac, Mario I; Sundstrom, J Bruce; Heninger, Michael; Ansari, Aftab A; Mosunjac, Marina B

    2008-03-01

    This autopsy study evaluates the possible cumulative effects of cocaine use in HIV-infected adult individuals on cardiovascular tissue. A total of 187 autopsy case reports and available H&E sections of myocardium and coronary arteries were reviewed. Four major study groups were defined: (A) a total of 63 cases positive for cocaine and negative for HIV (COC); (B) 40 cases positive for HIV/AIDS and negative for cocaine (HIV), (C) 23 cases both HIV/AIDS and cocaine (HIV/COC), and (D) a control group of 61 age-, sex- and race-matched, negative for cocaine and for HIV (CONT). The following morphologic and demographic data were analyzed: heart weight, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, thickening of the intramyocardial vessels, myocarditis, acute or remote myocardial infarcts (MI), age, sex, and race. Increased frequency of coronary wall and adventitial infiltrates, myocarditis, and thickened intramyocardial vessels present in HIV/COC group (14.5%, 17.4%, and 17.4% vs. 6.5%, 3.3%, and 0% in CONT group) may indicate possible combined and/or cumulative effects of HIV and cocaine on cardiovascular pathology.

  7. A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Dake, Joseph A; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study were divided into an intervention group (n = 407) and a control group (n = 169). An MM instructor trained health teachers in the use of the curriculum, and the teacher subsequently taught the curriculum to students in the intervention group. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used to determine pre-post differences. It consisted of 3 subscales assessing eating habits, nutrition knowledge, and efficacy expectations toward healthy eating. Subscale scores were analyzed using a 2 groups (intervention vs control) x 2 times (pre vs post) analysis of variance. The intervention group increased their nutrition knowledge at post. There was also a significant main effect for groups in the subscales "Eating Behaviors" and "Efficacy Expectations Regarding Healthy Eating." Subsequent post hoc analysis revealed that the intervention group was significantly more likely to eat fruits and vegetables and less likely to eat junk food than the control group. Students in the intervention group also felt more confident that they could eat healthy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the MM Nutrition Curriculum delivered by trained professionals resulted in significant positive changes in both nutrition knowledge and behaviors in middle school children. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the long-term impact.

  8. A Phase 1 dose-ranging study examining the effects of a superabsorbent polymer (CLP) on fluid, sodium and potassium excretion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lee W; Dittrich, Howard C; Strickland, Alan; Blok, Thomas M; Newman, Richard; Oliphant, Thomas; Albrecht, Detlef

    2014-01-25

    CLP is an orally administered, non-absorbed, superabsorbent polymer being developed to increase fecal excretion of sodium, potassium and water in patients with heart failure and end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of CLP, and to explore dose-related effects on fecal weight, fecal and urine sodium and potassium excretion, and serum electrolyte concentrations. This Phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study included 25 healthy volunteers, who were administered CLP orally immediately prior to four daily meals for 9 days at doses of 7.5, 15.0, and 25.0 g/day (n = 5/group). An additional dose group received 15.0 g/day CLP under fasting conditions, and an untreated cohort (n = 5) served as control. Twenty-four-hour fecal and urinary output was collected daily. Samples were weighed, and sodium, potassium, and other ion content in stool and urine were measured for each treatment group. Effects on serum cation concentrations, other standard laboratory values, and adverse events were also determined. At doses below 25.0 g/day, CLP was well tolerated, with a low frequency of self-limiting gastrointestinal adverse events. CLP increased fecal weight and fecal sodium and potassium content in a dose-related manner. Concomitant dose-related decreases in urinary sodium and potassium were observed. All serum ion concentrations remained within normal limits. In this study, oral CLP removed water, sodium and potassium from the body via the gastrointestinal tract in a dose related fashion. CLP could become useful for patients with fluid overload and compromised kidney function in conditions such as congestive heart failure, salt sensitive hypertension, chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. NCT01944007.

  9. A prospective interventional study to examine the effect of a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter on the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, P Hy; Wong, C Wy; Lai, C Kc; Siu, H K; Tsang, D Nc; Yeung, K Y; Ip, D Km; Tam, P Kh

    2017-06-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is a major hospital-acquired infection. This study aimed to analyse the effect of a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter on the occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. This was a 1-year prospective study conducted at a single centre in Hong Kong. Adult patients with an indwelling urinary catheter for longer than 24 hours were recruited. The incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in patients with a conventional latex Foley catheter without hydrogel was compared with that in patients with a silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheter. The most recent definition of urinary tract infection was based on the latest surveillance definition of the National Healthcare Safety Network managed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 306 patients were recruited with a similar ratio between males and females. The mean (standard deviation) age was 81.1 (10.5) years. The total numbers of catheter-days were 4352 and 7474 in the silver-coated and conventional groups, respectively. The incidences of catheter-associated urinary tract infection per 1000 catheter-days were 6.4 and 9.4, respectively (P=0.095). There was a 31% reduction in the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection per 1000 catheter-days in the silver-coated group. Escherichia coli was the most commonly involved pathogen (36.7%) of all cases. Subgroup analysis revealed that the protective effect of silver-coated catheter was more pronounced in long-term users as well as female patients with a respective 48% (P=0.027) and 42% (P=0.108) reduction in incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. The mean catheterisation time per person was the longest in patients using a silver-coated catheter (17.0 days) compared with those using a conventional (10.8 days) or both types of catheter (13.6 days) [P=0.01]. Silver alloy and hydrogel-coated catheters appear to be effective in preventing catheter

  10. A clinical study to examine the potential effect of lansoprazole on the pharmacokinetics of bosutinib when administered concomitantly to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Richat; Leister, Cathie; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2013-08-01

    Bosutinib is an orally bioavailable, dual Src and Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved in the USA for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia following development of resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. In vitro studies demonstrated that bosutinib displays pH-dependent aqueous solubility, suggesting that concomitant administration of agents that alter gastric pH could affect bosutinib absorption. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of lansoprazole, a gastric proton pump inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and safety of bosutinib. This open-label, non-randomized, phase I study involved inpatients and outpatients at a single site. The study participants were healthy men or women of non-childbearing potential aged 18-50 years. Each subject received bosutinib 400 mg on Day 1, lansoprazole 60 mg on Day 14, and bosutinib 400 mg co-administered with lansoprazole 60 mg on Day 15 under fasting conditions. The main outcome measure was the effect of multiple doses of lansoprazole on the pharmacokinetic profile of a single oral dose of bosutinib. A total of 24 healthy male subjects were enrolled. Co-administration with lansoprazole decreased the mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of bosutinib from 70.2 to 42.9 ng/mL, and the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 1,940 to 1,470 ng·h/mL. Log-transformed bosutinib pharmacokinetic parameters indicated significant between-treatment differences; the least squares geometric mean ratio for C(max) was 54 % (95 % CI 42-70) and for AUC was 74 % (95 % CI 60-90). Mean apparent total body clearance from plasma after oral administration increased from 237 to 330 L/h, and the median time to reach Cmax increased from 5 to 6 h, although this change may be related to decreased bosutinib absorption when combined with lansoprazole. When co-administered with lansoprazole, bosutinib maintained an acceptable safety profile, which was primarily

  11. Examining the effects of a mindfulness-based distance learning professional training module on personal and professional functioning: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Whitesman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training people to deliver mindfulness-based interventions (MBI is becoming an important activity as mindfulness has been shown to have clinical benefits across a variety of conditions. Training courses must not only address the principles, skills and theory of mindfulness, but the trainers themselves must be able to embody the practice. There is limited research on the ability of teachers-in-training to embody the practice as a result of teacher training programmes. This study explored the extent to which a short course enabled future teachers to embody mindfulness practice. This first module was part of a larger course of four modules to prepare future teachers of MBIs. Methods Qualitative data was obtained from 10 out of 35 end of course written assignments that asked respondents to reflect on their experience of mindfulness practice during the course. These were systematically selected and a focus group interview was also conducted with local participants. Data was analysed by means of the framework method and key themes identified. Results The combination of a retreat and on-line learning was perceived to be effective. Students reported significant changes in personal functioning as a result of daily mindfulness practice: self-awareness, improved relationships, enhanced connectedness, better self-regulation, enhanced compassion and curiosity towards self and others and self-acceptance. Participants began to introduce elements of mindfulness into their professional practice. Conclusions The first module of a post-graduate training programme for health professionals who want to teach MBIs successfully supported students to embody, explore and apply mindfulness in their lives. The integrated teaching modalities of residential retreat and distance-based on-line learning appeared effective.

  12. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: a pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Walkowski, Stevan; Conatser, Robert R; Eland, David C; Howell, John N

    2009-08-27

    Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) measures transverse relaxation time (T2), and allows for determination of the spatial pattern of muscle activation. The purposes of this pilot study were to examine whether MRI-derived T2 or side-to-side differences in T2 (asymmetries) differ in low back muscles between subjects with acute low back pain (LBP) compared to asymptomatic controls, and to determine if a single osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) session alters these T2 properties immediately and 48-hours after treatment. Subjects with non-specific acute LBP (mean score on 110 visual analog score = 3.02 +/- 2.81) and asymptomatic controls (n = 9/group) underwent an MRI, and subsequently the LBP subjects received OMT and then underwent another MRI. The LBP subjects reported back for an additional MRI 48-hours following their initial visit. T2 and T2 asymmetry were calculated from regions of interest for the psoas, quadratus lumborum (QL), multifidus, and iliocostalis lumborum/longissimus thoracis (IL/LT) muscles. No differences were observed between the groups when T2 was averaged for the left and right side muscles. However, the QL displayed a significantly greater T2 asymmetry in LBP subjects when compared to controls (29.1 +/- 4.3 vs. 15.9 +/- 4.1%; p = 0.05). The psoas muscle also displayed a relatively large, albeit non-significant, mean difference (22.7 +/- 6.9 vs. 9.5 +/- 2.8%; p = 0.11). In the subjects with LBP, psoas T2 asymmetry was significantly reduced immediately following OMT (25.3 +/- 6.9 to 6.1 +/- 1.8%, p = 0.05), and the change in LBP immediately following OMT was correlated with the change in psoas T2 asymmetry (r = 0.75, p = 0.02). Collectively, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility of mfMRI for quantification and localization of muscle abnormalities in patients with acute low back pain. Additionally, this pilot work provides insight into the mechanistic actions of OMT during acute LBP, as it suggests that it may

  13. A Retrospective Observational Study Examining the Effect of Thoracic Epidural and Patient Controlled Analgesia on Short-term Outcomes in Blunt Thoracic Trauma Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Edward James; Lee, Geraldine Ann

    2016-01-01

    Effective analgesia in the early stages after any major traumatic event remains pivotal to optimal trauma management. For patients with significant thoracic injuries, this is paramount to ensure ongoing efficient respiratory function. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of analgesic modes in the management of patients with a primary thoracic injury and blunt mechanism of injury. By understanding variables that influence the use of varying analgesic modes and influence the development of pulmonary complications, there should be more uniform evidence-based prescription in the future.This retrospective study considered analgesic use in patients admitted after blunt thoracic injuries at one major trauma center over a 2-year period. Pulmonary complications measured included both infective and ventilator-associated failure. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify patient and injury severity characteristics and their association with respiratory complications.A total of 401 cases were reviewed and analyzed: 159 received Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA), 32 received PCA and epidural analgesia (EA), 6 received EA alone, and 204 received interval-administered analgesia. There were no significant differences in the rates of complication when compared between analgesic modes. Patients who developed pneumonia had significantly increased number of thoracic fractures and underlying organ injury (P cardiac disease (OR 2.624, P = 0.042) and ICU length of stay (OR: 1.146, P blunt thoracic injuries. However, variables that may influence usage of different analgesic modes and high-risk groups for the development of pneumonia were identified. Further work is warranted to consider the long-term benefits of analgesia in patients post-blunt thoracic injuries.

  14. Examining the Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on Isoprene-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the Look Rock, Tennessee, Ground Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A suite of offline and real-time gas- and particle-phase measurements was deployed atLook Rock, Tennessee (TN), during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) to examine the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formatio...

  15. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Christopher Cutler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5–2 ppb of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012–2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  16. A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Sultan, Maryam; McFarlane, Andrew D; Brewer, Larry

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of sealed brood were assessed in each colony throughout summer and autumn. Samples of honey, beeswax, pollen, and nectar were regularly collected, and samples were analyzed for clothianidin residues. Several of these endpoints were also measured in spring 2013. Overall, colonies were vigorous during and after the exposure period, and we found no effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on any endpoint measures. Bees foraged heavily on the test fields during peak bloom and residue analysis indicated that honey bees were exposed to low levels (0.5-2 ppb) of clothianidin in pollen. Low levels of clothianidin were detected in a few pollen samples collected toward the end of the bloom from control hives, illustrating the difficulty of conducting a perfectly controlled field study with free-ranging honey bees in agricultural landscapes. Overwintering success did not differ significantly between treatment and control hives, and was similar to overwintering colony loss rates reported for the winter of 2012-2013 for beekeepers in Ontario and Canada. Our results suggest that exposure to canola grown from seed treated with clothianidin poses low risk to honey bees.

  17. Consumer-generated Advertising on YouTube : A quantitative study examining the effects of endorser credibility and coupon proneness on brands

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson Brajim, Rahel; Romanov, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Consumer-generated advertising on YouTube is a developing phenomenon that in the last years has grown exponentially. Recent research by Holt (2016) suggests that well-known content creators on YouTube have a large impact on brands, so great that regular firms are unable to compete with these well-known content creators. However, firms do have the opportunity to cooperate with well-known content creators on YouTube. Therefore, examining YouTube as a marketing tool is beneficial for marketing m...

  18. Effective dose from cone beam CT examinations in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Drage, N A; Davies, J; Thomas, D W

    2009-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) is becoming an increasingly utilized imaging modality for dental examinations in the UK. Previous studies have presented little information on patient dose for the range of fields of view (FOVs) that can be utilized. The purpose of the study was therefore to calculate the effective dose delivered to the patient during a selection of CBCT examinations performed in dentistry. In particular, the i-CAT CBCT scanner was investigated for several imaging protocols commonly used in clinical practice. A Rando phantom containing thermoluminescent dosemeters was scanned. Using both the 1990 and recently approved 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended tissue weighting factors, effective doses were calculated. The doses (E(1990), E(2007)) were: full FOV head (92.8 microSv, 206.2 microSv); 13 cm scan of the jaws (39.5 microSv, 133.9 microSv); 6 cm high-resolution mandible (47.2 microSv, 188.5 microSv); 6 cm high-resolution maxilla (18.5 microSv, 93.3 microSv); 6 cm standard mandible (23.9 microSv, 96.2 microSv); and 6 cm standard maxilla (9.7 microSv, 58.9 microSv). The doses from CBCT are low compared with conventional CT but significantly higher than conventional dental radiography techniques.

  19. Kamstrupp's wow-effect: re-examined and expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-12-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is followed by our discussion of aspects of her study within the context of a basic understanding that entry-level pre-service teachers need to fully understand both the process of learning and scientific principles as these are important foundational factors in determining whether or not the wow-effect will occur as expected. Finally, our review team presents multiple areas in Kamstrupp's article as potential points for further elaboration.

  20. The Study of Substitution and Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Examination of the Effects of Alkane and Base Structure on Product Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharry, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment that compares product distribution obtained by either substitution or elimination utilizing alkyl bromides and methoxide, ethoxide, or t-butoxide as the base (or nucleophile) is described. The change in product distribution caused by steric effects of the base and substrate are readily apparent. Prior work on this experiment focused…

  1. Examining The Effects Of Consumer E-Service Quality And E-Satisfaction On Consumer Behavioural Intention In Malaysia: A Case Study On Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeh Weng

    2010-01-01

    Online shopping had established a new market opportunity in the global market and research had foreseen a steady trend of growth on online shopping in the Asia/Pacific region. Numerous studies and researches have been conducted to evaluate the online shopping behaviour around the world; however there is still a lack of study in pertaining to each country individually. It is inevitable to study the behaviour of online shopping individually as the behaviour for each country’s online shopper may...

  2. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. First Followup Examination Results. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    all important inteveming variables are taken into accont . The best mtbhl that cm be achieved is to incorporate all known covariates in the data...mean PEA unstimulated response courts varied significantly among exposure levels (p-0.047). The mans vere 1,705 CPM, 1,428 CPM, and 1,809 CPH...but this effect was not observed for counts of T cells, B cells, or HIA-DR cells. Enlisted personnel generally had higher cell surface marker courts

  3. 'How many calories did I just eat?' An experimental study examining the effect of changes to serving size information on nutrition labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda C; Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Hobin, Erin P; Bordes, Isabelle; Hammond, David

    2016-11-01

    To test modifications to nutrition label serving size information on understanding of energy (calorie) content among youth and young adults. Participants completed two online experiments. First, participants were randomly assigned to view a beverage nutrition label with a reference amount of per serving (250 ml), per container (473 ml) or a dual-column format with both reference amounts. Participants were then randomized to view a cracker nutrition label which specified a single serving in small font, a single serving in large font, or the number of servings per bag with single serving information below. In both experiments, participants estimated energy content. Logistic regression analysis modelled correct energy estimation. Finally, participants reported their preference for serving size display format. Canada. Canadian youth and young adults (n 2008; aged 16-24 years). In experiment 1, participants randomized to view the nutrition label with per container or dual column were more likely to correctly identify energy content than those using per serving information (P<0·01). For experiment 2, the serving size display format had no association with correct energy estimation. The majority of participants (61·9 %) preferred the serving size format that included servings per package. Labelling foods with nutrition information using a serving size reference amount for the entire container increased understanding of energy content. Consumers prefer nutrition labels that include more prominently featured serving size information. Additional modifications that further improve consumers' accuracy should be examined. These results have direct implications for nutrition labelling policy.

  4. Superheroes Social Skills: A Study Examining the Effects of Using an Evidence-Based Approach to Teach Social Skills to Children with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia Ann Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of a manualized social skills program, Superheroes Social Skills, to increase the use of prosocial behaviors and decrease the use of aggressive behaviors for children with externalizing behaviors. The training was implemented by a school psychologist in a pullout group with four children with high-incidence…

  5. Can Technology Decrease Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young People? Results of a Pilot Study Examining the Effectiveness of a Mobile Application Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyéa D.; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Robillard, Alyssa; Huhns, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    College students represent an important population for studying and understanding factors that influence sexual risk given the populations' high risk of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Using a quasi-experimental design, the efficacy of a brief and theory-driven mobile application intervention designed to decrease sexual…

  6. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  7. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  8. Drill-back studies examine fractured, heated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heating on the mineralogical, geochemical, and mechanical properties of rock by high-level radioactive waste, cores are being examined from holes penetrating locations where electric heaters simulated the presence of a waste canister, and from holes penetration natural hydrothermal systems. Results to date indicate the localized mobility and deposition of uranium in an open fracture in heated granitic rock, the mobility of U in a breccia zone in an active hydrothermal system in tuff, and the presence of U in relatively high concentration in fracture-lining material in tuff. Mechanical -- property studies indicate that differences in compressional- and shear-wave parameters between heated and less heated rock can be attributed to differences in the density of microcracks. Emphasis has shifted from initial studies of granitic rock at Stripa, Sweden to current investigations of welded tuff at the Nevada Test Site. 7 refs., 8 figs

  9. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  11. Assessment of scapular positioning and function as future effect measure of shoulder interventions – an inter-examiner reliability study of the clinical assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Eshøj, Henrik; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon

    2015-01-01

    coefficients (ICC) and kappa values were interpreted as: 0.0-0.40 (poor); 0.40-0.75 (fair to good); and 0.75-1.00 (good to excellent). Results A total of 41 subjects (23 males, yrs 25±9), were recruited among adult overhead athletes from the municipality of Odense, DK. Prevalence of the index condition was 54...... %. Data was tested and found to have normal distribution for all continuous variables and Bland Altman plots showed no funnel effects. Bland Altman plots found no systematic bias and good to excellent ICC values in four of the static assessment variables. The ICC values ranged from “fair to good” (n=2...... assessment variables, av) and “good to excellent” (n=6 av) in the static and external shoulder rotation strength av; from “poor” (n=3 av) to “fair to good” (n=4 av) in the semi-dynamic av, with; from “poor” (n=4 av) to “fair to good” (n=3 av) in the dynamic av, and no kappa statistics computed at all...

  12. Integrating Podcast Technology Effectively into Student Learning: A Reflexive Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennifer; Nelson, Amanda; France, Derek; Woodland, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines undergraduate student perceptions of the learning utility of video podcasts. The perceived and actual effectiveness of the technology was assessed by written questionnaire, focus groups and assessment results. The podcasts were perceived as effective in supporting learning, largely by offering a flexible and visual learning…

  13. A pilot study to examine the effect of the Tulip oropharyngeal airway on ventilation immediately after mask ventilation following the induction of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P N; Shaikh, A; Sabir, N M; Vaughan, D J A; Kynoch, M; Hasan, M

    2014-07-01

    The Tulip airway is an adult, disposable, single-sized oropharyngeal airway, that is connectable to an anaesthetic circuit. After a standardised induction of anaesthesia in 75 patients, the ease of insertion, intracuff pressure and intracuff volume were measured, as were the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels, airway pressures and tidal volumes over three breaths. Successful first-time insertion was achieved in 72 patients (96%, CI 88.8-99.2%) and after two attempts in 74 patients (99%, CI 92.8-100%). There was outright failure only in one patient. In 60 patients (80%, CI 72.2-90.4%), the Tulip airway provided a patent airway without additional manoeuvres, but in 14 patients, jaw thrust or head extension was necessary for airway patency. The main need for these adjuncts appeared to be an initial under-inflation of the cuff. These promising results are consistent with recent manikin studies using this device. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Sedation for pediatric neuroradiological examinations. Retrospective study of 160 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shose, Yoshiteru; Oi, Shizuo

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of 160 pediatric neuroradiological examinations was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of two sedation regimens (figs. 1, 2). For CT purposes, 150 patients (fig. 3) were orally given monosodium trichlorethyl phosphate syrup (100 mg/kg, with repeat 50 mg/kg if necessary), and for cerebral angiography, 15 patients (fig. 4) were intramuscularly administered a modified D.P.T. cocktail (pentazocine, chlorpromadine, promethazine). Failure rate in the oral syrup group was 6%, and in the D.P.T. group 6.7%. Diagnostic-quality images were obtained in 99.3% and 100%, respectively, of the two groups. There were neither mortality nor significant complications (table 3). It was concluded that each method had proved acceptably safe and effective, and that measures can be taken to further decrease complications and sedation failures. (author)

  15. Effects of intravenous morphine on physical examination findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study has objectively demonstrated that when compared with placebo judicious administration of I.V morphine provides significant pain reduction without adversely affecting the physical examination findings in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain due to suspected appendicitis.

  16. Computing effective doses to pediatric patients undergoing body CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M

    2008-04-01

    The computation of patient effective doses to children is of particular interest given the relatively high doses received from this imaging modality, as well as the increased utilization of CT in all areas of medicine. Current methods for computing effective doses to children are relatively complex, and it would be useful to develop a simple method of computing pediatric effective doses for clinical purposes that could be used by radiologists and technologists. To obtain pediatric effective doses for body CT examinations by the use of adult effective doses obtained from effective dose (E) per unit dose length product (DLP) coefficients, and energy imparted to a child relative to an adult. Adult E/DLP coefficients were obtained at 120 kV using the ImPACT CT dosimetry spreadsheet. Patients were modeled as cylinders of water, and values of energy imparted to cylinders of varying radii were generated using Monte Carlo modeling. The amounts of energy imparted to the chest and abdomen of children relative to adults (R(en)) were obtained. Pediatric effective doses were obtained using scaling factors that accounted for scan length, mAs, patient weight, and relative energy imparted (R(en)). E/DLP values were about 16 microSv/mGy cm for males and about 19 microSv/mGy cm for females. R(en) at 120 kV for newborns was 0.35 for the chest and 0.49 for the abdomen. At constant mAs, the effective dose to 6-month-old patients undergoing chest CT examinations was found to be about 50% higher than that to adults, and for abdominal examinations about 100% higher. Adult effective doses can be obtained using DLP data and can be scaled to provide corresponding pediatric effective doses from body examinations on the same CT scanner.

  17. Examining the nature of retrocausal effects in biology and psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Multiple laboratories have reported physiological and psychological changes associated with future events that are designed to be unpredictable by normal sensory means. Such phenomena seem to be examples of retrocausality at the macroscopic level. Here I will discuss the characteristics of seemingly retrocausal effects in biology and psychology, specifically examining a biological and a psychological form of precognition, predictive anticipatory activity (PAA) and implicit precognition. The aim of this examination is to offer an analysis of the constraints posed by the characteristics of macroscopic retrocausal effects. Such constraints are critical to assessing any physical theory that purports to explain these effects. Following a brief introduction to recent research on PAA and implicit precognition, I will describe what I believe we have learned so far about the nature of these effects, and conclude with a testable, yet embryonic, model of macroscopic retrocausal phenomena.

  18. Kamstrupp's Wow-Effect: Re-Examined and Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is…

  19. Using Action Research to Examine Teacher Strategy Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Becky J.; Cox, Betty J.; Vann, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Successful teachers strive to ensure that their students learn to their maximum abilities. Is action research a valuable way for graduate students to review their effectiveness as teachers? Do students learn more through varied teaching strategies and techniques? The authors examined graduate students' perceptions of action research projects…

  20. Examining the Effectiveness of Social Responsibility Courses in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droms, Courtney; Stephen, Sheryl-Ann K.

    2015-01-01

    Individual and corporate social responsibility has been gaining more and more attention over the last several years. We examine the effectiveness of incorporating social responsibility courses into the curriculum in higher education, with a specific look at Butler University. In general, the results indicate that implementing this type of…

  1. Examining student identity in a study abroad setting

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study examined student identity in a study abroad setting by focusing on the adjustment issues study abroad students faced in their various transitions. The aim of this research was to discover more about the role that identity plays in studying abroad through the focus on student experience and student perception of the adjustment issues faced in study abroad transitions. The research utilised qualitative methods, was longitudinal, and focused on study abroad students who undertook ELIC...

  2. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  3. The study on quality control of bedside CR examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xufeng; Luo Xiaomei; Xu Qiaolan; Wu Tengfang; Wen Xingwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the quality controll of bedside CR examination and improves the imaging quality. Methods: X-ray examination with CR system were performed on 3,300 patients. All CR cassettes were encoded. The imaging plate and cassettes were cleaned regularly. Results: With and without quality control, the percentage of first-rate film was 58.2% and 51%, the second-rate film was 40% and 45.5%, the third-rate film was 1.3% and 2%, respectively. Corxespondingly, the ratio of re-examination decreased from 1.5% to 0.5% after quality control, and imaging quality was stable. Conclusion: The quality control of bedside CR examination can improve the image quality as well as lighten the labor of radiographers. (authors)

  4. Eugene Ogoh Abstract The study examined the relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ijomone

    Information Impact | Journal of information and knowledge management. Page 191. Eugene Ogoh. Local Government Service Commission Asaba. Abstract. The study examined the relationship between project abandonment and the socio economic lives of the people of Niger Delta. In conducting this survey research, 220 ...

  5. Assessment of effective dose in paediatric CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougeni, E; Chapple, C L; Willis, J; Panayiotakis, G

    2011-09-01

    Current concerns focus on the high doses encountered in computed tomography (CT) examinations as they are extending towards younger and more radiosensitive patients. Previous work produced conversion coefficients for effective dose (E) from dose-length product (DLP) for four anatomical body regions applicable to any patient size. This work aims to update the earlier work, incorporating the new ICRP 2007 tissue-weighting factors and testing the methodology on modern scanners. For each age and body region, E was determined relative to DLP. Measurements were carried out on a 64-slice scanner to test this methodology. The conversion coefficients show exponential decrease with patient size. Conversion factors for the pelvis region are lower than before (30-40 %), those for the chest increased (by up to 25 %) whereas those for the head and abdomen remained fairly similar. Application of the coefficients to modern scanners verified the results, so that this methodology can be applied for a wide range of paediatric CT examinations.

  6.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

    by the health care system offering it. By prenatal examinations the pregnant women want to be giving the choice of future management should there be something wrong with their child. Conclusions:Participation in prenatal examinations is not based on a thorough knowledge of pros and contra of the screening tests......  Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...

  7. The physics secondary education certificate examination: A Maltese case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.

    This thesis investigates whether examinations are fair and just for all students in Maltese schools within the context of the Physics Secondary Education Certificate. It explores what teachers and students think of the Physics SEC examination, how the teachers' and students' views were reflected in the kind of teaching and learning taking place in the schools and how the examinations impacted on the lives of students and whether there were any differences in gender and class which limited the experiences of students. The data was obtained from observations and interviews carried out with teachers and students in six Maltese schools representing a girls' and boys' Private School, Junior Lyceum and Area Secondary School. Examination results obtained from the MATSEC Support Unit were also statistically analysed. The study uses these multiple sources of data to explore the complex patterns involved. It is reflective and reflexive throughout and tries to intertwine the subjectivity of the researcher with both the data being collected as well as with the research process itself. The evidence from the data suggests that assessment practices in Maltese classrooms are still very much grounded within an examination culture. This leads to teaching to the test and shallow learning. While there are no significant gender differences in achievement, type of school related to the differentiated paper system emerges out of the data as being very influential in determining the performance and future opportunities of students. This indicates that examinations are not fair and just for all students in Maltese schools and points to the need for a new model of educational assessment focusing on positive achievement rather than selection and control. The study suggests how this new model can be implemented within the context of Maltese classrooms taking into consideration the views of the teachers and students involved in assessment.

  8. Effective dose assessment for participants in the National Lung Screening Trial undergoing posteroanterior chest radiographic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Randell; Flynn, Michael J; Judy, Phillip F; Cagnon, Christopher H; Seibert, J Anthony

    2013-07-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing low-dose helical CT with chest radiography in the screening of older current and former heavy smokers for early detection of lung cancer. Recruitment was launched in September 2002 and ended in April 2004, when 53,454 participants had been randomized at 33 screening sites. The objective of this study was to determine the effective radiation dose associated with individual chest radiographic screening examinations. A total of 73,733 chest radiographic examinations were performed with 92 chest imaging systems. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) of participants' chest radiographic examinations was estimated and used in this analysis. The effective dose per ESAK for each examination was determined with a Monte Carlo-based program. The examination effective dose was calculated as the product of the examination ESAK and the Monte Carlo estimate of the ratio of effective dose per ESAK. This study showed that the mean effective dose assessed from 66,157 postero-anterior chest examinations was 0.052 mSv. Additional findings were a median effective dose of 0.038 mSv, a 95th percentile value of 0.136 mSv, and a fifth percentile value of 0.013 mSv. The effective dose for participant NLST chest radiographic examinations was determined and is of specific interest in relation to that associated with the previously published NLST low-dose CT examinations conducted during the trial.

  9. Examining the effects of testwiseness in conceptual physics evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Seth; Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2016-12-01

    Testwiseness is defined as the set of cognitive strategies used by a student that is intended to improve his or her score on a test regardless of the test's subject matter. Questions with elements that may be affected by testwiseness are common in physics assessments, even in those which have been extensively validated and widely used as evaluation tools in physics education research. The potential effect of several elements of testwiseness were analyzed for questions in the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Conceptual Survey on Electricity and Magnetism that contain distractors that are predicted to be influenced by testwiseness. This analysis was performed using data sets collected between fall 2001 and spring 2014 at one midwestern U.S. university (including over 9500 students) and between Spring 2011 and Spring 2015 at a second eastern U.S. university (including over 2500 students). Student avoidance of "none of the above" or "zero" distractors was statistically significant. The effect of the position of a distractor on its likelihood to be selected was also significant. The effects of several potential positive and negative testwiseness effects on student scores were also examined by developing two modified versions of the FCI designed to include additional elements related to testwiseness; testwiseness produced little effect post-instruction in student performance on the modified instruments.

  10. The Effectiveness of Public Simulated Oral Examinations in Preparation for the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Christopher; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (CE) performance is improved among residents who prepare using simulated oral examinations (SOEs). EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched using predefined search terms. No language restrictions were imposed and the latest search date was in November 2014. Included studies must have reported on residents training in a general surgery residency in the United States who used SOEs to prepare for the CE and have measured their performance against those without exposure to SOEs. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and a fixed effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the net effect of SOEs on CE performance. Overall, 4 of 25 abstracts reviewed met inclusion criteria and are included in this review. The most common simulation format included public examinations in front of resident peers during scheduled education sessions. All 4 included studies trended toward improved performance with SOEs and in 2 of these studies the improvement was statistically significant. Overall, 3 studies were of adequate quality to perform a meta-analysis and demonstrated a relative risk for first-attempt CE success of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) for residents preparing with SOEs compared to those without SOEs. The published literature evaluating SOEs is limited and generally of fair quality. A modest improvement in CE performance was identified when public SOEs were used as an educational tool aimed to improve professionalism and communication skills, encourage reading at home, and provide a regular review of clinically relevant topics. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is primary care access to CT brain examinations effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamore, R.E.; Wright, D.; Britton, I.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Primary care access to CT head examinations could enable common neurological conditions to be managed within primary care. Outcome data from the first 8 years of a local service were used to identify effective referral criteria. METHODS: Primary care head CT results from 1 March 1995 to 31 October 2003 were categorized as normal, incidental or significant findings. Normal reports were cross-referenced for referral to secondary care. Case notes with incidental or significant CT findings were reviewed for secondary care attendance and outcome. RESULTS: Records of 1403/1645 CT head examinations (85%) were available for review. Of these 1403, 951 (67.8%) returned normal findings, 317 (22.6%) incidental findings and 135 (9.6%) significant findings. The commonest indication for referral was investigation of headaches (46.6%). Of the total 533 patients under 50 years of age, 13 (2.4%) yielded significant findings and all 13 showed other features in addition to headache. Of 314 cases presenting with focal neurology, 83 (26.4%) showed significant findings. 314 patients were referred from primary to secondary care. 189 had normal scans and 74 had findings described as incidental. 60% of secondary care referrals were for normal CT scans. In patients with focal neurology, 90 of 314 were referred, allowing 71% to be managed in primary care. Yield was also 0% for headaches, dizziness, visual disturbance or nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: Primary care access to CT brain examinations is effective for patients with focal neurology, neurological symptoms or a known malignancy, but not for patients aged less than 50 years, or with uncomplicated headaches, dizziness or diplopia

  12. Examining Big-Fish-Little-Pond-Effects across 49 Countries: A Multilevel Latent Variable Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, this study examined the big-fish-little-pond-effects (BFLPEs) in 49 countries. In this study, the effect of math ability on math self-concept was decomposed into a within- and a between-level components using implicit mean centring and the complex data…

  13. For whom does mindfulness-based stress reduction work? : An examination of moderating effects of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general

  14. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  15. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2017-09-18

    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Validity of partial systems of periodontal examination in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, A; Ainamo, J; Noguerol, B; Cobo, J; Lucas, V; Bascones, A

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the representativeness of partial examination in the assessment of the average severity and the prevalence of periodontal disease. 343 subjects aged 7, 12 and 15-19 years were examined for the presence or absence of gingival bleeding after gentle probing, supra or subgingival calculus and pocket depths of 4-5 mm., or 6 mm. and over, of each tooth. Three sets of average severity and prevalence scores were prepared: based on the full mouth examination, on observations made from the index teeth of the P.D.I., and on the six teeth utilized for the C.P.I.T.N. in this age group. Partial indices tended to underestimate the real prevalence of the different signs, and slightly overestimate severity, being these observations statistically significant. Average severity scores were obtained more accurately with the six Ramfjord teeth, while real prevalence rates were better determined with the C.P.I.T.N. teeth. From an epidemiological point of view, the real significance of the differences observed should be further determined.

  17. Examining the Influence of Gender on the Modality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raymond; Coward, Fanni; Crooks, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of modality and gender on learning from a computer-based matrix graphic organizer. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was created by crossing two presentation modes (visual text vs. spoken text) and gender. Dependent measures included transfer and comprehension tests. Results revealed a significant modality by…

  18. An examination of online learning effectiveness using data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, N.B.A.; Tasir, Z.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    Online learning has become increasingly popular due to technology advancement that allows discussion to occur at distance. Most studies report on students' learning achievement as a result of effective online learning while assessment on the learning process is also necessary. It is possible by

  19. Examining the effects of a mindfulness-based professional training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internationally, this is the first study that specifically investigates the effects of mindfulness on the mental state of health professionals being trained to teach MBIs in their ... Potential teachers of MBIs in South Africa demonstrated significant gains in their own mindfulness practice and self-compassion as well as decreased ...

  20. Multiple Integrated Examinations: An Observational Study of Different Academic Curricula Based on a Business Administration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardolino, Piermatteo; Noventa, Stefano; Formicuzzi, Maddalena; Cubico, Serena; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An observational study has been carried out to analyse differences in performance between students of different undergraduate curricula in the same written business administration examination, focusing particularly on possible effects of "integrated" or "multi-modular" examinations, a recently widespread format in Italian…

  1. General Studies Advancement Examinations in Writing and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, De S.; Deduck, Patricia

    To continue upper division coursework past 15 credit hours, students at Southwest Texas State University must pass the College Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination in English Composition with Essay, with a minimum score of 421 and 45 semester hours of credit, and the CLEP General Examination in Mathematics, with a minimum score of…

  2. A feasibility study on a tomograph for radioactive waste examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montigon, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A feasibility study on a high-energy tomograph for radioactive waste examination has been carried out by CEA/SEDFMA (Cadarache, France). After describing the scope of the research (radiation source, detector system, data processing, station mechanics), this final report deals with the work programme which has been followed and gives the results of the research. The conclusion is that such a tomograph is feasible, and its preliminary design is shown. The main points are that: - the detector material will be BGO, - the transmission of gamma rays through concrete (up to 1 625 mm thick) has been measured and a calculation code has been validated, - the radiation source will be an accelerator which has to be carefully optimized, - the system configuration has been determined and the data processors have been chosen, - the algorithms for image reconstruction have been validated through taking a tomogram on a concrete sample

  3. Explaining the effects of a multifaceted intervention to improve inpatient care in rural Kenyan hospitals--interpretation based on retrospective examination of data from participant observation, quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Mike; Nzinga, Jacinta; Mbindyo, Patrick; Ayieko, Philip; Irimu, Grace; Mbaabu, Lairumbi

    2011-12-02

    We have reported the results of a cluster randomized trial of rural Kenyan hospitals evaluating the effects of an intervention to introduce care based on best-practice guidelines. In parallel work we described the context of the study, explored the process and perceptions of the intervention, and undertook a discrete study on health worker motivation because this was felt likely to be an important contributor to poor performance in Kenyan public sector hospitals. Here, we use data from these multiple studies and insights gained from being participants in and observers of the intervention process to provide our explanation of how intervention effects were achieved as part of an effort to better understand implementation in low-income hospital settings. Initial hypotheses were generated to explain the variation in intervention effects across place, time, and effect measure (indicator) based on our understanding of theory and informed by our implementation experience and participant observations. All data sources available for hospitals considered as cases for study were then examined to determine if hypotheses were supported, rejected, or required modification. Data included transcriptions of interviews and group discussions, field notes and that from the detailed longitudinal quantitative investigation. Potentially useful explanatory themes were identified, discussed by the implementing and research team, revised, and merged as part of an iterative process aimed at building more generic explanatory theory. At the end of this process, findings were mapped against a recently reported comprehensive framework for implementation research. A normative re-educative intervention approach evolved that sought to reset norms and values concerning good practice and promote 'grass-roots' participation to improve delivery of correct care. Maximal effects were achieved when this strategy and external support supervision helped create a soft-contract with senior managers clarifying

  4. Explaining the effects of a multifaceted intervention to improve inpatient care in rural Kenyan hospitals -- interpretation based on retrospective examination of data from participant observation, quantitative and qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Mike

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported the results of a cluster randomized trial of rural Kenyan hospitals evaluating the effects of an intervention to introduce care based on best-practice guidelines. In parallel work we described the context of the study, explored the process and perceptions of the intervention, and undertook a discrete study on health worker motivation because this was felt likely to be an important contributor to poor performance in Kenyan public sector hospitals. Here, we use data from these multiple studies and insights gained from being participants in and observers of the intervention process to provide our explanation of how intervention effects were achieved as part of an effort to better understand implementation in low-income hospital settings. Methods Initial hypotheses were generated to explain the variation in intervention effects across place, time, and effect measure (indicator based on our understanding of theory and informed by our implementation experience and participant observations. All data sources available for hospitals considered as cases for study were then examined to determine if hypotheses were supported, rejected, or required modification. Data included transcriptions of interviews and group discussions, field notes and that from the detailed longitudinal quantitative investigation. Potentially useful explanatory themes were identified, discussed by the implementing and research team, revised, and merged as part of an iterative process aimed at building more generic explanatory theory. At the end of this process, findings were mapped against a recently reported comprehensive framework for implementation research. Results A normative re-educative intervention approach evolved that sought to reset norms and values concerning good practice and promote 'grass-roots' participation to improve delivery of correct care. Maximal effects were achieved when this strategy and external support supervision helped

  5. Early studies of instant-fMRI for routine examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yuuki; Harada, Kuniaki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Akatsuka, Yoshihiro; Shinozaki, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Authors are developing a low-burden, short-time acquisition method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 3T machine, named ''Instant-fMRI'', aiming for its application to routine examinations, of which results of early studies on identification of the language hemisphere are reported. Subjects were 10 healthy volunteers (8 males, 2 females, mean age 34.2 y, 8 right-handers) and 5 right-hander patients with brain tumor (4 males, 1 female, mean age 50 y). The machine was GE Signa HDx 3.0T ver. 14, using 8 channel head coil. For Instant-fMRI, T1-weighted imaging sequence for mapping was in fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (fSPGR) mode (scan time: 1 min 44 sec) and fMRI sequence, in GRE-EPI (scan time: 1 min), which thus required only about 3 min in total. Reference was defined to be the anterior-posterior commissure line, to which parallel sections involving centriciput and cerebellum were acquired. Rest (30 sec)-task (shiritori language game, 30 sec) cycle was to be one in instant-fMRI in contrast to three in the conventional fMRI. Volunteers received both instant-fMRI and conventional fMRI and patients, the former alone. Data were analyzed by GE Brain Wave PA. Right and left hemisphere of the left and right hander, respectively, was identified to be activated by instant-fMRI in 9 of 10 volunteers and in all patients, and by the conventional fMRI, in all volunteers. The instant-fMRI can be a useful examination of other brain functions as well as identifying the language field when acquisition parameters for desired diagnostic purpose are optimized. (T.T.)

  6. Effects of microstructure on ultrasonic examination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel components or stainless steel welds is difficult, and the results obtained are hard to interpret. The present study describes the effects of stainless steel microstructure on ultrasonic test results. Welded coupons, 2.5 and 5.0 cm thick, were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, with Type 308 stainless steel as the weld material. Metallography of the base material shows grain sizes of 15 and 80 μm, and dendrites aligned from the top to the bottom surface in cast material. X-ray diffraction and ultrasonic velocity measurements indicate a random crystal orientation in the base material, but the cast sample had aligned dendrites. The weld material exhibits a dendritic structure with a preferred (100) direction perpendicular to the weld pass. Spectral analysis of ultrasonic broad-band signals through the base materials shows drastic attenuation of higher frequencies with increasing grain size (Rayleigh scattering). Annealing and recrystallization increases the ultrasonic attenuation and produces carbide precipitation at grain boundaries. The microstructural differences of the base metal, heat-affected zone, and weld metal affect the amplitude of ultrasonic reflections from artificial flaws in these zones. Data obtained from two samples of different grain sizes indicate that grain size has little effect when a 1-MHz transducer is used. When going from a 15 to an 80-μm crystalline structure, a 5-MHz unit suffers a 30-dB attenuation in the detection of a 1.2 mm deep notch. The anisotropy of the dendritic structure in stainless steel renewed the interest in the effect of shear-wave polarization. In the (110) crystallographic orientation of stainless steel, two modes of shear waves can be generated, which have velocities differing by a factor of two. This effect may be helpful in ''tuning'' of shear waves by polarization to obtain better penetration in large grain materials such as welds

  7. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  8. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls' hockey in Ontario.…

  9. What Limits the Encoding Effect of Note-Taking? A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test…

  10. The Effect of Cross-Examination Tactics on Simulated Jury Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Margaret; And Others

    Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of leading questions by attorneys on eyewitness testimony and has found that adversary lawyers produced less accurate testimony from eyewitnesses. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lawyer's hostile versus non-hostile behavior and lawyer's leading versus non-leading questions on…

  11. The practice of testicular self examination: a comparative study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of testicular self examination was investigated amongst a sample of 170 British and 153 Zimbabwean male undergraduates using a questionnaire based on the health belief model. Knowledge of testicular cancer and of self examination was found to be low in both groups. Both groups, though, showed high ...

  12. A pilot study examining the effects of consuming a high-protein vs normal-protein breakfast on free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese 'breakfast skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, L B; Reynolds, L J; Douglas, S M; Kearney, M L; Hoertel, H A; Shafer, R S; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts improve free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. Twenty-eight healthy, but overweight, teens (age: 19±1 year; BMI: 29.9±0.8 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized parallel-arm study in which the adolescents consumed either a 350 kcal NP breakfast (13 g protein) or HP breakfast (35 g protein). Pre- and post-study 24-h blood glucose measures were assessed using continuous glucose monitoring. Although no main effects of time or group were detected, time by group interactions were observed. Post hoc pairwise comparisons assessing the post-pre changes revealed that the daily consumption of the HP breakfasts tended to reduce the 24-h glucose variability (s.d.) vs NP (-0.17±0.09 vs +0.09±0.10 s.d.; P=0.06) and tended to reduce the time spent above the high glucose limit (-292±118 vs -24±80 min; P=0.09). The consumption of the HP breakfasts also reduced the 24-h maximal (peak) glucose response (-0.94±0.36 vs +0.30±0.18 mmol l(-1); Pbreakfast, containing 35 g of high-quality protein, has better efficacy at improving free-living glycemic control compared with a NP breakfast in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents.

  13. Perception of academic examination stress: effects on serum leptin, cortisol, appetite and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.

  14. Examining the Effect of Teacher Read-Aloud on Adolescent Attitudes and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sylvia; Griffity, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of teacher read-aloud on adolescent learning in science and variation according to individual reading ability. The study gathered both quantitative and qualitative data for analysis from 2 treatment procedures. All seventh and eighth grade students participated in 2 consecutive units of study:…

  15. Examining the hostile media effect as an intergroup phenomenon: The role of ingroup identification and status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Tanis, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This approach conceptualizes the hostile media effect (HME) as an intergroup phenomenon. Two empirical studies, one quasi-experimental and one experimental, examine the HME in the context of the abortion debate. Both studies show that ingroup identification and group status qualify the HME.

  16. Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy: Examining the Effects of Paraeducator Implemented Early Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gary E.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Culatta, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of explicit and engaging supplemental early literacy instruction on at-risk kindergarten children's literacy development. Sixty-three kindergarten-aged children who had been ranked in the lowest 20th percentile on basic literacy skills participated in this study (38 treatment). Results reveal that children who…

  17. Examination of Effects of Regular Sports Training on Individual Skills in Trainable Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Murat; Odabas, Cansu; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz; Senel, Ömer; Tas, Murat; Besikçi, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of regular sport training implemented at Integrated Disabled Athlete Department on autistic children's adolescence development of individual abilities as motor proficiencies. Method: The subject group of this study is composed of 12 boys with autism who practiced physical education programs…

  18. Examining the Effect of Information Order on Expert Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    it was received. Consequently, that research would predict a primacy effect when informatign is presented sequentially, not the recency effect ...the research by Tolcott et al. demonstrating a *confirmati-on bias," was that there would be a primacy --not recency -- effect when information was pro...than prior information, thereby resulting in a recency effect . Moreover, they hypothesized that the larger the anchor, the greater the impact of the

  19. Nutritional style of parents and examination of the effective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslu, Gonca Karayağız; Beytut, Dilek; Kahraman, Ayşe; Yardımcı, Figen; Başbakkal, Zümrüt

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the nutritional style in parents who had children aged between 3 and 6 years and the effective factors. The sample number of this descriptive study was calculated with the sample formula for unknown population and the parents of 300 children aged between 3 and 6 years who attended a nursery school in the province of İzmir constituted the sample. The sample was reached in two periods. "The Sociodemographic Data Form" and "the Parent Nutritional Style Scale" were used as data collection tools. Written approval was obtained from the scientific ethics committee of the Ege University, Faculty of Nursery (B.30.2.EGE.0.82.00.00/29-288). The heights and weights of the children were measured by the investigators with certain measurement tools. The body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) was calculated for each child. The children whose body mass index standard deviations were between +2 and -2 standard deviation were considered to have normal weight. The Auxology program was used to obtain these data. The body mass indexes of the parents were calculated according to the height and weight values stated by themselves. In analyses of the data, student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison of two groups. Variance analysis and Kruskal-Wallis variance were used for multiple comparisons; Bonferrroni corrected Mann-Whitney U test and Shefee test were used for advanced analysis. It was found that the variables including the age, education level, number of children, working status of the mothers and the perception of the child's weight by the mother affected the nutritional style of the parents. The mean "emotional" and "instrumental" nutrition subdimension scores of the mothers who were young, who had an education of primary school and who were housewifes, the mean "encouraging nutrition" subdimension scores of the mothers who had small for gestational age babies and the mean "emotional" nutrition sub

  20. TMI-2 core-examination program: INEL facilities readiness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.B.

    1983-02-01

    This report reviews the capability and readiness of remote handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to receive, and store the TMI-2 core, and to examine and analyze TMI-2 core samples. To accomplish these objectives, the facilities must be able to receive commercial casks, unload canisters from the casks, store the canisters, open the canisters, handle the fuel debris and assemblies, and perform various examinations. The report identifies documentation, including core information, necessary to INEL before receiving the entire TMI-2 core. Also identified are prerequisites to INEL's receipt of the first canister: costs, schedules, and a preliminary project plan for the tasks

  1. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO 2 fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented in this report. A Zr-UO 2 reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions, and cladding and fuel microstructures, are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made

  2. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO/sub 2/ fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented in this report. A Zr-UO/sub 2/ reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions, and cladding and fuel microstructures, are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made.

  3. A pilot study of marking accuracy and mental workload as measures of OSCE examiner performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Aidan; Soskova, Tereza; Dawkins, Jayne; Coombes, Lee

    2016-07-25

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is now a standard assessment format and while examiner training is seen as essential to assure quality, there appear to be no widely accepted measures of examiner performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether the routine training provided to examiners improved their accuracy and reduced their mental workload. Accuracy was defined as the difference between the rating of each examiner and that of an expert group expressed as the mean error per item. At the same time the mental workload of each examiner was measured using a previously validated secondary task methodology. Training was not associated with an improvement in accuracy (p = 0.547) and that there was no detectable effect on mental workload. However, accuracy was improved after exposure to the same scenario (p OSCE examiners studied is not effective in improving their performance, but that average item accuracy and mental workload appear to be valid methods of assessing examiner performance.

  4. Diagnostic Examination for Students Entering Graduate Study in Soil Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Reports that students with soil science background performed better on a diagnostic examination; no relationship existed between exam performance and country of origin, degree sought, or undergraduate class quartile. Concludes that exam results, the grade received in a beginning graduate-level course and the cumulative graduate grade-point average…

  5. E-Mentoring for Small Business: An Examination of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Kim; Rickard, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: While information and communications technology provides new opportunities for supporting mentoring, there is a need to explore how effectively these potential benefits are being realized. This paper seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of a program in the small business context as a basis for proposing determinants of e-mentoring…

  6. Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T 1 weighted image (T 1 WI) and T 2 weighted image (T 2 WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T 1 WI and T 2 WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmφ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker. (author)

  7. An Examination of the Effectiveness of a Sexual Ethics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Randazzo, Renee

    2016-01-01

    This article presents early evaluation data on the effectiveness of an ethics-based sex education program, the Sexual Ethics for a Caring Society Curriculum (SECS-C), which strives to develop adolescents' thinking about sex so that they might act ethically in relation to other people and reflect ethically upon sexual messages and events in the…

  8. Examining triclosan-induced potentiation of the estrogen uterotrophic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor. We reported previously that TCS potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth in rats orally administered 3 μg/kg EE and TCS (2 to 18 mg/kg) in the utero...

  9. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  10. Examining an Affective Aggression Framework: Weapon and Temperature Effects on Aggressive Thoughts, Affect, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for studying affective aggression, integrating many insights from previous models, is presented. New research examining effects of extreme temperature and photos of guns on arousal, cognition, and affect is presented. Hostile cognition was assessed using automatic priming tasks (i.e., Stroop interference). Hostile affect was…

  11. An Empirical Examination of Factors Affecting Group Effectiveness in Information Systems Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Bassam; Ali, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Although group project concepts and skills have become a major component in most information systems (IS) academic programs, very little research has attempted to examine factors that may improve or undermine effectiveness of IS group projects. Accordingly, based on relevant literatures, this study develops and empirically tests a model of factors…

  12. Teachers' Organizational Commitment: Examining the Mediating Effects of Distributed Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Geert; Tuytens, Melissa; Hulpia, Hester

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between principals' leadership and teachers' organizational commitment, mediated by distributed leadership. Data were collected from 1,495 teachers in 46 secondary schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of principals' leadership on teachers' organizational commitment is…

  13. Examining the Mediating Effect of Learning Strategies on the Relationship between Students' History Interest and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese

    2014-01-01

    Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain of…

  14. Examination of the Effects of the Montessori Method on Preschool Children's Readiness to Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gokhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Montessori Method on preschool children's readiness to primary education. The research group is composed of five-six year olds attending SU MEF Ihsan Dogramaci Application Nursery School in 2009-2010 school year in Selcuklu county of Konya. The participants composed of five-six year olds were unbiasedly…

  15. Spatiotemporal Proximity Effects in Visual Short-Term Memory Examined by Target-Nontarget Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P.; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a limited-capacity system that holds a small number of objects online simultaneously, implying that competition for limited storage resources occurs (Phillips, 1974). How the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli affects this competition is unclear. In this 2-experiment study, we examined the effect of the…

  16. Brain drain? An examination of stereotype threat effects during training on knowledge acquisition and organizational effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, James A

    2017-02-01

    Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, results revealed that stereotyped females demonstrated poorer declarative knowledge acquisition, spent less time reflecting on learning activities, and developed less efficiently organized knowledge structures compared with females in a control condition. Findings from a Bayesian mediation model also suggested that despite stereotyped individuals "working harder" to perform well, their underachievement was largely attributable to failures in learning to "work smarter." Building upon these empirical results, a computational model and computer simulation is also presented to demonstrate the practical significance of stereotype-induced impairments to learning on the development of an organization's human capital resources and capabilities. The simulation results show that even the presence of small effects of stereotype threat during learning/training have the potential to exert a significant negative impact on an organization's performance potential. Implications for future research and practice examining stereotype threat during learning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. An estimation of the annual effective dose to the Canadian population from medical CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Moir, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    This study was carried out to assess the annual per capita effective dose from medical diagnostic procedures using computed tomography (CT) in Canada. Relevant data concerning the nature and the frequency of various diagnostic CT examinations were obtained from the reports on Medical Imaging in Canada and Diagnostic Services in Ontario. Doses associated with examinations of different types were based primarily on typical effective doses used in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 160 with considerations of limited dose information surveyed in Canada. The results show that the per capita annual effective dose from diagnostic CT exams was 0.74 mSv in 2006, up from 0.19 mSv in 1991. This significant increase in population radiation dose from CT scans is due mainly to a more than doubling in the examination rate and to a higher radiation dose per procedure from the newer generation of multi-detector CTs.

  18. Willingness to Study Abroad: An Examination of Kuwaiti Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Kathawala, Yunus; Hayes, John

    2014-01-01

    International education is an increasingly important part of business programs throughout the world. This paper investigates the willingness of Kuwaiti business students to study abroad. It tests the hypotheses that student willingness to study abroad is related to a number of variables, including self-efficacy, perceived benefit of study abroad,…

  19. The effectiveness of immediate feedback during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, R V; Rivington, R N; Calcutt, L E; Hart, I R

    1989-03-01

    Using eight different physical examination or technical stations, 400 examinations were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of immediate feedback during the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The test group comprised 50 medical students who underwent a standard 4-minute examination followed by 2 minutes of feedback. Immediately following feedback the students repeated an identical 4-minute examination scored by the same examiners. The control group consisted of 50 students from the same class who underwent an identical testing sequence, but instead of receiving feedback, they were instructed to continue their examinations for an additional 2 minutes before repeating the stations. Simple repetition of the task did not significantly improve score (mean increase 2.0%, NS). Extending the testing period from 4 to 6 minutes resulted in a small but significant increase in score (mean 6.7%, P less than 0.001). However, there was a much larger increase in the scores obtained following 2 minutes of immediate feedback compared to pre-feedback performance (mean 26.3%, P less than 0.0001). The majority of students and examiners felt that feedback, as administered in this study, was valuable both as a learning and teaching experience. Short periods of immediate feedback during an OSCE are practical and can improve competency in the performance of criterion-based tasks, at least over the short term. In addition, such feedback provides students with valuable self-assessment that may stimulate further learning.

  20. Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010. Typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations; Ergebnisse der Oesterreichischen CT-Dosisstudie 2010. Effektive Dosen der haeufigsten CT-Untersuchungen und Unterschiede zwischen Anwendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Zentrum fuer Medizinische Physik und Biomedizinische Technik; Gruber, Michael [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and 'typical' radiation doses to the 'average patient', which turned out to have 75.6 kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the 'average patient' were expressed as ratios between 90{sup th} and 10{sup th} percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1st and 3{sup rd} quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Results: Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Conclusion: Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to

  1. The Effect of Concept Mapping on L2 Writing Performance: Examining Possible Effects of Trait-Level Writing Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Naoko; Dalsky, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on anxiety in a foreign language-learning context is well-documented; however, few studies have directly focused on anxiety occurring within writing contexts despite the fact that writing anxiety is known to affect students' learning. The present study examined the effectiveness of concept mapping considering students' writing anxiety.…

  2. Students' perceived causes and effects of examination malpratices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these findings, it was recommended that continuous enlightenment and motivation of students, teaching of language skills and study skills and ... students' emotions and future orientations and, to carry out enlightenment programmes and workshops on inculcating values such as integrity, honesty and hard work.

  3. Examining student rating of teaching effectiveness using FACETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests.

  4. Examining the etiology of childhood obesity: The IDEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is of great public health concern. A social ecological framework that is transdisciplinary and multilevel by nature is recognized as the most promising approach for studying this problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe longitudinal research using a social ecological framework to study the etiology of childhood obesity. Individual and contextual factors are assessed in a cohort of youth and their parents including psychosocial factors, and home, school and neighborhood environments. The conceptual model guiding the research and the study design and measures used to operationalize the factors in the model and the descriptive characteristics of the baseline sample of youth and parents enrolled in the research are presented. The use of a conceptual model to guide the research, a transdisciplinary approach, a longitudinal cohort design and state-of-the-art measures of the individual and the environment are strengths of this research.

  5. Examiner Handedness and the Effects on Intraocular Pressure Readings Using the Tono-Pen XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacopian, Alexander G; Rushing, Lauren C; Chuang, Alice Z; Bell, Nicholas P; Kumar, Kartik S; Feldman, Robert M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of examiner handedness on intraocular pressure (IOP) readings using the Tono-Pen XL in eyes without corneal pathology or previous ocular surgeries. Patients 18 years of age or older were included in this prospective study. Participants who had a history of corneal conditions or other characteristics that would prevent reliable IOP measurements were excluded. Five experienced examiners, 2 right-hand dominant and 3 left-hand dominant, took bilateral IOP measurements with a Tono-Pen XL. Each participant was tested by 2 examiners, 1 left-handed and 1 right-handed, in a random order. The time between each examiner's measurements was 15 minutes. A paired t test was used to compare IOP differences between "near" (right eye for right-hand or left eye for left-hand dominant examiner) and "far" (right eye by left-hand or left eye by right-hand dominant examiner) measurements for each eye. Forty-six participants with a mean age of 33.8 years (±12.8) were enrolled. No significant difference in IOP between near and far eyes was found (IOP difference=IOPfar-IOPnear=-0.11 [±2.74] mm Hg; P=0.70). Right-hand dominant examiners consistently measured significantly higher IOP (0.83±2.03 mm Hg; P=0.008) compared with left-hand dominant examiners, regardless of the relative position of the eye with respect to the examiner. The results suggest that IOP readings are not influenced by the positioning of the patient relative to the dominant hand of the examiner.

  6. A contemporary examination of workplace learning culture: an ethnomethodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; Henderson, Amanda; Jolly, Brian; Greaves, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a sustainable workforce is currently an international concern. Extensive literature suggest that students and staff need to be 'engaged', that is they need to interact with the health team if they are to maximise learning opportunities. Despite many studies since the 1970s into what creates a 'good' learning environment, ongoing issues continue to challenge healthcare organisations and educators. A 'good' learning environment has been an intangible element for many professions as learning is hindered by the complexity of practice and by limitations on practitioners' time available to assist and guide novices. This study sought to explore the nature of the learning interactions and experiences in clinical nursing practice that enhance a 'good' workplace learning culture for both nursing students and qualified nurses. An ethnomethodology study. A range of clinical settings in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Students and registered nurses (n=95). Fieldwork observations were carried out on student nurses and registered nurses, followed by an individual interview with each participant. An iterative approach to analysis was undertaken; field notes of observations were reviewed, interviews transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo10. Major themes were then extracted. Three central themes: learning by doing, navigating through communication, and 'entrustability', emerged providing insights into common practices potentially enhancing or detracting from learning in the workplace. Students' and registered nurses' learning is constrained by a myriad of interactions and embedded workplace practices, which can either enhance the individual's opportunities for learning or detract from the richness of affordances that healthcare workplace settings have to offer. Until the culture/or routine practices of the healthcare workplace are challenged, the trust and meaningful communication essential to learning in practice, will be achievable only

  7. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  8. Curvilinear Moderation—A More Complete Examination of Moderation Effects in Behavioral Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Ching-Hong Li

    2018-01-01

    In behavioral sciences, researchers often examine whether any linear moderations exist in their studies. That is, they evaluate the extent (i.e., magnitude, direction) to which a linear effect of a predictor X (e.g., cognitive ability) on a criterion Y (e.g., performance) may differ across the levels of a moderator M (e.g., gender). In that case, researchers often run a liner regression analysis for examining this moderation (e.g., gender by ability). Despite its popularity, linear moderation...

  9. Influence of z overscanning on normalized effective doses calculated for pediatric patients undergoing multidetector CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzedakis, Antonis; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Karantanas, Apostolos; Karabekios, Spiros; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of z overscanning on normalized effective dose for pediatric patients undergoing multidetector-computed tomography (CT) examinations. Five commercially available mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old patients and the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP, version 4C2) radiation transport code were employed in the current study to simulate pediatric CT exposures. For all phantoms, axial and helical examinations at 120 kV tube voltage were simulated. Scans performed at 80 kV were also simulated. Sex-specific normalized effective doses were estimated for four standard CT examinations i.e., head-neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, and trunk, for all pediatric phantoms. Data for both axial and helical mode acquisition were obtained. In the helical mode, z overscanning was taken into account. The validity of the Monte Carlo results was verified by comparison with dose data obtained using thermoluminescence dosimetry and a physical pediatric anthropomorphic phantom simulating a 10-year-old child. In all cases normalized effective dose values were found to increase with increasing z overscanning. The percentage differences in normalized data between axial and helical scans may reach 43%, 70%, 36%, and 26% for head-neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, and trunk studies, respectively. Normalized data for female pediatric patients was in general higher compared to male patients for all ages, examined regions, and z overscanning values. For both male and female children, the normalized effective dose values were reduced as the age was increased. For the same typical exposure conditions, dose values decreased when lower tube voltage was used; for a 1-year-old child, for example, the effective dose was 3.8 times lower when 80 kV instead of 120 kV was used. Normalized data for the estimation of effective dose to pediatric patients undergoing standard axial and helical CT examinations on an

  10. Study Addiction: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Study Examining Temporal Stability and Predictors of Its Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Atroszko, Pawe? Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, St?le

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: "Study addiction" has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. \\ud Methods: The BStAS and the Ten Item Persona...

  11. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Yin, Qingyi; Schwebel, David C; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China's road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China.

  12. Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness and safety of current weekend allied health services and a new stakeholder-driven model for acute medical/surgical patients versus no weekend allied health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Terry P; O'Brien, Lisa; Mitchell, Deb; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Haas, Romi; Markham, Donna; Plumb, Samantha; Chiu, Timothy; May, Kerry; Philip, Kathleen; Lescai, David; McDermott, Fiona; Sarkies, Mitchell; Ghaly, Marcelle; Shaw, Leonie; Juj, Genevieve; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-04-02

    Disinvestment from inefficient or ineffective health services is a growing priority for health care systems. Provision of allied health services over the weekend is now commonplace despite a relative paucity of evidence supporting their provision. The relatively high cost of providing this service combined with the paucity of evidence supporting its provision makes this a potential candidate for disinvestment so that resources consumed can be used in other areas. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of the current model of weekend allied health service and a new stakeholder-driven model of weekend allied health service delivery on acute medical and surgical wards compared to having no weekend allied health service. Two stepped wedge, cluster randomised trials of weekend allied health services will be conducted in six acute medical/surgical wards across two public metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne (Australia). Wards have been chosen to participate by management teams at each hospital. The allied health services to be investigated will include physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, dietetics, social work and allied health assistants. At baseline, all wards will be receiving weekend allied health services. Study 1 intervention will be the sequential disinvestment (roll-in) of the current weekend allied health service model from each participating ward in monthly intervals and study 2 will be the roll-out of a new stakeholder-driven model of weekend allied health service delivery. The order in which weekend allied health services will be rolled in and out amongst participating wards will be determined randomly. This trial will be conducted in each of the two participating hospitals at a different time interval. Primary outcomes will be length of stay, rate of unplanned hospital readmission within 28 days and rate of adverse events. Secondary outcomes will be number of complaints and compliments, staff absenteeism

  13. [A school-level longitudinal study of clinical performance examination scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Hee

    2015-06-01

    This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.

  14. Fractures of the distal limb occuring under effective diagnostic anaethesia during equine lameness examination

    OpenAIRE

    Plückhahn, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Fractures of the distal limb occuring during present effect of diagnostic nerve blocks respective intraarticular anesthesia represent rare but severe complications in equine lameness examinations. Due to very poor prognosis most cases in this study resulted in euthanisation of the horse. Several reasons can be claimed to cause fractures. As for the above mentioned fact that total loss of the animal is common due to severity of the fracture, the most important reason is represented by undet...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of exercise stress testing performed as part of executive health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S J; Rehman, A; Shaukat, M H S; Awais, M

    2017-05-01

    An executive health examination is offered at many hospitals for "busy executives" that comprises of a typical history and examination along with screening tests for major cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Exercise stress tests are also frequently included in such packages, though the appropriateness of such stress testing remains uncertain. To assess the appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of exercise stress tests performed as part of executive health examinations. Records of all individuals who underwent an executive health examination at our institution between January, 2007 and December, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected pertaining to demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, indication of stress testing and results of exercise stress tests. Of a total of 1650 subjects who underwent exercise stress tests as part of executive health examinations, indication for exercise stress testing was class IIb or III (as per American College of Cardiology's appropriateness criteria) in 96.1 % of subjects. The cumulative cost and time burden of testing for these subjects were Rs. 11,419,200/- PKR (≈$114,192 USD) and 2 weeks and 4 days, respectively. Exercise stress tests were not positive for ischemia in any such cases. Based on the results of this study, exercise stress tests should not be routinely offered as part of executive health examinations.

  16. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures

  17. A pilot study examining the effectiveness of physical therapy as an adjunct to selective nerve root block in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain from disk herniation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Anne; Fritz, Julie M; Brennan, Gerard P; Zaman, Faisel M; Willick, Stuart E

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic selective nerve root blocks (SNRBs) are a common intervention for patients with sciatica. Patients often are referred to physical therapy after SNRBs, although the effectiveness of this intervention sequence has not been investigated. This study was a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of SNRBs, with or without subsequent physical therapy, in people with low back pain and sciatica. This investigation was a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. The settings were spine specialty and physical therapy clinics. Forty-four participants (64% men; mean age=38.5 years, SD=11.6 years) with low back pain, with clinical and imaging findings consistent with lumbar disk herniation, and scheduled to receive SNRBs participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to receive either 4 weeks of physical therapy (SNRB+PT group) or no physical therapy (SNRB alone [SNRB group]) after the injections. All participants received at least 1 SNRB; 28 participants (64%) received multiple injections. Participants in the SNRB+PT group attended an average of 6.0 physical therapy sessions over an average of 23.9 days. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months with the Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, a numeric pain rating scale, and the Global Rating of Change. Significant reductions in pain and disability occurred over time in both groups, with no differences between groups at either follow-up for any outcome. Nine participants (5 in the SNRB group and 4 in the SNRB+PT group) underwent surgery during the follow-up period. The limitations of this study were a relatively short-term follow-up period and a small sample size. A physical therapy intervention after SNRBs did not result in additional reductions in pain and disability or perceived improvements in participants with low back pain and sciatica.

  18. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination.

  19. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination

  20. Educational Effects of Radiation Reduction During Fluoroscopic Examination of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon Hyung; Jung, Seung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Byun, Jae Young

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of educating radiology residents and radiographers about radiation exposure on reduction of dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time in diagnostic fluoroscopy of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in adult patients. In April 2015, we offered 1 hour of education to radiology residents and radiographers on how to reduce radiation doses during fluoroscopic examinations. Fluoroscopic examinations of the GI tracts of adult patients performed from June 2014 to February 2016 were evaluated. A total of 2326 fluoroscopic examinations (779 and 1547 examinations before and after education, respectively) were performed, including 10 kinds of examinations. Fluoroscopy time and DAP were collected. A radiologist evaluated the number of spot images, captured images, cine video, captured video, and the use of collimation or magnification. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess the difference in fluoroscopy-related factors before and after education. Median DAP decreased significantly after education, from 21.1 to 18.2 Gy∙cm 2 (P < .001) in all examinations. After education DAP decreased significantly in defecography (P < .001) and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly in upper gastrointestinal series with water-soluble contrast (P < .001). Spot and cine images that increased the radiation dose were used less frequently after education than before in some kinds of examinations, especially in defecography (P < .001). More images were collimated after education in barium swallow than before (P < .001). Educating radiologist residents and radiographers could reduce DAP in fluoroscopy examinations of the GI tract in adult patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A randomized crossover, pilot study examining the effects of a normal protein vs. high protein breakfast on food cravings and reward signals in overweight/obese "breakfast skipping", late-adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Heather A; Will, Matthew J; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-08-06

    This pilot study examined whether the addition of a normal protein (NP) vs. high protein (HP) breakfast leads to alterations in food cravings and plasma homovanillic acid (HVA), which is an index of central dopamine production, in overweight/obese 'breakfast skipping' late-adolescent young women. A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls (age 19 ± 1 y; BMI 28.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2) consumed 350 kcal NP (13 g protein) breakfast meals, 350 kcal HP (35 g protein) breakfast meals, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 consecutive days/pattern. On day 7 of each pattern, a 4 h testing day was completed including the consumption of breakfast (or no breakfast) followed by food craving questionnaires and blood sampling for HVA concentrations throughout the morning. Both breakfast meals reduced post-meal cravings for sweet and savory foods and increased HVA concentrations vs. BS (all, p vs. NP (p = 0.08) and tended to elicit sustained increases in HVA concentrations prior to lunch vs. NP (p = 0.09). Lastly, HVA concentrations were positively correlated with the protein content at breakfast (r: 0.340; p < 0.03). Collectively, these findings suggest that the addition of breakfast reduces post-meal food cravings and increases homovanillic acid concentrations in overweight/obese young people with higher protein versions eliciting greater responses.

  2. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Richmond, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant biodiversity.

  3. The effect of urbanization on ant abundance and diversity: a temporal examination of factors affecting biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Buczkowski

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effect of urbanization on species richness and most studies implicate urbanization as the major cause of biodiversity loss. However, no study has identified an explicit connection between urbanization and biodiversity loss as the impact of urbanization is typically inferred indirectly by comparing species diversity along urban-rural gradients at a single time point. A different approach is to focus on the temporal rather than the spatial aspect and perform "before and after" studies where species diversity is cataloged over time in the same sites. The current study examined changes in ant abundance and diversity associated with the conversion of natural habitats into urban habitats. Ant abundance and diversity were tracked in forested sites that became urbanized through construction and were examined at 3 time points - before, during, and after construction. On average, 4.3 ± 1.2 unique species were detected in undisturbed plots prior to construction. Ant diversity decreased to 0.7 ± 0.8 species in plots undergoing construction and 1.5 ± 1.1 species in plots 1 year after construction was completed. With regard to species richness, urbanization resulted in the permanent loss of 17 of the 20 species initially present in the study plots. Recovery was slow and only 3 species were present right after construction was completed and 4 species were present 1 year after construction was completed. The second objective examined ant fauna recovery in developed residential lots based on time since construction, neighboring habitat quality, pesticide inputs, and the presence of invasive ants. Ant diversity was positively correlated with factors that promoted ecological recovery and negatively correlated with factors that promoted ecological degradation. Taken together, these results address a critical gap in our knowledge by characterizing the short- and long-term the effects of urbanization on the loss of ant

  4. Diagnostic X-ray examinations and increased chromosome translocations: evidence from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Yong, Lee C; Doody, Michele M; Preston, Dale L; Kampa, Diane M; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Edwards, Alan A; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2010-11-01

    Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below the level of approximately 50 mGy. Chromosome translocation frequency data from three separately conducted occupational studies of ionizing radiation were pooled together. Studies 1 and 2 included 79 and 150 medical radiologic technologists, respectively, and study 3 included 83 airline pilots and 50 university faculty members (total = 155 women and 207 men; mean age = 62 years, range 34-90). Information on personal history of radiographic examinations was collected from a detailed questionnaire. We computed a cumulative red bone marrow (RBM) dose score based on the numbers and types of X-ray examinations reported with 1 unit approximating 1 mGy. Poisson regression analyses were adjusted for age and laboratory method. Mean RBM dose scores were 49, 42, and 11 for Studies 1-3, respectively (overall mean = 33.5, range 0-303). Translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing dose score (P X-ray examinations, including dose scores of approximately 50 and lower, suggesting the possibility of long-term adverse health effects.

  5. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate L; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group ( n  = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group ( n  = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05-0.61, p  ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43-4.63] ES 0.50, p  ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  6. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Toohey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8 or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8 group for 36 sessions (12 weeks of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate on a stationary bike or treadmill. Results Significant improvements (time were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05–0.61, p ≤ 0.05. An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43–4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01 with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT; it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  7. Effect of Age on Performance Parameters of Screening and Diagnostic Mammography Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamnit Ansusinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of age specific on performance parameters among screening and diagnostic mam- mography examinations. Methods: During 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007, 22,278 screening mammography examinations (MG and 13,435 diagnostic MG , were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with breast cancer were either confirmed by histopathology report, Siriraj cancer registry or follow-up post treatment up to 12 months, while the negative breast cancer were followed up for at least 12 months. Cancer detection rate (CDR, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV were analysed according to age group distribution. Results: Of the total 22,278 screening examinations, 43.1% and 56.9% were below and above 50 years old, respec- tively. Among 13,435 diagnostic examinations, 66.9% and 33.1% were below and above 50 years, respectively. The mean age was 50.8 for screening and 53.3 for diagnostic (S.D.=8.1,9.0, respectively. The CDR of screening and diagnostic was 4.6 and 49.6 per 1,000 examinations, respectively. The CDR, PPV and specificity of screening and diagnostic mammography examination increased with higher age with statistical significance (p<0.005. The sensitivity of the diagnostic MG also increased with age (p<0.05, but not in the screening group. Conclusion: Age is one of the most important risk factors of breast cancer and also in outcome of key parameters on mammography performance. The study showed that the CDR, PPV and specificity increase with age both in the screening and diagnostic group as in the literatures except for the sensitivity in screening was not related to increased age. Our study also supported that MG screening among women 40-49 years is suitable as there were high cancer rate in both screening and diagnosis in 40-49 years with high sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Surfactant effects on protein structure examined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, R. R.; Dales, N.; Andrews, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has proven to be a useful tool for examining noncovalent complexes between proteins and a variety of ligands. It has also been used to distinguish between denatured and refolded forms of proteins. Surfactants are frequently employed to enhance solubilization or to modify the tertiary or quaternary structure of proteins, but are usually considered incompatible with mass spectrometry. A broad range of ionic, nonionic, and zwitterionic surfactants was examined to characterize their effects on ESI-MS and on protein structure under ESI-MS conditions. Solution conditions studied include 4% acetic acid/50% acetonitrile/46% H2O and 100% aqueous. Of the surfactants examined, the nonionic saccharides, such as n-dodecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, at 0.1% to 0.01% (w/v) concentrations, performed best, with limited interference from chemical background and adduct formation. Under the experimental conditions used, ESI-MS performance in the presence of surfactants was found to be unrelated to critical micelle concentration. It is demonstrated that surfactants can affect both the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins under conditions used for ESI-MS. However, several of the surfactants caused significant shifts in the charge-state distributions, which appeared to be independent of conformational effects. These observations suggest that surfactants, used in conjunction with ESI-MS, can be useful for protein structure studies, if care is used in the interpretation of the results. PMID:7703844

  9. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Cumulative effective dose associated with computed tomography examinations in adolescent trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye-Young; Cho, Jinseong; Yang, Hyuk Jun; Chung, Yong Eun

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze cumulative effective dose (cED) and to assess lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer due to radiation exposure during computed tomography (CT) examinations in adolescent trauma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2011, the adolescent patients with trauma were enrolled in this study. Numbers of CT examinations and body regions examined were collated, and cEDs were calculated using dose-length product values and conversion factors. Lifetime attributable risk for cancer incidence and cancer-associated mortality were quantified based on the studies of survivors of the atomic bombs on Japan. Data were stratified according to severity of trauma: minor trauma, injury severity score of less than 16; and major trauma, injury severity score of 16 or greater. A total of 698 CT scans were obtained on the following regions of 484 adolescent patients: head CT, n = 647; rest of the body, n = 41; and thorax, n = 10. Mean cED per patient was 3.4 mSv, and mean LARs for cancer incidence and mortality were 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. The majority of patients (98.4%) experienced minor trauma, and their mean cED and LARs for cancer incidence and mortality (3.0 mSv and 0.04% and 0.02%, respectively) were significantly lower than those of patients with major trauma (24.3 mSv and 0.31% and 0.15%, respectively, all P values CT examinations performed for the initial assessment of minor trauma was found to be relatively low in adolescent patients. However, adolescent patients with major trauma were exposed to a substantial amount of radiation during multiple CT examinations.

  11. Examining how land surface effects modulate rainfall in the eastern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, D.; Cohen, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Amazon, it is important to apportion rainfall by storm type. In the eastern Amazon (approximately from Belém to Santarém) rainfall associated with large instability lines produces nearly half of the total, and this is complemented by that produced by rainfall from local convective systems. Our recent observational studies in the indicate that the relative importance of the nocturnal squall lines is exaggerated if one relies solely on data from the climate stations along the Amazon River channel. River breezes inhibit convective rainfall near the main channel, but in some areas river proximity effects lead to enhanced nocturnal rainfall of squall origin. Moreover, enhanced rainfall to the north of the Amazon main channel could be the result of orographic uplift. In this study we complement a limited climatological study of instability lines with two mesoscale model (Brazilian version of RAMS, B-RAMS) case studies to examine the effects of topography and river proximity on rain producing mechanisms in the eastern Amazon Basin. Two numerical experiments were done to examine the relative importance of these two rain-producing mechanisms in the region. In each, three nested grids were used. Results from the prototype simulation for the propagating squall line were compared with GOES images, NCEP reanalyses, and data from the LBA-ECO surface station network near Santarém (approximately 55°W). In this case we also examined the role of topography on squall line development by performing a sensitivity test of the case study squall development with and without topography. The locally-dominated convection study was based on a case of slack easterlies during cold frontal penetration into the western Amazon region.

  12. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  13. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gülşah Gürol; Eşer, Ismet

    2011-02-01

    This research, conducted at two rest homes in Manisa, Turkey, was undertaken to examine the effect of castor oil pack (COP) administrations on constipation in the elderly. Study participants were monitored for 7 days before, 3 days during, and 4 days after COP administration utilizing the Recall Bias and Visual Scale Analog (RB-VSAQ) as well as the Standard Diary developed by Pamuk et al. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Repeated Measures, Bonferroni, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data analysis. Eighty percent of study subjects had been constipated for 10 years or longer. COP administration did not have an effect on the number of bowel movements or amount of feces, but decreased the feces consistency score, straining during defecation and feeling of complete evacuation after a bowel movement, thus decreasing symptoms of constipation. We conclude that COP may be used for controlling symptoms of constipation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Edwin H.G.; Nikken, Jeroen J.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Verhaar, Jan A.N.; Vugt, Arie B. van; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on the results of a trial in which 208 patients were randomized between radiography only and radiography plus MRI. We analyzed medical (diagnostic and therapeutic) costs, quality of life, duration of diagnostic workup, number of additional diagnostic examinations, time absent from work, and time to convalescence during a 6-month follow-up period. Quality of life was lowest (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.61 (95% CI 0.54-0.67)); duration of diagnostic workup, absence from work, and time to convalescence were longest; and the number of diagnostic examinations was largest with radiography only. These outcomes were more favorable for both MRI strategies (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.72 (95% CI 0.67-0.77) for both). Mean total costs were 2,593 euros (95% CI 1,815-3,372) with radiography only, 2,116 euros (95% CI 1,488-2,743) with radiography plus MRI, and 1,973 euros (95% CI 1,401-2,543) with selective MRI. The results suggest that selective use of a short MRI examination saves costs and potentially increases effectiveness in patients with acute knee injury without a fracture on radiography. (orig.)

  15. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF BRAND EXPERIENCE ON CONSUMER SATISFACTION, BRAND TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Başer, İ.; Cintamür, İ.; Arslan, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effects of brand experienceon consumer satisfaction, brand trust and brand loyalty. It also aims to put fortha model encapsulating the notions of brand experience, consumer satisfaction and brand trust to explain the relationship between these three antecedents of brand loyalty. A face to face survey was used to collect data with the use of interviewers. The population of interest was consumers of four different brands from different product ...

  16. Examining the Error of Mis-Specifying Nonlinear Confounding Effect with Application on Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some confounders are nonlinearly associated with dependent variables, but they are often adjusted using a linear term. The purpose of this study was to examine the error of mis-specifying the nonlinear confounding effect. Methods: We carried out a simulation study to investigate the effect of adjusting for a nonlinear confounder in the…

  17. Examining the Effect of Social Values Education Program Being Applied to Nursery School Students upon Acquiring Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsaglam, Özkan; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to develop Social Values Education Program aimed at nursery school students and examine the effect of Social Values Education Program upon the social skill acquisition of nursery school students. The effect of the education program that was developed within the scope of the study upon the social skill…

  18. Standing in the Gaps: Examining the Effects of Early Gifted Education on Black Girl Achievement in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jemimah L.; Young, Jamaal R.; Ford, Donna Y.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the differential effects of access to gifted education on the mathematics and science achievement of fourth-grade Black girls. This study utilized mean difference effect sizes to examine the magnitude of differences between groups. By convention, White girls were included as a comparison group. Girls…

  19. Examining the Permanence of the Effect of an Empathy Program for the Acquisition of Empathy Skills on Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedim Bal, Pervin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the permanence of the effect of an Empathy Training Program, administered 8 months ago on gifted adolescents studying in 6th and 7th grades. The sample of this study consisted of 60 students with IQ scores of above 130 and studied in Enderun Gifted Children Center. Bryant's Empathy Scale for Children was administered to…

  20. Internet-delivered, preoperative, preparation program (I-PPP): Development and examination of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristi D; Raazi, Mateen; Walker, Kirstie L

    2017-06-01

    Limited evidence-based, interactive, Internet-delivered preoperative preparation programs for children and their parents exist. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and examine the effectiveness of the Internet-delivered, preoperative program (I-PPP) in alleviating prepoperative anxiety in children undergoing outpatient surgery. In Study 1, the I-PPP was developed and then evaluated by parent/child dyads and health care professionals. In Study 2, the effectiveness of I-PPP was examined. This study was a development and effectiveness study. For Study 1, participants were recruited from the community. For Study 2, participants were recruited from the Royal University Hospital. In Study 1, participants were 9 parent/child dyads and 5 health care professionals. In Study 2, participants were 32 children (3-7years) scheduled for outpatient surgery and one parent for each child. In Study 1, I-PPP modules were created and parent/child dyads and health care professionals evaluated I-PPP modules and treatment credibility. In Study 2, child patients and their parents completed the I-PPP prior to day of surgery. Observer-rated anxiety of child participants was measured during the day surgery experience. Parent state anxiety was measured prior to completing I-PPP, pre- and post-surgery. Post-surgery parents provided comments regarding the I-PPP. Post-surgery child behaviour change was assessed. For Study 1, ratings for I-PPP components and treatment credibility surpassed our acceptability criterion. Minor changes were made to I-PPP. For Study 2, mYPAS scores were stable across day surgery. mYPAS scores in current study at induction did not differ significantly from benchmark studies. Significant reduction in parent anxiety was observed pre- to post-surgery. Parents positively endorsed the program. Negative post-operative behaviours were observed in a proportion of children. Our findings suggest that I-PPP represents a viable option for preoperative preparation for

  1. A preliminary study of empathy, emotional intelligence and examination performance in MBChB students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J; Evans, Phillip; Magnus, Belinda; O'Hanlon, Katie

    2007-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the attributes other than cognitive ability that medical students need in order to be professionally successful, with a particular focus on empathy and emotional intelligence (EI). Selection considerations have also motivated interest in such attributes as predictors of academic success. There are reports of declines in empathy in US medical students, but no comparative information is available for UK students. This study aimed to compare empathy levels in medical students in Years 2, 3 (pre-clinical) and 5 (clinical), to examine gender differences in empathy and EI, and to investigate whether EI and empathy are related to academic success. Questionnaires assessing EI and empathy were completed by students. Previous empathy scores for the Year 2 cohort were also available. Empathy trends were examined using anova; trends for the Year 2 group for whom Year 1 scores were available were examined using repeated-measures anova. Associations of EI and empathy with academic success were examined using Pearson correlation. A significant gender x cohort effect was found, with male empathy scores increasing between Years 1 and 2, whilst female scores declined. Peer ratings in Year 2 problem-based learning (PBL) groups were positively correlated with EI. Trends in levels of empathy differed by gender. The reasons for this require further investigation, particularly in relation to course content. Associations between academic performance and EI were sparse, and there were none between academic performance and empathy, but the effects of EI (and other characteristics) on PBL group functioning represent a promising area for future study.

  2. Examining the effect of relationship marketing on the frequency of using banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Golnarian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of relationship marketing on customers’ frequent use of services provided by an Iranian bank named Eghtesad Novin (EN. The present study was a correlational-applied study. The population of this study was all customers who had more than two years of collaboration with the EN Bank and were living in Tehran. Therefore, those branches located in diverse districts of Tehran were selected from all branches across the country. Since each branch was associated with one of quadripartite districts, five branches were selected randomly from each district. Multi-phase cluster random sampling was carried out in these districts. To obtain a sample size, formula of ratio estimation with a relative error of 0.05 and a maximum variance value of 0.50 were used so that the total size of sample was determined as 400 approximately. This study utilized the descriptive survey method. For this purpose, researcher-made questionnaires were used. In order to determine the reliability of the above-mentioned questionnaires, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used and it was determined as 0.813, which confirmed the questionnaires. In addition, the validity of these questionnaires was reviewed and confirmed using expert opinions and viewpoints of professionals working in the banking sector as well as respectful professors. Inferential statistics as well as SPSS and LISREL software were used in order to design the research model. To this end, the effect of the foundation of relationship marketing including commitment, trust, communication and conflict-handling on customer loyalty, the importance of these factors from the perspective of the customers and the bank's success in creating any of the variables was examined and the data was analyzed using multiple regression method. The results showed that, except commitment, other foundations of relationship marketing had significant and positive effects in this bank.

  3. Effects of outsourcing magnetic resonance examinations from a public university hospital to a private agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Parvin; Labruto, Fausto; Bergstrand, Lott; Blomqvist, Lennart

    2011-02-01

    Sometimes the measures taken to make a radiology department more effective, such as prioritizing the workload and keeping equipment running for as many hours as staffing permits, are not enough. In such cases, outsourcing radiological examinations is a potential solution for reducing waiting times. To investigate differences in waiting time, quality and costs between magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed in a university hospital and examinations outsourced to private service. We retrospectively selected a group of consecutive, outsourced MR examinations (n=97) and a control group of in-house MR examinations, matched for type of examination. In each group there were referrals that had a specified preferred timeframe for completion. We measured the percentage of cases in which this timeframe was met and if it was not met, how many days exceeded the preferred time. In referrals without a specified preferred timeframe, we also calculated the waiting time. Quality standards were measured by the percentage of examinations that had to be re-done and re-assessed. Finally, we calculated the cumulative costs, taking into account the costs for re-doing and re-assessing examinations. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups, in either the number of examinations that were not performed within the preferred time or the number of days that exceeded the preferred timeframe. For referrals without a preferred timeframe, the waiting time was shorter for outsourced examinations than those not outsourced. There were no differences in the number of examinations that had to be re-done, but more examinations needed to be re-assessed in the outsourced group than in the in-house group. The calculated costs for outsourced examinations were lower than the costs for internally performed examinations. Outsourcing magnetic resonance examinations may be an effective way of reducing a radiology department's workload. Ways in which to reduce the additional costs

  4. Examining the Reproducibility of 6 Published Studies in Public Health Services and Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; B Wondmeneh, Sarah; Zhao, Yiqiang; Leider, Jonathon P

    2018-02-23

    Research replication, or repeating a study de novo, is the scientific standard for building evidence and identifying spurious results. While replication is ideal, it is often expensive and time consuming. Reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published findings, is one proposed minimum alternative standard. While a lack of research reproducibility has been identified as a serious and prevalent problem in biomedical research and a few other fields, little work has been done to examine the reproducibility of public health research. We examined reproducibility in 6 studies from the public health services and systems research subfield of public health research. Following the methods described in each of the 6 papers, we computed the descriptive and inferential statistics for each study. We compared our results with the original study results and examined the percentage differences in descriptive statistics and differences in effect size, significance, and precision of inferential statistics. All project work was completed in 2017. We found consistency between original and reproduced results for each paper in at least 1 of the 4 areas examined. However, we also found some inconsistency. We identified incorrect transcription of results and omitting detail about data management and analyses as the primary contributors to the inconsistencies. Increasing reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published results, can improve the quality of science. Researchers, journals, employers, and funders can all play a role in improving the reproducibility of science through several strategies including publishing data and statistical code, using guidelines to write clear and complete methods sections, conducting reproducibility reviews, and incentivizing reproducible science.

  5. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  6. Examining the Use of a Visual Analytics System for Sensemaking Tasks: Case Studies with Domain Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youn-Ah; Stasko, J

    2012-12-01

    While the formal evaluation of systems in visual analytics is still relatively uncommon, particularly rare are case studies of prolonged system use by domain analysts working with their own data. Conducting case studies can be challenging, but it can be a particularly effective way to examine whether visual analytics systems are truly helping expert users to accomplish their goals. We studied the use of a visual analytics system for sensemaking tasks on documents by six analysts from a variety of domains. We describe their application of the system along with the benefits, issues, and problems that we uncovered. Findings from the studies identify features that visual analytics systems should emphasize as well as missing capabilities that should be addressed. These findings inform design implications for future systems.

  7. Cost effectiveness of a telephone intervention to promote dilated fundus examination in adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B Schechter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Clyde B Schechter1, Charles E Basch2, Arlene Caban3, Elizabeth A Walker41Departments of Family and Social Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; 2Department of Health Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USAAbstract: In a clinical trial, we have previously shown that a telephone intervention can significantly increase participation in dilated fundus examination (DFE screening among low-income adults with diabetes. Here the costs and cost-effectiveness ratio of this intervention are calculated. Intervention effectiveness was estimated as the difference in DFE utilization between the telephone intervention and print groups from the clinical trial multiplied by the size of the telephone intervention group. A micro-costing approach was used. Personnel time was aggregated from logs kept during the clinical trial of the intervention. Wage rates were taken from a commercial compensation database. Telephone charges were estimated based on prevailing fees. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as the ratio of total costs of the intervention to the number of DFEs gained by the intervention. A sensitivity analysis estimated the cost-effectiveness of a more limited telephone intervention. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using bootstrap samples from the clinical trial results quantified the uncertainties in resource utilization and intervention effectiveness. Net intervention costs were US$18,676.06, with an associated gain of 43.7 DFEs and 16.4 new diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy. The cost-effectiveness ratio is US$427.37 per DFE gained. A restricted intervention limiting the number of calls to 5, as opposed to 7, would achieve the same results

  8. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Elderly Health Examination Program: The Example of Hypertension Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Hwa Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Health Insurance (NHI and social welfare agencies have implemented the Elderly Health Examination Program (EHEP for years. No study has ever attempted to evaluate whether this program is cost-effective. The purposes of this study were, firstly, to understand the prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension and, secondly, to estimate the cost and effectiveness of the EHEP, focusing on hypertension screening. The data sources were: (1 hypertension and clinical information derived from the 1996 and 1997 EHEP, which was used to generate prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension; and (2 claim data of the NHI that included treatment costs of stroke patients (in-and outpatients. Hypothetical models were used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the hypertension screening program in various conditions. Sensitivity analysis was also employed to evaluate the effect of each estimation indicator on the cost and effectiveness of the hypertension screening program. A total of 28.3% of the elderly population in Kaohsiung (25,174 of 88,812 participated in the 1996 EHEP; 14,915 of them participated in the following 1997 EHEP, with a retention rate of 59.3%. Criteria from the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 160/95mmHg or taking antihypertensive drugs were used; we found that prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension were 24.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Hypertension rates are increasing in the aging process as shown in both prevalence and incidence models. In comparison with non-participants, the prevalence model indicates that each hypertension patient who had attended the EHEP not only saved NT$34,570–34,890 in medical and associated costs, but also increased their lifespan by 128 days. The present findings suggest that the EHEP is a cost-effective program with health and social welfare policy

  10. Monte Carlo Calculated Effective Dose to Teenage Girls from Computed Tomography Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, M.; Bibbo, G.; Pattison, J.

    2000-01-01

    Effective doses from CT to paediatric patients are not common in the literature. This article reports some effective doses to teenage girls from CT examinations. The voxel computational model ADELAIDE, representative of a 14-year-old girl, was scaled in size by ±5% to represent also 11-12-year-old and 16-year-old girls. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the effective dose from chest, abdomen and whole torso CT examinations to the three version of ADELAIDE using a 120 kV spectrum. For the whole torso CT examination, in order of increasing model size, the effective doses were 9.0, 8.2 and 7.8 mSv per 100 mA.s. Data are presented that allow the estimation of effective dose from CT examinations of the torso for girls between the ages of 11 and 16. (author)

  11. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  12. Examining the Effects of School Composition on North Carolina Student Achievement over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Southworth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students’ reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math and reading achievement for the same students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades. The racial and poverty composition of schools affect student achievement after factoring in student, family, and other school influences. In addition, increasing teacher quality and school resources reduces but does not eliminate the effects of school racial and poverty composition on student achievement. Policies leading to reductions in racial and poverty isolation in schools and increases in teacher quality should be pursued to guarantee equality of educational opportunities to all children in North Carolina schools.

  13. Secure E-Examination Systems Compared: Case Studies from Two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Fluck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Electronic examinations have some inherent problems. Students have expressed negative opinions about electronic examinations (e-examinations due to a fear of, or unfamiliarity with, the technology of assessment, and a lack of knowledge about the methods of e-examinations. Background: Electronic examinations are now a viable alternative method of assessing student learning. They provide freedom of choice, in terms of the location of the examination, and can provide immediate feedback; students and institutions can be assured of the integrity of knowledge testing. This in turn motivates students to strive for deeper learning and better results, in a higher quality and more rigorous educational process. Methodology\t: This paper compares an e-examination system at FUT Minna Nigeria with one in Australia, at the University of Tasmania, using case study analysis. The functions supported, or inhibited, by each of the two e-examination systems, with different approaches to question types, cohort size, technology used, and security features, are compared. Contribution: The researchers’ aim is to assist stakeholders (including lecturers, invigilators, candidates, computer instructors, and server operators to identify ways of improving the process. The relative convenience for students, administrators, and lecturer/assessors and the reliability and security of the two systems are considered. Challenges in conducting e-examinations in both countries are revealed by juxtaposing the systems. The authors propose ways of developing more effective e-examination systems. Findings: The comparison of the two institutions in Nigeria and Australia shows e-examinations have been implemented for the purpose of selecting students for university courses, and for their assessment once enrolled. In Nigeria, there is widespread systemic adoption for university entrance merit selection. In Australia this has been limited to one subject in one state, rather

  14. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    test in Tokyo: Hideo MAEDA (Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Government). 2. Contact investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak: Kenichi MIYAMOTO (Takaido Community Health Center). We have experienced a TB outbreak in integrated junior and senior high school in Tokyo. Index patient was a student with persistent respiratory symptoms for six months before diagnosis of sputum smear-positive TB. Public health center started contact investigation immediately. QFT-positive rates were high in close contacts, especially in classmates. Additionally, a student outside of contact investigation was diagnosed as TB and considered to be infected from the first patient by VNTR analysis. Therefore, public health center expanded QFT-tests to all students and teachers in this school. Finally, 9 students and 2 teachers in this school were diagnosed as sputum smear-negative TB by contact investigation. 3. Utilization of molecular epidemiological procedure in contact investigation in Kyoto City: Masahiro ITO (Public Health Center of Kyoto City) Molecular epidemiological procedure using VNTR analysis has been used for contact investigation of tuberculosis since January 2011 in Kyoto City. One hundred forty four strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis were investigated and 130 strains were fully analyzed. Fourteen clusters were found and the number of strains included in the cluster was ranged from two to 11. Epidemiological relationship between patients in one cluster was found, however, significant relationship in another clusters was not demonstrated. It was suggested that VNTR analysis is useful for molecular epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis. 4. The population based molecular epidemiological studies and QFT test in a contact examination: Riyo FUJIYAMA, Keisuke MATSUBAYASHI, Setsuko MIZUSHIRI, Junko HIGUCHIL Chika SHIRAI, Yuko KATAGAMI, Mieko CHIHARA, Akihiro IJICHI (Kobe City Public Health Center), Kentaro ARIKAWA, Noriko

  15. Results of a Phase 2 Study Examining the Effects of Omitting Elective Neck Irradiation to Nodal Levels IV and V{sub b} in Patients With N{sub 0-1} Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian-zhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Han, Fei; Lu, Li-Xia; Huang, Shao-Min; Lin, Cheng-Guang; Deng, Xiao-Wu; Cui, Nian-Ji [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhao, Chong, E-mail: gzzhaochong@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure and toxicity in clinically negative necks of N{sub 0-1} nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) but did not receive elective neck irradiation (ENI) to level IV and V{sub b} nodes. Methods and Materials: We conducted a phase 2 prospective study in N{sub 0-1} NPC patients treated with IMRT. ENI included the retropharyngeal nodes and levels II to V{sub a} but omitted levels IV and V{sub b} in clinically negative necks. Patterns of nodal failure, regional control (RC), and late toxicity were evaluated. Results: Between 2001 and 2008, a total of 212 patients (128 N{sub 0} and 84 N{sub 1}) were enrolled in the study. Seven patients (4 in-field and 3 out-of-field) developed nodal failure. One patient (0.5%) developed nodal failure at level V{sub b}, but no patients developed nodal failure at level IV. The 5-year RC rates of the entire group, N{sub 0} patients and N{sub 1} patients were 95.6%, 98.2%, and 91.3%, respectively. Fifteen patients (7.1%) developed distant metastases. The 5-year distant failure-free survival (DFFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 91.4% and 89.8%, respectively. The rates of grade 2 or greater skin dystrophy, subcutaneous fibrosis and xerostomia were 6.2%, 16.6%, and 17.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The rate of out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI to levels IV and V{sub b} in clinically negative necks of patients with N{sub 0-1} NPC was extremely low; therefore, a further phase 3 study is warranted.

  16. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  17. Examining the Efficiency of Models Using Tangent Coordinates or Principal Component Scores in Allometry Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirli, Deniz; Ercan, Ilker

    2015-09-01

    Most of the studies in medical and biological sciences are related to the examination of geometrical properties of an organ or organism. Growth and allometry studies are important in the way of investigating the effects of diseases and the environmental factors effects on the structure of the organ or organism. Thus, statistical shape analysis has recently become more important in the medical and biological sciences. Shape is all geometrical information that remains when location, scale and rotational effects are removed from an object. Allometry, which is a relationship between size and shape, plays an important role in the development of statistical shape analysis. The aim of the present study was to compare two different models for allometry which includes tangent coordinates and principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis. The results of the simulation study showed that the model constructed by taking tangent coordinates as dependent variables is more appropriate than the model constructed by taking principal component scores of tangent coordinates as dependent variables, for all sample sizes.

  18. Working memory training in old age: an examination of transfer and maintenance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Zanoni, Giulia; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a verbal working memory (WM) training program in old-old individuals (over 75 years of age). Thirty-six adults aged 75-87 took part in the study: 18 were randomly assigned to receive training and the remainder served as active controls. Specific training gains in a verbal WM task (criterion task), and transfer effects on measures of visuospatial WM, short-term memory, inhibition, processing speed, and fluid intelligence were examined. The trained old-old adults performed better than the controls in the criterion task, and this benefit persisted after 8 months; they also showed an increase in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms at follow-up compared with pretest. The results of this study suggest that the present WM training program produces benefits maintained over time even in old-old adults. These findings confirm that there is still room for plasticity in the basic mechanisms of cognition in advance old age.

  19. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  20. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1...... group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  1. Examining the effects of media on learners' mental representations and cognitive processes in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Adrienne L.

    This study examined the effects of television and video games as media on the science knowledge and understanding of middle school students in a Midwest, urban charter school. Twenty-five study participants were organized into eight focus groups. Each group, which comprised of three to four members, was introduced to one of two media types, a television show episode or video games, and then asked a series of questions prompting group dialogue. Results show that students were able to distinguish science ideas presented in the media and made science content connections from previous classroom learning. Implications suggest how teachers can utilize weapons of mass instruction, the tools of media technology, to fight against the challenges that plague our current system of education.

  2. Impact of Adult Attachment Anxiety on Deception Judgments: Examining the Moderating Effect of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Ying; Jin, Shenghua

    2018-04-01

    Several psychologists have paid attention to individual differences in deception detection, but only a few studies have found significant results. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between attachment anxiety and deception judgment when there are no obvious cues to distinguish lies from truth, and to examine the moderating effect of motives. Participants were instructed to judge each of 10 audios on whether they were true or false. Subsequently, the attachment anxiety of participants was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Results revealed that, compared with people who had low attachment anxiety, those with high attachment anxiety tend to have higher truth biases in the low-motive condition and lower accuracy in the high-motive condition.

  3. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered-grading......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven-point...

  4. Examination of Changes in Infection Rates in a Restructured Anaesthesia Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ahmet; Erhan, Ömer Lütfi; Bayar, Mustafa Kemal; Karatepe, Ümit; Demirel, İsmail

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of a restructured anaesthesia intensive care unit (ICU) on changes in infection rates and infections. Organisational restructuring was done in the anaesthesia ICU of Firat University Hospital after it was relocated on 14 March 2012. This study was designed to investigate the effect of restructuring on infection rates through a comparison of periods encompassing one year before relocation and one year after relocation. Nosocomial infections were diagnosed according to modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. In total, 406 patients who were over 18 years old and admitted to the ICU were included; they were hospitalised for 48 h or longer and had non-infectious diseases according to physical examination, laboratory and culture results on admission. The data of 214 patients (Group A) and 192 patients (Group B) were examined. Parameters such as age, gender, primary diagnosis and mean GCS score at admission and mean duration of hospitalisation showed no effect on the rates of infection, but rates of total infection (41.1% vs. 25%), urinary (18.7% vs. 10.4%) and VIP (32.7% vs. 14.6%) were detected in Groups A and B. Statistically significant differences were found for the causative pathogens Pseudomonas (15.4% vs. 6.8%), Acinetobacter (18.2% vs. 12%) and Escherichia (8.9% vs. 2.1%); the mean duration of mechanical ventilation (15.01±16.681 vs. 12.22±17.595) and discharge with improvement (31.8% vs. 44.3%). We detected that restructuring (such as acclimatization, educated staff, hepa filter) caused a significant decline in infection rates. Because ICU staff may be a major cause of infection, we believe that providing education and conducting effective surveillance programs will be the most important factors for reducing infection rates.

  5. Class attendance and cardiology examination performance: a study in problem-based medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamuhair, Samira S; Al Farhan, Ali I; Althubaiti, Alaa; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Al-Kadri, Hanan M

    2016-01-01

    Information on the effect of students' class attendance on examination performance in a problem-based learning medical curriculum is limited. This study investigates the impact of different educational activities on students' academic performance in a problem-based learning curriculum. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on the cardiology block at the College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All students who undertook the cardiology block during the academic year 2011-2012 were included. The students' attendance was measured using their overall attendance percentage. This percentage is a product of their attendance of many activities throughout the block. The students' performance was assessed by the final mark obtained, which is a product of many assessment elements. Statistical correlation between students' attendance and performance was established. A total of 127 students were included. The average lecture attendance rate for the medical students in this study was found to be 86%. A significant positive correlation was noted between the overall attendance and the accumulated students' block mark (r=0.52; Pattendance to different education activities was correlated to their final mark. Lecture attendance was the most significant predictor (Pattendance has predicted a 0.27 increase in students' final block mark. Class attendance has a positive effect on students' academic performance with stronger effect for lecture attendance compared to attendance in other teaching modalities. This suggests that lecture attendance is critical for learning even when a problem-based learning medical curriculum is applied.

  6. Optimizing violence prevention programs: an examination of program effectiveness among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C; Chauveron, Lisa M; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F

    2014-07-01

    While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session curriculum-based universal violence prevention program that promotes healthy conflict resolution skills among urban adolescents. Using a review of program record data and a multisite quasi-experimental study design, we examined the effectiveness of a New York City-based violence prevention program entitled the Violence Prevention project (VPP) optimized to meet school needs. We analyzed survey data from 1112 9th- and 10th-grade students in 13 New York City public high schools across 4 consecutive school years. Both participants and nonparticipants were surveyed. Review of program record data indicated that the program was implemented with acceptable fidelity to the core component structure, and that participant responsiveness to the model was high. Multilevel modeling indicated that VPP participation was protective for academic self-concept and promoted conflict resolution skills. Findings indicate that semester-long violence prevention programs optimized to meet the needs of a typical high school can be effective at promoting healthy conflict resolution skills in urban adolescents. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  7. Using TIMSS 2007 data to examine STEM school effectiveness in an international context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanco, Gabrielle

    Because results from TIMSS 2007 showed a gap in mathematics and science achievement between students in the United States and those in the top-performing countries, TIMSS 2007 data were used to investigate how school effectiveness factors known to be strongly associated with higher STEM achievement operated in the United States compared to Chinese Taipei, the Czech Republic, Singapore, and Slovenia. In each of the five countries, multilevel modeling was used to examine STEM achievement in relation to 11 school effectiveness factors associated with school resources, fidelity of curriculum implementation, and school climate, controlling for student home resources. A secondary purpose of this dissertation research was to help the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center prepare for multilevel modeling planned for the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 data. Findings from this research showed that across the five countries, there were differences in how important school effectiveness factors operated. Teacher preparation, teaching the curriculum, and using instructional strategies involving reasoning and inquiry all were important school characteristics related to STEM achievement in some countries. A school environment conducive to learning emerged as being strongly associated with high STEM achievement in three of the countries, including the United States. Both absence of discipline and attendance problems as well as a school climate supportive of academic success were important predictors of student STEM achievement. This dissertation research also showed the potential of using TIMSS data as a basis for conducting school effectiveness analyses across different country contexts.

  8. An Examination of Behavioral and Neuronal Effects of Comorbid Traumatic Brain Injury and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrew R; Hanlon, Faith M; Claus, Eric D; Dodd, Andrew B; Miller, Brittny; Mickey, Jessica; Quinn, Davin K; Hagerty, Sarah L; Seaman, Brandi; Hutchison, Kent E

    2018-03-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are highly comorbid and share commonly affected neuronal substrates (i.e., prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum). However, no studies have examined how combined physical trauma and heavy drinking affect neurocircuitry relative to heavy drinking alone. The current study investigated whether comorbid AUDs and mild or moderate TBI (AUDs+TBI) would negatively affect maladaptive drinking behaviors (n = 90 AUDs+TBI; n = 62 AUDs) as well as brain structure (i.e., increased atrophy; n = 62 AUDs+TBI; n = 44 AUDs) and function (i.e., activation during gustatory cue reactivity; n = 55 AUDs+TBI; n = 37 AUDs) relative to AUDs alone. Participants reported a much higher incidence of trauma (59.2%) compared with the general population. There were no differences in demographic and clinical measures between groups, suggesting that they were well matched. Although maladaptive drinking behaviors tended to be worse for the AUDs+TBI group, effect sizes were small and not statistically significant. Increased alcohol-cue reactivity was observed in bilateral anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, dorsal striatum, thalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum across both groups relative to a carefully matched appetitive control. However, there were no significant differences in structural integrity or functional activation between AUDs+TBI and AUDs participants, even when controlling for AUD severity. Current results indicate that a combined history of mild or moderate TBI was not sufficient to alter drinking behaviors and/or underlying neurocircuitry at detectable levels relative to heavy drinking alone. Future studies should examine the potential long-term effects of combined alcohol and trauma on brain functioning. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  10. Do undergraduate student research participants read psychological research consent forms? Examining memory effects, condition effects, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Tidwell, Judy; Lostutter, Ty

    2011-01-01

    While research has examined factors influencing understanding of informed consent in biomedical and forensic research, less is known about participants' attention to details in consent documents in psychological survey research. The present study used a randomized experimental design and found the majority of participants were unable to recall information from the consent form in both in-person and online formats. Participants were also relatively poor at recognizing important aspects of the consent form including risks to participants and confidentiality procedures. Memory effects and individual difference characteristics also appeared to influence recall and recognition of consent form information.

  11. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  12. Examining the Effects of Adapted Peer Tutoring on Social and Language Skills of Young English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adapted peer tutoring (APT) on social interactions and early language and literacy skills of pre-school-age children who were English language learners (ELLs). APT was the treatment for this study. Quasi-experimental group comparison design was applied. Two inclusive pre-school classrooms…

  13. An Examination of the Importance of Strain in the Cannabis Gateway Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, James C; Watts, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    Gateway theory has been the source of much debate in both the research literature and public policy. Support for gateway sequencing has been mixed, especially in research that has considered the role of criminological variables in the etiology of substance use. For example, limited prior research has observed as important in gateway sequencing the effects of severe stressors. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health are utilized to test gateway theory and examine whether severe stressors affect the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and later use of other illicit drugs (OIDs). Findings suggest that while frequency of cannabis use does increase the likelihood of later use of OIDs, this relationship may be the result of the common cause of experiencing severe stress. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Photographic diabetic retinopathy screening in an urban family practice clinic: effect on compliance to eye examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanket U; Seibles, JoAnn; Park, Susanna S

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of introduction of diabetic retinopathy screening using non-mydriatic digital fundus photography (nDFP) in an urban academic family practice clinic on patient compliance to recommended dilated eye examination (REE). Two hundred four patients with diabetes mellitis who were noncompliant to annual REE were screened for diabetic retinopathy using nDFP. The images were electronically transmitted to the retinal specialist to triage them for follow-up REE based on the photographic findings. Retrospective review of their medical records compared the compliance to REE before and after nDFP screening. Compliance to REE increased from 9% before screening to 66.5% after screening (P family practice clinic can result in a dramatic increase in compliance to REE among patients with diabetes mellitis previously poorly compliant to REE. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Use of high performance computing to examine the effectiveness of aquifer remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.F.B.; Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.; Loosmore, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    Large-scale simulation of fluid flow and chemical migration is being used to study the effectiveness of pump-and-treat restoration of a contaminated, saturated aquifer. A three-element approach focusing on geostatistical representations of heterogeneous aquifers, high-performance computing strategies for simulating flow, migration, and reaction processes in large three-dimensional systems, and highly-resolved simulations of flow and chemical migration in porous formations will be discussed. Results from a preliminary application of this approach to examine pumping behavior at a real, heterogeneous field site will be presented. Future activities will emphasize parallel computations in larger, dynamic, and nonlinear (two-phase) flow problems as well as improved interpretive methods for defining detailed material property distributions

  16. An Effective School Autonomy Model: Examining Headteachers' Job Satisfaction and Work-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou Solomou, Galatia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although school autonomy has been a matter of great interest during the last decades and several relevant measures have been implemented toward this end, the relation between school autonomy and school effectiveness has not been examined thoroughly. The purpose of this paper is to explore this relation and to propose an effective school…

  17. A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matthew Drenner

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, brown trout (Salmo trutta, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii. We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival, passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT], and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites. Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus] are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.

  18. [Estimation of the costs of radiographic and endoscopic examinations in gastroenterology using monographic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salort, P; Rodriguez, M; Cornee, J; Berthezene, P; Sahel, J; Clement, F

    1986-01-01

    This study is devoted to the study of rate-setting and cost price of fifteen radiological and endoscopic examinations in gastroenterology as based on monographic studies. In rate-setting the costs are the examinations actually performed in the department. In contrast, the cost price allocated to include only the expenses incurred by each examination and not those related to the time running between them. Both estimations converge when rooms and equipment are used maximally. Our results show that the amounts reimbursed by the Social Security system were always lower than those obtained from monographic studies, except for two radiological examinations for which expenses were adequate. However when cost prices are considered, all reimbursements would have to be increased for endoscopic examinations, but for Radiography, only those of cholangiography, cholecystography and small bowel barium series should be adjusted.

  19. Information Order Effects: Examining The Effect of Sequencing and Complexity in a Long Information Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Primacy / Recency / No Effect ) Order Mental Effort Complexity (within Subject) Sequencing Length Response Mode 10 Hypotheses 1. Anchoring...1----------No Effect 92/100%124Recency 21/68%-----3/60%3/60%15/79% Primacy Long Series 124314No Effect 2814221/68% Primacy Short Series...Force towards primacy Force towards primacy Force towards primacy Long Series No effect No effect

  20. Examining the effectiveness of micro-enterprise development programs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Raihani Zainol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on socioeconomic development have examined the effect of development initiatives (i.e., access to finance and training on several socioeconomic indicators (i.e., income, empowerment, asset, quality of life, employment. These studies have focused mostly on the outcomes of specific types of programs offered by specific development organizations. This study however focuses on informal women micro-entrepreneurs’ participation in various development programs available to them and their influence on entrepreneurial competencies, human capital development, competitive advantages, economic vulnerability, supportive environment, and performance of micro-enterprises. This cross-sectional study adopted the purposive random sampling method and collected data from 384 informal women entrepreneurs from the local markets in different districts of Kelantan, Malaysia. The findings show that the development program participants have relatively higher levels of entrepreneurial competencies, human capital development, and higher levels of enterprise performance compared to non-participants. It is also noted that the level of economic vulnerability is relatively low among participants compared to non-participants. However, these findings contradict most of the earlier studies that show a significant positive impact of micro-credit on socio-economic wellbeing, as the difference in entrepreneurial competencies, human capital development, economic vulnerability, and performance of micro-enterprises among participants and non-participants in this study is not statistically significant. However, findings reported significantly higher levels of competitive advantages, and better supportive environment among the participants compared to the non-participants. Development organizations should therefore focus on expanding their outreach to spread the positive effects of their development programs towards uplifting the economic condition of low and middle

  1. Aspects of emotional and physical discomfort in gynecologic examination: a study of Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugut, Nilufer; Golbasi, Zehra

    2014-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine physical and emotional discomforts experienced before and after a gynecologic examination by women who presented to the outpatient clinic of the gynecology and obstetrics department at a university hospital. The sample of study was composed of 248 women. Data were collected with a survey form developed by researchers. T-test and variance analysis were used in statistical analysis. Emotional discomfort before the examination was felt by 80.2% of the women, while 80.6% stated they felt emotional discomfort after the examination. Physical discomfort before the examination was experienced by 67.3% of the women, while 76.6% stated that they felt physical discomfort after the examination. The emotional discomfort mean score was 5.02 ± 3.24 before examination and 4.62 ± 3.23 after examination (P > 0.05). The physical discomfort mean score was 3.38 ± 3.12 before examination and 3.94 ± 3.02 after examination and the difference between mean scores was statistically significant (P examination than they anticipated beforehand. The emotional discomfort in women who preferred a female physician was significantly higher than in those who preferred a male physician or who had no preference on the sex of their physician. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. A systematic review examining the effectiveness of blending technology with team-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Jo; Currie, Jane; Crawford, Tonia; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Randall, Sue

    2016-10-01

    Technological advancements are rapidly changing nursing education in higher education settings. Nursing academics are enthusiastically blending technology with active learning approaches such as Team Based Learning (TBL). While the educational outcomes of TBL are well documented, the value of blending technology with TBL (blended-TBL) remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review examining the effectiveness of blended-TBL in higher education health disciplines. This paper aimed to identify how technology has been incorporated into TBL in higher education health disciplines. It also sought to evaluate the educational outcomes of blended-TBL in terms of student learning and preference. A review of TBL research in Medline, CINAHL, ERIC and Embase databases was undertaken including the search terms, team based learning, nursing, health science, medical, pharmaceutical, allied health education and allied health education. Papers were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP). The final review included 9 papers involving 2094 student participants. A variety of technologies were blended with TBL including interactive eLearning and social media. There is limited evidence that blended-TBL improved student learning outcomes or student preference. Enthusiasm to blend technology with TBL may not be as well founded as initially thought. However, few studies explicitly examined the value of incorporating technology into TBL. There is a clear need for research that can discern the impact of technology into TBL on student preference and learning outcomes, with a particular focus on barriers to student participation with online learning components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining student performance in an introductory Physics for engineering course: A quantitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Diego; Savkar, Amit; Mokaya, Fridah; Wells, James

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been analyzed and studied in various ways with regards to students' understanding of basic physics concepts. We present normalized learning gains and effect size calculations of FCI scores, taken in the context of large-scale classes in a 4-year public university and course instruction that incorporates elements of Just-In-Time teaching and active learning components. In addition, we will present here a novel way of using FCI pre- and post-test as a predictor of students' performance on midterm and final exams. Utilizing a taxonomy table of physics concepts, we will look at student performance broken down by topic, while also examining possible correlations between FCI post-test scores and other course assessments. College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS), UConn.

  4. A study on examining interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Saeedniya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important concepts in brand literature. Customer’s loyalty toward brand can increase firm’s share price. In addition, firms’ market share maintains close relationship with net profit and capital used return. Company efforts to motivate customers to switch from competitive brands to their own or to induce them to repurchase their own brands are very important in their marketing activities. Therefore, investigating customer variety-seeking orientation and level of involvement in decision-making plays essential role in explaining customers’ product selection activities. This study intends to examine interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers and verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation and purchase decision involvement. The findings indicate that, the impact of purchase involvement was lower than variety seeking and the satisfaction had the highest negative impact on switching intent of customers.

  5. Examining the Effects of Ambient Temperature on Pre-Term Birth in Central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Mathew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (born before 37 completed weeks of gestation is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Several recent studies have examined the association between extreme temperature and preterm births, but there have been almost no such studies in arid Australia. In this paper, we explore the potential association between exposures to extreme temperatures during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy in a Central Australian town. An immediate effect of temperature exposure is observed with an increased relative risk of 1%–2% when the maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the summer season maximum temperature data. Delayed effects are also observed closer to 3 weeks before delivery when the relative risks tend to increase exponentially. Immediate risks to preterm birth are also observed for cold temperature exposures (0 to –6 °C, with an increased relative risk of up to 10%. In the future, Central Australia will face more hot days and less cold days due to climate change and hence the risks posed by extreme heat is of particular relevance to the community and health practitioners.

  6. Anxiety sensitivity risk reduction in smokers: A randomized control trial examining effects on panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Raines, Amanda M; Allan, Nicholas P; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Empirical evidence has identified several risk factors for panic psychopathology, including smoking and anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related sensations). Smokers with elevated AS are therefore a particularly vulnerable population for panic. Yet, there is little knowledge about how to reduce risk of panic among high AS smokers. The present study prospectively evaluated panic outcomes within the context of a controlled randomized risk reduction program for smokers. Participants (N = 526) included current smokers who all received a state-of-the-art smoking cessation intervention with approximately half randomized to the AS reduction intervention termed Panic-smoking Program (PSP). The primary hypotheses focus on examining the effects of a PSP on panic symptoms in the context of this vulnerable population. Consistent with prediction, there was a significant effect of treatment condition on AS, such that individuals in the PSP condition, compared to those in the control condition, demonstrated greater decreases in AS throughout treatment and the follow-up period. In addition, PSP treatment resulted in lower rates of panic-related symptomatology. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that reductions in AS resulted in lower panic symptoms. The present study provides the first empirical evidence that brief, targeted psychoeducational interventions can mitigate panic risk among smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS, which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait–correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M–1, that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994. These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  8. Examining Method Effect of Synonym and Antonym Test in Verbal Abilities Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Haryanta

    2015-08-01

    Many researchers have assumed that different methods could be substituted to measure the same attributes in assessment. Various models have been developed to accommodate the amount of variance attributable to the methods but these models application in empirical research is rare. The present study applied one of those models to examine whether method effects were presents in synonym and antonym tests. Study participants were 3,469 applicants to graduate school. The instrument used was the Graduate Academic Potential Test (PAPS), which includes synonym and antonym questions to measure verbal abilities. Our analysis showed that measurement models that using correlated trait-correlated methods minus one, CT-C(M-1), that separated trait and method effect into distinct latent constructs yielded slightly better values for multiple goodness-of-fit indices than one factor model. However, either for the synonym or antonym items, the proportion of variance accounted for by the method is smaller than trait variance. The correlation between factor scores of both methods is high (r = 0.994). These findings confirm that synonym and antonym tests represent the same attribute so that both tests cannot be treated as two unique methods for measuring verbal ability.

  9. Enhancing Extension Program Effectiveness by Examining Regional Differences in High Water Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-wen Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition for water sources in urban areas of Florida has increased due to increased population and human activities. High water users have been identified as a specific group on which Extension should focus water conservation education due to their low awareness of water issues and active landscape water use. In order to ensure the effectiveness of Extension programs targeting high water users statewide, this study sought to explore regional differences in water conservation behavior engagement within Florida high water users. An online survey was conducted to capture responses of high water users (N = 932 in three distinct regions for this comparative study. Respondents were asked to indicate their current engagement in water use behavior, application of water conservation strategies, and likelihood of engaging in water conservation and related societal behaviors. Regional differences were found in all four examined constructs. The findings imply Extension educators should tailor educational programs to regional audiences’ behavior patterns instead of designing statewide programs to ensure program effectiveness

  10. Examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy on performance outcomes in elite paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A G; Barker, J B; Turner, M J; Sheffield, D

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological well-being of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. This study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes. Using a single-case research design, eight athletes recruited from the same Paralympic sport (M=40.12, SD=12.99) received five, one-to-one REBT sessions. Measures of irrational beliefs were collected weekly, whereas the remaining psychological and physiological measures were collected at a pre-, post-, and at a 9-month follow-up time point. Visual and statistical analyzes of the data indicates reductions in irrational beliefs were coupled with reductions in systolic blood pressure indicative of an adaptive physiological response, improved athletic performance during competition simulations, and reductions in avoidance goals. Furthermore, social validation data indicated greater self-awareness, emotional control, and enhanced focus during competition as a result of the REBT intervention. This study contributes to growing literature supporting the efficacy of REBT as an intervention that not only facilitates psychological health but also enhances athletic performance. Results are discussed with reference to theory, limitations, and future recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of visual effects of immersion fluids for dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsiu Chen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The use of either mineral oil or ultrasound jelly as interface provides acceptable visual effects for the dermoscopic examination of acral volar melanocytic lesions. The use of the polarized light mode reduced the reflection and scattering of light, resulting in better visual effect than that achieved using the nonpolarized light mode. In the early diagnosis of acral melanoma, choosing the appropriate application of immersion fluid and observation mode yields the optimal visual effect.

  12. Examining the effectiveness of experiential teaching in small and large OM modules

    OpenAIRE

    Piercy, N.; Brandon-Jones, A.; Brandon-Jones, E.; Campbell, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the preferences of students towards different teaching methods and the perceived effectiveness of experiential teaching methods in different operations management (OM) modules.Design/methodology/approach – Student perceptions of different teaching methods and various aspects of an experiential teaching method, in the form of a business simulation game, are examined using survey data from 274 respondents in four small post-experience and two large pre-exper...

  13. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2010-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insur...

  14. Longitudinal tube modulation for chest and abdominal CT examinations: impact on effective patient doses calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, F.; Michielsen, K.; Depuydt, M.; Jacobs, J.; Nens, J.; Lemmens, K.; Oyen, R.; Bosmans, H.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: In multi-slice CT, manufacturers have implemented automatic tube current modulation (TCM) algorithms. These adjust tube current in the x-y plane (angular modulation) and/or along the z-axis (z-axis modulation) according to the size and attenuation of the scanned body part. Current methods for estimating effective dose (ED) values in CT do not account for such new developments. This study investigated the need to take TCM into account when calculating ED values, using clinical data. Methods: The effect of TCM algorithms as implemented on a GE BrightSpeed 16, a Philips Brilliance 64 and a Siemens Sensation 64 CT scanners was investigated. Here, only z-axis modulation was addressed, considering thorax and abdomen CT examinations collected from 534 adult patients. Commercially available CT dosimetry software (CT expo v.1.7) was used to compute EDTCM (ED accounting for TCM) as the sum of ED of successive slices. A two-step approach was chosen: first we estimated the relative contribution of each slice assuming a constant tube current. Next a weighted average was taken based upon the slice specific tube current value. EDTCM was than compared to patient ED estimated using average mA of all slices. Results and Conclusions: The proposed method is relatively simple and uses as input: the parameters of each protocol, a fitted polynomial function of weighting factors for each slice along the scan length and mA values of the individual patient examination. Results show that z-axis modulation does not have a strong impact on ED for the Siemens and the GE scanner (difference ranges from -4.1 to 3.3 percent); for the Philips scanner the effect was more important, (difference ranges from -8.5 to 6.9 percent), but still all median values approached zero (except for one case, where the median reached -5.6%), suggesting that ED calculation using average mA is in general a good approximation for EDTCM. Higher difference values for the Philips scanner are due to a stronger

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Augmented Reality Applications in Education: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekedere, Hakan; Göke, Hanife

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the purpose is examining the reviews released on augmented reality applications in education, merging the results obtained in the studies that are independent from each other, and providing a new viewpoint for the studies that will be conducted in the future. The meta-analysis method has been used in the study. 15 out of 171…

  16. Examining the effect of spinal cord injury on emotional awareness, expressivity and memory for emotional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, D K; North, N T; Allan, D; Smith, M J Law; O'Carroll, R E

    2010-08-01

    The prevailing view on the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on emotion is that it dampens emotional experience due to a loss of peripheral bodily feedback, with the higher the lesion on the spinal cord the greater the reduction in the intensity of emotional experience. This view persists despite many studies showing an absence of such an emotional impairment in people with SCI. This study specifically aimed to investigate whether total cervical-6 spinal cord transection (i) reduces emotional expressivity and emotional awareness (ii) impairs memory for emotional material. The study contained three groups: 24 patients with SCI, 20 orthopaedic injury control (OIC) patients and 20 young adult controls. A mixed factor design was employed to examine between group and within subject differences. Participants completed the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ), and viewed an emotionally arousing slide presentation. Thirty minutes post viewing, participants completed memory tests for the presentation. SCI patients reported greater present levels of emotional expressivity compared with perceived levels prior to their injuries. SCI and OIC groups did not differ on any of the emotional awareness variables. There was also no evidence that SCI leads to impairment in memory for emotional events. This study's findings contradict the mainstream view in the cognitive neuroscience of emotion that SCI dampens emotional experience.

  17. A Qualitative Study on Historical Empathy: Examination of History Teachers’ Perceptions, Perspectives and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical empathy is among those skills that the secondary school history curriculum requires students to attain as an important learning outcome of history teaching. This study examined the perceptions, perspectives and experiences of history teachers who are curriculum practitioners. Qualitative study methods were used in the study. The research results indicated that the participants had weak, fragmented and incomplete perceptions of and misconceptions about historical empathy that they confused with either sympathy or other historical concepts and thinking skills. The participants’ gender and the type of university degree that they had were found to have effects on their perceptions of historical empathy. Identified as having unsophisticated conceptual understandings of historical empathy, the teachers’ practices in classrooms were also detected to be inconsistent with the nature and characteristic features of historical empathy. There were some research data in the study that shed light on the reasons responsible for giving rise to these unwanted results. What promising findings were obtained in the research was that the teachers had positive attitudes toward historical empathy and believed in its importance in the teaching and learning of history. The problems and issues that the teachers faced when implementing historical empathy were also included in the study findings

  18. Role delineation and test specification validation study for the CNRN examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowin, M; Ozuna, J

    1988-10-01

    The American Board of Neuroscience Nursing conducted a role delineation and validation study to determine practice areas to be tested. In addition, weighting for each area to be included in the certification examination was determined. This article describes steps taken in the validation process and discusses findings along with application of results to certification examination revision.

  19. Learning and examination strategies: a case study of students of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Business Research ... Abstract. This study examines the learning strategies adopted by some students of a public university in Ghana, why they use those strategies and how they approach examinations. ... Each focus group consisted of eight students who were selected based on their academic performances.

  20. A Comparative Study Examining Academic Cohorts with Transnational Migratory Intentions towards Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff, those choosing to migrate to higher education institutions in different countries as part of their career development, and performs a comparative study between the characteristics of academics examining Australia as a possible migratory destination with those…

  1. Exploratory Study Examining the Joint Impacts of Mentoring and Managerial Coaching on Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Rok Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of organizations have adopted coaching and mentoring interventions to discover and foster the potential capabilities of employees. These practices are seen as competitive drivers to cultivate innovation and creativity in turbulent business environments. However, the literature has not investigated the question of how coaching and mentoring are interrelated. By examining this connection, this study explores the joint effects of these practices on the organizational commitment of employees. The results from survey data of 247 employees, who were coachees as well as protégés at the same time, from 17 companies in South Korea suggested that mentoring moderates the positive relationship between managerial coaching and organizational commitment. In addition, the moderating effects also depended on the extent of the homogeneity of their coach and mentor. The positive relationship between managerial coaching and organizational commitment strongly increased with conditions of higher mentoring and lower homogeneity of coach and mentor. Conversely, the relationship became negative when both mentoring practice and the homogeneity of coach and mentor were low. These results could provide practical implications to organizations that are concurrently adopting both coaching and mentoring programs by helping managers to better understand their joint effects.

  2. Examination of Alternaria alternata mutagenicity and effects of nitrosylation using the Ames Salmonella test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T J; Cherry, W; Soper, K; Langlois, I; Vijay, H M

    2001-01-01

    Molds of the genus Alternaria are common food pathogens responsible for the spoilage of fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. Although consumption of Alternaria alternata-contaminated foodstuffs has been implicated in an elevated incidence of esophageal carcinogenesis, the mutagenic potencies of several A. alternata toxins seem unable to account for the levels of activity found using crude mycelial extracts. In this study, the mutagenic effects of nitrosylation were examined with the major Alternaria metabolites Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME), Altertoxin I (ATX I), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic Acid (TA), and Radicinin (RAD) using the Ames Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100. In the absence of nitrosylation, ATX I was mutagenic when tested from 1 to 100 microg/plate in TA98 with rat liver S9 for activation, while AOH and ATX I were weakly mutagenic +/- S9 in TA100. Incubation with nitrite generally increased mutagenic potencies with ATX I strongly mutagenic +/- S9 in both TA98 and TA100, while ALT, AOH, AME, and RAD responses were enhanced in TA100 + S9. However, subsequent examination of three extracts made from A. alternata culture broth, acetone-washed mycelia, and the acetone washes showed a different mutagenic response with both broth and acetone washes directly mutagenic in TA98 and TA100 but with a reduced response + S9. The acetone-washed mycelial extract was found to have the lowest mutagenic activity of the three extracts tested. Nitrosylation had little effect on the mutagenicity of any of the extracts. Thus, while nitrosylation increases the mutagenicity of ATX I, and to a lesser extent that of several other Alternaria toxins, the results demonstrate that Alternaria produces a major mutagenic activity with a S. typhimurium response different from that found with the purified toxins. Efforts are currently underway to chemically identify this mutagenic species. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. CT-guided brachytherapy of prostate cancer: reduction of effective dose from X-ray examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Dmitriy B.; Biryukov, Vitaliy A.; Rusetskiy, Sergey S.; Sviridov, Pavel V.; Volodina, Tatiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most effective and informative diagnostic method. Though the number of CT scans among all radiographic procedures in the USA and European countries is 11% and 4% respectively, CT makes the highest contribution to the collective effective dose from all radiographic procedures, it is 67% in the USA and 40% in European countries [1-5]. Therefore it is necessary to understand the significance of dose value from CT imaging to a patient . Though CT dose from multiple scans and potential risk is of great concern in pediatric patients, this applies to adults as well. In this connection it is very important to develop optimal approaches to dose reduction and optimization of CT examination. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its publications recommends radiologists to be aware that often CT image quality is higher than it is necessary for diagnostic confidence[6], and there is a potential to reduce the dose which patient gets from CT examination [7]. In recent years many procedures, such as minimally invasive surgery, biopsy, brachytherapy and different types of ablation are carried out under guidance of computed tomography [6;7], and during a procedures multiple CT scans focusing on a specific anatomic region are performed. At the Clinics of MRRC different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer are used, incuding conformal CT-guided brachytherapy, implantation of microsources of I into the gland under guidance of spiral CT [8]. So, the purpose of the study is to choose optimal method to reduce radiation dose from CT during CT-guided prostate brachytherapy and to obtain the image of desired quality.

  4. Diabetic retinopathy risk prediction for fundus examination using sparse learning: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ein; Yoo, Tae Keun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-09-13

    Blindness due to diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the major disability in diabetic patients. Although early management has shown to prevent vision loss, diabetic patients have a low rate of routine ophthalmologic examination. Hence, we developed and validated sparse learning models with the aim of identifying the risk of DR in diabetic patients. Health records from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) V-1 were used. The prediction models for DR were constructed using data from 327 diabetic patients, and were validated internally on 163 patients in the KNHANES V-1. External validation was performed using 562 diabetic patients in the KNHANES V-2. The learning models, including ridge, elastic net, and LASSO, were compared to the traditional indicators of DR. Considering the Bayesian information criterion, LASSO predicted DR most efficiently. In the internal and external validation, LASSO was significantly superior to the traditional indicators by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. LASSO showed an AUC of 0.81 and an accuracy of 73.6% in the internal validation, and an AUC of 0.82 and an accuracy of 75.2% in the external validation. The sparse learning model using LASSO was effective in analyzing the epidemiological underlying patterns of DR. This is the first study to develop a machine learning model to predict DR risk using health records. LASSO can be an excellent choice when both discriminative power and variable selection are important in the analysis of high-dimensional electronic health records.

  5. A phenomenographic study of students' conception of learning for a written examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Desiree W; Wilhemsson-Macleod, Niklas; Berggren, Michel; Josephson, Anna; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2015-03-30

    We investigated students' conception of learning for an examination in internal medicine, infectious diseases and dermatology-venereology, in three separate examinations versus a single integrated one. The study was carried out during a curricular change, with one cohort belonging to a new integrated examination and the other to the former non-integrated examination. Forty-eight interviews were carried out among medical undergraduates regarding the role of the examination in the learning process. The interviews were analyzed according to the phenomenographic approach to identify the students' conception of learning. The learning approaches could be categorized in 47 of the 48 students into 4 major groups: application directed, holistic, comprehensive and tactical memorizing learning. The result indicated that comprehensive learning was the most common approach among students following either examination-form; tactical memorizing learning was more prevalent among students following the non-integrated examination and holistic learning was applied more frequently among students following the integrated examination. Nine of the 47 students changed their approaches over time, the majority switching to a comprehensive approach. No significant gender difference was observed. Comprehensive learning was the most common strategy employed and students who changed during the course most often switched to this. However, only a minor change in approach was observed after a switching to an integrated examination, i.e. it takes more than just an integrated examination to change the student's conception of learning.

  6. Effect of quantitative feedback on student performance on the National Board Medical Examination in an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Mandeep K; Laube, Douglas W; Bett, Glenna C L

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether regular quantitative feedback improved medical student performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners Obstetrics and Gynecology subject test. We examined the effect of including regular quantitative feedback (in the form of biweekly quizzes) in the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship on student performance on the National Board of Medical Examiners Obstetrics and Gynecology examination at the University at Buffalo. Students who completed the clerkship format including the regular feedback scored significantly higher than students who completed the clerkship without feedback (70.3 +/- 7.1 vs 68.2 +/- 8.6; P Board of Medical Examiners test, and resulted in a significant decrease in the number of students failing the course.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Ghana: Examining impacts from 2012 to 2031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonvignon, Justice; Atherly, Deborah; Pecenka, Clint; Aikins, Moses; Gazley, Lauren; Groman, Devin; Narh, Clement T; Armah, George

    2017-12-06

    Diarrhea causes about 10% of all deaths in children under five years globally, with rotavirus causing about 40% of all diarrhea deaths. Ghana introduced rotavirus vaccination as part of routine immunization in 2012 and it has been shown to be effective in reducing disease burden in children under five years. Ghana's transition from low to lower-middle income status in 2010 implies fewer resources from Gavi as well as other major global financing mechanisms. Ghana will soon bear the full cost of vaccines. The aim of this study was to estimate the health impact, costs and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Ghana from introduction and beyond the Gavi transition. The TRIVAC model is used to estimate costs and effects of rotavirus vaccination from 2012 through 2031. Model inputs include demographics, disease burden, health system structure, health care utilization and costs as well as vaccine cost, coverage, and efficacy. Model inputs came from local data, the international literature and expert consultation. Costs were examined from the health system and societal perspectives. The results show that continued rotavirus vaccination could avert more than 2.2 million cases and 8900 deaths while saving US$6 to US$9 million in costs over a 20-year period. The net cost of vaccination program is approximately US$60 million over the same period. The societal cost per DALY averted is US$238 to US$332 with cost per case averted ranging from US$27 to US$38. The cost per death averted is approximately US$7000. The analysis shows that continued rotavirus vaccination will be highly cost-effective, even for the period during which Ghana will assume responsibility for purchasing vaccines after transition from Gavi support. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A qualitative examination of the effects of international counter-drug interdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Alexander G; Mitchell, Ojmarrh

    2018-03-07

    The purpose of this study is to utilize unique qualitative data to determine the effects of sporadic international drug interdictions on drug trafficking, and to assess whether the responses of drug traffickers align with rational choice theory. Qualitative data obtained from 23 high-level United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informants, who are embedded in international drug trafficking groups, are examined to identify common responses to drug interdiction operations. The findings indicate that sporadic counter-drug interdictions do not a have permanent deterrent effect on transnational drug smuggling operations. However, these types of law enforcement operations produce temporary alterations in drug trafficking, as traffickers adopted a variety of methods to thwart the efforts of law enforcement-often by relying on information acquired from corrupt local law enforcement. The results also indicate that while interdiction operations displaced trafficking activities (temporally, spatially, and methodological), there is little evidence that drug traffickers responded to such operations by moving into new areas (i.e., malign spatial displacement). Sporadic international drug interdiction programs do little to deter drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) from engaging in their illicit trade. Instead, DTOs adjust in a calculating manner to these operations to ensure that their illegal products reach consumer marketplaces, which is congruent with the rational choice theoretical perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the effect of EVS spending on HCAHPS scores: a value optimization matrix for expense management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Stalley, Samantha; Williams, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Using the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Value-Based Purchasing program has now linked patient care experience rating to hospital revenue reimbursement, thereby establishing a key relationship between revenue cycle management and the patient experience. However, little data exist on the effect of hospital resource spending on patient HCAHPS ratings. This article examines environmental services (EVS) expenses and HCAHPS ratings on hospital cleanliness and overall patient experience ratings to determine how these variables are related. No linear relationship between EVS expense spending and HCAHPS ratings was found, but post hoc analysis identified a matrix that differentiated on hospital cleanliness ratings and overall EVS spending. A value score was calculated for each quadrant of the matrix, and it was determined that organizational value derives from management of expense spending rather than pursuit of high HCAHPS scores. A value optimization matrix is introduced, and its four quadrants are described. With increased emphasis on subjective patient experience measures attached to financial consequences, leaders in the healthcare industry must understand the link between expense management and HCAHPS performance. This study has shown that effective operations are derived from the efficient use of resources and are supported by strong leadership, strategic management, and a culture of patient-centered achievement. The capacity of healthcare organizations to identify their unique costs-to-outcomes balance through the value optimization matrix will help provide them with a means to ensure that optimal value is extracted from all expense spending.

  10. Effective dose evaluation of multidetector CT examinations: influence of the ICRP recommendation in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Masayuki; Shimono, Tetsunori; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Matsui, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    We compared effective doses for recent computed tomography (CT) examinations calculated based on International Commission on Radiological Protection publication number 103 (ICRP 103) with those calculated based on ICRP publication number 60 (ICRP 60), and considered the usefulness of the effective dose in CT dose evaluation. After placing radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLDs) inside or outside an anthropomorphic phantom, we examined from the chest to the pelvis, cardiac, and cranial regions of the phantom. The absorbed dose was calculated by multiplying calibrated dose values of RPLD by the mass energy coefficient ratio. The effective dose was calculated as the sum total of the value for each tissue, which was multiplied by the equivalent dose according to the tissue weighting factor recommended in ICRP 103 and ICRP 60. Calculated effective doses based on ICRP 103 were different by –11% to +82% compared with those based on ICRP 60. The values of absorbed doses for selective tissues were relatively higher than the values for the effective dose. The effective dose represents only a mean dose value for an average human. Therefore, assessing the absolute dose of particular individuals in CT examinations based exclusively on the effective dose is not recommended.

  11. Who benefits from increased service utilisation? Examining the distributional effects of payment for performance in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyaruka, Peter; Robberstad, Bjarne; Torsvik, Gaute; Borghi, Josephine

    2018-01-29

    Payment for performance (P4P) strategies, which provide financial incentives to health workers and/or facilities for reaching pre-defined performance targets, can improve healthcare utilisation and quality. P4P may also reduce inequalities in healthcare use and access by enhancing universal access to care, for example, through reducing the financial barriers to accessing care. However, P4P may also enhance inequalities in healthcare if providers cherry-pick the easier-to-reach patients to meet their performance targets. In this study, we examine the heterogeneity of P4P effects on service utilisation across population subgroups and its implications for inequalities in Tanzania. We used household data from an evaluation of a P4P programme in Tanzania. We surveyed about 3000 households with women who delivered in the last 12 months prior to the interview from seven intervention and four comparison districts in January 2012 and a similar number of households in 13 months later. The household data were used to generate the population subgroups and to measure the incentivised service utilisation outcomes. We focused on two outcomes that improved significantly under the P4P, i.e. institutional delivery rate and the uptake of antimalarials for pregnant women. We used a difference-in-differences linear regression model to estimate the effect of P4P on utilisation outcomes across the different population subgroups. P4P led to a significant increase in the rate of institutional deliveries among women in poorest and in middle wealth status households, but not among women in least poor households. However, the differential effect was marginally greater among women in the middle wealth households compared to women in the least poor households (p = 0.094). The effect of P4P on institutional deliveries was also significantly higher among women in rural districts compared to women in urban districts (p = 0.028 for differential effect), and among uninsured women than

  12. Effect of professional society recommendations on women's desire for a routine pelvic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, George F; Smith-McCune, Karen K; Gregorich, Steven E; Moghadassi, Michelle; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2017-09-01

    The American College of Physicians strongly recommends against performing pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant women, citing evidence of harm (false-positive testing, unnecessary surgery) and no evidence of benefit. In contrast, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends pelvic examinations in asymptomatic women beginning at age 21 years, citing expert opinion. We sought to evaluate if providing women with professional societies' conflicting statements about pelvic examinations (recommendations and rationales) would influence their desire for a routine examination. We recruited 452 women ages 21-65 years from 2 women's clinics to participate in a 50-minute face-to-face interview about cervical cancer screening that included a 2-phase study related to pelvic examinations. In the first phase, 262 women were asked about their desire for the examination without being provided information about professional societies' recommendations. In the second phase, 190 women were randomized to review summaries of the American College of Physicians or American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists statement followed by an interview. First-phase participants served as the referent: 79% (208/262) indicated they would want a routine examination if given a choice. In the second phase, a similar percentage of women randomized to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists summary had this desire (82%: 80/97; adjusted odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.70). Women randomized to the American College of Physicians summary, however, were less likely to indicate they would opt for an examination (39%: 36/93; adjusted odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.21). Overall, 94% (179/190) believed the potential benefits and harms should be discussed prior to the examination. Providing women with a professional society's recommendation advising against routine pelvic examinations substantially reduced their desire to

  13. Genital examination training: assessing the effectiveness of an integrated female and male teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Lynn; Pullon, Susan; Garrett, Sue; Hoare, Kath

    2016-11-22

    Learning to undertake intimate female and male examinations is an important part of medical student training but opportunities to participate in practical, supervised learning in a safe environment can be limited. A collaborative, integrated training programme to provide such learning was developed by two university teaching departments and a specialist sexual health service, utilising teaching associates trained for intimate examinations in a simulated clinical educational setting. The objective of this research was to determine changes in senior medical students' self- reported experience and confidence in performing male and female genital examinations, before and after participating in a new clinical teaching programme. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design, using pre and post programme questionnaires and focus groups, was used to assess the effectiveness of the programme. The students reported greatly improved skill, confidence and comfort levels for both male and female genital examination following the teaching programme. Skill, confidence and comfort regarding male examinations were rated particularly low on the pre-teaching programme self- assessment, but post-programme was rated at similar levels to the female examination. This integrated female-male teaching programme (utilising trained teaching associates as simulated patients in a supervised clinical teaching environment) was successful in increasing senior medical students' skills and levels of confidence in performing genital examinations. There were differences between female and male medical students in their learning. Suggestions for improvement included providing more detailed instruction to some clinical supervisors about their facilitation role in the session.

  14. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  15. A further examination of the big-fish-little-pond effect : perceived position in class, class size, and gender comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Helmond, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10–12 years) in the Netherlands, this study examined the academic self-concept in terms of the big-fish–little-pond effect (BFLPE). The BFLPE implies that students in classes where the average achievement is low will have a higher academic self-concept than equally achieving

  16. Examining Differential Effects of a Family Literacy Program on Language and Literacy Growth of English Language Learners with Varying Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lisa M.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Leighton, Christine M.; Cassano, Christina M.; Krol-Sinclair, Barbara; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2014-01-01

    Many English language learners (ELLs) and children living in poverty begin school with substantially less English vocabulary knowledge than their monolingual, economically advantaged peers. Without effective intervention, these vocabulary gaps are likely to contribute to long-term reading failure. This quasi-experimental study examined the extent…

  17. Examining the Effects of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs on Drug Use in Rural Settings: Methodology and Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Guo, Jing; Singer, L. Terri; Downes, Katheryne; Brinales, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Although there have been substantial advances in knowledge about drug prevention over the last decade, the majority of school-based drug prevention studies have been conducted in urban settings. There is little knowledge about the effectiveness of such programs when they are implemented in rural populations. Purpose: To examine the…

  18. Examining Perceptions over the Effectiveness of Professional Development and Available Resources on the Common Core State Standards Implementation in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Julie Trammell

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine the perceptions of teachers and curriculum specialists over the effectiveness of professional development and available resources of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) implementation process in Arkansas. Arkansas divided the implementation process into three stages: Phase I implemented…

  19. Examination of the Effectiveness of Male and Female Educational Leaders Who Made Use of the Invitational Leadership Style of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gwen; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the effectiveness of male and female educational leaders who made use of the invitational leadership style of leadership in their k-12 school settings. Study participants consisted of 14 principals (7 female and 7 male) and 164 teachers. While quantitative findings revealed a statistically significant…

  20. Examining the Correspondence between Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Cleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four high school students received 11 weeks of a self-regulated learning (SRL intervention, called the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program (SREP, to improve their classroom-based biology exam scores, SRL, and motivated behaviors. This mixed model case study examined the correspondence between shifts in students’ strategic, regulated behaviors with their performance on classroom-based biology tests. The authors used traditional SRL assessment tools in a pretest-posttest fashion (e.g., self-report questionnaires, teaching rating scales and gathered SRL data during the intervention using field note observations and contextualized structured interviews. This multidimensional assessment approach was used to establish convergence among the assessment tools and to facilitate interpretation of trends in students’ biology test performance relative to their SRL processes. Key themes in this study included the following: (a the close correspondence between changes in students SRL, biology exam performance, and SREP attendance; (b individual variability in student performance, SRL behaviors, and beliefs in response to SREP; and (c the importance of using a multi-dimensional assessment approach in SRL intervention research. Furthermore, this study provided additional support for the potential effectiveness of SREP in academic contexts.

  1. Blogging as a social tool: a psychosocial examination of the effects of blogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M

    2008-12-01

    New MySpace users (N = 58) were surveyed on joining the site and again in 2 months to examine psychosocial differences between bloggers and nonbloggers over time. Bloggers' social integration, reliable alliance, and friendship satisfaction all significantly increased compared to nonbloggers, suggesting that blogging has beneficial effects on well-being, specifically in terms of perceived social support.

  2. A reusable simulation model to evaluate the effects of walk-in for diagnostic examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, A.; Kortbeek, N.; Smid, K.; Sprengers, M. E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Enabling patients to walk in for their diagnostic examination without an appointment has considerable potential in terms of quality of care, patient service, and system efficiency. We present a model to evaluate the effect of implementing a combined walk-in and appointment system, offering

  3. Reconsidering examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Ewing, Sarah W. Feeldstein

    Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental of knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured. To this end, most empirical examin...

  4. Collaborative Encoding and Memory Accuracy: Examining the Effects of Interactive Components of Co-Construction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Mary Ann; Fried, Adina Rachel; Cowan, Emily; Bays, Rebecca Brooke

    2014-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the effect of collaborative encoding on memory was examined by testing 2 interactive components of co-construction processes. One component focused on the nature of the interactive exchange between collaborators: As the partners worked together to create descriptions about ways to interact with familiar objects, constraints were…

  5. Examining Preschool and First Grade Teachers' Opinions on the Effects of School Readiness to Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Berrin; Kükürtcü, Sevi Kent; Tarman, Ilknur; Sanli, Zeynep Seda

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine preschool and first grade teachers' opinions on the effects of school readiness to classroom management. The participants of this research consisted of the 18 preschool and 22 first grade teachers who work at public and private schools in the cities of Konya, Ankara and Kayseri in Turkey. Phenomenological…

  6. Examining effects of user fee abolishment for women and children in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Examining effects of user fee abolishment for women and children in Burkina Faso. In April 2016, Burkina Faso became the first African country to introduce a national policy for universal and free healthcare for pregnant women, new mothers, and children under five. However, maternal and child mortality rates in the country ...

  7. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  8. Effectiveness of the Gynecology Teaching Associate in Teaching Pelvic Examination Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Susan M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of using gynecology teaching associates is compared with training by gynecology residents on clinic patients for teaching the gynecologic examination. Sophomore medical students at the University of Iowa participated in the instruction and an evaluation session with a simulated patient trained to rate the students' examination…

  9. Academic Achievement and Adolescent Drug Use: An Examination of Reciprocal Effects and Correlated Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. Methods: One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth…

  10. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  11. Examining the Effects of Teaching Contemporary Arabic Literature through Communicative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam i Jalae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the Effects of Teaching Contemporary Arabic Literature through Communicative Approach       Maryam Jalaei *   Narges Ganji **   Sardar Aslani ***           In order to make use of modern methods of teaching in the field of teaching Arabic to non- native Arab speakers, this study employed communicative approach for the teaching of contemporary Arabic literature. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the impact of using communicative approach in teaching contemporary Arabic literature on the speaking ability of Iranian university students of Arabic as a foreign language. In this experimental study, the researchers used test of speaking as an instrument. The participants in this study were 20 intermediate students studying at University of Isfahan. These 20 students were divided equally into two groups, one experimental & one control. The selection of the students was done randomly. In the experimental group, the students were taught according to communicative approach & in the control group, the traditional method was used. A pre–test was given to make sure about the homogeneity of the two groups in their speaking ability. The researchers also re-tested in two phases to monitor the development of communicative ability of the research sample in speaking. Data was analyzed by using T- test. It was found that the two groups had statistically significant differences. These differences can be related to the impact of communicative approach in improving students’ speaking skills.         Key words : Teaching Arabic to Iranian Learners, Communicative Approach, Contemporary Arabic Literature, Communicative Competence, Speaking Skill.       * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Kashan .  ** Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan. *** Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Isfahan.

  12. Examining the Changes in Novice and Experienced Mathematics Teachers' Questioning Techniques through the Lesson Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ewe Gnoh; Lim, Chap Sam; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in novice and experienced mathematics teachers' questioning techniques. This study was conducted in Sarawak where ten (experienced and novice) teachers from two schools underwent the lesson study process for fifteen months. Four data collection methods namely, observation, interview, lesson…

  13. Examining Technology Perception of Social Studies Teachers with Rogers' Diffusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan; Koçoglu, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Mobile learning has started to take place in education literature with the developing technology, and this technology started to have an increasing spread along with its advantages. This study examines the responses of social studies teachers to the innovations in the field of mobile learning. The study was designed within the framework of theory…

  14. A Qualitative Study Examining the Spatial Ability Phenomenon from the Chinese Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Helen W.; Mohler, James L.; Choi, Soyoung; Chen, Yuehua; Zheng, Chunhui

    2011-01-01

    The authors used holistic and structured interviews to examine Chinese student perspectives on their own spatial ability. The results of this study were compared and contrast with a previous study that was conducted by Mohler (2008) of Caucasian student perspectives in United States. Findings of the current study agree with other literature that…

  15. Examination of the Professional Self-Esteem of Teacher Candidates Studying at a Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Neriman; Gursoy, Figen; Ceylan, Remziye; Bicakci, Mudriye Yildiz

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the professional self-esteem levels of teacher candidates studying at the Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey, to examine whether certain variables create any differences in their professional self-esteem levels and to propose suggestions in accordance with the results. The study was conducted…

  16. A critical examination of the definition of 'psychoactive effect' in Australian drug legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Seear, Kate; Lancaster, Kari

    2017-02-01

    As the number of new 'psychoactive substances' detected globally has risen exponentially, the policy response of assessing and prohibiting each new substance individually has become increasingly unworkable. In an attempt to disrupt the availability of new as-yet-unscheduled substances, Ireland (2010), Poland (2011), Romania (2012), New Zealand (2013), Australia (2015) and the United Kingdom (2016) have enacted generic or blanket ban legislation that prohibits all 'psychoactive substances' that are not already regulated or belong to exempt categories. How such generic legislation defines 'psychoactive substance' is therefore crucial. While there is a growing critical literature relating to blanket bans of 'psychoactive substances', the Australian legislation is yet to be described or critically analysed. In this commentary, we aim to draw the attention of local and international drug policy scholars to Australia's newest legislative approach to 'psychoactive substances'. Using the Australian experience as a case study, we first describe and trace the origins of this generic banning approach, especially focusing on how 'psychoactive effect' came to be defined. Then, we critically examine the assumptions underpinning this definition and the possibilities silenced by it, drawing on the work of poststructuralist and critical scholars. In doing so, we explore and raise a series of questions about how this legislation works to stabilise drugs, drug harms and drug effects, as well as addiction realities; how the category of 'psychoactive substances' is produced through this legislation; and some of the material-discursive effects which accompany this rendering of the 'problem'. We offer this commentary not as a comprehensive discussion of each of these elements but rather as a starting-point to promote further discussion and debate within the drug policy field. To this end, we conclude with a suggested research agenda that may help guide such future work. Copyright © 2016

  17. Examination of Effective Dielectric Constants Derived from Non-Spherical Melting Hydrometeor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L.; Meneghini, R.

    2009-04-01

    fixed shape, size, and orientation is valid, a check is performed to see if this effective dielectric constant can be used to characterize a class of particle types (with arbitrary sizes, shapes and orientations) if the fractional ice-water contents of melting particles remain the same. Among the scattering and polarimatric parameters used for examination of effective dielectric constant in this study, are the radar backscattering, extinction and scattering coefficients, asymmetry factor, differential reflectivity factor (ZDR), phase shift and linear polarization ratio (LDR). The goal is to determine whether the effective dielectric constant approach provides a means to compute accurately the radar polarimetric scattering parameters and radiometer brightness temperature quantities from the melting layer in a relatively simple and efficient way.

  18. Examining the short-term anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of Floatation-REST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Feinstein

    Full Text Available Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy reduces sensory input to the nervous system through the act of floating supine in a pool of water saturated with Epsom salt. The float experience is calibrated so that sensory signals from visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, thermal, tactile, vestibular, gravitational and proprioceptive channels are minimized, as is most movement and speech. This open-label study aimed to examine whether Floatation-REST would attenuate symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression in a clinical sample. Fifty participants were recruited across a spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders (posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, panic, agoraphobia, and social anxiety, most (n = 46 with comorbid unipolar depression. Measures of self-reported affect were collected immediately before and after a 1-hour float session, with the primary outcome measure being the pre- to post-float change score on the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Irrespective of diagnosis, Floatation-REST substantially reduced state anxiety (estimated Cohen's d > 2. Moreover, participants reported significant reductions in stress, muscle tension, pain, depression and negative affect, accompanied by a significant improvement in mood characterized by increases in serenity, relaxation, happiness and overall well-being (p < .0001 for all variables. In reference to a group of 30 non-anxious participants, the effects were found to be more robust in the anxious sample and approaching non-anxious levels during the post-float period. Further analysis revealed that the most severely anxious participants reported the largest effects. Overall, the procedure was well-tolerated, with no major safety concerns stemming from this single session. The findings from this initial study need to be replicated in larger controlled trials, but suggest that Floatation-REST may be a promising technique for transiently reducing the suffering in those with

  19. Nationwide survey of dental radiographic examination and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Satomi, Chieko; Kawashima, Shoji; Hashimoto, Koji; Nishizawa, Kanae; Maruyama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide survey of dental X-ray examination in Japan was performed in 1999, and the effective exposure dose due to the dental X-ray examination was estimated. In Japan, most dental X-ray equipment are used at a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 10 mA. Dental film in speed group D is most frequently used for dental X ray examination. Fifty percent or more of dental clinics processed the films automatically. Seventy-five percent of dental clinics performed dental X-ray examinations in a separate X-ray room. The number of dental X-ray examinations in 1999 in Japan was estimated to be 82,301,000 for intra-oral radiography and 12,336,000 for panoramic radiography. The collective effective exposure dose in 1999 was estimated at 905.5 man·Sv, for intra-oral radiography and 128.9 man·Sv for panoramic radiography. (author)

  20. Developing the Blueprint for a General Surgery Technical Skills Certification Examination: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  2. The Examination of Sport's Effects over High School Students' Resiliency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the resiliency of high school education students and to compare it by athletic or non-athletic factors. A sample of 728 (284 girls, 444 boys) high school students who were chosen randomly among pupils studying in Gaziantep provided responses. High School Version of California Resiliency Rating Scale which was…

  3. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Hutchinson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  4. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary M

    2015-05-05

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  5. Stigmatized biologies: Examining the cumulative effects of oral health disparities for Mexican American farmworker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C

    2010-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality.

  6. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences.

  7. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences

  8. EFFECTIVE DOSES RADIATION TO THE PATIENTS IN EXAMINATIONS PERFORMED IN THREE CT SCANNERS IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Mônica Silva Costa Janson; Dos Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet Moreira Damas; Fonseca, GIuliana Vasconcelos De Souza; Lodi, Caio Silva

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to analyze the effective doses radiation, estimated from the dose-length product, in 4821 examinations carried out in three CT scanners (named as A, B and C) during the period of December 1st 2013 to 30th November 2014 and compare them, with 95% confidence interval, with typical values for the CT practice described in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report # 96 (2008). The mean values of effective doses found in the A, B and C equipments were, respectively, 1.55, 2.09 and 1.30 mSv, in head; 7.75, 9.01 and 10.45 mSv in abdomen/pelvis; and 3.87, 7.94 and 3.92 mSv in chest examinations. There were significantly different among each service, except between the A and C equipments in the chest examinations (p = 0.7148). Only the B equipment performed CT scans with effective doses above the US typical values, for head and chest examinations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessment of organ equivalent doses and effective doses from diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun

    2003-02-01

    The MIRD-type adult male, female and age 10 phantoms were constructed to evaluate organ equivalent dose and effective dose of patient due to typical diagnostic X-ray examination. These phantoms were constructed with external and internal dimensions of Korean. The X-ray energy spectra were generated with SPEC78. MCNP4B ,the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, was used. Information of chest PA , chest LAT, and abdomen AP diagnostic X-ray procedures was collected on the protocol of domestic hospitals. The results showed that patients pick up approximate 0.02 to 0.18 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.01 to 0.19 mSv from a chest LAT examination depending on the ages. From an abdomen AP examination, patients pick up 0.17 to 1.40 mSv of effective dose. Exposure time, organ depth from the entrance surface and X-ray beam field coverage considerably affect the resulting doses. Deviation among medical institutions is somewhat high, and this indicated that medical institutions should interchange their information and the need of education for medical staff. The methodology and the established system can be applied, with some expansion, to dose assessment for other medical procedures accompanying radiation exposure of patients like nuclear medicine or therapeutic radiology

  10. Effect of health-belief-model-based training on performance of women in breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Fatemeh; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Asadi, Zeynab; Shakeri, Nezhat

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women in the world. With prevention and examinations, including breast self-examination, the death rate will be reduced. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of health-belief-model-based training on the performance of women in breast self-examination in the province of Fars (Iran). An empirical study examined the effect of an eight-week training program based on the health belief model among 144 women who visited health care centers in the city of Abadeh in Fars Province (Iran) in 2015. Data gathered through researcher-made questionnaires including awareness, components of the health belief model, performance, and demographic information. IBM-SPSS software version 20, descriptive and inferential statistical tests such as T-test, chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and repeated measurements were used for data analysis. After the intervention, a significant difference was seen in average awareness, perceived susceptibility, and performance of women (phealth belief model with an increase of the perceived susceptibility could be effective in improving their performance in breast self-examination.

  11. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  12. The Population Effective Dose of Medical Computed Tomography Examinations in Taiwan for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Da-Ming; Tsai, Hui-Yu; Tyan, Yen-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Pan, Lung-Kwang; Chen, Tou-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the annual effective dose per capita attributed to computed tomography (CT) examinations in 2013 and to predict the population effective dose from 2000 to 2013 in Taiwan. A CT examination database collected from 30 hospitals was divided into 22 procedures and classified into six regions: head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, and other, respectively. The effective doses in different regions were evaluated by dose-length product (DLP) multiplied by conversion factors. The CT scan dose parameters were collected from 4,407 patients. For the six scanned regions, the percentages of patients scanned were: head (39.8%), neck (3.9%), chest (23.3%), abdomen (26.7%), pelvis (4.8%), and other (1.6%), respectively. The DLPs per patient (mGy·cm/patient) were head (1,071±225), neck (1,103±615), chest (724±509), abdomen (1,315±550), pelvis (1,231±620) and other (1,407±937), respectively. The number of CT examinations increased rapidly, with an average annual growth rate of 7.6%. The number of CT examinations in 2013 was 2.6 times that in 2000. The population effective dose was 0.30 mSv per capita in 2000 and increased to 0.74 mSv per capita in 2013, with an annual growth rate of 7.2%. The growth trend indicates that the effective dose will continue to rise in Taiwan. Some strategies should be applied to cope with this growth. Defining the CT dose reference level stipulated in official recommendations and encouraging the use of iterative reconstruction imaging instead of filtered back-projection imaging could be a useful method for optimizing the effective dose and image quality.

  13. [Determination of the effective dose for CT examinations and influence of the setup parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, F; Roth, J

    2007-01-01

    CT examinations are considered to be high dose applications in radiation diagnostics. Consequently, radiation exposure and its potential reduction are an important issue. The aim of this paper is to determine effective doses for CT examinations under clinical conditions. The effective doses were determined from organ dose measurements with an optimal amount of effort. The measured point doses in the various organs in an anthropomorphic phantom were weighted with respect to morphology and location in the radiation field and were averaged to obtain the organ doses. These doses together with the individual radiation sensitivities were able to be used to calculate the effective dose. The following examinations were taken into consideration: thorax, abdomen and skull. Only one parameter was changed for each measurement (the high voltage of the X-ray tube, the pitch, the collimation, or the automatic adjustment of the tube current to correct the individual absorption in the phantom). The effective doses for the thorax examinations were between 5 and 7 mSv, and for the abdomen between 8 and 15 mSv depending on the technique and parameters. In some of the organs the organ doses can be in excess of 25 mSv. Our results were compared to the corresponding results of two commercial computer programs for dose calculations. The calculated effective doses generally showed lower values. It is possible to determine the effective dose from 24-point dose measurements by optimizing the choice of measuring location in the phantom. The individual adaptation of parameters such as tube voltage, exposure, pitch, collimated slice thickness, and investigation volume must be taken into consideration from case to case.

  14. Examining the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Students' Self-Concept of Learning Science in Taiwan Based on the TIMSS Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student self-concept and achievement in science in Taiwan based on the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 and 2007 databases. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effects of the…

  15. Study of dosimetric quantities and image quality in pediatric examinations of chest and abdomen computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This work had the objective to achieve the knowledge of the dosimetric quantities related to chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations of pediatric patients, in Belo Horizonte city. The reason of this work is based on the fact that the probability of health detriment in children, which it may be caused by radiation, is higher than in adults. Besides, although in many countries the knowledge and control of patient doses is a normal procedure, this safety culture does not exist in Brazil. Another objective of this work was to compare the dosimetric quantity values with the Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs); when it was needed, an optimization process was applied and the quality of the diagnostic image obtained with the optimized technical parameters was analyzed. This study was carried out in five hospitals, where the weighted air kerma index (Cw), the volumetric air kerma index (Cvol), the air kerma - length product (PKL,CT), the Effective Dose (E) and the Normalized Effective Dose (En) were determined; three methods were adopted for measurements: the ionization chamber inside a chest pediatric phantom, radiochromic films and the CT-EXPO software. The optimization process was applied to a single hospital through variations in the current (mA) and voltage (kV) of the x-ray tube for the protocols used for abdomen CT examinations. The analysis of the quality of the diagnostic image was done by Normal Distribution and ROC analysis; spatial resolution analysis was used through MTF determination and the noise level was judged in terms quantitative and qualitative. Results of the dosimetric quantities showed that they significantly differed between single-slice and multi-slice tomography units, but their values were always below the recommended DRLs. The optimized values of the dosimetric quantities obtained after the optimization process showed that it was possible to reduce the radiation exposure of pediatric patient without losing the image quality

  16. Organizational justice and insomnia: a prospective cohort study examining insomnia onset and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshio; Odagiri, Yuko; Takamiya, Tomoko; Ohya, Yumiko; Inoue, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is one of the most common health problems and causes a large social burden. Psychosocial work-related factors are reported to be associated with both insomnia onset and insomnia persistence. However, the association between organizational justice (OJ) and insomnia remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of OJ on insomnia persistence, as well as insomnia onset. A prospective cohort study with a 1-year observational period was conducted. Self-reported questionnaire data from 1588 employees were analyzed. OJ was measured using the Japanese version of the OJ questionnaire, which has four components (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). Insomnia was assessed with the Athens Insomnia Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effects of OJ on insomnia. Among non-insomniac subjects at the baseline (n = 1236), low overall OJ was a risk of insomnia onset even after adjustment for lifestyle and work-related variables (adjusted odds ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.85). The procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice components were also associated with insomnia onset. Among insomniac subjects at the baseline (n = 352), low overall OJ, as well as the procedural and interpersonal justice components, was associated with insomnia persistence. Although these associations became insignificant after adjustment, the interpersonal justice component showed a marginally significant association with insomnia persistence (p = 0.058). OJ, especially interpersonal justice, was revealed as an associated factor for both insomnia onset and persistence. These findings may provide useful information for prevention of insomnia among working population.

  17. Examining the effects of parameter regionalization schemes on parameter transferability on large basin sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, Oldrich; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew; Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Wood, Andrew; Clark, Martyn P.; Samaniego, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Assessing model complexity and performing "seamless" continental-domain model simulations (e.g., model parameters yielding good performance across entire domain) is a challenging topic in contemporary hydrology. This study presents a large-sample hydrologic modeling effort to examine the effects of parameter regionalization schemes. Two hydrological models (mHM, VIC) are set up for 500 small to medium-sized unimpaired basins over the contiguous United States for two spatial scales: lumped and 12km grid. For parameter regionalization, we use the well-established Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) technique for both models, with the specific goal of assessing the transferability of model parameters across different spatial scales (lumped basin scale to distributed), time periods (from calibration to validation period), and locations. In terms of the scale transferability, evaluation of global model parameters at finer scale based on calibration at coarse scale improves the KGE performance (mainly due to the variance related term). Loss in model performance in temporal transferability is independent from model complexity (i.e., lumped vs. distributed). Finally, we show that although the parameter regionalization is crucial for parameter transferability to un-gauged locations, there still remains room for improvement especially for the mean and variability in streamflow. We present possible strategies to resolve this issue, including (1) assessing the importance of more detailed information on the soil data (STATSGO vs. SoilGrids), and (2) applying more advanced selection criteria for training MPR global parameters.

  18. Examining the asymmetrical effects of goal faultlines in groups: a categorization-elaboration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Aleksander P J; Mai, Ke Michael; Christian, Jessica Siegel

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the categorization-elaboration model (CEM) to examine the asymmetrical effects of goal faultlines in groups, which are present when hypothetical dividing lines are created on the basis of different performance goals, splitting the group into subgroups. On the basis of the CEM, we expected groups with goal faultlines to exhibit higher levels of creative task performance than (a) groups with specific, difficult goals and (b) groups with do-your-best goals. We expected the benefits of goal faultlines to be due to increases in reflective reframing, which occurs when group members build on each other's ideas by shifting to alternate frames. However, we expected groups with goal faultlines to exhibit lower levels of routine task performance than (a) groups with do-your-best goals and (b) groups with specific, difficult goals, due to increased perceptions of loafing. Results from 87 groups generally supported our hypothesized model. Implications are discussed as well as possible limitations and directions for future research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Summer Study-Abroad Program as Experiential Learning: Examining Similarities and Differences in International Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Garland, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the study-abroad experience enhances intercultural communication competence. This study used Bennett's (1986, 1993) model of ethnorelative typology of acceptance, adaptation, and integration to explore intercultural communication competency. Central to intercultural communication competency is intercultural sensitivity and…

  20. The On-Line Study of Sentence Comprehension: An Examination of Dual Task Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Hald, Lea

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents three studies which examine the susceptibility of sentence comprehension to intrusion by extra-sentential probe words in two on-line dual-task techniques commonly used to study sentence processing: the cross-modal lexical priming paradigm and the unimodal all-visual lexical priming paradigm. It provides both a general review…

  1. Examining College Students' Culture Learning before and after Summer Study Abroad in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Anzai, Shinobu; Zimmerman, Erica

    2011-01-01

    With study abroad becoming an integral part of the American higher-education curriculum, home-institution instructors face the challenge of understanding the type and content of learning taking place abroad. We report on a study conducted at a service academy on the U.S. East Coast to examine American college students' cultural learning in the…

  2. Examination of the significant placebo effect in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Philip C

    2014-08-01

    To examine the significant "placebo effect" in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome trial. Randomized clinical trials are the reference standard for therapeutic impact assessment. However, proving efficacy of treatments for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with rigorous placebo-controlled trials is difficult due to a significant effect of the placebo intervention. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous adalimumab or subcutaneous placebo every 2 weeks for 12 weeks and outcome measures were assessed. Of the 43 patients, 21 received adalimumab and 22 received placebo. Of the patients who received placebo, there was a statistically significant improvement demonstrated in the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indexes of -8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-13.2), Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index of -3.7 (95% CI, 0.9-6.5), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index of -4.4 (95% CI, 2.0-6.8), and Pelvic Pain, Urgency, Frequency scale of -6.9 (95% CI, 2.8-11.0) at week 12 compared with baseline. Most of the significantly improved placebo patients felt their improvement was because they were more conscientious about following physician advice and feeling less stress while in the study. Patients with moderate to severe interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome had significant improvement after receiving only advice and support. This intervention is risk free and inexpensive. Physicians should review standard advice with all interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients before starting medical therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing the effectiveness of media messages promoting regular breast self-examination: messages based on innovation adoption principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, H L

    1981-01-01

    As public health departments have come to rely more and more on the mass media for the promotion of healthful behavior, it has become increasingly desirable to determine the motivating capability of the messages used in this promotion. A fact that is well understood is that many times any message at all is better than none. However, the effectiveness of various media health messages has not been well researched.A study was therefore undertaken of the comparative effectiveness of two different messages describing how to do a breast self-examination. An "experimental message" for the study was designed by applying the principles that facilitate innovation adoption to the message's format and presentation. This message's impact was then compared with that of the American Cancer Society's pamphlet "How To Examine Your Breasts." This pamphlet had been mailed to a sample of women similar to those receiving the experimental message, but who lived in a different geographic area. The use in each area of control groups who had received no messages afforded an opportunity to study maturation effects (other factors than the mailings that might have influenced study results).The experimental message proved more successful in persuading women to adopt breast self-examination than the comparison message. The women who reported a change in breast self-examination practice following the mailing could be characterized as having a more extensive social support system to promote breast examinations and as having a pre-experiment perception that breast self-examination was a complex practice to perform repeatedly at regular intervals.

  4. [Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adolescents – study design of a feasibility study concerning examination related emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaite, Charlotte; Bachmann, Christian; Dewey, Marc; Weschke, Bernhard; Spors, Birgit; von Moers, Arpad; Napp, Adriane; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2013-11-01

    Numerous research centres apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for research purposes in children. In view of this practical research, ethical concerns regarding the strains the study participants are exposed to during the MRI examination are discussed. The study evaluates whether an MRI examination induces negative emotions in children and adolescents which are more intense than the ones caused by electroencephalography (EEG), an examination method currently classified as causing "minimal stress." Furthermore, the emotional stress induced by the MRI examination in children and adolescents is compared with that induced in adults. The study gathers data on examination-related emotions in children (age 8-17;11, male and female) who undergo an MRI examination of the cerebrum with a medical indication. The comparison group is a sample of children and adolescents examined with EEG (age 8-17;11, male and female) as well as a sample of adults (age 18-65, male and female) examined with MRI. At present, the study is in the stage of data collection. This article presents the study design of the MRI research project.

  5. Examining the short term effects of emotion under an Adaptation Level Theory model of tinnitus perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; O'Keeffe, Mary G; Searchfield, Grant D

    2017-03-01

    Existing evidence suggests a strong relationship between tinnitus and emotion. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short-term emotional changes along valence and arousal dimensions on tinnitus outcomes. Emotional stimuli were presented in two different modalities: auditory and visual. The authors hypothesized that (1) negative valence (unpleasant) stimuli and/or high arousal stimuli will lead to greater tinnitus loudness and annoyance than positive valence and/or low arousal stimuli, and (2) auditory emotional stimuli, which are in the same modality as the tinnitus, will exhibit a greater effect on tinnitus outcome measures than visual stimuli. Auditory and visual emotive stimuli were administered to 22 participants (12 females and 10 males) with chronic tinnitus, recruited via email invitations send out to the University of Auckland Tinnitus Research Volunteer Database. Emotional stimuli used were taken from the International Affective Digital Sounds- Version 2 (IADS-2) and the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Bradley and Lang, 2007a, 2007b). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003) was administered alongside subjective ratings of tinnitus loudness and annoyance, and psychoacoustic sensation level matches to external sounds. Males had significantly different emotional regulation scores than females. Negative valence emotional auditory stimuli led to higher tinnitus loudness ratings in males and females and higher annoyance ratings in males only; loudness matches of tinnitus remained unchanged. The visual stimuli did not have an effect on tinnitus ratings. The results are discussed relative to the Adaptation Level Theory Model of Tinnitus. The results indicate that the negative valence dimension of emotion is associated with increased tinnitus magnitude judgements and gender effects may also be present, but only when the emotional stimulus is in the auditory modality. Sounds with emotional associations may be

  6. The role of physical examinations in studies of musculoskeletal disorders of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Ann Isabel; Lassen, C. F.; Andersen, JH

    2007-01-01

    and upper extremities, were invited to a standardised physical examination. Two independent physical examinations were performed-one blinded and one not blinded to the medical history. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained by a baseline questionnaire and a similar questionnaire...... and the associations were strongest with pain intensity scores given just before the examination. Physical signs were commonly found in subjects with no pain complaints. No further impact was achieved if the physical examination was not blinded to the medical history. Furthermore, the authors propose that pain......, clinical signs and disability are studied as separate outcomes, and that the diagnoses of lateral epicondylitis should be used only for cases with classical signs of inflammation reflected by severe pain, which for example conveys some disability...

  7. Class attendance and cardiology examination performance: a study in problem-based medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamuhair SS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Samira S Bamuhair,1 Ali I Al Farhan,1,2 Alaa Althubaiti,1 Saeed ur Rahman,1,2 Hanan M Al-Kadri1,3 1College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background and aims: Information on the effect of students' class attendance on examination performance in a problem-based learning medical curriculum is limited. This study investigates the impact of different educational activities on students' academic performance in a problem-based learning curriculum. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on the cardiology block at the College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All students who undertook the cardiology block during the academic year 2011–2012 were included. The students' attendance was measured using their overall attendance percentage. This percentage is a product of their attendance of many activities throughout the block. The students' performance was assessed by the final mark obtained, which is a product of many assessment elements. Statistical correlation between students' attendance and performance was established. Results: A total of 127 students were included. The average lecture attendance rate for the medical students in this study was found to be 86%. A significant positive correlation was noted between the overall attendance and the accumulated students' block mark (r=0.52; P<0.001. Students' attendance to different education activities was correlated to their final mark. Lecture attendance was the most significant predictor (P<0.001, that is, 1.0% increase in lecture attendance has predicted a 0.27 increase in students' final block mark. Conclusion: Class attendance has a positive effect on students' academic performance with stronger effect for lecture attendance compared to

  8. Reconsidering examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Ewing, Sarah W. Feeldstein

    Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental of knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured. To this end, most empirical...... examinations of cannabis have historically consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach misses a fundamental fact about how different cannabinoids operate. Here we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects...... on a wide array of health function. In addition, we address the increase in cannabis potency throughout the past two decades and how that impacts generalizability of early data on current public health. We put forth the urgent need for future research to disaggregate examination of THC from CBD, along...

  9. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovic, M; Mansur, L L

    2002-03-01

    Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women), all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7) and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9), were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation), but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  10. Designing and examining e-waste recycling process: methodology and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; He, Xin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns on resource depletion and environmental pollution have largely obliged electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) should be tackled in an environmentally sound manner. Recycling process development is regarded as the most effective and fundamental to solve the e-waste problem. Based on global achievements related to e-waste recycling in the past 15 years, we first propose a theory to design an e-waste recycling process, including measuring e-waste recyclability and selection of recycling process. And we summarize the indicators and tools in terms of resource dimension, environmental dimension, and economic dimension, to examine the e-waste recycling process. Using the sophisticated experience and adequate information of e-waste management, spent lithium-ion batteries and waste printed circuit boards are chosen as case studies to implement and verify the proposed method. All the potential theory and obtained results in this work can contribute to future e-waste management toward best available techniques and best environmental practices.

  11. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radanovic

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE. Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women, all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7 and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9, were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation, but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  12. Radionuclide examination of motility disorders of the esophagus: a comparative study with manometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heukelem, H.A. van.

    1985-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the value of radionuclide studies for clinical diagnostics in the light of its advantages over the manometric examination by means of available casuistics. A general review of the development of the examinations for assessment of the motility of the esophagus is given and both normal and disturbed motor function are described. The details of the patient groups and the techniques used in this study are presented. The results obtained for normal subjects and patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, systemic connective tissue diseases with esophageal involvement and reflux esophagitis are reported and discussed. (Auth.)

  13. The effect of standardization on the reliability of the Philippine Board of Surgery oral examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisostomo, Armando C

    2011-01-01

    Cognizant of potential problems with validity and reliability, the Philippine Board of Surgery (PBS) undertook standardization of its oral examination procedures. This retrospective analytic study was conducted to determine and compare the reliability of the Philippine Board of Surgery oral examinations before and after standardization. The records of oral examinations from June 29, 2003 to March 28, 2010 were reviewed and measures of reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa agreement) were computed and compared between the time periods before and after standardization and among different case content modules administered. The proportion of passers between time periods and different content areas were also compared. All measures of interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa agreement) increased significantly overall and in all content areas and regardless of examinee outcome. There was also a trend to increased proportion of passers overall and significant improvement in passing rate in 4 out of 6 content areas. This study validates the role of standardization of the content and scoring in improving the reliability of the oral examination, which is crucial for high stakes certifying examinations. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p women's demographic characteristics, marital status (single vs. engaged), mothers' level of education, income, and smoking were significant in predicting depressive symptoms. Assessment of physical violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ≥25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could

  16. Peer feedback for examiner quality assurance on MRCGP International South Asia: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, D P; Andrades, Marie; Wass, Val

    2017-12-08

    The International Membership Examination (MRCGP[INT]) of the Royal College of General Practitioners UK is a unique collaboration between four South Asian countries with diverse cultures, epidemiology, clinical facilities and resources. In this setting good quality assurance is imperative to achieve acceptable standards of inter rater reliability. This study aims to explore the process of peer feedback for examiner quality assurance with regard to factors affecting the implementation and acceptance of the method. A sequential mixed methods approach was used based on focus group discussions with examiners (n = 12) and clinical examination convenors who acted as peer reviewers (n = 4). A questionnaire based on emerging themes and literature review was then completed by 20 examiners at the subsequent OSCE exam. Qualitative data were analysed using an iterative reflexive process. Quantitative data were integrated by interpretive analysis looking for convergence, complementarity or dissonance. The qualitative data helped understand the issues and informed the process of developing the questionnaire. The quantitative data allowed for further refining of issues, wider sampling of examiners and giving voice to different perspectives. Examiners stated specifically that peer feedback gave an opportunity for discussion, standardisation of judgments and improved discriminatory abilities. Interpersonal dynamics, hierarchy and perception of validity of feedback were major factors influencing acceptance of feedback. Examiners desired increased transparency, accountability and the opportunity for equal partnership within the process. The process was stressful for examiners and reviewers; however acceptance increased with increasing exposure to receiving feedback. The process could be refined to improve acceptability through scrupulous attention to training and selection of those giving feedback to improve the perceived validity of feedback and improved reviewer feedback

  17. An Examination of the Moderating Effects of the High School Socioeconomic Context on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Mark E.; Wolniak, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a nationally representative sample of high school seniors from the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002 (ELS), this study examines the influence of the high school socioeconomic context on students' decisions to attend two-and four-year postsecondary institutions. The results provide evidence of resource imbalances based on…

  18. Examining the Effects of Filler Concentration and Mold Geometry on Performance of Cylindrical Injection Molded Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing interest in using fillers in plastic products to displace petroleum components, reduce cost, and improve mechanical properties. Many studies have examined the use of materials such as clay, talc, paper, wood flour, lignin, flax, and bamboo, to name just a few. For successful utili...

  19. Parenting and Children's Distress Reactivity during Toddlerhood: An Examination of Direction of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Mirabile, Scott P.; Robison, Sarah D.; Callahan, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    During early childhood, harsh and emotionally negative parent-child exchanges are expected to increase children's risk for developing later conduct problems. The present study examined longitudinal associations between the quality of parenting responses and children's distress reactivity during children's second year of life. Forty-seven…

  20. Second Language Learning with the Story Maze Task: Examining the Training Effect of Weaving through Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The maze task is a psycholinguistic experimental procedure that measures real-time incremental sentence processing. The task has recently been tested as a language learning tool with promising results. Therefore, the present study examines the merits of a contextualized version of this task: the story maze. The findings are consistent with…

  1. Radiation dose and cancer risk from pediatric CT examinations on 64-slice CT: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Ting; Law, Martin Wai-Ming; Huang, Bingsheng; Ng, Sherry; Li, Zi-Ping; Meng, Quan-Fei; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2010-11-01

    To measure the radiation dose from CT scans in an anthropomorphic phantom using a 64-slice MDCT, and to estimate the associated cancer risk. Organ doses were measured with a 5-year-old phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Four protocols; head CT, thorax CT, abdomen CT and pelvis CT were studied. Cancer risks, in the form of lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence, were estimated by linear extrapolation using the organ radiation doses and the LAR data. The effective doses for head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis CT, were 0.7mSv, 3.5mSv, 3.0mSv, 1.3mSv respectively. The organs with the highest dose were; for head CT, salivary gland (22.33mGy); for thorax CT, breast (7.89mGy); for abdomen CT, colon (6.62mGy); for pelvis CT, bladder (4.28mGy). The corresponding LARs for boys and girls were 0.015-0.053% and 0.034-0.155% respectively. The organs with highest LARs were; for head CT, thyroid gland (0.003% for boys, 0.015% for girls); for thorax CT, lung for boys (0.014%) and breast for girls (0.069%); for abdomen CT, colon for boys (0.017%) and lung for girls (0.016%); for pelvis CT, bladder for both boys and girls (0.008%). The effective doses from these common pediatric CT examinations ranged from 0.7mSv to 3.5mSv and the associated lifetime cancer risks were found to be up to 0.16%, with some organs of higher radiosensitivity including breast, thyroid gland, colon and lungs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective and equivalent doses for CT head examinations calculated using the voxelized phantoms MASH and FASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. C.; Folly, W. S. D.; Vieira, J. W.; Maia, A. F.

    2011-09-01

    The voxelized phantoms MASH and FASH have been used for calculating conversion coefficients (CCs) for a specific CT head examination performed in a specific Toshiba CT scanner. The X-ray spectrum was selected according to the concordance between the calculated C 100,c and measured C 100,c. For 120 kV, the X-raytbc code presented the smaller deviation, equal to -7.11%. Finally, effective doses calculated for the voxelized phantoms MASH and FASH were 6.1 and 4.5, respectively, smaller than the effective dose obtained though the European guidelines on quality criteria for computed tomography.

  3. Examining mortality among formerly homeless adults enrolled in Housing First: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Byrne, Thomas; Scriber, Brynn

    2015-12-04

    Adults who experience prolonged homelessness have mortality rates 3 to 4 times that of the general population. Housing First (HF) is an evidence-based practice that effectively ends chronic homelessness, yet there has been virtually no research on premature mortality among HF enrollees. In the United States, this gap in the literature exists despite research that has suggested chronically homeless adults constitute an aging cohort, with nearly half aged 50 years old or older. This observational study examined mortality among formerly homeless adults in an HF program. We examined death rates and causes of death among HF participants and assessed the timing and predictors of death among HF participants following entry into housing. We also compared mortality rates between HF participants and (a) members of the general population and (b) individuals experiencing homelessness. We supplemented these analyses with a comparison of the causes of death and characteristics of decedents in the HF program with a sample of adults identified as homeless in the same city at the time of death through a formal review process. The majority of decedents in both groups were between the ages of 45 and 64 at their time of death; the average age at death for HF participants was 57, compared to 53 for individuals in the homeless sample. Among those in the HF group, 72% died from natural causes, compared to 49% from the homeless group. This included 21% of HF participants and 7% from the homeless group who died from cancer. Among homeless adults, 40% died from an accident, which was significantly more than the 14% of HF participants who died from an accident. HIV or other infectious diseases contributed to 13% of homeless deaths compared to only 2% of HF participants. Hypothermia contributed to 6% of homeless deaths, which was not a cause of death for HF participants. Results suggest HF participants face excess mortality in comparison to members of the general population and that mortality

  4. An examination of the effects of service brand dimensions on customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    service, feelings and self-image congruence to be the most important dimensions of a service brand which, in turn, impact significantly on consumer satisfaction. Except price, these attributes are intangible components of the service brand that can only be assessed by the customer during the use stage......The present study intends to examine how consumers evaluate service brands. Building on past literature, several causal relationships are examined between key brand dimensions and consumer satisfaction using the airline industry as an exemplary branded service category. Results reveal price, core...... of decision-making. Besides these brand components, controlled communications are also found to strongly influence customers’ overall dispositions toward the brand....

  5. Clinical study of the alveolar bone height for the dental implant using preoperative computed tomographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Keiko; Mori, Shintaro; Sekiya, Kotaro

    2008-01-01

    CT examination is useful for preoperative dental implant, and many studies of concerning clinical studies using CT images have been reported. However, there are few reports comparing alveolar bone heights among age groups of many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical studies of preoperative CT examinations for alveolar bone heights and patient ages at our department of radiology using 64 multi-detector row CT. The subjects consisted of 5174 regions in 1312 (425 males and 887 females, mean age 55.5 yrs, 16-86 yrs) cases of preoperative CT examinations, between April 2006 and December 2007. CT machine used was the Aquilion TM 64 (Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan), and the workstation used was the ZIOSTATION (ZIOSOFT, Japan). All of CT examinations were performed the position of implant placement and disease examined from CT findings. Alveolar bone heights for dental implants were examined from the CT images. For the maxilla, the alveolar bone height was the distance from the alveolar crest to the base of the nasal cavity, or the base of the maxillary sinus. For the mandible, the alveolar bone height is the distance from the alveolar crest and the upper wall of the mandibular canal, or the distance between the alveolar crest and inferior border of mandible. The numbers of the implant position were 955 site for the first molar of the mandible (the average alveolar bone height is 13.9 mm), 652 site for the second molar of the mandible (12.8 mm), and 567 site for the first molar of the maxilla (6.8 mm). In conclusion, the position where implant were to placed the most was the first molar of the mandible, and it's alveolar bone height got lower with age for women. It is over 60% of the maxillary molar area were lower 8 mm, so some kind of osteogenetic treatment was required in many cases, and hence we reassured the importance of CT. (author)

  6. EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT ON MOTIVATION VIA STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING: TURKISH ACADEMICIANS CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Saraçlı, Sinan; KESKINTURK, Timur; CİCEK, Mukades; GAZELOGLU, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies on motivation have all showed that there is a strong correlation between the organizational commitments and motivations of the workers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of organizational commitment on individual’s extrinsic and intrinsic motivation which are effective factors of job motivation. With this purpose Explanatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) used to determine the effects of three sub factors of organizational commitm...

  7. Enhancing elderly health examination effectiveness by adding physical function evaluations and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Ming; Chang, Ching-I; Yu, Wen-Ruey; Yang, Winnie; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu

    This study aimed to assess the benefit of adding physical function evaluations and interventions to routine elderly health examination. This is a Quasi-experimental controlled trial. 404 elderly adults (aged 70 and over) scoring 3-6 on the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale Chinese In-Person Interview Version (CSHA-CFS) in a 2012 annual elderly health examination were enrolled. Both the control and experimental groups received the routine annual health examination with the latter further provided with functional evaluations, exercise instruction, and nutrition education. 112 (84.8%) persons in the experiment group and 267 (98.2%) in the control group completed the study. CSHA-CFS performance of the experimental group was more likely to improve (odds ratio=9.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.62-19.56) and less likely to deteriorate (OR=0.04, 95% CI=0.01-0.31) one year after intervention. Within the experimental group, Fried Frailty Index improvement percentage surpassed the deterioration percentage (29.5% vs. 0.9%, pPhysical Performance Battery increased from 10.0±1.6 to 11.6±0.9 (pexercise and nutrition interventions to the annual elderly health examination appeared to benefit the health of adults aged 70 years and older. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An experimental study on radiological examination of obstructed small bowel with various contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kim, Sung Jin; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Jae Hyung

    1991-01-01

    For the evaluation of the level and cause of small bowel obstruction, an oral barium study is usually chosen. When perforation is whether barium or a water-soluble contrast agent should be used, because barium causes from foreign body reactions as well as adhesions in the extraluminal tissues. Water-soluble contrast agent, on the other hand, are less satisfactory but in general have no untoward effects in the extraluminal tissues. Because of hyperosomolarity, water-soluble contrast agents attract large amounts of fluid with subsequent dilution and loss of contrast and pose a risk of pulmonary edema if aspirated. The use of the newer non-ionic and low-osmolarity water-soluble contrast will likely avoid pulmonary complications due to aspiration. The author performed this experimental study to compare the radiological efficacy of different contrast media in enteric follow-through examinations of obstructed small bowel. Rate had a ligature applied to the distal ileum via laparotomy. Four contrast media were subjected to testing by instillation via oro-gastric tube immediately after laparotomy. Radiographs were exposed at 1, 4 and 8 hours and evaluated later. After 24 hours the animals were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowels, free from mesentery and omental tissue, were weighted with contrasts. The progression in the bowel was proportionate to the osmolarity of the contrast media. After 1 hour, the observations indicated sodium diatrizoate (Gastrografin, Schering) to be the least favorable medium with respect to sharpness of the mucosal border. After 8 hours, barium gave a poorer delineation compared to Ioxaglate (Hexabric, Guerbet) and Iopromide (Ultravist, Schering). Early deaths were noted in the sodium diatrizoate and ioxaglate groups. So we conclude that when using a rather high-volume bolus, low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media seem to have significant prospects for general diagnostic use in patients with suspected intestinal obstruction

  9. An Examination of the Adjustment Journey of International Students Studying in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouropoulos, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined at two Australian university campuses the types of problems that prompt international students to seek counselling services. The concerns reported by ninety students fell within three broad categories; adjustment issues, academic concerns and psychosocial problems. Follow-up interviews with a subset of these students (21) were…

  10. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  11. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  12. TOGAF version 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 Part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This document is a Study Guide for TOGAF™ 9 Foundation.It gives an overview of every learning objective for the TOGAF 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the TOGAF 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification.

  13. Examining the Heterotypic Continuity of Aggression Using Teacher Reports: Results from a National Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the heterotypic continuity of aggression hypothesis (physical to indirect) using independent teacher reports of aggression drawn from a nationally representative sample of 749 Canadian girls and boys. Confirmatory factor analysis using an accelerated longitudinal design confirmed a two-factor model of physical and indirect…

  14. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  15. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  16. Examining Elementary Teachers' Use of Online Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that examined elementary teachers' use of online learning environments for their informal professional learning in literacy instruction. Forty-five elementary teachers from a metropolitan area in Ontario, Canada, completed an online survey and participated in a semistructured interview. Survey and…

  17. A causal examination of the effects of confounding factors on multimetric indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William; Mitchell, Brian R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of multimetric indices (MMIs) as a means of providing integrative measures of ecosystem condition is becoming widespread. An increasingly recognized problem for the interpretability of MMIs is controlling for the potentially confounding influences of environmental covariates. Most common approaches to handling covariates are based on simple notions of statistical control, leaving the causal implications of covariates and their adjustment unstated. In this paper, we use graphical models to examine some of the potential impacts of environmental covariates on the observed signals between human disturbance and potential response metrics. Using simulations based on various causal networks, we show how environmental covariates can both obscure and exaggerate the effects of human disturbance on individual metrics. We then examine from a causal interpretation standpoint the common practice of adjusting ecological metrics for environmental influences using only the set of sites deemed to be in reference condition. We present and examine the performance of an alternative approach to metric adjustment that uses the whole set of sites and models both environmental and human disturbance effects simultaneously. The findings from our analyses indicate that failing to model and adjust metrics can result in a systematic bias towards those metrics in which environmental covariates function to artificially strengthen the metric–disturbance relationship resulting in MMIs that do not accurately measure impacts of human disturbance. We also find that a “whole-set modeling approach” requires fewer assumptions and is more efficient with the given information than the more commonly applied “reference-set” approach.

  18. The Effect of Instruction on Students’ Knowledge and Attitude towards Breast Self-Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Firoozeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Breast self examination (BSE is an easy and inexpensive method to screen breast cancer and unlike Mammography, BSE performing is widely possible in developing countries. The incidence rate of breast cancer is higher in developed countries but it is being increased in developing countries such as Iran as a result of lifestyle change and reproductive pattern similar to those in western countries thus affecting Iranian women at a younger age and at advanced stages.

    Due to the fact that BSE should perform monthly after the age 20, the aim of the present study was to determine instruction effect on students’ knowledge and attitude of female students upon BSE. Methods: 174 students were selected by cluster random sampling and questionnaires were completed by interview. After that an instructional program was planned for them with the model being presented through live lecture. Finally the same questionnaires were completed again after 4 months by interview. The data were then analyzed by S.P.S.S software (ver10. Results: The mean scores of students’ knowledge and attitude were significantly increased after education. (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings showed that Iranian students' knowledge of BSE is inadequate. It may be due to two causes: 1. there is no formal instructional programs about awareness of breast cancer for this age group in Iran.2. As the students are unmarried and very young, they may rarely refer to health care centers. The importance of BSE has been highlighted and it is recommended that BSE instruction be put in the students’ curriculum.

  19. Examining the Effects of Strategy-Based Instruction of Reading Passages to Iranian Undergraduate EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saber Khaghaninejad; Hossein Saadabadimotlagh; Shahnaz Kowsari

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the possible effects of strategy-based instruction of reading passages to undergraduate Iranian EFL learners. The study particularly explored the effects of using SQR3 and TPS reading strategies on learners? reading performance. To this end, 60 EFL learners were selected and participated in this study. After homogenizing the learners, they were randomly divided to three groups; two experimental and a control group. Learners in the first experimental group ...

  20. An examination of the relationships between psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Kate Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pre- and post-injury frequencies of disorders are variable, and their course, associated risk factors and relationship with psychosocial outcome are poorly understood due to methodological inconsistencies. No studies have prospectively examined the full range of Axis I psychiatric disorders using semi-structured clinical interview. Accordingly, the main aims of the current study were to (a) investigate t...

  1. A student-initiated objective structured clinical examination as a sustainable cost-effective learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Claire B.; Madrazo, Lorenzo; Khan, Usman; Thangarasa, Tharshika; McConnell, Meghan; Khamisa, Karima

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has gained widespread use as a form of performance assessment. However, opportunities for students to participate in practice OSCEs are limited by the financial, faculty and administrative investments required. Objectives: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a student-run mock OSCE (MOSCE) as a learning experience for medical students of all 4 years. Design: We conducted a five-station MOSCE for third-year students. This involved fourth-year students as examiners and first-/second-year students as standardized patients (SPs). Each examiner scored examinees using a checklist and global rating scale while providing written and verbal feedback. MOSCE stations and checklists were designed by students and reviewed by a faculty supervisor. Following the MOSCE, participants completed surveys which elucidated their perceptions on the roles they took during the MOSCE. Results: Fifty examinees participated in the MOSCE. Of these, 42 (84%) consented to participate in the study and submitted completed questionnaires. Twenty-four examiners participated in the OSCE and consented to participate in the study, with 22 (92%) submitting completed questionnaires. Fifty-three of 60 SPs (88%) agreed to take part in this study, and 51 (85%) completed questionnaires. The internal consistency of the five-station OSCE was calculated as a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.443. Students commented positively on having the opportunity to network and engage in mentorship activities and reinforce clinical concepts. Conclusions: Examinees, examiners, and SPs all perceived the MOSCE to be a beneficial learning experience. We found the MOSCE to be a feasible and acceptable means of providing additional OSCE practice to students prior to higher-stakes evaluations. PMID:29480155

  2. Repaying in Kind: Examination of the Reciprocity Effect in Faculty and Resident Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J

    Although the reciprocity hypothesis (that trainees have a tendency to modify evaluations based on the grades they receive from instructors) has been documented in other fields, very little work has examined this phenomenon in the surgical residency environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which lenient-grading faculty receive higher evaluations from surgery residents. Evaluation data from 2 consecutive academic years were collected retrospectively at a large university-based General Surgery residency program. Monthly faculty evaluations of residents (15 items) and resident evaluations of faculty (8 items; 1 = never demonstrates, 10 = always demonstrates) were included. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted with SPSS version 22 (IBM; Chicago, IL). A total of 2274 faculty assessments and 1480 resident assessments were included in this study, representing 2 years of evaluations for 32 core faculty members responsible for completing all resident evaluations and 68 PGY1-5 general surgery residents. Faculty (63% men, 13.5 ± 9.8 years out of training) represented 5 different divisions (general surgery, surgical oncology, transplant, trauma critical care, and vascular) within the general surgery department. Faculty received an average of 71.1 ± 33.9 evaluations from residents over the course of 2 years. The average rating of faculty teaching by residents was 9.5 ± 0.4. Residents received an average of 21.8 ± 0.5 evaluations with average ratings of 4.2 ± 0.4. Correlation analyses indicated a positive relationship between the average rating received from residents and the number of years since faculty completed training (r = 0.44, p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant relationship emerged between ratings received from residents and ratings given to residents (r = 0.40, p = 0.04). Regression analyses indicated that when both variables (years since training, ratings given to residents) were included in the model, only ratings

  3. Short-term side-effects of brain MR examination at 7 T: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosottini, M. [University of Pisa, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Frosini, D. [Santa Chiara Hospital, Unit of Neurology, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, L.; Tosetti, M. [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Pesaresi, I. [Santa Chiara Hospital, Unit of Neuroradiology, Pisa (Italy); Costagli, M.; Tiberi, G. [IMAGO7 Research Foundation, Pisa (Italy); Symms, M. [General Electric ASL Scientist (EMEA), Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    To study patient tolerability of brain imaging that employs an ultrahigh field (7 T) MR system We examined 180 subjects that underwent brain MR examination at 7 T. A tolerability test consisting of two parts (during patient table motion and during the examination) was administered to all subjects in order to monitor their discomfort. The scores range from 0 to 5 for the first part, and from 0 to 10 for the second part, the total score of each subject therefore ranging from 0 (no side effects reported) to 15 (lowest tolerability) A total of 51 % of subjects reported at least one side effect but all were mild in intensity and did not require examination interruption. No serious adverse event was reported. The total score (mean ± standard deviation) was 1.1 ± 1.5 out of 15 (mean score 0.4 ± 0.7 out of 5 during patient table motion and 0.7 ± 1.1 out of 10 during MR). Patient discomfort was not related to gender or health status, but it was reduced with time after system installation with increasing operator experience in performing UHF MR examinations. Ultrahigh field MRI is well tolerated without excessive discomfort to subjects. (orig.)

  4. Cardiovascular effects of 3 months of football training in overweight children examined by comprehensive echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel; Rebelo, António Natal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We examined effects of a 3-month football training programme in overweight children using comprehensive echocardiography and peripheral arterial tonometry. Twenty preadolescent overweight children (17 boys, 3 girls aged 8-12 yrs; body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85(th) percentile) participated...... in a structured 3-month football training programme, consisting of 4 weekly 60-90 min sessions with mean heart rate (HR) > 80% of HRmax (football group, FG). A parallel control group (CG) included 11 children (7 boys, 4 girls) of equivalent age from an obesity clinic. After 3 months, systolic blood pressure.......001) while other examined LV diastolic function variables were not altered. No echocardiographic changes were observed in CG. Between-group differences in pre-post delta values were observed for systolic blood pressure, TAPSE, and IVRTglobal (P = 0.02-0.03). We conclude that short-term football training may...

  5. Estimation of effective dose from limited cone beam X-ray CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Arai, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Koji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Nishizawa, Kanae

    2000-12-01

    The limited cone beam X-ray CT (Ortho-CT) was developed on the basis of multi-functional panoramic apparatus, SCANORA (Soredex Co. Helsinki Finland). The imaging intensifier (I.I.) was built in this apparatus as a X-ray detection device instead of X-ray film. The signal provided from I.I. was converted from analog into digital by an analog-digital converter and image reconstitution was done as a three-directional image of the dimensions 3.8 cm of width, 3.0 cm height and 3.8 cm depth with the personal computer. The 3DX Multi image micro CT'' (3DX) was developed along similar lines by MORITA Co., Ltd. (Kyoto, JAPAN). In this study, the stochastic effect on organ and tissue caused by examinations using Ortho-CT and 3DX was measured. The effective dose was estimated according to the recommendation of ICRP60 and was compared with those of panoramic radiography and computed tomography. The irradiation conditions were as follows: 85 kV, 10 mA with the filtration of 3 mmAl and added 1 mmCu for Ortho-CT, and 80 kV, 2 mA and the filtration of 3.1 mmAL for 3DX. The measurement of organ and tissue dose was performed using an anthropomorphic Rando woman phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories Co., Stanfora, CN), as well as by using two different type of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD); Panasonic UD-170A (BeO) and UD-110S (CaSO{sub 4}: Tm). The UD-170A was for dose measurement of the inner useful X-ray beams, while the UD-110S was for outer beams. The measured organ and tissue were those recommended with ICRP60 (gonad, breast, bone marrow, lung, thyroid gland, esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, bladder, skin, brain, thymus, adrenal, kidney, spleen, pancrease, upper large intestine, uterus, eyes and major salivary gland). The imaging by Orhto-CT was made in the left maxillary 1st molar, left mandibular 1st molar and temporomandibular joint. 3DX measurement was made in the maxillary incisor region and middle ear regions other than the regions mentioned above. The skin

  6. Effectiveness of planned teaching intervention on knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among first year midwifery students

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Hiwot; Mengistu, Daniel; Bedaso, Asres

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of cancer is growing rapidly in all parts of the word and Ethiopia is no exception. Secondary prevention, as simple as monthly breast self-examination, is the best option to tackle the rising of this epidemic. Health awareness programs on screening and early detection are the corner stones to reduce the morbidity and mortality resulting from breast cancer. Objective The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program on knowledge and pra...

  7. Ultrasonographic findings in patients examined in cataract detection-andtreatment campaigns: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Henrique Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A cataract is defined as an opacity of any portion of the lens, regardless of visual acuity. In some advanced cases of cataracts, in which good fundus visualization is not possible, an ultrasound examination provides better assessment of the posterior segment of the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ultrasonographic records of patients with advanced cataracts who were examined during cataract campaigns. METHODS: The ultrasonographic findings obtained from 215 patients examined in cataract campaigns conducted by the Hospital das Clínicas Department of Ophthalmology of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo between the years of 2005 and 2007 were evaluated, and the utility of this exam in changing the treatment procedures was studied. RESULTS: A total of 289 eyes from 215 patients were examined. Of the eyes examined, 77.5% presented with findings in the vitreous cavity and the posterior pole. A posterior vitreous detachment with no other complications was observed in 47.4% of the eyes. The remaining 30.1% presented with eye diseases that could result in a reduced visual function after surgery. The most frequent eye diseases observed were diffuse vitreous opacity (12.1% of the eyes and detachment of the retina (9.3% of the eyes. DISCUSSION: In many cases, the ultrasonographic evaluation of the posterior segment revealed significant anomalies that changed the original treatment plan or contra-indicated surgery. At the very least, the evaluation was useful for patient counseling. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic examination revealed and differentiated between eyes with cataracts and eyes with ocular abnormalities other than cataracts as the cause of poor vision, thereby indicating the importance of its use during ocular evaluation.

  8. Sample Examination Questions. Grade 9 Social Studies, Asian and African Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Social Studies Education.

    Designed for a social studies program stressing the inquiry method, this packet of sample test questions uses a thematic rather that a topical approach. The four thematic categories are geography, religion and philosophy, cultural characteristics and relationships, and socialization. Four levels of the thinking process are identified and questions…

  9. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, R; Järvinen, H; Korpela, M H; Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P; Mäkinen, A

    2011-09-01

    The collective effective doses to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) examinations in Finland in 2008 and 2009, respectively, were estimated. The estimated collective effective dose per inhabitant was 0.45 mSv from X-ray examinations and 0.03 mSv from NM examinations. The collective effective doses per inhabitant have not changed substantially during the last 10 y. However, proportional dose due to CT examinations has increased from 50 % in 2005 to 58 % in 2009 of the total collective effective dose from all X-ray examinations and proportional dose of PET examinations from 7 to 13 % of the total collective effective dose from NM examinations. The collective effective dose from conventional plain radiography was over 20 % higher when estimated using the new (ICRP 103) tissue weighting factors than that obtained using the old (ICRP 60) tissue weighting factors.

  10. Oops I Did it Again: Examining Self-Licensing Effects in a Subsequent Self-Regulation Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Sosja; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have mainly examined the immediate effects of self-licensing on self-regulation failure. The present vignette studies examined what happens when a second self-regulation dilemma is encountered. In Studies 1 (N = 52) and 2 (N = 166), participants read a vignette in which the protagonist chooses to buy a treat while being on a diet, which was preceded by a license (License condition) or not (Control condition). The self-reported likelihood of indulging again when a second dilemma was presented in the same situation served as the dependent variable. Study 2 included measures of self-regulatory ability (motivation and self-efficacy) and also presented the dilemma in a new situation. Study 1 showed that participants were more likely to indulge again after an initial indulgent choice with a license. This was replicated in Study 2, which also showed that self-licensing had no effect on goal re-engagement in a new situation. A marginally significant positive effect of self-licensing was found for self-efficacy. The results obtained suggest that self-licensing negatively affects goal re-engagement in the same situation, but not in a new situation. Whether self-licensing maintains or increases feelings of self-efficacy needs to be validated in future studies. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM): improving diagnostic accuracy with clinical examination and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Hau Choong; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Tan, Philip Huang Min; O'Connell, Helen E

    2017-07-01

    To identify the functional correlation of overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM) with cystoscopic and fluoroscopic urodynamic studies (FUDS), including urethral pressure measurements. Patients refractory to conservative therapy including bladder retraining, medications and pelvic muscle exercises for a variety of gamut of storage and voiding disorders were evaluated. Prospective data for 201 patients across both genders who underwent flexible cystoscopy and urodynamics for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refractory to conservative management between 01 Jan 2014 and 01 Jan 2016 was collected. Factors studied included history of LUTS, voiding patterns, physical examination, cystoscopic findings and functional studies, with maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP). A total of 201 were patients recruited. The 85 were diagnosed with OPFM based on clinical presentation and presence of pelvic floor tenderness on examination. Significant differences were noted on functional studies with FUDS and urethral pressure measurement. Subjects with pelvic floor tenderness were found to have a higher (MUCP) at 93.1 cm H2O compared to 80.6 cm H2O (P=0.015). There are distinct characteristics of OPFM on clinical examination and functional studies, in particular MUCP. In patients refractory to conservative treatments, specific urodynamics tests are useful in sub-categorising patients. When OPFM is diagnosed, the impact on patient management is significant, and targeted intervention with pelvic floor physiotherapy is central in the multimodal approach of this complex condition.

  12. The effects of reality television on weight bias: an examination of The Biggest Loser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Hinman, Nova G; Koball, Afton M; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Carhart, Victoria L; Baik, Kyoung D; Carels, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Weight-loss reality shows, a popular form of television programming, portray obese individuals and their struggles to lose weight. While the media is believed to reinforce obesity stereotypes and contribute to weight stigma, it is not yet known whether weight-loss reality shows have any effect on weight bias. The goal of this investigation was to examine how exposure to 40-min of The Biggest Loser impacted participants' levels of weight bias. Fifty-nine participants (majority of whom were white females) were randomly assigned to either an experimental (one episode of The Biggest Loser) or control (one episode of a nature reality show) condition. Levels of weight bias were measured by the Implicit Associations Test (IAT), the Obese Person Trait Survey (OPTS), and the Anti-fat Attitudes scale (AFA) at baseline and following the episode viewing (1 week later). Participants in The Biggest Loser condition had significantly higher levels of dislike of overweight individuals and more strongly believed that weight is controllable after the exposure. No significant condition effects were found for implicit bias or traits associated with obese persons. Exploratory analyses examining moderation of the condition effect by BMI and intention to lose weight indicated that participants who had lower BMIs and were not trying to lose weight had significantly higher levels of dislike of overweight individuals following exposure to The Biggest Loser compared to similar participants in the control condition. These results indicate that anti-fat attitudes increase after brief exposure to weight-loss reality television.

  13. Experimental examination of frequency locking effect in acousto-optic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsevich, S. N.; Balakshy, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    The optoelectronic system containing collinear acousto-optic cell fabricated on the base of calcium molybdate crystal and positive electronic feedback circuit was examined. The feedback signal is formed due to the optical heterodyning effect that occurs on the cell output and takes place in the special regime of collinear acousto-optic diffraction. It was discovered that three operation modes that may exist in this system. The boundaries between the modes were determined. The positions of the boundaries depend on the main parameters of the system—the incident light intensity and the feedback gain value. The new for acousto-optics phenomenon of acousto-optic system self-oscillations frequency locking by the RF generator signal was discovered and examined experimentally. Such an effect has never been observed before in the acousto-optic systems. It was experimentally shown that frequency locking effect may be used to select one of the multimode semiconductor laser longitudinal modes to improve laser radiation spectral composition.

  14. Development and validation of filters for the retrieval of studies of clinical examination from Medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Badgett, Robert G; Pi, Mina; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K Ann; Ketchum, Andrea M; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-10-19

    Efficiently finding clinical examination studies--studies that quantify the value of symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of disease-is becoming increasingly difficult. Filters developed to retrieve studies of diagnosis from Medline lack specificity because they also retrieve large numbers of studies on the diagnostic value of imaging and laboratory tests. The objective was to develop filters for retrieving clinical examination studies from Medline. We developed filters in a training dataset and validated them in a testing database. We created the training database by hand searching 161 journals (n = 52,636 studies). We evaluated the recall and precision of 65 candidate single-term filters in identifying studies that reported the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms or signs in the training database. To identify best combinations of these search terms, we used recursive partitioning. The best-performing filters in the training database as well as 13 previously developed filters were evaluated in a testing database (n = 431,120 studies). We also examined the impact of examining reference lists of included articles on recall. In the training database, the single-term filters with the highest recall (95%) and the highest precision (8.4%) were diagnosis[subheading] and "medical history taking"[MeSH], respectively. The multiple-term filter developed using recursive partitioning (the RP filter) had a recall of 100% and a precision of 89% in the training database. In the testing database, the Haynes-2004-Sensitive filter (recall 98%, precision 0.13%) and the RP filter (recall 89%, precision 0.52%) showed the best performance. The recall of these two filters increased to 99% and 94% respectively with review of the reference lists of the included articles. Recursive partitioning appears to be a useful method of developing search filters. The empirical search filters proposed here can assist in the retrieval of clinical examination studies from Medline; however, because of

  15. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents’ Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberger, Angela K.; Varga, Shannon M.; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents’ physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk you...

  16. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenblas, Heather Ann; Heekin, Kacey; Mutchie, Heather Lee; Anton, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Throughout the past three decades, increased scientific attention has been given to examining saffron's (Crocus sativus L.) use as a potential therapeutic or preventive agent for a number of health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and depression. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and categorize the current state of scientific evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes. Electronic and non-electronic systematic searches were conducted to identify all relevant human clinical research on saffron. The search strategy was extensive and was designed according to the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)." Reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria were searched. Only English language studies were reviewed. Saffron trials in combination with other substances and saffron safety studies were considered, in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Included studies must have a control group. Included studies must measure a physiological and/or a behavioral outcome. The methodological quality of all included studies was independently evaluated by two reviewers using the Jadad score. Mean scores and P-values of measures were compared both inter- and intra-study for each parameter (i.e., depression). Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies examined the effects of saffron on psychological/behavioral outcomes of: major depressive disorder (n=6), premenstrual syndrome (n = 1), sexual dysfunction and infertility (n=4), and weight loss/snacking behaviors (n=1). The data from these studies support the efficacy of saffron as compared to placebo in improving the following conditions: depressive symptoms (compared to anti-depressants and placebo), premenstrual symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, saffron use was also effective in reducing excessive snacking behavior. Findings from initial

  17. A STUDY OF THE REQUIRED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING PROGRAM IN PUBLIC COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS HELD BY CESPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Souza Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With a view to standardizing the contents offered to future Accounting professionals, the Federal Accounting Council (CFC elaborated the National Proposal for Undergraduate Accountancy Program Contents. Thus, the curriculum that Higher Education Institutions (HEI adopt serves as an ally for students’ professional conquests. Stability and favorable job conditions attract many people to the dispute for a public function, with a growing Braz ilian public competitive examination market. According to the National Association for Protection and Support to Public Competitive Examinations (Anpac, between 2003 and 2009, the number of public servants in the executive power with a higher education degree in Brazil increased by 26%. The aim of this study was to confront the CFC’s suggested knowledge with the contents required during tests applied in public competitive examinations for Accountancy professionals. The intent is to identify what Public Accounting knowledge is demanded from candidates for the public career. Through a documentary research, 561 calls from public competitive examinations exclusively for Accountancy professionals were selected for the study sample. They were classified according to the proposed program contents, the test questions by the Center for Selection and Event Promotion (Cespe, between 2000 and 2009. In conclusion, the most frequent required Public Accounting areas are contents related to Public Equity and Budget. The results demonstrate that the CFC’s suggested content is in line with the knowledge required from candidates for public functions.

  18. Solving the issues in studying the soil cover at the institutions for plant varieties examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Ткаченко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Considering ways to solve issues related to soil cover study at the institutions for plant varieties examination. Methods.Fieldandanalytical ones. Results. Issues are identified that arise during soil sampling at institutions for plant varieties examination within the state system of plant varieties protection. The author considered in detail the current soil sampling techniques for agrochemical tes­ting for humus, nitrogen (compounds to be easily hydrolyzed, mobile P2O5, exchangeable K2O, hydrolytic acidity and others. Attention was paid to violation of methodological requirements concerning the time of soil sampling and number of samples for agrochemical testing at the experimental field, to the lack of devices for meteorological observation and appliances for soil and leaf diagnostics. The article also touches upon the issues associated with the study of soil cover at fields with scientifically-based crop rotation that belong to institutions for plant varieties examination within the state system of plant varieties protection. Conclusions. It should be necessary to follow recommended practice when sampling at elementary sites for agrochemical testing and performing all operations in accordance with crop cultivation flowcharts. General recommendations for agrochemical testing of fields in case of conventional crop rotations in farms are not suitable for fields with scientifically-based crop rotations at institutions for plant varieties examination.

  19. Examination of the "CSI Effect" on Perceptions of Scientific and Testimonial Evidence in a Hong Kong Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2017-05-01

    Television is a powerful medium through which to convey information and messages to the public. The recent proliferation of forensic science and criminal justice information throughout all forms of media, coupled with raised expectations toward forensic evidence, has led some to suspect that a "CSI effect" ( Crime Scene Investigation effect) is taking place. The present study contributes to the literature addressing the CSI effect in two ways. First, it examines whether the CSI effect exists in the Chinese population of Hong Kong. Second, using a mock-jury paradigm, it empirically examines a more integrative perspective of the CSI effect. It was found that, although the amount of media coverage involving forensic evidence does influence participants' perception of legal evidence to some degree, such a perception does not affect participants' legal decision making. Viewers of forensic dramas were not more likely to convict the defendant when forensic evidence was presented and not less likely to convict when only testimonial evidence was presented. The only significant predictor of the defendant's culpability when scientific evidence was presented was participants' ratings of the reliability of scientific evidence. Results from the present study lend no support to the existence of the CSI effect in Hong Kong.

  20. Examining the possible influence of societal violence on governance effectiveness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possible influence of violent protests on the effectiveness of governance in South Africa. South Africa continues to experience huge number of labour as well as popular municipal service delivery protests. The popular social view with ensuing protests has often pointed at governance inefficiency as the cause of violent protests. This paper adopts a slightly different view in its analysis of violent protests and instead looks at possible influence of violence as possible instigator of ineffective governance. The paper is conceptually rooted in reviews – combined with simple regression test of possible relationship between violent protest and governance effectiveness. The authors also present an examination of probable relationship between violent protests and governance effectiveness using observation of macro-economic data trends from the World Bank. The findings reveal a probable weakening in governance effectiveness or its perception thereof as a result of violent protests. Amongst others, violent protests produces a psyche of perpetual victimhood that leads to further violence resulting in less value attached to lives, destruction of economic property, increases pollution, production stoppages for goods and services and in turn depletes government revenue generation and frustrates international investors. We postulate that under condition explained above, government effectiveness in managing public resources becomes weakened and may lead to wastage and inefficiency as the resources and revenues employed in controlling violent protests are unplanned and do not often lead to constructive and sustainable public policy. We suggest that this condition therefore may result in reduction in economic growth which in turn perpetuates the same weaknesses that led to society protests and violence.

  1. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  2. Examining the Relationship between Congruency of Perceived Principal Leadership Style and Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwuanyanwu-Biemkpa, Catherine Chinedum

    2017-01-01

    Despite the constant interest in the theory and practice of leadership as it relates to leadership styles and leadership effectiveness, ongoing debate continues regarding the importance of leadership style and its effectiveness in the administration of underperforming schools. The problem addressed by this study was, despite frequent changes of…

  3. The examination of Na-Ca effect on some qualitative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salt stress (NaCl) on shoot height (cm), root length (cm), dry and fresh weight (g), chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll (mg-1) and carotenoid amount was investigated in this study. In addition, the positive effects of Ca+2 (20 mM) were also investigated. Triticum durum Desf. Mirzabey, Kunduru-1149, and DH-6 ...

  4. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  5. An Examination of the Effect of Boundary Layer Ingestion on Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Huyn Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    A Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system differs from other propulsion systems by the use of electrical power to transmit power from the turbine to the fan. Electrical power can be efficiently transmitted over longer distances and with complex topologies. Also the use of power inverters allows the generator and motors speeds to be independent of one another. This decoupling allows the aircraft designer to place the core engines and the fans in locations most advantageous for each. The result can be very different installation environments for the different devices. Thus the installation effects on this system can be quite different than conventional turbofans where the fan and core both see the same installed environments. This paper examines a propulsion system consisting of two superconducting generators, each driven by a turboshaft engine located so that their inlets ingest freestream air, superconducting electrical transmission lines, and an array of superconducting motor driven fan positioned across the upper/rear fuselage area of a hybrid wing body aircraft in a continuous nacelle that ingests all of the upper fuselage boundary layer. The effect of ingesting the boundary layer on the design of the system with a range of design pressure ratios is examined. Also the impact of ingesting the boundary layer on off-design performance is examined. The results show that when examining different design fan pressure ratios it is important to recalculate of the boundary layer mass-average Pt and MN up the height for each inlet height during convergence of the design point for each fan design pressure ratio examined. Correct estimation of off-design performance is dependent on the height of the column of air measured from the aircraft surface immediately prior to any external diffusion that will flow through the fan propulsors. The mass-averaged Pt and MN calculated for this column of air determine the Pt and MN seen by the propulsor inlet. Since the height

  6. Latino Alzheimer's disease caregivers and depression: using the stress coping model to examine the effects of spirituality and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Hodge, David R

    2014-04-01

    This study used stress coping theory to examine the effects of spirituality and religion on depression among a sample of Latino family members caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the United States. Participants consisted of 209 Latino caregivers (CGs) drawn from baseline data from the Resource for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH) II clinical trial. The findings indicate that church attendance moderates the relationship between subjective forms of stress and depression in tandem with exhibiting direct effects on depression. Consistent with the central role religion plays in Latino culture, the results imply that religious involvement may play an important role in mitigating depression through indirect and direct pathways.

  7. Deformations of fuel elements under irradiation (Examination of the 2000 C set, investigation of the Cottrell effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, P.; Allain, C.

    1959-04-01

    The authors report visual and radiographic examinations of cartridges of the 2000 C solution C in order to study the influence of the combustion rate on deformations of these cartridges which spent about a year in an atomic pile. The deformation measurements are interpreted in terms of creep phenomena (Cottrell effect), of surface condition, and buckling. The authors discuss the validity of mechanical tests, the distinction between creep and flow, the deformation of fuel assemblies, the validity of thermal cycle tests, the effects of alloy compositions

  8. Friends with Benefits: Causes and Effects of Learners’ Cheating Practices During Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Andrew B. Diego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheating during examinations is triggered by peer influence. It makes every learner know and do what should not be done. Cheating during examinations defeats the purpose of understanding, applying and creating ideas as stipulated in the revised Bloom’s taxonomy by Anderson. The study reported here was designed to delve into the reasons and aspirations of the respondents in their cheating engagement. Sixteen (16 key informants, selected using random sampling procedure among Junior and Senior High School learners of Roxas National Comprehensive High School in Palawan during the months of June to October 2016, completed open-ended questionnaires and took part in the interview. Nvivo software was used in the analysis of the themes that emerged from the data. This study discovered that friendship is manipulated, for it makes doing right things unacceptable and things to be avoided like cheating seem right and acceptable. The behavior about cheating during examination is deeply rooted in the culture of pakikisama (social acceptance/liking and utang ng loob (debt of gratitude. If a learner does not share his or her answers, he or she will be labeled as walang pakisama (no concern.This paper then argues that honesty should not be just a policy; rather, honesty in this case, is the only policy. Condemning academic dishonesty must not merely rest in the enrollment forms, but by constant moral reminder and intervention of teachers who have a responsibility to hone learners’ decorum on honesty and maturity.

  9. Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei Matthew J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.

  10. Upper gastrointestinal examinations: a radiographic study of clinically normal Beagle puppies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 24 upper gastrointestinal examinations were performed on four weanling beagle puppies over six weeks, using liquid barium (10 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension] and barium food (8 g/kg of crushed kibble dog food and 7 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension) as contrast media. The radiographic appearance was similar to that noted in adult dogs except for the consistent location of the pylorus on or near the midline. Duodenal pseudoulcers were seen more often with liquid barium and the caecal shadows were identified more often with the longer examination time with barium food. The stomach of the puppies appeared to have discriminatory emptying function; that is, semi-solid food was emptied from the stomach at a slower rate (210 to 450 minutes) than liquid (60 to 90 minutes). Solid meals emptied faster in puppies than in adult dogs. Dosages of 13 to 15 mg/kg body weight for the liquid barium examination and 14 g of ground kibble and 16 ml of barium sulphate suspension per m2 of body surface area for the barium food examination are suggested as more appropriate for contrast studies in puppies

  11. The application of teleophthalmology in examining patients with glaucoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulonen, A; Ohinmaa, T; Alanko, H I; Hyytinen, P; Juutinen, A; Toppinen, E

    1999-12-01

    To test the feasibility of teleophthalmology applications in examining patients with glaucoma, test its use for training purposes in an ophthalmology residency program and as a consultation link between primary healthcare unit and university eye clinic, and to introduce a preliminary model for economic assessment of telemedicine application in ophthalmology. A video slit-lamp, an automated perimeter, a nonmydriatic fundus camera and a videoconferencing system were installed in a healthcare center in a rural area. Twenty-nine patients with glaucoma were examined in the rural healthcare center instead of the university eye clinic. A control group consisted of 41 glaucoma patients examined at the eye clinic one year earlier. An ophthalmic resident examined the patients together with the local general practitioner. An interactive video consultation was created with the university glaucoma clinic using ISDN connections and special application software. Both patient groups were equally satisfied with the ophthalmic service. Nearly all patients in the telemedicine group (96%) wanted to have their next visit in their own healthcare center instead of the university clinic. The most important reasons were reduction in traveling (97%), costs (92%), and time (92%). The costs of the telemedicine and conventional visits were equal, but decreased traveling saved $55 per visit. However, the quality of the images obtained in the remote center was poorer than that of the images obtained at the university clinic. The results of this pilot study indicate that further research with a larger number of patients is warranted to evaluate both methods, technology, and economics of teleophthalmology.

  12. Dysphagia in Lewy body dementia - a clinical observational study of swallowing function by videofluoroscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londos, Elisabet; Hanxsson, Oskar; Alm Hirsch, Ingrid; Janneskog, Anna; Bülow, Margareta; Palmqvist, Sebastian

    2013-10-07

    Dysphagia, which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death, is a well-known problem in patients with dementia and Parkinson's disease. There are few studies on dysphagia in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), especially studies objectively documenting the type of swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prevalence, and define the actual swallowing dysfunction according to a videofluoroscopic swallowing examination (VFSE) in patients with DLB and PDD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with DLB or PDD in a clinical follow-up program were asked about symptoms of dysphagia. Those experiencing dysphagia were examined with VFSE. Prevalence and type of swallowing dysfunction was recorded. Twenty-six patients (32%) reported symptoms of dysphagia such as swallowing difficulties or coughing. Twenty-four (92%) of these had a documented swallowing dysfunction on VFSE. Eighty-eight percent suffered from pharyngeal dysfunction. Almost all DLB or PDD patients with subjective signs of dysphagia had pathologic results on VFSE, the majority of pharyngeal type. This type of dysphagia has not been reported in DLB before. The results have clinical implications and highlight the importance of asking for and examining swallowing function to prevent complications such as aspiration.

  13. Improving the quality of radiological examinations: effectiveness of an internal participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede, Francisco Manuel Batista; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To assess the quality of radiological examinations (REs) and to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory continuous improvement approach to ensure best practices in a Portuguese hospital imaging department. At baseline, we found 232 (10.2%) non-compliances, mostly related to the criteria image centering and framing in chest radiography (CXR), proper use of radiological protection equipment in other conventional RE (CR) and X-ray beam collimation (CXR/CR). A baseline and three consecutive evaluations of the RE quality were conducted. Each assessment was followed by participatory focused interventions for improvement. For each evaluation, we selected a random sample (n = 60) of cases for four types of examination (total n = 240 for each assessment, and 960 for the whole project). Both the building of quality criteria and the design of interventions for improvement were participatory, involving the radiology technicians. Estimates of criteria compliance were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of absolute and relative improvements was tested using one-tail z-tests. After the intervention, non-compliances decreased to 48 (2.1%). Compliance estimates improved in 25 of 38 criteria assessed, with statistical significance for 5 criteria in CXR and 3 in CR and digestive examination. The internal participatory approach enabled the identification of existing quality problems and, by focusing on the more frequent quality defects, was effective in improving the quality of RE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  15. Does message framing affect changes in behavioural intentions in people with psoriasis? A randomized exploratory study examining health risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyworth, C; Nelson, P A; Bundy, C; Pye, S R; Griffiths, C E M; Cordingley, L

    2018-01-30

    Message framing is important in health communication research to encourage behaviour change. Psoriasis, a long-term inflammatory skin condition, has additional comorbidities including high levels of anxiety and cardiovascular disease (CVD), making message framing particularly important. This experimental study aimed to: (1) identify whether health messages about psoriasis presented as either gain- or loss-framed were more effective for prompting changes in behavioural intentions (BI), (2) examine whether BI were driven by a desire to improve psoriasis or reduce CVD risk; (3) examine emotional reactions to message frame; and (4) examine predictors of BI. A two by two experiment examined the effects on BI of message frame (loss vs. gain) and message focus (psoriasis symptom reduction vs. CVD risk reduction). Participants with psoriasis (n = 217) were randomly allocated to one of four evidence-based health messages related to either smoking, alcohol, diet or physical activity, using an online questionnaire. BI was the primary outcome. Analysis of variance tests and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. A significant frame by focus interaction was found for BI to reduce alcohol intake (p = .023); loss-framed messages were more effective for CVD risk reduction information, whilst gain-framed messages were more effective for psoriasis symptom reduction information. Message framing effects were not found for BI for increased physical activity and improving diet. High CVD risk was a significant predictor  of increased BI for both alcohol reduction (β = .290, p framing may be an important factor to consider depending on the health benefit emphasised (disease symptom reduction or CVD risk reduction) and patient-stated priorities. Condition-specific health messages in psoriasis populations may increase the likelihood of message effectiveness for alcohol reduction.

  16. Music Therapists' Self-Care: Examining the Effectiveness of Educational Preparation for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearns, Maureen C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of undergraduate academic and clinical training programs for music therapy in addressing the subject of personal growth, as it relates to the development of critical self-awareness and self-care strategies. The study further attempted to identify which self-care strategies are being used…

  17. Examining Rater Effects of the TGMD-2 on Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeok; Park, Ilhyeok; Kang, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children's performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity…

  18. Social media in advertising campaigns: examining the effects on perceived persuasive intent, campaign and brand responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Noort, G.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing popularity of advertising on social media, and especially on social network sites (SNSs), the aim of this study is to give insight into the effectiveness of SNS advertising. The first experimental study compares consumer responses to advertising on SNSs and television (TV)

  19. Learning the Brain in Introductory Psychology: Examining the Generation Effect for Mnemonics and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether there is a generation effect for learner-created keyword mnemonics and real-life examples, compared to instructor-provided materials, when learning neurophysiological terms and definitions in introductory psychology. Students participated in an individual (Study 1) or small-group (Study 2)…

  20. Can we screen for pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination in epidemiologic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew D; Neubauer, Nikki L; Klein-Olarte, Victoria

    2006-10-01

    Large population-based epidemiologic studies of pelvic organ prolapse are rare. One barrier is the need for physical examination in order to confirm disease status. The objectives of this study were to develop a simple screening question for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to evaluate its test characteristics in high and low prevalence populations. Data from 100 women enrolled in the validation study of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) were used to identify the question or questions that most accurately identified women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse. After identifying an accurate and reliable screening question from this original group, its test characteristics were evaluated prospectively in 2 additional distinct populations: a group of 120 women presenting to a tertiary care urogynecology clinic (High prior probability of POP) and 448 women presenting to a nurse practitioner for annual gynecologic examination (Low prior probability of POP). Subjects in these 2 groups each completed the screening question and underwent a POPQ examination by a blinded examiner. A single question was identified from the original study population that most accurately and reliably identified those women with POP "Do you usually have a bulge or something falling out that you can see or feel in your vaginal area?" An affirmative answer to this question was 96% sensitive (95%CI 92-100) and 79% specific (95%CI 77-92) for prolapse beyond the hymen. The 1-week test-retest reliability was good (kappa .84). The prevalence of POP in this group was 29%. No other single question or group of questions had better test characteristics. When prospectively evaluated in the second High probability population (prevalence 39%), similar test characteristics were noted: sensitivity 85% (95%CI 71-93), specificity 86% (95%CI 75-92). However, when evaluated in the Low prior probability group (POP prevalence 3.8%) the specificity improved to 99% (95%CI 98-99), while the sensitivity decreased

  1. Estimates of effective dose in adult CT examinations using toshiba and Siemens 16 slice scanner in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Suhair Ahmed Al Amin

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate effective dose (E) in adult CT examinations for toshiba and Siemens 16 slice using CT. Exp version 2.5 software. using of CT in medical diagnosis delivers effective dose (E) to patients which are relatively high in comparison with those of other diagnostic radiology procedures. In order to achieve these objectives, data of CT scanner has been collected from two hospitals (RUH and YH). Data collected included equipment information and scan parameters for individual patients, who were used to assess dose. 252 adult patients underwent head, sinus, abdomen, pelvis and CTU CT examinations. The CTDI w , CTDI v ol, DLP, patient effective dose and organ doses were evaluated, using CT exposure parameters and CT Exp version 2.5 software. A large variation of mean effective dose and organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning manufacture and protocols used in different hospitals and scan length. The mean effective dose in this study in the brain, PNS, abdomen, pelvis, and CTU were 3.02 mSv, 0.97 mSv, 5.58 mSv, 3.36 mSv and 15.88 mSv respectively, and organ equivalent doses presented in this study for the eye lens (for head), lungs and thymus, liver, kidney and small intestine (for abdomen), bladder, uterus and gonads (for pelvis), were 62.9 mSv, 39.5 mSv, 34.1 mSv, 35.4 mSv, 53.9 mSv, 52.6 mSv, 58.1 mSv, 37 mSv, and 34.6 mSv, respectively. These values were more mostly comparable to and slightly higher than the values of effective doses reported from similar studies the United Kingdom, Western Australia, Iran and Sudan. It was concluded that patient effective dose and organ doses could be substantially minimized through careful selection of scanning parameters based on clinical indications of study, patient size, and body region being examined. Additional dose reduction to superficial organs would require the use of shielding materials. (Author)

  2. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. A STUDY TO ANALYZE VARIOUS FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO STRESS IN FIRST YEAR MBBS STUDENTS DURING EXAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Gajalakshmi; U, Kavitha; B, Anandarajan; M, Chandrasekar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Exam stress is a set of responses that includes excessive worry, depression, nervousness and irrelevant thinking to a class of stimuli from an individual’s experience of assessment and outcome. The rationale of this study is to assess the examination related stress among the first year MBBS students by measuring BMI (body mass index) and VAS (Visual  analogue scale) as to determine the factors contributing to exam stress among first year medical students. Methods: The study w...

  4. Provocative food study (Dreyfuss test): An adjunct to the upper gastrointestinal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Hall, D.A.; Wittenberg, J.; Silverman, S.B.; Saini, S.; Cardenosa, G.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms and previously normal barium studies were examined with a provocative food and barium study to assess the functional component of their complaints. Food was given in such nature, quantity, and timing as the clinical history indicated would provoke the exact symptoms or pain that the patient perceived. A position study most often disclosed distension of a previously normal segment of bowel or a hold up of the food in an area of the esophagus or stomach that was associated with recrudescence of the patient's symptoms. Twenty-one of 52 patients (40%) had undergone previous surgery; most often in the esophagus [13 of 52(25%)] or stomach [eight of 52(15%)]. Twelve of 52 patients (23%) had positive studies. Of these, seven (13%) were treated with surgical reconstruction or resection of the abnormal area. The provocative food study, when yielding either positive or negative results, has proved useful

  5. Relationships between study habits, burnout, and general surgery resident performance on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Matthew R; Thrush, Carol R; McDaniel, Faith K; Gill, Roop; Kimbrough, Mary K; Shames, Brian D; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Galante, Joseph M; Wittgen, Catherine M; Ansari, Parswa; Allen, Steven R; Nussbaum, Michael S; Hess, Donald T; Knight, David C; Bentley, Frederick R

    2017-09-01

    The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) is used by programs to evaluate the knowledge and readiness of trainees to sit for the general surgery qualifying examination. It is often used as a tool for resident promotion and may be used by fellowship programs to evaluate candidates. Burnout has been associated with job performance and satisfaction; however, its presence and effects on surgical trainees' performance are not well studied. We sought to understand factors including burnout and study habits that may contribute to performance on the ABSITE examination. Anonymous electronic surveys were distributed to all residents at 10 surgical residency programs (n = 326). Questions included demographics as well as study habits, career interests, residency characteristics, and burnout scores using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, which assesses burnout because of both exhaustion and disengagement. These surveys were then linked to the individual's 2016 ABSITE and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and 2 scores provided by the programs to determine factors associated with successful ABSITE performance. In total, 48% (n = 157) of the residents completed the survey. Of those completing the survey, 48 (31%) scored in the highest ABSITE quartile (≥75th percentile) and 109 (69%) scored less than the 75th percentile. In univariate analyses, those in the highest ABSITE quartile had significantly higher USMLE step 1 and step 2 scores (P burnout scores (disengagement, P Burnout Inventory exhaustion (P = 0.02), and USMLE step 1 and 2 scores (P = 0.007 and 0.0001, respectively). Residents who perform higher on the ABSITE have a regular study schedule throughout the year, report less burnout because of exhaustion, study away from home, and have shown success in prior standardized tests. Further study is needed to determine the effects of burnout on clinical duties, career advancement, and satisfaction. Copyright © 2017

  6. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF LIVER LESIONS IN AUTOPSY EXAMINATION- A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Konjengbam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Liver is the main site of various primary and secondary diseases including variety of external agents. Most of the chronic liver diseases remained asymptomatic even in the late stage. In apparently healthy persons, many liver lesions are detected incidentally following a postmortem examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done for a period of 5 years in a tertiary hospital to evaluate the histopathological profile of liver specimen in autopsy examination. Haematoxylin and Eosin sections of liver specimen were studied. A total of 352 samples were evaluated with male predominates the female sex in the ratio of 5.2:1. RESULTS The most common lesion was fatty liver (19% followed by cirrhosis (11.8%, venous congestion (11.5%, portal triaditis (10.9%, chronic hepatitis (6.2%, granulomatous hepatitis (2.1%, autolysis (16% and others (0.96%. Liver finding was normal in 14% of the cases. CONCLUSION Silent liver diseases are a quite regular finding in autopsy cases and thereby may implicate a common occurrence in general population. Autopsy examination of liver is a must for detection of silent liver diseases like fatty change, cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.

  7. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators ( was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors. -tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population.

  8. Examination of the aerosol indirect effect under contrasting environments during the ACE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM has been adopted to examine the aerosol indirect effect in contrasting clean and polluted cloudy boundary layers during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2. Model results are in good agreement with available in-situ observations, which provides confidence in the results of ATHAM. Sensitivity tests have been conducted to examine the response of the cloud fraction (CF, cloud liquid water path (LWP, and cloud optical depth (COD to changes in aerosols in the clean and polluted cases. It is shown for two cases that CF and LWP would decrease or remain nearly constant with an increase in aerosols, a result which shows that the second aerosol indirect effect is positive or negligibly small in these cases. Further investigation indicates that the background meteorological conditions play a critical role in the response of CF and LWP to aerosols. When large-scale subsidence is weak as in the clean case, the dry overlying air above the cloud is more efficiently entrained into the cloud, and in so doing, removes cloud water more efficiently, and results in lower CF and LWP when aerosol burden increases. However, when the large-scale subsidence is strong as in the polluted case, the growth of the cloud top is suppressed and the entrainment drying makes no significant difference when aerosol burden increases. Therefore, the CF and LWP remain nearly constant. In both the clean and polluted cases, the COD tends to increase with aerosols, and the total aerosol indirect effect (AIE is negative even when the CF and LWP decrease with an increase in aerosols. Therefore, the first AIE dominates the response of the cloud to aerosols.

  9. Orthographic Reading Deficits in Dyslexic Japanese Children: Examining the Transposed-Letter Effect in the Color-Word Stroop Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shino; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Isomura, Tomoko; Masataka, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    In orthographic reading, the transposed-letter effect (TLE) is the perception of a transposed-letter position word such as "cholocate" as the correct word "chocolate." Although previous studies on dyslexic children using alphabetic languages have reported such orthographic reading deficits, the extent of orthographic reading impairment in dyslexic Japanese children has remained unknown. This study examined the TLE in dyslexic Japanese children using the color-word Stroop paradigm comprising congruent and incongruent Japanese hiragana words with correct and transposed-letter positions. We found that typically developed children exhibited Stroop effects in Japanese hiragana words with both correct and transposed-letter positions, thus indicating the presence of TLE. In contrast, dyslexic children indicated Stroop effects in correct letter positions in Japanese words but not in transposed, which indicated an absence of the TLE. These results suggest that dyslexic Japanese children, similar to dyslexic children using alphabetic languages, may also have a problem with orthographic reading.

  10. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    the specific skill or factor targeted by the examination. Further study on the effect of resource inclusion on other examinations is warranted. ABIM Foundation.

  11. The effect of web advertising visual design on online purchase intention: An examination across gender

    OpenAIRE

    Shaouf, A; Lu, K; Li, X

    2016-01-01

    With web advertising growing to be a huge industry, it is important to understand the effectiveness of web advertisement. In this study we investigate the effects of web advertising visual design (WAVD) purchasing intention within the framework of an integrated model. Nine hypotheses were developed and tested on a dataset of 316 observations collected via a questionnaire survey. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicate that while web advertising visual cues influence consume...

  12. Rape and Mental Health Outcomes Among Women: Examining the Moderating Effects of "Healthy" Fear Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Ryan; Wright, Emily M; Peterson, Johanna C

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the mediating and moderating impact of fear of victimization on the relationships between forcible and vicarious rape on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among college women. Forcible and vicarious rape positively affected PTSD and depression symptomology, but fear did not mediate these relationships. Fear moderated the impact of forcible rape on PTSD, but was not a moderator for depression. Findings suggest that there may be "healthy" levels of fear in the aftermath of victimization where having too little fear may leave women unnecessarily vulnerable to victimization, while having too much fear may lead to social isolation and withdrawal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Feasibility Study for Electronic Fitness for Duty Medical Examination Reporting and Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the institutional and high-level technology aspects associated with potential mandated : electronic reporting of every commercial driver license (CDL) driver fitness-for-duty medical examination : performed by a medical examiner ...

  14. Examining communication- and media-based recreational sedentary behaviors among Canadian youth: results from the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Harvey, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of different communication- and media-based sedentary behaviors and examine how they are associated with modifiable risk behaviors and key demographic correlates among a large sample of youth. Data from 23,031 grade 9 to grade 12 students in Year 1 (2012-2013) of the COMPASS study (Canada) were used to examine the prevalence of sedentary behaviors by gender and by grade. The between-school variance in sedentary behaviors was calculated and models were developed to examine how modifiable risk factors and demographic correlates were associated with sedentary behaviors. Youth averaged 494 (± 313) min/day of sedentary behavior and 96.7% of the sample exceeded the sedentary behavior guidelines of no more than 2h per day. Significant between-school random variation in the sedentary behaviors was identified. Substance use, weight status, ethnicity, and gender were the main predictors of the sedentary behaviors examined. The vast majority of youth in the COMPASS sample are considered highly sedentary. The evidence clearly suggests we need to develop more effective methods of intervening, that school-based programming is warranted, and that gender-specific programming may be required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cheating in Examinations: A Study of Academic Dishonesty in a Malaysian College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Asmawati Shariffuddin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical studies indicate that cheating by post-secondary students is prevalent in many countries. This study attempts to explore academic dishonesty among students at Terengganu Advanced Technical Institute University College (TATiUC in Malaysia. Cheating techniques, preventive measures and the support required by lecturers to handle cheating incidents were examined. Six former students who were confirmed cheaters and two lecturers and administrators at TATiUC participated in the study. Data were collected by using narrative responses and interviews. The results showed that creative and innovative techniques were used to cheat successfully. It was also found that participants believed that even if preventive measures were taken, it was not possible to stop academic cheating entirely although it could be deterred to a certain extent. Furthermore, it was discovered that there were variations in the implementation of examination rules and regulations by lecturers. Finally, the study revealed that support in terms of training and courses was needed to deal with academic dishonesty.

  16. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  17. Experimental examination of the effects of televised motor vehicle commercials on risk-positive attitudes, emotions and risky driving inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Roseborough, James E W; Wiesenthal, David L; Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Nuzzo, Valentina; Fischer, Peter; Mann, Robert E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of risky driving motor vehicle television commercials on risk-positive attitudes, emotions and risky driving inclinations in video-simulated critical road traffic situations among males and females, within an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three televised commercial advertising conditions embedded in a television show: a risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition, a non-risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition and a control non-motor vehicle commercial condition. Participants subsequently completed the Implicit Attitude Test (IAT) to measure risk-positive attitudes, Driver Thrill Seeking Scale (DTSS) to measure risk-positive emotions and the Vienna Risk-Taking Test - Traffic (WRBTV) to measure risky driving inclinations. ANOVA analyses indicated that type of commercial participants watched did not affect their performance on the IAT, DTSS or WRBTV. However, a main effect of heightened risk-positive emotions and risky driving inclinations was found for males. Despite public and governmental concern that risky driving motor vehicle commercials may increase the likelihood that people exposed to these commercials engage in risky driving, this experimental study found no immediate effect of brief exposure to a risky driving motor vehicle commercial on risk-positive attitudes, emotions or risky driving inclinations. Subsequent research should examine the effects of cumulative exposure to risky driving motor vehicle television commercials and print advertisements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  19. Evaluation of the effective dose of cone beam CT and multislice CT for temporomandibular joint examinations at optimized exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadesjö, N; Benchimol, D; Falahat, B; Näsström, K; Shi, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effective dose to patients from temporomandibular joint examinations using a dental CBCT device and a multislice CT (MSCT) device, both before and after dose optimization. A Promax(®) 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) dental CBCT and a LightSpeed VCT(®) (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK) multislice CT were used. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated from thermoluminescent dosemeters at 61 positions inside an anthropomorphic phantom at the exposure settings in clinical use. Optimized exposure protocols were obtained through an optimization study using a dry skull phantom, where four observers rated image quality taken at different exposure levels. The optimal exposure level was obtained when all included criteria were rated as acceptable or better by all observers. The effective dose from a bilateral examination was 184 µSv for Promax 3D and 113 µSv for LightSpeed VCT before optimization. Post optimization, the bilateral effective dose was 92 µSv for Promax 3D and 124 µSv for LightSpeed VCT. At optimized exposure levels, the effective dose from CBCT was comparable to MSCT.

  20. Effects of ultrasound implementation on physical examination learning and teaching during the first year of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vi Am; Frederick, Jon; Bartos, Rebekah; Shankel, Tamara M; Werner, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Increasing emphasis has been placed on point-of-care ultrasound in medical school. The overall effects of ultrasound curriculum implementation on the traditional physical examination skills of medical students are still unknown. We studied the effects on the Objective Standardized Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores of year 1 medical students before and after ultrasound curriculum implementation. An ultrasound curriculum was incorporated into the physical diagnosis course for year 1 medical students in the 2012-2013 academic year. We performed a prospective observational study comparing traditional OSCE scores of year 1 medical students exposed to the ultrasound curriculum (post-ultrasound) versus historic year 1 medical student controls (pre-ultrasound) with no ultrasound exposure. Questionnaire data were also obtained from year 1 medical students and physical diagnosis faculty to assess attitudes toward ultrasound implementation. The final overall OSCE scores were graded with a 5-point Likert-type scale from unsatisfactory to outstanding. There was a significant increase in outstanding scores in the post-ultrasound compared to the pre-ultrasound group (27.0% versus 10.9%; Pphysical diagnosis faculty questionnaire data showed an overall positive response, with most agreeing or strongly agreeing that ultrasound should be included in the future year 1 medical student curriculum. Ultrasound implementation into a physical diagnosis curriculum for year 1 medical students is feasible and may improve their overall traditional physical examination skills. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Examining empirical evidence of the effect of superfluidity on the fusion barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamps, Guillaume

    2018-04-01

    Background: Recent time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) calculations predict that superfluidity enhances fluctuations of the fusion barrier. This effect is not fully understood and not yet experimentally revealed. Purpose: The goal of this study is to empirically investigate the effect of superfluidity on the distribution width of the fusion barrier. Method: Two new methods are proposed in the present study. First, the local regression method is introduced and used to determine the barrier distribution. The second method, which requires only the calculation of an integral of the cross section, is developed to determine accurately the fluctuations of the barrier. This integral method, showing the best performance, is systematically applied to 115 fusion reactions. Results: Fluctuations of the barrier for open-shell systems are, on average, larger than those for magic or semimagic nuclei. This is due to the deformation and the superfluidity. To disentangle these two effects, a comparison is made between the experimental width and the width estimated from a model that takes into account the tunneling, the deformation, and the vibration effect. This study reveals that superfluidity enhances the fusion barrier width. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the predicted effect of superfluidity on the width of the barrier is real and is of the order of 1 MeV.

  2. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  3. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehrani Fahimeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  4. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Shiva, Niloofar

    2011-11-15

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI) was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI). In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  5. Social media in advertising campaigns: examining the effects on perceived persuasive intent, campaign and brand responses

    OpenAIRE

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Noort, G.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing popularity of advertising on social media, and especially on social network sites (SNSs), the aim of this study is to give insight into the effectiveness of SNS advertising. The first experimental study compares consumer responses to advertising on SNSs and television (TV) and demonstrates that while TV campaigns are evaluated more positively, SNS campaigns result in more favourable cognitive responses. Moreover, the persuasive intent of SNS campaigns is less recogn...

  6. A Retrospective Examination of the Effect of Diabetes on Sensory Processing in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine retrospectively the impact of diabetes mellitus on auditory, visual, and tactile processing in older adults. Fourteen (10.4%) of a sample of 135 older adults self-reported the presence of diabetes mellitus in a study of sensory and cognitive processing across the adult lifespan. In this study, the performance of the subgroup with diabetes on a number of psychophysical sensory-processing measures was compared with that of the 121 older adults without diabetes. Measures of sensory processing focused on temporal processing and threshold sensitivity in each of 3 sensory modalities: hearing, vision, and touch. The subgroup of older adults with diabetes differed significantly (p processing deficits in older adults with a positive history of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65% male; 70% African American; 15% Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school.

  8. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents’ Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Shannon M.; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents’ physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65% male; 70% African American; 15% Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school. PMID:25416227

  9. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emigh, Brent; Gordon, Christopher L.; Falkiner, Michelle; Thomas, Karen E.; Connolly, Bairbre L.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for updated radiation dose estimates in pediatric fluoroscopy given the routine use of new dose-saving technologies and increased radiation safety awareness in pediatric imaging. To estimate effective doses for standardized pediatric upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examinations at our institute using direct dose measurement, as well as provide dose-area product (DAP) to effective dose conversion factors to be used for the estimation of UGI effective doses for boys and girls up to 10 years of age at other centers. Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed within four anthropomorphic phantoms representing children ≤10 years of age and exposed to mock UGI examinations using exposures much greater than used clinically to minimize measurement error. Measured effective dose was calculated using ICRP 103 weights and scaled to our institution's standardized clinical UGI (3.6-min fluoroscopy, four spot exposures and four examination beam projections) as determined from patient logs. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations and related to fluoroscope-displayed DAP. Measured effective doses for standardized pediatric UGI examinations in our institute ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 mSv in girls and were 3-8% lower for boys. Simulation-derived and measured effective doses were in agreement (percentage differences 0.18). DAP-to-effective dose conversion factors ranged from 6.5 x 10 -4 mSv per Gy-cm 2 to 4.3 x 10 -3 mSv per Gy-cm 2 for girls and were similarly lower for boys. Using modern fluoroscopy equipment, the effective dose associated with the UGI examination in children ≤10 years at our institute is < 1 mSv. Estimations of effective dose associated with pediatric UGI examinations can be made for children up to the age of 10 using the DAP-normalized conversion factors provided in this study. These estimates can be further refined to reflect individual hospital examination protocols through the use of direct organ

  10. Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…

  11. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  12. Overcoming Obstacles and Academic Hope: An Examination of Factors Promoting Effective Academic Success Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michele Joann; Trujillo, Daniel J.; Boland, Donna L.; MacKinnon, Joyce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the underlying non-cognitive processes and institutional factors that allowed first-year students to enact effective strategies for attaining academic success and persisting despite obstacles. The varying levels of academic preparation and unique obstacles faced by the student participants…

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Rater and Ratee Effects in Performance Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Robert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the consistency and loci of leniency, halo, and range restriction effects in performance ratings in a longitudinal study. Policy supervisors (N=90) rated 350 subordinates on five occasions. Concluded that reliable variance in mean ratings is partly attributable to ratees, but mainly introduced by raters. (JAC)

  14. Basic heart examination: feasibility study of first-trimester systematic simplified fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarello, E; Lafouge, A; Fries, N; Salomon, L J

    2017-02-01

    First-trimester fetal cardiac screening examinations in low-risk populations should not have to meet the specifications required for high-risk populations. Our aim was to evaluate a simplified fetal echocardiographic ('basic heart') examination for early detection of severe congenital heart defects in a low-risk population. This was a first-trimester national 'flash study', performed over a 2-week period. Each observer was requested to perform simplified echocardiography without modifying the time and methods deemed necessary for the routine first-trimester ultrasound examination, in fetuses with crown-rump length between 45 and 84 mm. This basic heart assessment used targeted cross-sections of the four-chamber view (4CV) and of the three vessels and trachea (3VT) view, using color and/or directional power Doppler. All examinations were then reviewed offline and scored for quality by a qualified expert. Sixty observers performed a total of 597 first-trimester ultrasound examinations, each performing an average of 10 (range, 1-26) procedures. Examinations were conducted transabdominally (79%; 472/597), transvaginally (3%; 17/597) or both (18%; 108/597). In 8% (45/597) of cases, the fetal back was anterior, in 18% (108/597) it was on the left side, in 63% (377/597) it was posterior and in 11% (67/597) it was on the right side. It became clear during scoring by the expert that, unlike the Herman quality score for nuchal translucency measurement, it was difficult to assess the quality of these images without taking into account normality of the heart itself. Analysis of scores showed that the 4CV was obtained successfully and was deemed normal in 86% (512/597) of the patients, in 7% (41/597) it was deemed technically infeasible and in 7% (44/597) it was deemed feasible but atypical, which may have been due to the presence of an abnormality or to poor quality of the image. The 3VT view was obtained successfully and was normal in 79% (472/597) of the patients, in 13

  15. FORMAL ORAL INDONESIAN REGISTER USED IN OPEN EXAMINATION A SYNTHATICAL-PRAGMATIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sartini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the formal oral Indonesian register ‘Bahasa Indonesia ragam lisan formal’ (hereinafter referred to as BIRLF used in open examinations from syntactical-pragmatic perspective. In general, this study aims at analyzing the grammatical-pragmatic elements of the formal oral register used in open examinations; in particular, it aims at analyzing the forms of speech acts and the forms of politeness used in the open examinations held at the University of Airlangga ‘Universitas Airlangga’ (Unair and the State University of Surabaya ‘Universitas Negeri Surabaya’ (Unesa. The theories used were the structural theory and the theory of pragmatics. The structural theory was used to analyze the grammatical structures of the sentences used in the dialogues taking place in the open examinations. The theory of pragmatics used in this study refers to the theory of politeness proposed by Lakoff (1972, Leech (1983, Brown and Levinson (1987, and the theory of speech act developed by Austin (1962 and Searle (1975. The data analysis showed that, based on the direction of extension in which the verb was the center, and the extending components, eleven types of imperative sentences were found. The extension took place to the left, to the right and to the left and to the right from the verb simultaneously. The extending components included words, phrases, clauses and combinations of phrases and clauses. The interrogative sentences used were both the close interrogative sentences and the open interrogative ones. The declarative sentences used were the complex coordinative and subordinative ones. Deletion, pronominalization,, and repetition characterized the two types of sentences. To identify politeness, the layers of the components constructing the sentences were analyzed. The imperative politeness was expressed grammatically and lexically. Grammatically, the grammatical politeness was shown by passivizing the verb, shifting moods, and

  16. Examination of the common cause account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternäng, Ola; Jonsson, Bert; Wahlin, Ake; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2010-01-01

    The common cause account suggests that there is a third factor causing aging effects in both sensory and cognitive functioning, hypothesized to be the integrity of the central nervous system [Lindenberger and Baltes; Psychol Aging 1994;9:339-355]. Importantly, the common cause account was developed based on cross-sectional data, which are especially biased by cohort effects. However, cohort effects can be controlled for in narrow age cohort (NAC) designs and by longitudinal examination. Findings from the few longitudinal studies that have studied the relation between age-related changes in sensory and cognitive functions are complex and give only partial support to the common cause account. The present paper examines the common cause account within a longitudinal setting. Our study is unique in the sense that it tests the common cause account within a longitudinal NAC design using data from the Betula project. The participants (n = 1,057) were in the age range of 45-90 years. The findings indicate that the relationship between sensory and memory functioning in both a longitudinal age-heterogeneous and a longitudinal NAC design are much weaker than that detected by an age-heterogeneous cross-sectional design. The demonstrated weak age-associated sensory-cognitive link raises questions regarding the explanatory value of the common cause account and related theoretical accounts for accounting for age-related cognitive changes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Study of dosimetric quantities applied to patient undergoing routine chest examinations by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Natalia Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The radiological protection system has established a standard to protect persons against the harmful effects caused by ionizing radiation that is based on the justification, optimization and dose limitation principles. The increasing use of radiation in medicine and the related risks have stressed the discussion on patient radiation protection. The computed tomography (CT) is the diagnostic radiology technique that most contributes to patient doses and it requires optimization efforts. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) has been established in many countries in terms of CT dosimetric quantities; in Brazil, the DRLs are still under investigation since the culture of patient protection is not very strong yet. The objective of this work was to investigate the dosimetric and protection quantities related to patients undergoing CT routine chest examinations. The ImPACT CT, CT Expo and ImpactDose softwares were used for calculations of the weight and volumetric air-kerma indexes (CW and CVOL), the air kerma - length product (P K,L ), organ equivalent dose (H T ) and the effective dose (E) for CT routine chest protocols in 19 tomographs in Belo Horizonte city. The CT Expo was selected to be validated against experimental measurements in three hospitals with thermoluminescent dosimeters and CT pencil ionization chamber in anthropomorphic and standard CT body phantoms. Experimental and calculated results indicated differences up to 97% for H T and E and acceptable agreement for C W ,C VOL and P K,L . All data from 19 tomographs showed that local DRLs for CT routine chest examinations may be chosen smaller than DRLs adopted in other countries; this would contribute to increase the radiological protection of patients. (author)

  18. Facial affect recognition and exit examination performance in medical students: a prospective exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Tessa C; Niehaus, Dana J H; Leppänen, Jukka M; Ras, Johan; Cloete, Karen J; Jordaan, Esmè; Koen, Liezl

    2014-11-28

    Facial affect recognition (FAR) abilities underpin emotional intelligence (EI). The latter is suggested to predict academic success and to be important for clinician-patient interaction. It is therefore of interest to investigate the possible association between FAR and academic performance in undergraduate medical students. We assessed the association between the ability to recognize emotions through facial expression and exit examination performance, a measure of clinical proficiency, in undergraduate medical students stratified by gender at a South African tertiary institution using a prospective descriptive design. Data on the perception of facial expressions and exit examination marks were obtained from 144 (61%) females and 93 (39%) males with a mean age of 24.1 ± 1.6 years. Facial affect recognition measures on the Hexagon and Animation tasks were individually correlated with academic performance indicators using Pearson correlation. The perceptual discrimination of anger was associated with improved performance in anaesthetics (r = .24; p = .004) and urology (r = .24; p = .001), while the recognition of happiness was associated with decreased performance in obstetrics (r = -.21, p = .002). Gender was an effect modifier in the relationship between perceptual discrimination of anger and urology performance (p = .03), with a strong positive relationship for males, but a non-significant relationship for females. There was no overall correlation between FAR and overall academic performance or with gender. However, subject (specialty) specific findings with recognition of specific emotions and with gender as effect modifier poses interesting questions about EI and FAR and prompts further research into FAR as a useful tool. Being an objective test and offering a more focused assessment makes FAR worthy of further application.

  19. Microwaves effectively examine the extent and type of coking over acid zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Slocombe, D R; Wang, J; Aldawsari, A; Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Arden, J; Kuznetsov, V L; AlMegren, H; AlKinany, M; Xiao, T; Edwards, P P

    2017-09-11

    Coking leads to the deactivation of solid acid catalyst. This phenomenon is a ubiquitous problem in the modern petrochemical and energy transformation industries. Here, we show a method based on microwave cavity perturbation analysis for an effective examination of both the amount and the chemical composition of cokes formed over acid zeolite catalysts. The employed microwave cavity can rapidly and non-intrusively measure the catalytically coked zeolites with sample full body penetration. The overall coke amount is reflected by the obtained dielectric loss (ε″) value, where different coke compositions lead to dramatically different absorption efficiencies (ε″/cokes' wt%). The deeper-dehydrogenated coke compounds (e.g., polyaromatics) lead to an apparently higher ε″/wt% value thus can be effectively separated from lightly coked compounds. The measurement is based on the nature of coke formation during catalytic reactions, from saturated status (e.g., aliphatic) to graphitized status (e.g., polyaromatics), with more delocalized electrons obtained for enhanced Maxwell-Wagner polarization.Catalyst deactivation by coke deposition is a major drawback in industrial processes. Here, the authors show a non-intrusive microwave cavity perturbation technique as a powerful tool to determine the nature and extent of coke accumulation in industrially-relevant zeolite catalysts.

  20. In vivo examination of the anticoagulant effect of the Brassica oleracea methanol extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rafeeq Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticoagulant effect of the methanol extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (MEB was examined in rabbits. The animals were divided into five groups, each comprising seven animals. Three groups were administered increasing doses of MEB (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg, respectively; one group received warfarin (0.54 mg/kg; animals in the control group received saline (1 ml/day equivalent to the volume of doses applied to the treated and standard animals. Biochemical tests were performed on the 16th and 31st days of dosing. Animals that were administered MEB (500 mg MEB/kg 30 days displayed increases of 24.07 s, 28.79 s and 4.08 s in activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT, fibrinogen (Fg and thrombin time (TT. Compared to the control, the increase in aPTT and Fg was highly significant and the increase in TT was significant. The anticoagulant effect exhibited by MEB in rabbits may be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation.

  1. Examining the effects of emotional and cognitive desensitization to community violence exposure in male adolescents of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; So, Suzanna; Bai, Grace J; Tolan, Patrick H

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined pathways in a model of desensitization, the Pathologic Adaptation Model, in adolescent males of color. Specifically, the current study examined depressive symptoms and deviant beliefs as mediators of the association between community violence exposure and subsequent violent behavior. The current study included 250 African-American (67%) and Latino (33%) male adolescents (T1 mean age = 15.32) from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Consistent with the Pathologic Adaptation Model, results demonstrated that depressive symptoms mediated the association between the quadratic violence exposure term in middle adolescence and violent behaviors in late adolescence, but the direction of the mediation effect was dependent upon the levels of violence exposure in middle adolescence. However, deviant beliefs were not found to be a significant mediator. Emotional desensitization effects may increase the likelihood of violence perpetration in adolescent males exposed to community violence, and the implications for future research and intervention efforts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Examining Effect of Gender Factor on Learning Mathematical Concepts via Instructional Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Fatemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia electronic instructional environments are widely recognized to hold great potential for improving the way that students learn. In these instructional environments, learners are exposed to material in verbal and pictorial forms. Then in present era, instruction in particular teaching mathematics can use for students. In this study, it is used of Geo Gebra software and its effects are studied for students and in particular among the performances of girl and boys. The effects of this software are studied on 54 girl and students. The results of Leven and T-tests are indicated that the use of software and electronic context has positive efficiency on learning mathematical concepts for students. In addition, it is proved that the use of software and electronic context in mathematics education has positive efficiency for boy students rather girl students. Therefore it seems that electronic contents or software can be as tutor for these students and help them in mathematics education.

  3. Psoriasis and wound healing outcomes: A retrospective cohort study examining wound complications and antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paulina M; Parsi, Kory K; Schupp, Clayton W; Armstrong, April W

    2017-11-15

    Little is known about wound healing in psoriasis. We performed a cohort study examining differences in wound healing complications between patients with and without psoriasis. Psoriasis patients with traumatic wounds were matched 1:3 to non-psoriasis patients with traumatic wounds based on age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). We examined theincidence of wound complications including infection, necrosis, and hematoma as well as incident antibiotic use within three months following diagnosis of a traumatic wound. The study included 164 patients with traumatic wounds, comprised of 41 patients with psoriasis matched to 123 patients without psoriasis. No statistically significant differences were detected in the incidence of overall wound complications between wound patients with psoriasis and wound patients without psoriasis (14.6% versus. 13.0%, HR 1.18, CI 0.39-3.56). After adjustment for diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and smoking, no statistically significant differences were detected in the incidence of overall wound complications between patients with and without psoriasis (HR 1.11, CI 0.34-3.58). Specifically, the adjusted rates of antibiotic use were not significantly different between those with and without psoriasis (HR 0.65, CI 0.29-1.46). The incidence of wound complications following traumatic wounds of the skin was found to be similar between patients with and without psoriasis.

  4. Evaluation of radiation dose in pediatric head CT examination: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhasrina Nik Din, Nik; Zainon, Rafidah; Rahman, Ahmad Taufek Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose in pediatric head Computed Tomography examination. It was reported that decreasing tube voltage in CT examination can reduce the dose to patients significantly. A head phantom was scanned with dual-energy CT at 80 kV and 120 kV. The tube current was set using automatic exposure control mode and manual setting. The pitch was adjusted to 1.4, 1.45 and 1.5 while the slice thickness was set at 5 mm. The dose was measured based on CT Dose Index (CTDI). Results from this study have shown that the image noise increases substantially with low tube voltage. The average dose was 2.60 mGy at CT imaging parameters of 80 kV and 10 - 30 mAs. The dose increases up to 17.19 mGy when the CT tube voltage increases to 120 kV. With the reduction of tube voltage from 120 kV to 80 kV, the radiation dose can be reduced by 12.1% to 15.1% without degradation of contrast-to-noise ratio.

  5. Examining competing hypotheses for the effects of diagrams on recall for text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegren, Francesca R; Serra, Michael J; England, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Supplementing text-based learning materials with diagrams typically increases students' free recall and cued recall of the presented information. In the present experiments, we examined competing hypotheses for why this occurs. More specifically, although diagrams are visual, they also serve to repeat information from the text they accompany. Both visual presentation and repetition are known to aid students' recall of information. To examine to what extent diagrams aid recall because they are visual or repetitive (or both), we had college students in two experiments (n = 320) read a science text about how lightning storms develop before completing free-recall and cued-recall tests over the presented information. Between groups, we manipulated the format and repetition of target pieces of information in the study materials using a 2 (visual presentation of target information: diagrams present vs. diagrams absent) × 2 (repetition of target information: present vs. absent) between-participants factorial design. Repetition increased both the free recall and cued recall of target information, and this occurred regardless of whether that repetition was in the form of text or a diagram. In contrast, the visual presentation of information never aided free recall. Furthermore, visual presentation alone did not significantly aid cued recall when participants studied the materials once before the test (Experiment 1) but did when they studied the materials twice (Experiment 2). Taken together, the results of the present experiments demonstrate the important role of repetition (i.e., that diagrams repeat information from the text) over the visual nature of diagrams in producing the benefits of diagrams for recall.

  6. The Effects of Evolution Education: Examining Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Evolution in College Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Short

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined changes in university students' attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution measured by the previously validated Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS in response to curricular content. Specifically, student responses on the survey were compared across an evolutionary psychology course, an introductory biology course with significant evolutionary content, and a political science course with no evolutionary content. To this end, 868 students were assessed at a large Midwestern U.S. university prior to and following completion of one of the three courses. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted to examine latent mean differences in self-reported Evolution Knowledge/Relevance, Creationist Reasoning, Evolutionary Misconceptions, and Exposure to Evolution. A significant and notable increase in Knowledge/Relevance, as well as decreases in Creationist Reasoning and Evolutionary Misconceptions, was observed for the evolutionary psychology course, whereas the biology course demonstrated no change in Knowledge/Relevance and a significant increase in Evolutionary Misconceptions. The implications of these findings for evolution education are discussed.

  7. The effects of evolution education: examining attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution in college courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Stephen D; Hawley, Patricia H

    2015-01-20

    The present study examined changes in university students' attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution measured by the previously validated Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS) in response to curricular content. Specifically, student responses on the survey were compared across an evolutionary psychology course, an introductory biology course with significant evolutionary content, and a political science course with no evolutionary content. To this end, 868 students were assessed at a large Midwestern U.S. university prior to and following completion of one of the three courses. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine latent mean differences in self-reported Evolution Knowledge/Relevance, Creationist Reasoning, Evolutionary Misconceptions, and Exposure to Evolution. A significant and notable increase in Knowledge/Relevance, as well as decreases in Creationist Reasoning and Evolutionary Misconceptions, was observed for the evolutionary psychology course, whereas the biology course demonstrated no change in Knowledge/Relevance and a significant increase in Evolutionary Misconceptions. The implications of these findings for evolution education are discussed.

  8. Effects of age and glucose levels on lactate levels in cerebrospinal fluid examination of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Fumihito; Sakushima, Ken; Umeki, Reona; Yabe, Ichiro; Endoh, Akira; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2017-07-15

    Despite recent studies examining the association between neurodegenerative diseases and mitochondrial dysfunction, there are not sufficient data on factors that influence cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate levels. Thus, we investigated factors that affect CSF lactate levels in neurodegenerative diseases. We extracted laboratory findings, including CSF lactate, glucose, and protein levels, and demographic and background information, including age and gender, from the electronic medical records of patients with neurodegenerative diseases in order to explore factors that have an impact CSF lactate levels. These patients had been admitted to our department and underwent a CSF examination between April 2007 and March 2015. Data from 83 patients (average age 64.5years; 45 males and 38 females) were analyzed. The patients' diagnoses included amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy, spinocerebellar degeneration, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. CSF lactate levels were higher in patients with a neurodegenerative disease who were aged 65years and older relative to those who were aged under 65years (pglucose levels showed a moderate positive correlation (r=0.487). Age and CSF glucose levels influenced CSF lactate levels even after adjusting for gender, age, CSF protein levels, and CSF glucose levels. When investigating CSF lactate levels in neurodegenerative diseases, it is necessary to consider patients' age and CSF glucose levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from radiological examinations in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontar, Dejan; Zdesar, Urban; Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Pekarovic, Dean; Skrk, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate population exposure from diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures in Slovenia. Methods The study was conducted in scope of the “Dose Datamed 2” project. A standard methodology based on 20 selected radiological procedures was adopted. Frequencies of the procedures were determined via questionnaires that were sent to all providers of radiological procedures while data about patient exposure per procedure were collected from existing databases. Collective effective dose to the population and effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data (DLP for CT, MGD for mammography and DAP for other procedures) using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from radiological in 2011 was estimated to 1300 manSv and an effective dose per capita to 0.6 mSv of which approximately 2/3 are due to CT procedures. Conclusions The first systematic study of population exposure to ionising radiation from radiological procedures in Slovenia was performed. The results show that the exposure in Slovenia is under the European average. It confirmed large contributions of computed tomography and interventional procedures, identifying them as the areas that deserve special attention when it comes to justification and optimisation. PMID:25810709

  10. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from radiological examinations in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontar, Dejan; Zdesar, Urban; Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Pekarovic, Dean; Skrk, Damijan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate population exposure from diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures in Slovenia. The study was conducted in scope of the "Dose Datamed 2" project. A standard methodology based on 20 selected radiological procedures was adopted. Frequencies of the procedures were determined via questionnaires that were sent to all providers of radiological procedures while data about patient exposure per procedure were collected from existing databases. Collective effective dose to the population and effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data (DLP for CT, MGD for mammography and DAP for other procedures) using dose conversion factors. The total collective effective dose to the population from radiological in 2011 was estimated to 1300 manSv and an effective dose per capita to 0.6 mSv of which approximately 2/3 are due to CT procedures. The first systematic study of population exposure to ionising radiation from radiological procedures in Slovenia was performed. The results show that the exposure in Slovenia is under the European average. It confirmed large contributions of computed tomography and interventional procedures, identifying them as the areas that deserve special attention when it comes to justification and optimisation.

  11. An empirical examination of consumer effects across twenty degrees of latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, James T; Dafforn, Katherine A; Bishop, Melanie J; Johnston, Emma L

    2017-09-01

    The strength and importance of consumer effects are predicted to increase toward low latitudes, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested using a spatially consistent methodology. In a consumer-exclusion experiment spanning twenty degrees of latitude along the east Australian coast, the magnitude of consumer effects on sub-tidal sessile assemblage composition was not greater at low than high latitudes. Across caged and control assemblages, Shannon's diversity, Pielou's evenness, and richness of functional groups decreased with increasing latitude, but the magnitude of consumer effects on these metrics did not display consistent latitudinal gradients. Instead, latitudinal gradients in consumer effects were apparent for individual functional groups. Solitary ascidians displayed the pattern consistent with predictions of greater direct effects of predators at low than high latitude. As consumers reduced the biomass of this and other competitive dominants, groups less prone to predation (e.g., hydroids, various groups of bryozoans) were able to take advantage of freed space in the presence of consumers and show increased abundances there. This large-scale empirical study demonstrates the complexity of species interactions, and the failure of assemblage-level metrics to adequately capture consumer effects over large spatial gradients. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Estimation of effective dose in patients from barite examinations of the digestive system in Malaga (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Martinez Morillo, M.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.; Ruiz del Pino, M.F.; Lopez Hidalgo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present dose reference values of patients in complex explorations. A plane ionization camera was used to obtain the values of the dose-area product (Gy/Square cm). By means of the method described in the NRPB R-262 report, the effective dose values have been determined for each projection used (mSV). The product values of the dose-area and effective dose have been obtained for oesophagogrammes; for oesophago-gastro-duodenal studies; for intestinal transitions; for enteroclisis and for opaque enemas

  13. Do undergraduate student research participants read psychological research consent forms? Examining memory effects, condition effects, and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Tidwell, Judy; Lostutter, Ty

    2011-01-01

    While research has examined factors influencing understanding of informed consent in biomedical and forensic research, less is known about participants’ attention to details in consent documents in psychological survey research. The present study used a randomized experimental design and found the majority of participants were unable to recall information from the consent form in both in-person and online formats. Participants were also relatively poor at recognizing important aspects of the ...

  14. TOGAF 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This title is a Study Guide for Togaf® 9 Foundation. It gives an overview of every learning objective for the Togaf 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the Togaf 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification. This Study Guide is excellent material for: * Individuals who require a basic understanding of Togaf 9; * Professionals who are working in roles associated with an architecture project such as those responsible for planning, execution, development, delivery, and operation; * Architects who are looking for a first introduction to Togaf 9; * Architects who want to achieve Level 2 certification in a stepwise manner and have not previously qualified as Togaf 8 Certified. A prior knowledge of enterprise architecture is advantageous but not required.

  15. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Steel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1 as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2. The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  16. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Svartdal, Frode; Thundiyil, Tomas; Brothen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set ( N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People's pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  17. A Meta-Study of Qualitative Research Examining Sport and Recreation Experiences of Indigenous Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Deal, Colin J; Blye, Clara-Jane; Dimler, Ariel J; Halpenny, Elizabeth A; Sivak, Allison; Holt, Nicholas L

    2018-02-01

    Participation in sport and recreation may contribute to various holistic benefits among Indigenous youth in Canada. However, there is a need for a consolidated evidence base to support the development of sport and recreation opportunities that could facilitate such holistic benefits. The purpose of this research was to produce a meta-study of qualitative research examining sport and recreation experiences of Indigenous youth in Canada. Following record identification and screening, 20 articles were retained for analysis and synthesis. Strengths and weaknesses of included studies were identified through the meta-method and meta-theory analysis. The meta-data analysis revealed five themes that represent the sport and recreation experiences of Indigenous youth. Working collaboratively with community members, our final meta-synthesis situated these five themes within the integrated Indigenous ecological model. This review consolidates the qualitative evidence base, and provides direction for future research and practice.

  18. Examining effective factors on human forces' productivity in bureau of naval operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at examining effective factors on improvement of human forces' productivity and determining degree of influence and importance of each group among factors including workshop equipment and arrangement in organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and at last, administrating meritocracy system on improvement of human forces' productivity. Statistical population is composed of bureau of naval operations' employees in oil terminals' company in Khark, Iran. Statistical population has been 230, among which 135 people were determined as statistical sample size using Cochran formula. Survey instrument in this research has been questionnaire, according to which employees' ideas about effective factors on employees' productivity were evaluated. These questionnaires completed by people among statistical sample contain 16 close questions which were set up according to Likert 5-grade scale and were distributed as 135 numbers that after returning questionnaire, statistical analysis and data processing were accomplished. Analysis was performed in 2 descriptive and inferential statistics levels. Results of data analysis show that: A 5-fold factors under review “workshop equipment and arrangement of organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy related to human resources by management” have had effects on improvement of employees' productivity as average. B degree of employees training and then occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy system have had the most influence, and workshop equipment and arrangement of organization and system of control and supervision on employees have had the least influence.

  19. Hypofractionated regional nodal irradiation for breast cancer: examining the data and potential for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiyan, Shahed N; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Douglas; Khan, Atif J; Freedman, Gary; Poppe, Matthew M; Vicini, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available examining the role of hypofractionated radiation schedules in the management of women requiring regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The purpose of this review is to examine the available literature for the efficacy (where available) and toxicity of hypofractionated radiation schedules in breast cancer with RNI limited to the axilla and supraclavicular regions. Multiple randomized and prospective studies have documented the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated schedules delivering whole breast irradiation (WBI) alone. Subsets from these randomized trials and smaller prospective/single-institution studies have documented the feasibility of hypofractionated RNI but the limited numbers prevent definitive conclusions and limited efficacy data are available. With regard to possible toxicity affecting organs at risk with RNI, key structures include the breast, skin, heart, lungs, axilla (lymphedema), and brachial plexus. Based on data from several randomized trials, hypofractionated radiation is not associated with significant changes in breast toxicity/cosmesis or cardiac toxicity; the addition of hypofractionated RNI would not be expected to change the rates of breast or cardiac toxicity. While RNI has been shown to increase rates of pulmonary toxicity, hypofractionated RNI has not been associated with more frequent pulmonary complications than standard RNI. Moving forward, future studies will have to evaluate for increased lung toxicity. With regard to lymphedema, data from randomized hypofractionated WBI trials failed to demonstrate an increase in lymphedema and smaller studies utilizing hypofractionated RNI have failed to as well. Data from head and neck cancer as well as hypofractionated breast radiation with RNI have failed to demonstrate an increase in brachial plexopathy with the exception of older trials that used much larger dose per fraction (>4 Gy/fraction) schedules. At this time, published data support the feasibility of

  20. Effective dose calculations in conventional diagnostic X-ray examinations for adult and paediatric patients in a large Italian hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagnone, G.; Pagan, L.; Bergamini, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effective dose E is an efficient and powerful parameter to study the radioprotection of the patient. In our hospital, eight radiological departments and more than 100 radiological X-ray tubes are present. The effective doses were calculated for adults and paediatric patients in 10 standard projections. To calculate E, first the entrance skin dose (ESD) was evaluated by a mathematical model that was validated by >400 direct measurements taken with an ionisation chamber on four different phantoms: the overall accuracy of the model was better than 12%. Second, to relate ESD to E, conversion coefficients calculated by Monte Carlo techniques were used. The E-values obtained were of the same order as those presented in the literature. Finally, we analysed how the study of E distributions among the various radiological departments can help to optimise the procedures, by identifying the most critical examinations or sub-optimal clinical protocols. (authors)

  1. [Examination of the relationship between preference for solitude and emotional well-being after controlling for the effect of loneliness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Aya; Sato, Shinichi

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether preference for solitude promotes emotional well-being after controlling for the influence of loneliness. We administered a questionnaire that included variables regarding preference for solitude, loneliness, positive affect, and negative affect. The sample consisted of 318 young adult university students and 253 individuals aged 65 and older. The results showed a significant negative correlation between preference for solitude and positive affect; however there was no correlation between preference for solitude and negative affect. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis confirmed a negative effect of preference for solitude on negative affect after controlling for the influence of loneliness, and there was no effect on positive affect. The results of this study supported the hypothesis concerning, the relationship between preference for solitude and negative affect, and demonstrated that preference for solitude decreased negative affect and promotes emotional well-being.

  2. The Woman in Red: Examining the Effect of Ovulatory Cycle on Women's Perceptions of and Behaviors Toward Other Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netchaeva, Ekaterina; Kouchaki, Maryam

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has shown that during her monthly peak fertile window, a woman competes with other women for a suitable mate. Drawing upon research on ovulation and socially constructed meanings of the color red, we examine how a woman's fertility status and red clothing worn by a target woman change perceptions of the target, as well as behaviors toward the target. Following previous research on the ovulatory status and color red effects, we rely on both hormonal and self-reported fertility data. Across six studies, our research fails to provide support for the prediction that an ovulating woman is less likely to trust another woman wearing red compared with a nonovulating woman.

  3. An Examination of the Causes and Effects of Building Collapse in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke Ayodeji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the causes and consequence of building collapse in Nigeria using historical data from 1974 to 2006 and also proffers appropriate solutions. Relevant books, seminar papers, workshop papers, articles, etc. were reviewed so as to examine the general view of individuals that have worked on similar study. Data for the study were obtained through historical data of past building collapse in Nigeria. The data were presented and analysed using tables, bar graphs, Pearson moment correlation coefficient (r and linear regression analysis to generate a model. Sixty (60 buildings that collapsed in the country were gathered, upon which the analysis was carried out. The study revealed that poor maintenance culture, design error, poor quality of materials and workmanship, natural phenomenon and excessive loading contributed to about 7%, 15%, 52%, 7% and 20% respectively of building collapse in Nigeria with most of them being private residential buildings executed by indigenous contractors. The study finally recommended that Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON should increase their effort in sanitizing building materials in the market. More so, construction professionals should ensure proper supervision of workmen and efficient checking of materials before incorporation into building works.

  4. Trunk Muscle Size and Composition Assessment in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Intra-Examiner and Inter-Examiner Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sions, Jaclyn Megan; Smith, Andrew Craig; Hicks, Gregory Evan; Elliott, James Matthew

    2016-08-01

     To evaluate intra- and inter-examiner reliability for the assessment of relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area, i.e., total cross-sectional area minus intramuscular fat, from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained in older adults with chronic low back pain.  Reliability study.  n = 13 (69.3 ± 8.2 years old)  After lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, two examiners produced relative cross-sectional area measurements of multifidi, erector spinae, psoas, and quadratus lumborum by tracing regions of interest just inside fascial borders. Pixel-intensity summaries were used to determine muscle-to-fat infiltration indices; relative muscle cross-sectional area was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate intra- and inter-examiner reliability; standard error of measurement was calculated.  Intra-examiner intraclass correlation coefficient point estimates for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area were excellent for multifidi and erector spinae across levels L2-L5 (ICC = 0.77-0.99). At L3, intra-examiner reliability was excellent for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area for both psoas and quadratus lumborum (ICC = 0.81-0.99). Inter-examiner intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from poor to excellent for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area.  Assessment of relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area in older adults with chronic low back pain can be reliably determined by one examiner from T1-weighted images. Such assessments provide valuable information, as muscle-to-fat infiltration indices and relative muscle cross-sectional area indicate that a substantial amount of

  5. Examining the Effects of Religious Attendance on Resilience for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K; Miles, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Growing older often brings hardship, adversity, and even trauma. Resilience is a broad term used to describe flourishing despite adversity. To date, resilience and the connections to religion have not been well studied, despite compelling evidence that religious practice can promote psychological health. This research examines the role that religion plays in promoting resilience among older adults. Research questions include: (a) What is the relationship between religion and trait resilience? and (b) Does religion promote resilient reintegration following traumatic life events? Results indicate that religious service attendance is tied to higher levels of trait resilience and that both service attendance and trait resilience directly predict lower levels of depression and higher rates of resilient reintegration following traumatic life events. Findings suggest that religious service attendance has protective properties that are worthy of consideration when investigating resilience.

  6. 'Rumours' and clinical trials: a retrospective examination of a paediatric malnutrition study in Zambia, southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadi Beatrice

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health researchers conducting studies in resource-constrained settings have experienced negative 'rumours' about their work; in some cases they have been reported to create serious challenges and derail studies. However, what may appear superficially as 'gossip' or 'rumours' can also be regarded and understood as metaphors which represent local concerns. For researchers unaccustomed to having concerns expressed from participants in this manner, possible reactions can be to be unduly perturbed or conversely dismissive. This paper represents a retrospective examination of a malnutrition study conducted by an international team of researchers in Zambia, Southern Africa. The fears of mothers whose children were involved in the study and some of the concerns which were expressed as rumours are also presented. This paper argues that there is an underlying logic to these anxieties and to dismiss them simply as 'rumours' or 'gossip' would be to overlook the historic and socio-economic factors which have contributed to their production. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with the mothers whose children were involved in the study and with the research nurses. Twenty five face-to-face interviews and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with mothers. In addition, face-to-face interviews were conducted with research nurses participating in the trial. Results A prominent anxiety expressed as rumours by the mothers whose children were involved in the study was that recruitment into the trial was an indicator that the child was HIV-infected. Other anxieties included that the trial was a disguise for witchcraft or Satanism and that the children's body parts would be removed and sold. In addition, the liquid, milk-based food given to the children to improve their nutrition was suspected of being insufficiently nutritious, thus worsening their condition. The form which these anxieties took, such as rumours

  7. Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.

  8. Examining the Relationship between Heavy Alcohol Use and Assaults: With Adjustment for the Effects of Unmeasured Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i) To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii) to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher (P alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence.

  9. Effective and organ doses from common CT examinations in one general hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramian, Daryoush; Hashemi, Bijan

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: It is well known that the main portion of artificial sources of ionizing radiation to human results from X-ray imaging techniques. However, reports carried out in various countries have indicated that most of their cumulative doses from artificial sources are due to CT examinations. Hence assessing doses resulted from CT examinations is highly recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. The aim of this research has been to estimate the effective and organ doses in an average human according to 103 and 60 ICRP tissue weighting factor for six common protocols of Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) machine in a comprehensive training general hospital in Tehran/Iran. Methods: To calculate the patients' effective dose, the CT-Expo2.2 software was used. Organs/tissues and effective doses were determined for about 20 patients (totally 122 patients) for every one of six typical CT protocols of the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis and spine exams. In addition, the CT dosimetry index (CTDI) was measured in the standard 16 and 32 cm phantoms by using a calibrated pencil ionization chamber for the six protocols and by taking the average value of CT scan parameters used in the hospital compared with the CTDI values displayed on the console device of the machine. Results: The values of the effective dose based on the ICRP 103 tissue weighting factor were: 0.6, 2.0, 3.2, 4.2, 2.8, and 3.9 mSv and based on the ICRP 60 tissue weighting factor were: 0.9, 1.4, 3, 7.9, 4.8 and 5.1 mSv for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis, spine CT exams respectively. Relative differences between those values were -22, 21, 23, -6, -31 and 16 percent for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis, pelvis, spine CT exams, respectively. The average value of CTDIv calculated for each protocol was: 27.32 ± 0.9, 18.08 ± 2.0, 7.36 ± 2.6, 8.84 ± 1.7, 9.13 ± 1.5, 10.42 ± 0.8 mGy for the head, neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis and spine CT exams, respectively

  10. A pilot study to examine maturation of body temperature control in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, Robin B; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low-birth-weight (EBLW) infants. A case study design. The study took place in a Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Four ELBW infants, fewer than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time-series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Study on dosimetry for child in dentistry, 2. Examination survey on radiation dosimetry by various technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateno, H.; Itoh, T.; Higaki, M.; Kanno, M.; Higashi, T. (Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan))

    1981-12-01

    Recently, we used X-ray inspection very frequently and take an X-ray picture by various techniques in dental diagnosis. Patients in pedodontics usually do not appeal appropriately the symptom of their own disease because of their immaturness. For this reason, X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. Since the exposure dose became a social problem, it is necessary to pay consideration to X-ray technique for children because of higher sensitivity than adults. But studies of the exposure dose are reported in medical field and few of them are about pedodontics. Therefore, distribution of exposure dose in the 6-film technique (intraoral technique) for children was surveyed by use of water phantom examining the reliability of TLD, the defect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested in part. 1. But the first report is two dimensional, so we examined the 6-films technique, the body view of mandible, the orthopantomography and the cephalography for Mix-DP (for child). The following results were obtained. 1. The 6-film technique showed the highest exposure dose at skin, eye and thyroid gland. 2. The exposure dose at thyroid gland by 6-film technique was 0.734 R. 3. The exposure dose at gonad was less 0.001 R. by all techniques. 4. The exposure dose to the child tended to be higher than to the adult by all techniques.

  12. Will it hurt? Patients' experience of X-ray examinations: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesson, Rosemary A. [Health Services Research Group, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Good, Maureen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Hart, Cleone L. [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Moray Health Services, Elgin (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a worldwide trend towards involving patients in health care, but little is known about children's expectations of routine radiological procedures. Objective: To determine children's perceptions of X-ray examinations. Materials and methods: A convenience sample was selected from consecutive patients referred to a children's hospital in Scotland. Children were allocated either to a drawing study (n=20) or a two-stage interview (n=25). The investigation was restricted to first-time users of the radiological service aged 7-14 years if accompanied by a parent and consent having been obtained. Children were excluded if pain control was administered in the Accident and Emergency Department. Children's drawings were reported on by an art therapist and a child psychiatrist. Results: All children approached agreed to participate. Seventeen children provided accurate pictures of the X-ray examination room. Concordance existed between the psychiatrist's and art therapist's reports. Children at interview had at least a minimal level of knowledge of X-rays and this was from (1) family, friends and neighbours, (2) the school classroom, and (3) television programmes. Conclusions: Children had anxieties revealed through drawings and interviews. We recommend drawings for establishing children's views of radiology. (orig.)

  13. Will it hurt? Patients' experience of X-ray examinations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesson, Rosemary A.; Good, Maureen; Hart, Cleone L.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a worldwide trend towards involving patients in health care, but little is known about children's expectations of routine radiological procedures. Objective: To determine children's perceptions of X-ray examinations. Materials and methods: A convenience sample was selected from consecutive patients referred to a children's hospital in Scotland. Children were allocated either to a drawing study (n=20) or a two-stage interview (n=25). The investigation was restricted to first-time users of the radiological service aged 7-14 years if accompanied by a parent and consent having been obtained. Children were excluded if pain control was administered in the Accident and Emergency Department. Children's drawings were reported on by an art therapist and a child psychiatrist. Results: All children approached agreed to participate. Seventeen children provided accurate pictures of the X-ray examination room. Concordance existed between the psychiatrist's and art therapist's reports. Children at interview had at least a minimal level of knowledge of X-rays and this was from (1) family, friends and neighbours, (2) the school classroom, and (3) television programmes. Conclusions: Children had anxieties revealed through drawings and interviews. We recommend drawings for establishing children's views of radiology. (orig.)

  14. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-01-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 da...

  15. Dementia and cognitive disorder identified at a forensic psychiatric examination - a study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Anette; Kristiansson, Marianne; Björkstén, Karin Sparring

    2017-09-18

    Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Out of 1471 cases, there were 54 cases of dementia or cognitive disorder. Case files were scrutinized and 17 cases of dementia and 4 cases of cognitive disorder likely to get a dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting were identified and further studied. There were 18 men and 3 women; Median age 66 (n = 21; Range 35-77) years of age. Eleven men but no women had a previous criminal record. There were a total of 38 crimes, mostly violent, committed by the 21 persons. The crimes were of impulsive rather that pre-meditated character. According to the forensic psychiatric diagnoses, dementia was caused by cerebrovascular disorder (n = 4), alcohol or substance abuse (n = 3), cerebral haemorrhage and alcohol (n = 1), head trauma and alcohol (n = 2), Alzheimer's disease (n = 2), Parkinson's disease (n = 1), herpes encephalitis (n = 1) and unspecified (3). Out of four persons diagnosed with cognitive disorder, one also had delusional disorder and another one psychotic disorder and alcohol dependence. An alcohol-related diagnosis was established in ten cases. There were only two cases of Dementia of Alzheimer's type, one of whom also had alcohol intoxication. None was diagnosed with a personality disorder. All but one had a history of somatic or psychiatric comorbidity like head traumas, stroke, other cardio-vascular disorders, epilepsy, depression, psychotic disorders and suicide attempts. In this very ill group, the suggested verdict was probation in one case and different forms of care in the remaining

  16. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term – A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D.; Resch, F.; Duelli, R.; Möltner, A.; Huber, J.; Karimian Jazi, K.; Amr, A.; Eckart, W.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. Method: A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). Results: German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations. PMID:25228931

  17. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Resch, F; Duelli, R; Möltner, A; Huber, J; Karimian Jazi, K; Amr, A; Eckart, W; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C

    2014-01-01

    Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM CONE BEAM CT IMAGING IN SPECT/CT EXAMINATION IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER MODALITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkopi, Elena; Ross, Andrew A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess radiation dose from the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) component of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) examinations and to compare it with the radiopharmaceutical related dose as well as dose from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Effective dose (ED) from computed tomography (CT) was estimated using dose-length product values and anatomy-specific conversion factors. The contribution from the SPECT component was evaluated using ED per unit administered activity for the radiopharmaceuticals listed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publications 80 and 106. With the exception of cardiac studies (0.11 mSv), the CBCT dose (3.96-6.04 mSv) was similar to that from the radiopharmaceutical accounting for 29-56 % of the total ED from the examination. In comparison with MDCT examinations, the CBCT dose was 48 and 42 % lower for abdomen/pelvis and chest/abdomen/pelvis scans, respectively, while in the chest the CBCT scan resulted in higher dose (23 %). Radiation dose from the CT component should be taken into consideration when evaluating total SPECT/CT patient dose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Conducting Examinations in Nigerian Polytechnics: A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, Martha O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper posits that the conduct of examinations in any educational institution can make or mar the institution, Kwara State Polytechnic inclusive. This is because examinations constitute the hub of any institution. First, the place of polytechnic education in the growth and development of the country is examined. Next, is a consideration of…

  20. A Study to Examine Differences Between In Person and Online Survey Data Collection Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT CASE,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences between the results of an in person or face-to-face direct spending survey and a post-event online direct spending survey. Participants in a large annual marathon held in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States were used as subjects for the study. The research methodology selected for this study included an in person survey instrument administered to out-of-town marathon participants prior to the start of the event during the race number and race timing chip pick-up period. The same survey instrument was administered online four days after the conclusion of the marathon to the same group of out-of-town marathon participants who did not previously respond to the in person survey. Analysis of data and results revealed that average direct spending for the online respondents was consistently and significantly higher than spending for the in person respondents on direct spending questions. Spending on lodging for both groups showed no significant differences. It was recommended that the use of online survey methods be considered when conducting direct spending studies for participant oriented sporting events when adequate e-mail addresses are available and the potential respondents have a certain level of computer literacy.