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Sample records for study evaluating orally

  1. Oral vs. written evaluation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions......In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions...

  2. Evaluation of oral health-related quality of life among professional students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prakash Manapoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral healthcare programs and management of treatment. Aim: To evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL among professional college students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the OHRQOL of 940 students (males: 425, females: 515 from six different professions (medical, dental, engineering, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and master of business administration of Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, using a 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14 questionnaire. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis system to perform the Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The mean OHIP scores for medical, dental, pharmacy, physiotherapy, engineering, and MBA students were 5.2, 3.5, 3.2, 3.0, 3.6, and 2.8, respectively. The overall OHIP-14 score showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05 from medical students to remaining study population. Conclusion: There is much significant difference in OHRQOL in different professional students. Oral health-care providers are urged to integrate the OHRQOL concept into their daily practice to improve the outcome of their services as it provides the basis for any oral health program development.

  3. Criteria for Evaluating Oral History Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsino, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)

  4. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  5. Health-oriented electronic oral health record: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsapai, Mansuang; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Rajchagool, Sunsanee; Beach, Daryl; Kawaguchi, Sachiko

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to develop and evaluate a new Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record that implements the health-oriented status and intervention index. The index takes the principles of holistic oral healthcare and applies them to the design and implementation of the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. We designed an experiment using focus groups and a consensus (Delphi process) method to develop a new health-oriented status and intervention index and graphical user interface. A comparative intervention study with qualitative and quantitative methods was used to compare an existing Electronic Oral Health Record to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record, focusing on dentist satisfaction, accuracy, and completeness of oral health status recording. The study was conducted by the dental staff of the Inter-country Center for Oral Health collaborative hospitals in Thailand. Overall, the user satisfaction questionnaire had a positive response to the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record. The dentists found it easy to use and were generally satisfied with the impact on their work, oral health services, and surveillance. The dentists were significantly satisfied with the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record compared to the existing Electronic Oral Health Record (p health information recorded using the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record were 97.15 and 93.74 percent, respectively. This research concludes that the Health-oriented Electronic Oral Health Record satisfied many dentists, provided benefits to holistic oral healthcare, and facilitated the planning, managing, and evaluation of the healthcare delivery system.

  6. Evaluation of Oral Performance in Outsourced Call Centres: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friginal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This case study discusses the development and use of an oral performance assessment instrument intended to evaluate Filipino agents' customer service transactions with callers from the United States (US). The design and applications of the instrument were based on a longitudinal, qualitative observation of language training and customer service…

  7. Animal models for evaluation of oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harloff-Helleberg, Stine; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2017-01-01

    of systems for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals may result in new treatment modalities to increase the patient compliance and reduce product cost. In the preclinical development phase, use of experimental animal models is essential for evaluation of new formulation designs. In general, the limited oral...... bioavailability of biopharmaceuticals, of just a few percent, is expected, and therefore, the animal models and the experimental settings must be chosen with utmost care. More knowledge and focus on this topic is highly needed, despite experience from the numerous studies evaluating animal models for oral drug...... delivery of small molecule drugs. This review highlights and discusses pros and cons of the most currently used animal models and settings. Additionally, it also looks into the influence of anesthetics and sampling methods for evaluation of drug delivery systems for oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals...

  8. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  9. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  10. Evaluation of serum Malondialdehyde level in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a useful determinant to show high level of lipid peroxidation which lead to impaired cell function. Previous studies have mentioned there is a relationship between high oxidative stress and low anti-oxidant activity in patients with oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum level of Malondialdehyde as an indicator of oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus which is a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-comparative study evaluated the oxidative stress status on twenty patients with oral lichen planus and 20 control healthy individuals based on serum level of Malondialdehyde. Results: The mean serum Malondialdehyde levels in oral lichen planus patients and control individuals were 2.9 (±2 and 2.4 (±1.3 µg/ml, respectively, indicating no significant difference (P=0.6. Conclusion: According to the results, role of Malondialdehyde in cellular damage and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus was not proved.

  11. Evaluation of student nurses' perception of preparedness for oral medication administration in clinical practice: a collaborative study.

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    Aggar, Christina; Dawson, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Attainment of oral medication administration skills and competency for student nurses is challenging and medication errors are common. The ability of nurses to master a clinical skill is dependent upon educational instruction and practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing students' perception of preparedness for oral medication administration in two practice environments and determine possible relationship between student demographics and their perceived preparedness for oral medication administration. This was a cross sectional, exploratory study. Eighty-eight second year students from a baccalaureate nursing course from two metropolitan Australian tertiary institutions participated. Student nurses' perception of preparedness for oral medication administration was measured via a self-administered, adapted, and validated questionnaire. The overall mean Total Preparedness Score was 86.2 (range 71-102). There was no significant difference for perceived total preparedness to administer oral medications between the two facilities. Whilst there was no significant relationship established between student demographics and their perceived preparedness to administer oral medications, four single questions related to clinical practice were shown to be significant. Low fidelity simulated teaching environments that incorporate time management and post medication situations, may improve student nurses' perceived preparedness for oral medication administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Web-based oral health promotion program for older adults: Development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Marwaha, Parul; Barrow, Su-Yan

    2016-07-01

    This study reports on the impact evaluation of a Web-based oral health promotion programme aimed at improving the oral health knowledge, attitudes, practices and self-efficacy of independent-living older adults from Melbourne, Australia. With ethics approval from the University of Melbourne, a convenience sample of volunteers 55 years or older was invited to participate in a study to test a web-based oral health promotion program. Consenting volunteers were asked to undergo a structured interview as part of the pre-intervention data collection. The intervention was based on the ORHIS (Oral Health Information Seminars/Sheets) Model and involved computer interaction with six oral health presentations, with no direct oral health professional input. A one group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was chosen to evaluate the intervention. A series of paired t-tests were used to compare pre-test with post-test results. Forty-seven active, independent-living older adults participated in this evaluation. After the intervention participants responded with higher levels of achievement than before participating in this Web-based oral health program. Participants showed significant improvements in oral health attitudes (4.10 vs. 4.94; p<0.01), knowledge (18.37 vs. 23.83; p<0.0001), and self-efficacy (84.37 vs.89.23; p<0.01), as well as, self-reported oral hygiene practices (i.e., frequency of use of dental floss) (p<0.05). The e-ORHIS approach was successful in improving oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. As such, it represents a helpful approach for the design of (oral) health interventions in older adults. Further evaluation with a larger sample is required to test the long-term impact including the economic evaluation of the e-ORHIS approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences...

  14. Evaluation of international case studies within 'Live.Learn.Laugh.': a unique global public-private partnership to promote oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdill, Lindsey; Pine, Cynthia M

    2011-08-01

    The partnership between the Féderation Dentaire International (FDI), and Unilever Oral Care, aims to raise awareness of oral health globally; to enable FDI member associations to promote oral health; and to increase the visibility of the FDI and authority of Unilever oral care brands worldwide. Country Projects between National Dental Associations (NDAs), the member associations of FDI, and Unilever Oral Care local companies have been established as a key strand of the partnership. This paper reports on the evaluation of an in-depth sample of Country Projects (n=5) to determine their potential to impact on oral health. Five country sites were selected as being indicative of different programme delivery types. Each site received a two-day visit during Spring-Summer 2009, which enabled the evaluators to audit what was delivered in practice compared with the original written project briefs and to undertake interviews of study site staff. 39 projects in 36 countries have been initiated. In those examined by site visits, clear evidence was found of capacity building to deliver oral health. In some countries, widespread population reach had been prioritised. Effectiveness of partnership working varied depending on the strength of the relationship between the NDA and local Unilever Oral Care representatives and alignment with national marketing strategy. The quality of internal evaluation varied considerably. Over a million people had been reached directly by Country Projects and this public-private partnership has made a successful start. To move towards improving oral health rather than only awareness raising; future Country Projects would benefit from being limited to certain evidence-based intervention designs, and using an agreed core indicator set in order to allow cross-country comparison of intervention outcomes. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Evaluation of Oral Hygiene in Patients with Visual Disabilities

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    Roberto Carlos Mourão Pinho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with visual impairment present greater difficulty in achieving adequate oral hygiene due to restricted eyesight. Therefore, oral hygiene motivation and instruction methods should be adapted to these patients to understand the importance of bacterial plaque control, both for the health of dental tissues and periodontal tissues Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the plaque index (PI of patients with and without visual impairment before and after the institution of oral hygiene instructions through a Randomized Clinical Trial. Twenty patients with visual impairment (Group 1 from the Instituto dos Cegos and 20 without visual impairment (Group 2 from the ASCES Periodontia Clinic were selected. Data were collected through the IP of O'Leary and reevaluated every 21 days for four sessions. Results: in both groups, the mean of PI decreased with the time of evaluation, with a significant difference between the evaluations (p 0.05. As for the mean of the PI assessments, group 2 presented a mean higher than group 1, but without significant difference (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The study therefore suggests that there is no difference in PI in patients with or without visual impairment, and that the guidelines stimulate and motivate an improvement in oral hygiene conditions.

  16. Evaluation of oral manifestations and oral health status among pediatric human immunodeficiency virus patients-under anti-retroviral therapy: A cross-sectional study

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    Monika Aroquiadasse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquired immunodeficiency syndrome disease has evolved to become a social and economic catastrophe, with far-reaching implications affecting every phase of life of the diseased individual. Data on adults and children diagnosed with HIV infection are useful for determining populations needing prevention and treatment services. Oral lesions may be the presenting symptoms of HIV infection and may differ entirely from those manifested in the adult population. Aim and Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV related oral lesions among pediatric HIV patients and to assess the oral health status of HIV infected children residing in a selected childcare facility in Puducherry. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during September 2015 in child care facility for HIV infected children located in Puducherry U.T, India. All children <18 years, who are diagnosed with HIV infection and are put on anti-retroviral therapy (ART or pre-ART care, were included in the study. After obtaining informed consent from the care-givers and assent of the children, they were interviewed and examined by a team comprising a qualified dental surgeon and a trained physician. Results: Majority of the children were under first-line ART (73% and were on ART for more than 4 years. The CD4 count of 23 (52.3 was between 500–1000 cells/μL. The recent viral load assay in 32 (72.7 patients was <150/not detected. Tooth decay was the most common oral manifestation with 28 (63.6 being affected. Nonspecific lymphadenopathy 26 (59.1 was the most common coexisting systemic illness. Conclusion: This study proves that constant surveillance by monitoring the general health status, CD4 counts, viral load coupled with stringent ART care has improved the overall quality of life of these children and consequently resulted in lesser oral manifestations.

  17. Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the effect of preoperative oral gabapentin on postoperative pain in patients receiving spinal ... Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia ... Group III (n = 30) patients received an oral placebo one hour prior to surgery.

  18. [Design and validation of an oral health questionnaire for preoperative anaesthetic evaluation].

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    Ruíz-López Del Prado, Gema; Blaya-Nováková, Vendula; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar Luis; Ayala, Alba; Muñoz-Moreno, Maria Fe; Forjaz, Maria João

    Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71). The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and validation of an oral health questionnaire for preoperative anaesthetic evaluation

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    Gema Ruíz-López del Prado

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Methods: Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. Results: The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71. The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. Conclusions: The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations.

  20. Design and validation of an oral health questionnaire for preoperative anaesthetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-López Del Prado, Gema; Blaya-Nováková, Vendula; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar Luis; Ayala, Alba; Muñoz-Moreno, Maria Fe; Forjaz, Maria João

    Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71). The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of correlations between socio-demographics and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is commonly reported that individuals at higher socioeconomic class have greater health awareness culminating in better care-seeking from orthodox facilities. It is yet to be ascertained whether this reflect in attitudes of patients toward seeking oral health care. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the ...

  2. A controlled evaluation of oral screen effects on intra-oral pressure curve characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Jung, Klaus; Kinzinger, Gero; Bauss, Oskar; Engelke, Wilfried

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of oral screen (OS) application on intra-oral pressure characteristics in three malocclusion groups. Fifty-six randomly recruited participants (26 males and 30 females) who met the inclusion criteria of either an Angle Class I occlusal relationships or Angle Class II1 or II2 malocclusions, were assigned by dentition to group I (n = 31), group II1 (n = 12), or group II2 (n = 13). Two 3 minute periods of intra-oral pressure monitoring were conducted on each participant, using two different oral end fittings connected to a piezo-resistive relative pressure sensor: (1) a flexible OS and (2) a small-dimensioned air-permeable end cap (EC), which was placed laterally in the premolar region, thus recording intra-oral pressure independent of the influence of the OS. Pressure curve characteristics for both periods and between the malocclusion groups were evaluated with reference to the frequency of swallowing peaks, duration, and altitude of negative pressure plateau phases and the area under the pressure curve. Statistical analysis was undertaken using analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test, and spearman correlation coefficient. A median number of two peaks (median height -20.9 mbar) and three plateau phases (median height of -2.3 mbar) may be regarded as normative for normal occlusion subjects during a 3 minute period, at rest. OS application raised the median average duration and height of intra-oral negative pressure plateau phases in the II1 subjects, exceeding those of group I, but less than the plateau duration in group II2. Median peak heights were distinctively lower in groups I and II1 during OS application. It is concluded that additional training for extension of intra-oral pressure phases may be a promising approach to pre-orthodontic Class II division 1 treatment.

  3. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse reduces chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutluay Yayla, Ezgi; Izgu, Nur; Ozdemir, Leyla; Aslan Erdem, Sinem; Kartal, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse used in conjunction with basic oral care on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. An open-label randomized controlled study. Two oncology hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Patients receiving 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens were divided into the intervention group (N=30) and control group (N=30). Basic oral care was prescribed to the control group, while the intervention group was prescribed sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol in addition to basic oral care. All patients were called to assess their compliance with the study instructions on day 5 and 14. Oral mucositis was evaluated using an inspection method or by assessing oral cavity photos based on the World Health Organization oral toxicity scale on day 5 and 14. Most of the patients in the intervention group did not develop oral mucositis on day 5. In addition, the incidence of grade 1 oral mucositis was statistically lower in the intervention group (10%) than the control group (53.3%) on day 5. By day 14, the majority of patients in both the groups had grade 0 oral mucositis. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse has promising results in alleviating oral mucositis. This hydrosol can be recommended for clinical use as it is well tolerated and cost-effective. However, further randomized controlled trials are needed to support the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of parental awareness regarding their child's oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Savadi, N; Amin, M

    2017-11-01

    To determine parental awareness about their child's oral hygiene and its associated factors. In this cross-sectional study, 396 parents and their 3- to 6-year-old children were selected by randomized cluster sampling from Shiraz kindergartens in 2013. Parents completed a questionnaire on their perception of their child's oral hygiene. The children received a dental examination, and their dental cleaning status was determined using Simplified Debris Index. Parental awareness was determined by comparing parents' perception of their child's oral hygiene with the results of the dental examination. Associations between demographic factors and parental awareness were evaluated. Sixty per cent of the parents were aware of their child's teeth cleaning status. Higher percentage of parents with university degree (P parents whose child did not have a previous dental visit (P parents had lower dmft (P oral hygiene (P = 0.001) than those of unaware parents. Parents who perceived overall oral health status of their child as good (P parents were not aware of their child's oral hygiene. Educational interventions should be provided to young families to increase parental knowledge and skills that help them recognize their child's dental needs. The interventions are more necessary for low socioeconomic parents and for the parents of children with poor oral hygiene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of pemphigus cases involving oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Gizem; Bektaş-Kayhan, Kivanç; Ünür, Meral

    2014-09-01

    Pemphigus, defines a group of disorders in autoimmune etiology which could be life-threatening and clinical manifestations are mainly epithelial blistering affecting cutaneous and/or mucosal surfaces including oral mucosa. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical appearance of pemphigus with oral involvement by reported 15 pemphigus cases. This retrospective study of 15 cases of pemphigus obtained over a period of 7 years from 2006 to 2013 in Istanbul University, Dentistry Faculty, Oral Medicine and Surgery Department was designed. Age distribution of pemphigus was from 15 to 59 years with an average age of 41.3 years. Of the 15 patients, the male:female ratio was 1:2.75 (4 male, 11 female). The most common clinical various of pemphigus was pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed in all patients. The buccal mucosa (34.3%) was the most commonly affected site followed by tongue (20%), gingiva (17.1%), palate (11.4%), lips (11.4%) and floor of mouth (5.7%). Our explanation of this conclusion, while speculative, is that socioeconomic situation related stress in males and hormonal changes like pregnancy and menostasis in females; systemic disease and using drugs; dental trauma and bruxism could be responsible for flare up in the disease.

  6. A retrospective evaluation of 56 patients with oral burning and limited clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald S; Farquharson, Andre A; Sam, Frances E; Reid, Errol

    2006-01-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated the charts of 56 patients who had been referred to an oral medicine clinic between 1995 and 2004 with oral burning and limited clinical findings. Of the 56 patients, 35 had a final diagnosis of essential burning mouth disorder (EBMD). Five patients with EBMD had a family history of diabetes and two had been diagnosed with late-onset diabetes. Other oral burning diagnoses included sialoadenitis (burning lips syndrome), irritation or allergic reactions to triclosan, diabetic neuropathy, subclinical oral candidiasis, nutritional deficiency/neuropathy, and a drug reaction to an ACE inhibitor (scalded mouth syndrome) that resulted in oral burning.

  7. The oral-systemic disease connection: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K; Kullman, Leif; Sharma, Prem N

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed at determining the association between oral disease and systemic health based on panoramic radiographs and general health of patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Center. The objective was to determine whether individuals exhibiting good oral health have lower propensity to systemic diseases. A total of 1000 adult patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Center were randomly selected from the patient's records. The general health of patients was assessed from the medical history of each patient recorded during their visit to the clinic. The number of reported diseases and serious symptoms were used to develop a medical index. The oral health of these patients was assessed from panoramic radiographs to create an oral index by evaluating such parameters as caries, periodontitis, periapical lesions, pericoronitis, and tooth loss. In a total of 887 patients, 43.8 % had an oral index between 3 and 8, of which significantly higher (62.1 %) patients were with medical conditions compared to those without (33.2 %; p relationship when the diagnosis of oral disease was based primarily on radiographic findings. Future research needs to include prospective clinical and interventional studies. The significance of the oral-systemic disease connection highlights the importance of preventing and treating oral disease which have profound medical implications on general health.

  8. [Epidemiological study of oral health in a young adult Mapuche population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.

  9. Evaluation of Podoplanin in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have demonstrated that podoplanin was expressed in some dysplastic lesions adjacent to primary oral cancers suggesting that podoplanin expression may occur in early oral tumorigenesis and lymphangiogenesis and therefore is related to tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of podoplanin as a biomarker for cancer risk assessment in oral leukoplakia and correlation of podoplanin expression with grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and Methods. In the present retrospective study, podoplanin expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 40 patients each of oral leukoplakia and OSCC. The scores were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey HSD. Results. By applying one-way ANOVA test, there was a highly significant increase of the podoplanin expression from mild to severe dysplasia and from well to poorly differentiated OSCC (P<0.01. Statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of mild to moderate dysplasia, moderate to severe dysplasia, well to poorly differentiated OSCC, and moderately to poorly differentiated OSCC (Tukey HSD test, P<0.01. Conclusion. Podoplanin can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions and as a tumor progression biomarker for advanced grades of OSCC.

  10. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Harjeet K; Sircar, Keya; Kaur, Gurbani; Marwah, Muneet

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review on the role of myofibroblasts in progression of oral cancer. The myofibroblast is essential for the integrity of the mammalian body by virtue of its role in wound healing, but it also plays a negative role due to their role in promoting tumor development. Systematic review. Bibliographic searches were conducted in several electronic databases using all publications in PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, CancerLit, Google scholar, and Cochrane CCTR between 1990 and June 2015. The search of all publications from various electronic databases revealed 1,371 citations. The total number of studies considered for systematic review was 43. The total number of patients included in the studies was 990. Myofibroblasts are a significant component in stroma of oral cancer cases, though not identified in all cases. This systematic review shows that clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemistry tests have correlated the presence of high myofibroblast count in oral cancer cell stroma. Myofibroblasts play a significant role in oral cancer invasion and progression. Various studies have demonstrated their association with oral cancer. This review tends to highlight their role in the pathogenesis of oral cancer over the decade. Sekhon HK, Sircar K, Kaur G, Marwah M. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):233-239.

  11. Developing Oral Case Presentation Skills: Peer and Self-Evaluations as Instructional Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustyn E; Surakanti, Shravani

    2016-01-01

    Oral case presentation is an essential skill in clinical practice that is decidedly varied and understudied in teaching curricula. We developed a curriculum to improve oral case presentation skills in medical students. As part of an internal medicine clerkship, students receive instruction in the elements of a good oral case presentation and then present a real-world case in front of a video camera. Each student self-evaluates his/her presentation and receives evaluations from his/her peers. We expect peer and self-evaluation to be meaningful tools for developing skills in oral presentation. We hope to not only improve the quality of oral case presentations by students but also to reduce the time burden on faculty.

  12. Preliminary study of acoustic analysis for evaluating speech-aid oral prostheses: Characteristic dips in octave spectrum for comparison of nasality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Liang; Hung, Chao-Ho; Chen, Po-Yueh; Chen, Wei-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic analysis is often used in speech evaluation but seldom for the evaluation of oral prostheses designed for reconstruction of surgical defect. This study aimed to introduce the application of acoustic analysis for patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) due to oral surgery and rehabilitated with oral speech-aid prostheses. The pre- and postprosthetic rehabilitation acoustic features of sustained vowel sounds from two patients with VPI were analyzed and compared with the acoustic analysis software Praat. There were significant differences in the octave spectrum of sustained vowel speech sound between the pre- and postprosthetic rehabilitation. Acoustic measurements of sustained vowels for patients before and after prosthetic treatment showed no significant differences for all parameters of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio, formant frequency, F1 bandwidth, and band energy difference. The decrease in objective nasality perceptions correlated very well with the decrease in dips of the spectra for the male patient with a higher speech bulb height. Acoustic analysis may be a potential technique for evaluating the functions of oral speech-aid prostheses, which eliminates dysfunctions due to the surgical defect and contributes to a high percentage of intelligible speech. Octave spectrum analysis may also be a valuable tool for detecting changes in nasality characteristics of the voice during prosthetic treatment of VPI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Complex patterns of response to oral hygiene instructions: longitudinal evaluation of periodontal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo-Achampong, Felice; Vitunac, David E; Deeley, Kathleen; Modesto, Adriana; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2018-05-02

    Oral hygiene instruction is an intervention widely practiced but increased knowledge about oral health does not necessarily dramatically impact oral disease prevalence in populations. We aimed to measure plaque and bleeding in periodontal patients over time to determine patterns of patient response to oral hygiene instructions. Longitudinal plaque and bleeding index data were evaluated in 227 periodontal patients to determine the impact of oral hygiene instructions. Over multiple visits, we determined relative plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding for each patient. Subsequently, we grouped them in three types of oral hygiene status in response to initial instructions, using the longitudinal data over the period they were treated and followed for their periodontal needs. These patterns of oral hygiene based on the plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were evaluated based on age, sex, ethnic background, interleukin 1 alpha and beta genotypes, diabetes status, smoking habits, and other concomitant diseases. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine if any differences between these variables were statistically significant with alpha set at 0.05. Three patterns in response to oral hygiene instructions emerged. Plaque and gingival bleeding indexes improved, worsened, or fluctuated over time in the periodontal patients studied. Out of all the confounders considered, only ethnic background showed statistically significant differences. White individuals more often than other ethnic groups fluctuated in regards to oral hygiene quality after instructions. There are different responses to professional oral hygiene instructions. These responses may be related to ethnicity.

  14. Clinico-pathological study to evaluate oral lichen planus for the establishment of clinical and histopathological diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Santhosh; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions affecting the oral cavity show similar clinico-pathological features creating a diagnostic dilemma. Hence, the aim of the present study was to establish a clinical and histopathological correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus, based on the modified WHO diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions proposed by Van der Meij and Van der Waal in 2003. In the present study, 100 cases of oral lichen planus were clinically and histopathologically analyzed. Out of the 100 cases, 50 were prospective and 50 were retrospective cases. Prospective cases were collected based on the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. Retrospective cases were collected based on the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus. Both the clinical and histopathological analyses were performed based on a proposal for a set of modified diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. A final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was made only after the correlation of the clinical diagnosis with the histopathological diagnosis. The interobserver agreement among three observers for both prospective and retrospective cases in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was found to be "good" to "very good" indicating high reproducibility. However, the final diagnoses of true oral lichen planus after clinico-pathological correlation in prospective and retrospective study groups appeared to be 38.0% and 54.0% respectively. The results of the present study revealed mild to moderate clinico-pathological correlation in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus for the prospective and retrospective study groups respectively.

  15. Evaluation of Microvascularity by CD34 Expression in Esophagus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Farhadi, Sareh; Sadri, Donia; Sedehi, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    The present study was scheduled to evaluate microvascularity by CD34 expression in esophagus and oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study was scheduled using 40 paraffin blocked samples including 20 of oral SCC and 20 of esophagus ones and Immunohistochemical staining was conducted using CD34 monoclonal antibody. Exact fisher test was used to evaluate frequency of expression between two studied groups. There was significant correlation between age and tumor size with CD34 expression in oral SCC samples (p 0.05). Also, there was no significant correlation between age, sex, tumor size and tumor differentiation level (grading) with CD34 expression in esophagus SCC samples (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference of CD34 expression frequency in oral and esophagus SCC (p = 0/583). Finally, CD34 expression was reported 'high' for major cases of esophagus and oral SCCs. It seems, other angiogenetic or nonangiogenetic factors except CD34 may play more important role and explain the different clinical behavior of SCC at recent different locations. Other factors would be considered along with CD34 expression to interpret different clinical behavior of SCC at recent different locations.

  16. Evaluation of oral health among pregnant women in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...

  17. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  18. Evaluation of an educational activity in the oral health of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Vj de A; Costa, S M; Zanin, L; Flório, F M

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the influence of educational activity in the school environment based on prescriptive and subjective oral health indicators. Cross-sectional, comparative study involving students between 9 and 12 years of age, from schools that have educational activities and those that do not, designated schools A and B. The oral health indicators used were the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and the Community Periodontal Index (CPITN). Knowledge and attitudes with regard to oral health were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. A total of 289 schoolchildren took part, 50.5% from school A and 49.5% from school B, in the town of Montes Claros, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. In school A, the schoolchildren's OHI-S was satisfactory for 9.6%, normal for 78.8% and deficient for 11.6%, while in school B, the respective percentages were 3.5%, 17.5% and 79% (chi-squared, P students in school A showed better CPITN results, namely lack of bleeding for 61.6%, the presence of bleeding for 29.5% and presence of tartar for 8.9%, while in school B, the respective results were 25.2%, 45.5% and 29.4% (chi-squared, P Students in school A achieved more correct answers in questions that evaluated knowledge of oral health. The account of daily use of dental floss in school A was 21.7% and in B, 3.6% (chi-squared, P school environment had a positive effect on oral health conditions, the consolidation of knowledge and incorporation of oral hygiene habits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [The evaluation of nursing graduates' scientific reasoning and oral and written communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demandes, Ingrid; Latrach, Cecilia A; Febre, Naldy Pamela; Muñoz, Claudia; Torres, Pamela; Retamal, Jessica

    2012-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Santiago de Chile, with the objective to evaluate the scientific reasoning and the oral and written communication of nursing graduates. The sample consisted of 37 nursing graduates who participated in the three stages of the study: I) creation and validation of the instrument; II) training the faculty participating in the study to apply the instrument uniformly; and III) application of the instrument and data analysis. The data show different percentages regarding this competency, with the predominance of scientific reasoning (83.16%), followed by oral and written communication (78.37%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value for nursing schools to implement a formal evaluation that allows for determining the profile of nursing graduates, guaranteeing the quality of their training and education.

  20. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  1. Oral Cancer: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Awareness in Undergraduate Dental Students and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Mahmoud M; Skerman, Emma; Khan, Usman; George, Roy

    To evaluate the knowledge of signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with oral cancer amongst undergraduate dental students and members of the general public. This study was open for a period of six months (Jan-June, 2013) to all undergraduate dental students in the 4th and 5th year of the dental science programme and dental patients attending the School of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. The survey evaluated the knowledge and awareness of clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors of oral cancers. A total of 100 undergraduate students and 150 patients provided informed consent and participated in this survey study. Both patients and dental students were aware of the importance of early detection of oral cancer. With the exception of smoking and persistent ulceration, this study indicated that the knowledge about oral cancer, its signs, symptoms and risk factors was limited amongst participants. This study highlights the need to raise awareness and knowledge pertaining to oral cancer, not only in the general community but also amongst those in the dental field. Specific points of concern were the common intraoral sites for oral cancer, erythroplakia as a risk factor, the synergistic action of smoking and alcohol, and HPV (human papilloma virus) as risk factors for oral cancer.

  2. Optimization and Evaluation of Desloratadine Oral Strip: An Innovation in Paediatric Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanpreet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, especially children, are the most difficult to treat in all groups of population mainly because they can not swallow the solid dosage form. Due to this reason they are often prescribed liquid dosage forms. But these formulations have their own disadvantages (lack of dose accuracy during administration, spitting by children, spillage, lack of stability, difficulty in transportation, etc.. Oral strip technology is one such technology to surpass these disadvantages. Desloratadine, a descarboethoxy derivative of loratadine, is a second generation antihistaminic drug approved for usage in allergic rhinitis among paediatric population and is available in markets as suspension. An attempt has been made to design and optimize the oral strip containing desloratadine as an active ingredient. Oral strip was optimized with the help of optimal experimental design using polymer concentration, plasticizer type, and plasticizer concentration as independent variables. Prepared oral strips were evaluated for physicochemical parameter, mechanical strength parameters, disintegration time, dissolution, surface pH, and moisture sorption tendency. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, moisture content, and histological alteration in oral mucosa. Accelerated stability studies were also carried out for optimized formulations. Results were analysed with the help of various statistical tools at and .

  3. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (plichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  4. Evaluation of oral abdominal contrast agent containing ferric ammonium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Toshiko; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Iwasaki, Toshiko

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of oral MRI contrast agent containing ferric ammonium citrate. Twenty patients were arbitrarily divided into 2 groups according to the given dose of 100 and 200 mg Fe of oral MRI contrast agent. MRI was performed before and immediately after ingesting 300 ml solution of oral MRI contrast agent using a 1.5 T superconducting system (GE: Signa). Each dose of 100 and 200 mg Fe of oral MRI contrast agent produced sufficient enhancement of gastrointestinal tract, enough to make clear the pancreatic contour and porta hepatis. There was no significant change in blood and urine analysis observed after taking oral MRI contrast agent. The use of ferric ammonium citrate as an oral MRI contrast agent seems to add valuable information in performing upper abdominal MRI imaging. (author)

  5. Prospective, randomised, controlled study evaluating early modification of oral microbiota following admission to the intensive care unit and oral hygiene with chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Gavrilko, Oleg; Almeida, Saulo de; Sumi, Eigi Ricardo; Alberto, Thiago; Rocha, Jaime Luis; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo. Microbiology samples were collected from the oral mucosa (OM) and DP after admission to the ICU and on Days 3, 5, 7 and 10. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of CHX were determined. Upon admission, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, was reported. The CHX group had a lower incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared with the placebo group for the OM (RR=0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.98; P=0.011). There was high agreement between the culture results of OM and DP (κ=0.825). VAP developed in six patients. The species identified following tracheal aspiration of VAP patients were similar to those found in the OM for four cases. The strains showed low MICs and MBCs for CHX (<0.039mg/mL). Although DP is rapidly colonised by MDR bacteria, use of 2% CHX reduced the incidence of S. aureus colonisation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  7. Oral soft tissue disorders are associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Nakatani, Eiji; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Kanno, Takahiro; Nariai, Yoshiki; Yoshino, Aya; Vieth, Michael; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sekine, Joji

    2017-08-07

    Dental erosion (DE), one of oral hard tissue diseases, is one of the extraoesophageal symptoms defined as the Montreal Definition and Classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, no study evaluated the relationship between GERD and oral soft tissues. We hypothesized that oral soft tissue disorders (OSTDs) would be related to GERD. The study aimed to investigate the association OSTDs and GERD. GERD patients (105 cases), older and younger controls (25 cases each) were retrospectively examined for oral symptoms, salivary flow volume (Saxon test), swallowing function (repetitive saliva swallowing test [RSST]), teeth (decayed, missing, and filled [DMF] indices), and soft tissues (as evaluation of OSTDs, gingivitis; papillary, marginal, and attached [PMA] gingival indexes, simplified oral hygiene indices [OHI-S], and inflammatory oral mucosal regions). Clinical histories, which included body mass index [BMI], the existence of alcohol and tobacco use, and bruxism, were also investigated. A P value of bruxism, as an exacerbation factor of periodontal disease, in the GERD patients was significantly more frequent than in either control group (P = 0.041). OSTDs were associated with GERD, which was similar to the association between DE and GERD.

  8. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  9. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Rute; Sim?es-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, M?rio-Jorge; Azevedo, ?lvaro; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with n...

  10. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a epidemiologic study of 191 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature

  11. Evaluate, assess, treat: development and evaluation of the EAT framework to increase effective communication regarding sensitive oral-systemic health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, R D; Cragun, D; Gallentine, A A; Severson, H H; Shaw, T; Cantwell, C; Christiansen, S; Koerber, A; Hendricson, W; Tomar, S L; McCormack Brown, K; Tedesco, L A

    2012-11-01

    Oral healthcare providers are likely to encounter a number of sensitive oral/systemic health issues whilst interacting with patients. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a framework aimed at oral healthcare providers to engage in active secondary prevention of eating disorders (i.e. early detection of oral manifestations of disordered eating behaviours, patient approach and communication, patient-specific oral treatment, and referral to care) for patients presenting with signs of disordered eating behaviours. The EAT Framework was developed based on the Brief Motivational Interviewing (B-MI) conceptual framework and comprises three continuous steps: Evaluating, Assessing, and Treating. Using a group-randomized control design, 11 dental hygiene (DH) and seven dental (D) classes from eight institutions were randomized to either the intervention or control conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Hierarchical linear models were conducted to measure the effects of the intervention whilst controlling for baseline levels. Statistically significant improvements from pre- to post-intervention were observed in the Intervention group compared with the Control group on knowledge of eating disorders and oral findings, skills-based knowledge, and self-efficacy (all P oral/systemic health issues. Because the EAT Framework was developed by translating B-MI principles and procedures, the framework can be easily adopted as a non-confrontational method for patient communication. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral hygiene and oral flora evaluation in psychiatric patients in nursing homes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, A Z; Yanik, K; Celenk, P; Unal-Erzurumlu, Z; Yilmaz, H; Bulut, N

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has stated that psychiatric patients are a group of people who have oral and dental illnesses. The aims of this study were to document the oral hygiene of individuals with chronic psychiatric illness, to determine the extraoral and intraoral findings, to detect the dominant microorganisms in oral flora, and to inform clinicians of these findings. The study included 100 patients (69 men and 31 women) with different psychiatric illnesses living in a nursing home. They were 19-96 years old (median, 48 years). The participants completed a questionnaire about patients' oral health. They underwent extraoral and intraoral examinations. Two swab samples were obtained from the oral mucosa of these patients. Gram preparations were analyzed for leukocytes, bacteria, and yeast. Chi-square test and z-test were used. All patients (100%) had the necessary equipment for oral hygiene; however, many (43%) patients had poor oral hygiene. There was a high prevalence of xerostomia (56%) and fissured tongue (61.4%) (among other tongue anomalies). The most commonly isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus0 (35.9%), Streptococcus spp. (30.3%), nondiphtheroid Bacilli (16.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%), Candida spp. (11.8%), and Gram-negative Bacilli (2.8%). The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram-negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  14. Development and Evaluation the Satisfaction of Using an Oral Health Survey Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2018-06-05

    Surveying oral health at the community level should be done at regular intervals. Dental health personnel must assess the oral health status and needs of the community through the collection and interpretation of reliable health information. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to develop a mobile application for oral health surveys, (2) to analyze the oral status of school children in Bangkok using the newly developed application, and (3) to evaluate user satisfaction with using the Oral Health Survey Mobile Application (OHSMA). The OHSMA Android app was created to facilitate the collection and transfer of oral health status data. The survey data on the oral health status of Grades 1-6 Thai schoolchildren were collected and analyzed using the OHSMA. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to evaluate the satisfaction of 125 dental students when using this new application compared with using paper forms. The prevalence of dental caries in 441 schoolchildren was 79.7%. The total mean decayed, missing, and filled for primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing, and filled for permanent teeth (DMFT) were 4.09 (d + D = 3.29, m + M = 0.15, and f + F = 0.65). Users indicated high satisfaction scores for three OHSMA features: font, color, and proper size. The results showed that paper forms were easier for inputting and recording the data compared with the OHSMA. However, the OHSMA was significantly easier for searching data and reporting data compared with paper forms (OHSMA 3.80, paper forms 3.35; p application has the potential to collect valuable oral health survey data.

  15. Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tavakkol

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were cultured in Sabourauds medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol then cultures were tested with common mycological lab tests. In 80% of patients oral candidiasis have been diagnosed. In the investigation a direct relation between the oral candidiasis and removal of denture at night, denture cleanliness, presence of any suction and symptoms of denture stomatitis was shown. No relation between the oral candidiasis and sex, smoking habit, succeptible disease, angular cheilitis; the recent condition of denture and the retention of denture were found. The findings of our investigation indicates that candida albicans is the causative agent of denture stomatitis while other factors such as denture cleanliness, removal of denture at night and presence of any suction may be considered as well.

  16. A comparative study on the mast cells count in oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dastpak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the 10 most common malignant tumors and SCC accounts 94% of all oral malignancies. Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology . The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials & Methods: Sixty paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,dental school of Babol university of medical science (15 high grade,15 low grade and 30 Iritation Fibroma. Classification of OSCC cases was according to the BRODER`S malignancy grading system. Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides were re-evaluated before entering the samples in our study. Toluidine blue(1% staining was used to identify Mast cells in samples . We used SPSS software version 18 and one way ANOVA test for analyzing data. Results: The highest mast cell count was seen in normal tissue and it was higher in low grade OSCC in comparison with high grade, but the differences between groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean count of mast cell between OSCC and normal oral mucosa was statistically significant different(p=0.019.We didn’t observe any statistically significant difference between Mast cell counts of control group and low grade OSCC . The same result was seen between high garde and low grade OSCC . The Mean mast cell count difference between male and female groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean mast cell count difference between high grade OSCC and control group was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, the average amount of mast cells decreased in OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa . It does not seem that mast cells play an important role in tumor progression, although further study is needed. 

  17. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  18. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  19. Impact of socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health status of Indian elderly : a community-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah N; Sundaram K

    2003-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common cause of tooth loss. It is has insidious onset, chronic course, and commonly result due to cumulative effect of dietary habits, oral hygiene methods and oral habits practiced over the years. This study was planned to evaluate the periodontal health status of elderly population (above 60 years) in the community, using CPITN index, gingival recession, mobility of teeth and halitosis, using modified WHO Oral Health Survey Proforma. In addition, impact of se...

  20. Comparative evaluation of midazolam and butorphanol as oral premedication in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with oral butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in 60 pediatric patients with regards to sedation, anxiolysis, rescue analgesic requirement, and recovery profile. Materials and Methods: In a double blinded study design, 60 pediatric patients belonging to ASA class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomized to receive either oral midazolam (group I or oral butorphanol (group II 30 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of facemask application for induction of anesthesia. Rescue analgesic requirement, postoperative recovery, and complications were also recorded. Results: Butorphanol had better sedation potential than oral midazolam with comparable anxiolysis at the time of separation of children from their parents. Midazolam proved to be a better anxiolytic during venepuncture and facemask application. Butorphanol reduced need for supplemental analgesics perioperatively without an increase in side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or unpleasant postoperative recovery. Conclusion: Oral butorphanol is a better premedication than midazolam in children in view of its excellent sedative and analgesic properties. It does not increase side effects significantly.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in the evaluation of oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Saxena, D; Barnes, V M; Trivedi, H M; Ge, Y; Xu, T

    2006-10-01

    Clinical evaluation of oral microbial reduction after a standard prophylactic treatment has traditionally been based on bacterial cultivation methods. However, not all microbes in saliva or dental plaque can be cultivated. Polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) is a cultivation-independent molecular fingerprinting technique that allows the assessment of the predominant bacterial species present in the oral cavity. This study sought to evaluate the oral microbial changes that occurred after a standard prophylactic treatment with a conventional oral care product using PCR-DGGE. Twelve healthy adults participated in the study. Pooled plaque samples were collected at baseline, 24 h after prophylaxis (T1), and 4 days after toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (T4). The total microbial genomic DNA of the plaque was isolated. PCR was performed with a set of universal bacterial 16S rDNA primers. The PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments were separated by DGGE. The effects of the treatment and of dental brushing were assessed by comparing the PCR-DGGE fingerprinting profiles. The mean numbers of detected PCR amplicons were 22.3 +/- 6.1 for the baseline group, 13.0 +/- 3.1 for the T1 group, and 13.5 +/- 4.3 for the T4 group; the differences among the three groups were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The study also found a significant difference in the mean similarities of microbial profiles between the baseline and the treatment groups (P < 0.001). PCR-based DGGE has been shown to be an excellent means of rapidly and accurately assessing oral microbial changes in this clinical study.

  2. Comparison of Water, Mannitol and Positive Oral Contrast for Evaluation of Bowel By Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhmanaban Elamparidhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Small bowel remains a challenging anatomical site. Imaging approaches like CT-enterography helps in diagnosing non specific clinical presentations and imaging aids in appropriate management. Hence, bowel evaluation by CT requires a oral contrast agent for diagnosing the bowel pathology. Thus, quantitative and qualitative analysis of three oral contrast agents i.e., water, mannitol and positive contrast was done for identification of ideal intraluminal contrast agent. Aim: To assess the performance of mannitol as an endoluminal contrast agent as compared to water and positive contrast in the evaluation of bowel, to compare the distention of bowel with different oral contrasts and also to assess the usefulness of bowel distension in assessment of mural enhancement pattern of bowel. Materials and Methods: A comparative observational study was performed which consisted of 75 patients who were divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients in each group were given 1500 ml of oral contrast. Group I was given mannitol, Group II was given water and Group III was given positive contrast. Assessments of bowel distention at various levels and mural enhancement of bowel were studied. Chisquare test was used as test of significance for qualitative data. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance was the test of significance for quantitative data. Results: Bowel distention was excellent in mannitol compared to water and positive contrast. Wall enhancement and mural pattern was better appreciated with mannitol compared to other two contrast agents. Conclusion: Adequate bowel evaluation by CT requires an oral contrast agent which can cause maximal bowel distention, uniform intraluminal attenuation, increased contrast between intraluminal content and bowel wall with no artifacts and adverse effects. Mannitol has all the above characteristic and can be used as ideal neutral oral contrast agent.

  3. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

    2013-07-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

  4. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

  5. Evaluation of limited sampling models for prediction of oral midazolam AUC for CYP3A phenotyping and drug interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Silke C; Drewelow, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) after oral midazolam administration is commonly used for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A phenotyping studies. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a limited sampling strategy for the prediction of AUC with oral midazolam. A total of 288 concentration-time profiles from 123 healthy volunteers who participated in four previously performed drug interaction studies with intense sampling after a single oral dose of 7.5 mg midazolam were available for evaluation. Of these, 45 profiles served for model building, which was performed by stepwise multiple linear regression, and the remaining 243 datasets served for validation. Mean prediction error (MPE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) were calculated to determine bias and precision The one- to four-sampling point models with the best coefficient of correlation were the one-sampling point model (8 h; r (2) = 0.84), the two-sampling point model (0.5 and 8 h; r (2) = 0.93), the three-sampling point model (0.5, 2, and 8 h; r (2) = 0.96), and the four-sampling point model (0.5,1, 2, and 8 h; r (2) = 0.97). However, the one- and two-sampling point models were unable to predict the midazolam AUC due to unacceptable bias and precision. Only the four-sampling point model predicted the very low and very high midazolam AUC of the validation dataset with acceptable precision and bias. The four-sampling point model was also able to predict the geometric mean ratio of the treatment phase over the baseline (with 90 % confidence interval) results of three drug interaction studies in the categories of strong, moderate, and mild induction, as well as no interaction. A four-sampling point limited sampling strategy to predict the oral midazolam AUC for CYP3A phenotyping is proposed. The one-, two- and three-sampling point models were not able to predict midazolam AUC accurately.

  6. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  7. Evaluation of patients' knowledge and awarness of oral cavity hygiene's influence on cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Niewęgłowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases including heart attack and stroke are the main cause of death in Poland. Out of the numerous bacteria that inhabit oral cavity, some are responsible for periodontitis. There is a confirmed correlation between chronic inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study: The aim of study is evaluation of patients’ knowledge and awareness of the correlation between the oral health and the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 patients from three locations in Lodz: Electrocardiology Clinic of Medical University of Lodz, a multi-profile clinic in Lodz and Oral Surgery Department of Medical University of Lodz. Each patient filled a questionnaire which contained demographic data (age, sex, place of residence, education, questions related to the oral cavity (a subjective estimate of the patient’s own oral hygiene, frequency of teeth brushing, last visit to the GDP, and five questions about the influence of the oral hygiene on the cardiovascular system with three options: Yes, No, and I don’t know. Results: Most patients realize that decayed teeth can cause inflammation in the body and influence the development of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, only less then half of the patients have knowledge about correlation between oral health and development of atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Increasing patients’ knowledge about the oral health and hygiene, the condition of the dentition and gums, and the overall health, including heart diseases, is a very important aspect of dentists’, general practitioners’ and cardiologists’ work. Patients are aware of the influence of the oral hygiene on their health but their knowledge needs to be deepened and systematized.

  8. Oral hygiene and oral flora evaluation in psychiatric patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Key words: Bacteria types, oral and dental illnesses, psychiatric patients. Date of Acceptance: .... patients, and difficulties such as insufficient sedation.[7]. This study .... Despite the general notion that stress triggers bruxism ...

  9. [A case-control study: association between oral hygiene and oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J F; Lin, L S; Chen, F; Liu, F Q; Huang, J F; Yan, L J; Liu, F P; Qiu, Y; Zheng, X Y; Cai, L; He, B C

    2017-08-06

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of oral hygiene on risk of oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women. Methods: From September 2010 to February 2016, 242 non-smoking and non-drinking female patients with pathologically confirmed oral cancer were recruited in a hospital of Fuzhou, and another 856 non-smoking and non-drinking healthy women from health examination center in the same hospital were selected as control group. Five oral hygiene related variables including the frequency of teeth brushing, number of teeth lost, poor prosthesis, regular dental visits and recurrent dental ulceration were used to develop oral hygiene index model. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios ( OR ) and 95% confidence intervals (95 %CI ). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the predictability of the oral hygiene index model. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between oral hygiene index and the incidence of oral cancer. Results: Teeth brushing oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women, the corresponding OR (95 %CI ) were 1.50 (1.08-2.09), 1.81 (1.15-2.85), 1.51 (1.03-2.23), 1.73 (1.15-2.59), 7.30 (4.00-13.30), respectively. The AUROC of the oral hygiene index model was 0.705 9, indicating a high predictability. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the oral hygiene index was associated with risk of oral cancer. The higher the score, the higher risk was observed. The corresponding OR (95 %CI ) of oral hygiene index scores (score 1, score 2, score 3, score 4-5) were 2.51 (0.84-7.53), 4.68 (1.59-13.71), 6.47 (2.18-19.25), 15.29 (5.08-45.99), respectively. Conclusion: Oral hygiene could influence the incidence of oral cancer in non-smoking and non-drinking women, and oral hygiene index has a certain significance in assessing the combined effects of oral hygiene.

  10. Immunohistochemical characterization and evaluation of prognostic factors in canine oral melanomas with osteocartilaginous differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Ramirez, G A; Buendia, A J; Vilafranca, M; Martinez, C M; Altimira, J; Navarro, J A

    2007-09-01

    Melanomas are the most common malignant oral neoplasm in dogs. Osteocartilaginous differentiation in oral melanomas is a rare feature described both in veterinary and human medicine. Here, 10 cases of this type of neoplasm were used to study their immunohistochemical, biological, and clinical characteristics. Reactivity for S100 and melan A antigen was evaluated, and 4 prognosis factors (mitotic index, invasiveness of epithelium, nuclear atypia, and proliferation index) were analyzed and correlated with the clinical course of the neoplasms after diagnosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the studied neoplasms, including the osteocartilaginous areas, showed positive immunoreaction for S100 and melan A, except in one dog, which was negative for melan A. Analysis of the results showed that oral melamonas with osteocartilaginous differentiation have a clinical course similar to that of other melanomas in the oral cavity. Analysis of the mitotic index and the expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 could be useful tools for predicting the biological behavior of these neoplasms.

  11. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  12. A multicenter study of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions in a Brazilian pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leni Verônica de Oliveira; Arruda, José Alcides Almeida; Martelli, Stephanie Joana; Kato, Camila de Nazaré Alves de Oliveira; Nunes, Laiz Fernanda Mendes; Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina Uchoa; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions among children from representative regions of Brazil. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. Biopsy records comprising the period from 2000 to 2015 were obtained from the archives of three Brazilian oral pathology referral centers. A total of 32,506 biopsy specimens were analyzed, and specimens from 1,706 children aged 0-12 years were selected. Gender, age, anatomical location and histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Descriptive statistics was carried out. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the association between the categorical variables. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The post-hoc test was used to identify the subgroups that significantly differed from one another, and the Bonferroni correction was applied. A total of 1,706 oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed in pediatric patients, including 51.9% girls. Oral mucocele was the most prevalent reactive/inflammatory lesion (64%). The most commonly affected sites were the lips (34.5%) and mandible (19.9%). A significant association was observed between age and the group of lesions of the oral cavity (p oral and maxillofacial lesions were frequent and showed wide diversity, with the prevalence of mucocele. Knowledge of oral lesions is important for pediatric dentists worldwide, since it provides accurate data for the diagnosis and oral health of children.

  13. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists' gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). The quality of the pharmacists' consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  15. ORAL MUCOSA LESIONS AND ORAL SYMPTOMS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno LARANJEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease is known for its extra intestinal manifestations, the oral cavity is no exception. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and oral mucosa lesions and symptoms, and complementary to evaluate their possible relation with oral hygiene, smoking habits, drug therapy, duration and activity of the disease. Methods Patients were selected from the Gastroenterology Clinic of a Portuguese tertiary referral hospital. This sample consisted of 113 patients previously diagnosed with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease along with a control group of 58 healthy individuals that were accompanying the study group patients to their appointments. Clinical interviews and clinical examinations were performed for data collection. Results The patients in the study group were more affected by oral symptoms (P=0.011, and showed a trend towards a higher incidence of oral mucosal lesions, even though statistical significance was not reached (8.8% versus 3.4% in the control group; P=0.159. Patients in active phase were the most affected. No differences were detected between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, or concerning smoking habits. The corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy seemed to increase the incidence of oral symptoms (P=0.052. The oral mucosa lesions increased and the oral symptoms decreased over the course of the disease, however without statistical significance. Conclusion Oral mucosa’s lesions and oral symptoms were positively associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, mainly during disease activity periods and conceivably, associated with corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy.

  16. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  17. A Clinicopathologic Study of Oral Changes in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Gastritis, and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinesh, E; Masthan, Kmk; Kumar, M Sathish; Jeyapriya, S Marytresa; Babu, Aravindha; Thinakaran, Meera

    2016-11-01

    The aim and objectives of this study are to identify oral changes in certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, namely gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcerative colitis, gastritis, and to evaluate these oral symptoms as indicators for assessing GI disorders. In this study, the oral manifestations of various GI disorders were assessed in a varying age group of 250 patients in Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Out of 250 patients, 142 were affected by GERD, 99 were affected by gastritis, and 9 patients were affected by ulcerative colitis. Of these patients, 177 were males and 73 were females. Evaluation of patients with gastritis revealed that 66.7% affected with gingivitis, 19.2% with dental erosion on the palatal and lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth predominantly in the anterior region, 10.1% with periodontitis, 2% with gingival erythema. Among the patients with GERD, 44% of the cases showed dental erosion, 25.5% periodontitis, 9.9% gingivitis, 5.7% gingival erythema, 2.8% palatal erythema, 2.1% gingival ulcers, glossitis 2%, 1.4% floor of the mouth erythema, and 0.7% erythema of the tongue. Patients with ulcerative colitis showed 44.4% of gingival erythema, 33.3% of dental erosions, and 22.2% of gingival ulcers and periodontitis. In our study of 250 patients, oral manifestations were observed in 88% of the patients. Both soft tissue and hard tissue changes were evident. There was a high correlation between various GI disease and dental erosion, erythema at various sites of the oral cavity, oral ulcers, gingivitis, periodontitis, and glossitis. Careful evaluation of oral cavity may unveil many GI disorders and help the patient by providing early diagnosis, which further facilitates the prognosis.

  18. A study of precancerous lesions for oral cancer in Jamnagar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Jha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cancer is a common malignancy, ranking first among all cancers in Western and Asian countries. It is preceded by some benign lesions or conditions, which are termed precancerous. Only one-third of people at the precancerous stage of disease succumb to cancer, it would be of practical importance to identify individuals at risk among them. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate high risk factors for oral cancer, to evaluate clinical features and correlate various factors to precancerous lesions and to determine incidence rate and magnitude of precancerous lesions in general population. Methods: In the study, 17,692 residents from different wards of Jamnagar city are clinically assessed for presence of precancerous lesions and interviewed by cross-sectional study. Results: It was found that prevalence rate of leukoplakia was found 0.93% while of OSMF was 1.75% in study population. All persons with precancerous lesions have addictions like tobacco chewing/smoking. Out of 5,652 persons with poor oral hygiene, leukoplakia was found in 2.54%, while OSMF in 1.67%. Conclusion: This study concluded that prevalence rate of precancerous lesion in general population of Jamnagar city is high. It is associated with habits of tobacco chewing and cigarette smoking.

  19. Oral cancer: a retrospective study of 100 Danish cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Rindum, J; Pindborg, J J

    1997-01-01

    One hundred Danes with oral cancer who were collected consecutively from 1986 to 1991 were evaluated retrospectively. The study included subjective and objective observations in 56% men and in 44% women. M:F ratio was 1.2:1. Fifty percent of the patients were non-smokers. Nine percent were women...

  20. Evaluation of efficacy of aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis - a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Ardra; Patil, Bharati; Asha, Venkataswamy Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disease, treatment of which has largely been symptomatic. Aloe vera has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant, and antineoplastic activities. All such properties of aloe vera suggest the possibility of its use in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Seventy-four patients of oral submucous fibrosis were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A patients were treated with systemic (juice) and topical aloe vera (gel) for 3 months. Group B patients were treated with intralesional injection of hydrocortisone and hyaluronidase for 6 weeks with antioxidant supplements for 3 months. Patients were assessed for reduction in burning sensation and increase in mouth opening, cheek flexibility, and tongue protrusion at an interval of 1, 2, and 3 months. Both the groups showed statistically significant improvements in all the study parameters at the end of study period (P aloe vera was comparable to that of intralesional injections of hydrocortisone and hyaluronidase with antioxidant supplementation. The study concludes that aloe vera can be an alternative, safe, and effective treatment regime in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Long-term follow-up studies with larger sample size are recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. Methods This survey evaluated...

  2. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of potential salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol in oral cancer patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaelli, H; Apaydin, A; Aydil, B; Ayhan, M; Karadeniz, A; Ozel, S; Yılmaz, E; Akgün, B; Eren, B

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde has been implicated as a major factor in oral carcinogenesis associated with alcohol consumption. In this study, saliva samples from oral cancer patients and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with ethanol in order to investigate factors which can influence salivary acetaldehyde production. A total of 66 individuals (40 males and 26 females, mean age 52 years) participated in the study. Participants were classified into three groups: Group 1 (oral cancer patients [n = 20]); Group 2 (poor dental health status [n = 25]) and Group 3 (good dental health status [n=21]). Every patient chewed a 1g piece of paraffin chewing gum for 1 minute then saliva samples were collected from all individuals. After in vitro incubation of the samples with ethanol, the levels of salivary acetaldehyde production was measured by head space gas chromatography. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman's Correlations analysis were performed for statistical analyses. The salivary acetaldehyde production was significantly higher (p oral hygiene habits and dental visits, smoking and presence of a dental prosthesis were significant parameters for increased levels of salivary acetaldehyde production from alcohol. The evaluation of salivary acetaldehyde production after in vitro incubation with ethanol may be useful for early detection of oral cancer. According to the results of this study, the significantly higher levels of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cancer patients and individuals with poor dental health status may suggest a possible link between increased salivary acetaldehyde production and oral cancer. Improved oral hygiene can effectively decrease the level of salivary acetaldehyde production in oral cavity. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 269-274.

  4. [Macroscopic evaluation of the oral mucosa and analysis of salivary pH in patients with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszyńska, Elzbieta; Słopień, Agnieszka; Slebioda, Zuzanna S; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Marta; Weglarz, Monika; Rajewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the status of the oral mucosa, to assess the prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity and to analyze the pH values of total saliva in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) in comparison to the general population. A controlled clinical trial was designed for two, age-matched, female groups: patients with AN (Group A, n=31) and healthy women (Group 0, n = 40). Total saliva was collected at rest and after stimulation by chewing paraffin wax. Salivary pH was measured and macroscopic evaluation of the oral mucosa was performed with a qualitative and quantitative mycological analysis. The smear layer was collected from three different areas in the oral cavity. Selected Candida broths were used for incubation. Changes in the macroscopic structure of the oral mucosa due to multifactorial etiologies were observed. The prevalence of Candida in patients with AN was comparable to that in the general population. Salivary pH values were significantly lower in the AN patients than in the control group. The incidence of pathological changes in the oral mucosa is associated with the loss of the salivary protective barrier. This is shown by the significant reduction in the pH values of stimulated and non-stimulated saliva of the AN patients. In these patients, the monitoring of salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate and pH is indicated, and a regular dental checkup, together with soft tissue evaluation, is advised.

  5. Impact of oral rehabilitation on patients with head and neck cancer: A study using the Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, Kanchan P; Dugad, Jinesh A; Sadashiva, Karthik M

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of oral cancers affects oral functions and quality of life (QOL). Dental rehabilitation is a major step toward enhancing quality of life after controlling the disease. The effects of the disease, treatment, and rehabilitation need to be evaluated to assess oral health-related QOL. The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 (LORQv3) and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) are specific assessment questionnaires of oral rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of oral rehabilitation on patients with head and neck cancer by using the LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires and to discover and document specific patient-derived problems related to the issues of oral rehabilitation. The LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires were administered to 60 participants with oral cancer, who were in need of oral rehabilitation. They were asked to rate their dental problems on a Likert scale before fabrication of their prostheses (baseline) and at the 3-month follow-up visit after prosthetic rehabilitation. Paired comparison was done using the Wilcoxon signed rank test according to the distribution, and Cronbach alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Subscale scores were determined by mean value (α=.05). For the LORQv3 questionnaire, a 10% to 27% improvement was found in the domain of oral function, and a 20% improvement in orofacial appearance, with improvement in patient satisfaction with the prosthesis. Using the OHIP-14 questionnaire, a 45% to 67% improvement was generally seen in all domains. After assessment using the LORQv3 and OHIP-14 questionnaires, prosthetic rehabilitation was seen to contribute to the betterment of patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  7. Oral heparin delivery: design and in vivo evaluation of a stomach-targeted mucoadhesive delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Thierry; Leitner, Verena M; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is an agent of choice in the anti-coagulant therapy and prophylaxis of thrombosis and coronary syndromes. However, the therapeutic use is partially limited due to a poor oral bioavailability. It was therefore the aim of this study to design and evaluate a highly efficient stomach-targeted oral delivery system for LMWH. In order to appraise the influence of the molecular weight on the oral bioavailability, mini-tablets comprising 3 kDa (279 IU) and 6 kDa (300 IU) LMWH, respectively, were generated and tested in vivo in rats. The potential of the test formulations based on thiolated polycarbophil, was evaluated in comparison to hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) as control carrier matrix. The plasma levels of LMWH after oral versus subcutaneous administration were determined in order to calculate the relative bioavailability. With the delivery system containing 3 kDa LMWH (279 IU) a relative bioavailability of 19.1% was achieved, offering a significantly (p thiolated polymers are a promising tool for the non-invasive stomach-targeted systemic delivery of LMWH as model for a hydrophilic macromolecular polysaccharide. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  8. Evaluation of medicinal interventions for the management of oral submucous fibrosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda; Habib, Syed Rashid; Pejcic, Ana; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2014-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic, progressive scarring disease associated with both significant morbidity including pain and limited mouth opening and an increased risk for malignancy. This systematic review evaluated the different medicinal (i.e. nonsurgical) interventions available for the management of oral submucous fibrosis. An automated literature searches of online databases from January 1960 to December 2013 were performed and only studies with high level of evidence based on the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine were selected. Thirteen studies (3 randomized controlled trials and 10 clinical trials/controlled clinical trials) were included and drugs like steroids, hyaluronidase, human placenta extracts, chymotrypsin and collagenase, pentoxifylline, nylidrin hydrochloride, iron and multivitamin supplements including lycopene were used. There is a clear lack of evidence on the available drug treatment for oral submucous fibrosis and further high quality randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the different therapeutic agents.

  9. Oral implications of the vegan diet: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffranchi, L; Zotti, F; Bonetti, S; Dalessandri, D; Fontana, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral changes in subjects who have assumed a vegan diet for a long time (at least 18 months), that is to say, a diet completely lacking in meat and animal derivatives. A sample of 15 subjects was analyzed, all from northern Italy and aged 24 to 60 year, composed of 11 men and 4 women who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years. In parallel with the study sample, a control group (15 subjects) with the same criteria of age, sex, and place of origin all following an omnivorous diet was chosen. The sample answered a questionnaire that investigated their eating habits, the frequency with which they eat meals, the main foodstuffs assumed, oral hygiene habits, and any painful symptomatology of the teeth or more general problems in the oral cavity. The sample was then subject to objective examination in which the saliva pH was measured and the teeth were checked for demineralization of the enamel, white spots, and caries (using KaVo DIAGNOdent) with particular attention being paid to the localization of these lesions, and lastly, sounding was carried out to detect any osseous defects and periodontal pockets. The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in the vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones localized at the neck of the teeth and on the vestibular surfaces of dental elements (with the exception of the lower anterior group). The saliva pH, more acid in the omnivorous patients, ranged between four and six. Changes in oral conditions in both groups of subjects were observed. In order to research into the cause-effect relationship of the vegan diet on the oral cavity effectively, the sample needs to be studied for a longer period of time and the results re-evaluated.

  10. Collecting standardised oral health data via mobile application: A proof of concept study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C L den Boer

    Full Text Available FDI World Dental Federation, founded as Fédération Dentaire Internationale, has taken the initiative to develop the Oral Health Observatory, a mobile application to conduct oral health surveys worldwide. The aim is to collect reliable standardized international data on oral health and oral health care via a network of dentists. A proof of concept study project was set up in the Netherlands to test the methodology and to validate the approach. Data about caries, gingivitis, oral self-care and oral health related quality of life were analysed and compared to datasets validated in other studies. The Android app embeds three questionnaires addressing oral health history, status and patient behaviour. One questionnaire was completed by the patient and two by the dentist. The proof of concept study involved two phases: in the first phase, five dentists, regular participants in KNMT-surveys, evaluated the usability of the app; after the first phase, the app was adjusted for a second phase. For this phase an extra 15 dentists were recruited from a group of 20 other dentists: five of them declined to participate. Attention was paid to ensuring there was a proportional representation of gender, age and region. In the second phase the five first and 15 new participants collected data on up to a maximum of 38 patients. Data from this 653 patients correspond with results from previously published surveys on the prevalence of caries and gingivitis in the Netherlands. Hence demonstrating an association between caries and gingivitis with oral self-care, problems eating and experiencing oral pain. This proof of concept study shows that the app makes it possible to collect reliable information on oral health in a short period of time. Both dentists and patients evaluated the methodology as user-friendly. Altogether, the results of this proof of concept study are promising.

  11. Collecting standardised oral health data via mobile application: A proof of concept study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Joost C L; van Dijk, Ward; Horn, Virginie; Hescot, Patrick; Bruers, Josef J M

    2018-01-01

    FDI World Dental Federation, founded as Fédération Dentaire Internationale, has taken the initiative to develop the Oral Health Observatory, a mobile application to conduct oral health surveys worldwide. The aim is to collect reliable standardized international data on oral health and oral health care via a network of dentists. A proof of concept study project was set up in the Netherlands to test the methodology and to validate the approach. Data about caries, gingivitis, oral self-care and oral health related quality of life were analysed and compared to datasets validated in other studies. The Android app embeds three questionnaires addressing oral health history, status and patient behaviour. One questionnaire was completed by the patient and two by the dentist. The proof of concept study involved two phases: in the first phase, five dentists, regular participants in KNMT-surveys, evaluated the usability of the app; after the first phase, the app was adjusted for a second phase. For this phase an extra 15 dentists were recruited from a group of 20 other dentists: five of them declined to participate. Attention was paid to ensuring there was a proportional representation of gender, age and region. In the second phase the five first and 15 new participants collected data on up to a maximum of 38 patients. Data from this 653 patients correspond with results from previously published surveys on the prevalence of caries and gingivitis in the Netherlands. Hence demonstrating an association between caries and gingivitis with oral self-care, problems eating and experiencing oral pain. This proof of concept study shows that the app makes it possible to collect reliable information on oral health in a short period of time. Both dentists and patients evaluated the methodology as user-friendly. Altogether, the results of this proof of concept study are promising.

  12. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  13. Evaluation of edaravone against radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Noriko; Watanabe, Shinichi; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akihiro; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    Oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy for cancers of the head and neck reduce the quality of life of patients. However, effective therapeutic agents are lacking. Symptomatic treatment involves local anesthesia and analgesia. We focused on the antioxidant effects of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one; Radicut(®)). Oral mucositis was induced on the tongue tips of mice using a single dose of X-rays (20 Gy). To evaluate the protective effect of edaravone (30 and 300 mg/kg), administration was carried out 30 min before irradiation. Survival, oral mucositis score, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured, and all were improved compared with those of control mice. A significant difference was not found in terms of survival due to edaravone. Histopathologic findings also highlighted the beneficial features of edaravone. Edaravone reduced the production of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that the protective effect of edaravone against radiation-induced oral mucositis is through an antioxidant effect. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of edaravone against radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Nakajima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy for cancers of the head and neck reduce the quality of life of patients. However, effective therapeutic agents are lacking. Symptomatic treatment involves local anesthesia and analgesia. We focused on the antioxidant effects of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one; Radicut®. Oral mucositis was induced on the tongue tips of mice using a single dose of X-rays (20 Gy. To evaluate the protective effect of edaravone (30 and 300 mg/kg, administration was carried out 30 min before irradiation. Survival, oral mucositis score, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured, and all were improved compared with those of control mice. A significant difference was not found in terms of survival due to edaravone. Histopathologic findings also highlighted the beneficial features of edaravone. Edaravone reduced the production of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that the protective effect of edaravone against radiation-induced oral mucositis is through an antioxidant effect.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of cryotherapy in preventing oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancı, Nilgün; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Ozlem; Sevinc, Alper

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of oral mucositis related to infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with leucovorin. This study, a randomized controlled trial with random assignments to the experimental and control groups, was conducted with cancer patients. The study included 60 patients; 30 patients in the study group were instructed to hold ice cubes in their mouth shortly before, during, and shortly after infusion of 5-FU with leucovorin, the 30 patients in the control group received routine care. Oral mucositis in the patients was evaluated at 7, 14, and 21 days after chemotherapy. For analysis of data, chi-square, Fisher's tests were used; p cryotherapy, oral mucositis was not observed (Grade 0) at 7 and 14 days. Similarly, incidence of Grades 1, 2, and 3 oral mucositis in the experimental group was quite a bit lower when compared to the control group (p 0.05). We found that oral cryotherapy has a significant contribution to the protection of oral health by reducing mucositis score according to the WHO mucositis scale, especially on the 7th and 14th days. Nurses' awareness of how cryotherapy can affect patients and options for resolving problems will enable them to provide a higher standard of individualized care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID, and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, and Iran to reach the related articles published up to 2016. The English and Persian articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, prospective, and case-control designs were selected. The Persian studies were then translated into English. The animal studies were not investigated. Results: The findings showed that nutrition and diet were associated with oral health. However, the majority of studies focused on evaluation of the relation between nutrition and dental caries. Further, a few studies were conducted on the association between nutrition and other oral problems such as periodontal disease or oral cancer. Moreover, the limited nutritional or dietary factors were investigated in the literature. Conclusions: Nutrition and diet are related to oral health and prevention of oral disease. Further studies are therefore recommended to evaluate the association between nutrition and oral health with considering various dietary or nutritional factors and different types of oral problems in Iran.

  17. Evaluation of mast cell counts and microvessel density in reactive lesions of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kouhsoltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable immunohistochemical assays to assess the definitive role of mast cells (MCs and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of oral reactive lesions are generally not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mast cell counts (MCC and microvessel density (MVD in oral reactive lesions and determine the correlation between MCC and MVD. Methods. Seventy-five cases of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma (15 for each category were immunohisto-chemically stained with MC tryptase and CD31. Fifteen cases of normal gingival tissue were considered as the control group. The mean MCC and MVD in superficial and deep connective tissues were assessed and total MCC and MVD was computed for each lesion. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in MCC and MVD between the study groups (P < 0.001. MC tryptase and CD31 expression increased in the superficial connective tissue of each lesion in comparison to the deep con-nective tissue. A significant negative correlation was not found between MCC and MVD in oral reactive lesions (P < 0.001, r = -0.458. Conclusion. Although MCs were present in the reactive lesions of the oral cavity, a direct correlation between MCC and MVD was not found in these lesions. Therefore, a significant interaction between MCs and endothelial cells and an active role for MCs in the growth of oral reactive lesions was not found in this study.

  18. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of capsaicin-loaded microemulsion for enhanced oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiajia; Zheng, Qianfeng; Wang, Miaomiao; Deng, Wenwen; Li, Qiang; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Wang, Shengli; Tong, Shanshan; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2015-10-01

    Capsaicin, as a food additive, has attracted worldwide concern owing to its pungency and multiple pharmacological effects. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability have limited its application. This study aims to develop a capsaicin-loaded microemulsion to enhance the oral bioavailability of the anti-neuropathic-pain component, capsaicin, which is poorly water soluble. In this study, the microemulsion consisting of Cremophor EL, ethanol, medium-chain triglycerides (oil phase) and water (external phase) was prepared and characterized (particle size, morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency). The gastric mucosa irritation test of formulated capsaicin was performed in rats to evaluate its oral feasibility, followed by the pharmacokinetic study in vivo. Under these conditions, the encapsulated capsaicin revealed a faster capsaicin release in vitro coupled with a greater absorption in vivo when compared to the free capsaicin. The oral bioavailability of the formulated capsaicin-loaded microemulsions was 2.64-fold faster than that of free capsaicin. No significant irritation was observed on the mucosa from the pathological section of capsaicin-loaded microemulsion treated stomach. These results indicate that the developed microemulsion represents a safe and orally effective carrier for poorly soluble substances. The formulation could be used for clinical trials and expand the application of capsaicin. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Dietary score and the risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Junfeng; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Cai, Lin; He, Baochang

    2017-05-23

    This study aims to develop a simple dietary score to comprehensively evaluate the role of diet in the risk of oral cancer. A case-control study including 930 oral cancer cases and 2667 frequency-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the effects of dietary factors on oral cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, less intake of domestic meat (oral cancer. Then these variables were incorporated to establish dietary risk score. Assessed by the receiver operating characteristic curve, the score showed a satisfactory discriminatory capacity, with an area under the curve of 0.682 (95% CI: 0.662-0.702). Moreover, the score was positively associated with the risk of oral cancer as quartiles, and the association was apparently stronger in tobacco smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, there were significant multiplicative interactions between the score and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking for oral cancer. In the present study, a convenient dietary score with satisfactory discriminatory capacity was developed to assess the collected effect of dietary factors on oral cancer, which could provide a new strategy for the prevention of oral cancer through changing in dietary habits.

  1. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  2. Evaluation of Oral Health Status and Influential Factors in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... preferred by children's parents were analyzed. ... knowledge of dentists regarding autism increases, it is ... How to cite this article: Onol S, Kırzıoğlu Z. Evaluation of oral health ..... France: World Health Organization; 2013. p.

  3. Relation Between Periodontal Status and Pre-Cancerous Condition (Oral Lichen Planus): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Narendra Parkash; Kumar, Prafful; Mustafa, Shabil M; Divakar, Darshan D; Kheraif, Abdulaziz Al; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellapally, Sajith; Dalati, M H N; Parine, Narashimha Reddy; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease mostly seen in middle aged and elderly females. Oral lichen planus can occur in different oral sites such as gingiva, labial, buccal mucosa and on the tongue. And can have an indirect effect on initiating periodontitis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the periodontal status of OLP patients and compare it with that of healthy controls. The presence of erosive lesions among gingival tissues makes oral hygiene procedures difficult to perform for obvious reasons. Plaque control and rigorous oral hygiene are primary requisites for the treatment of any oro-mucosal disease. Thirty patients with the erosive and reticular form of OLP as a study group and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were selected. The periodontal status of all subjects including gingival index (GI), Russell's periodontal index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated in both groups. Finally, the data was analyzed by a paired t-test using SPSS software v. 22. The mean values of GI, PI and BOP were observed to be higher in the study group compared to the control group, and this was statistically significant (p oral lichen planus patients with larger sample size, and careful follow-up of these will assure an increase in the quality of life of these patients. The patient should be informed regarding the risk of periodontal problems in OLP and should be advised to have regular dental checkups to avoid a worsening of the conditio.

  4. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  5. Oral health and oral health risk behaviour in children with and without externalising behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, M; Norén, J G; Gahnberg, L; Ghaderi, A; Kadesjö, C; Robertson, A

    2018-05-15

    This was to study children with early detected externalising behaviour problems compared to matched controls regarding oral health, oral health risk behaviour and the parental evaluation of the child's oral health and dental care. Children aged 10-13 years and with externalising behaviour problems, were compared to matched controls. Behavioural characteristics were based on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The children and their parents completed questionnaires regarding dental fear, tooth brushing, dietary habits and evaluation of oral health and dental care. Data on dental caries risk assessments, caries, behaviour management problems and dental trauma were obtained from dental files. There were no differences in caries prevalence in children with early detected externalising behaviour problems, compared to controls. However, the former group consumed more sweet drinks when thirsty and brushed their teeth fewer than twice daily; they also had more dental trauma in both dentitions and a higher risk range for dental fear, compared to controls. This study points out potential oral health risk factors in children with early-detected externalising behaviour problems. Although no difference in caries prevalence was observed, externalising behaviour may affect oral health. Therefore, dental professionals should support the families and the children to preserve dental health by offering increased prophylactic measures. There were no differences between children with externalising behaviour problems, compared with controls, regarding the parent evaluation of their child's dental health. However, more parents in the study group evaluated the dental care as poor or not functioning.

  6. [Instruments for evaluating oral health knowledge, attitudes and practice for parents /caregivers of small children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Bautista-Mendoza, Gloria; González-Carrera, María; Lafaurie-Villamil, Gloria; Morales, Veicy; Santamaría, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Designing three instruments for evaluating oral health knowledge, attitudes and practice in parents/caregivers of low social-economic status 0-5 year-olds. Evaluating the instruments' reliability in terms of internal consistency and analysing items. Three instruments were constructed for evaluating low social-economic status 0-5 year-olds' parents/caregivers' oral health knowledge, attitudes and practice in the municipality of Usaquén , Bogotá , Colombia . 47 parents/caregivers were given a test establishing the instrument's reliability in terms of internal consistency and the adults' level of knowledge, attitudes and practice. A sub-sample was qualitatively analysed (content verification and understanding). Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Items were analysed for improving constructing and understanding the questions, taking four criteria into account: corrected homogeneity index (CHI), response trend, correlation between items and qualitative analysis. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for knowledge, attitudes and practice was 0,82, 0,80 and 0,62, respectively. Participants' level of knowledge, attitudes and practice was acceptable (60 %, 55 % and 91 %, respectively). This study found two out of the three evaluated instruments to be reliable (knowledge and attitudes); all three of them were then redesigned. The resulting instruments represent a valuable tool which can be used in future studies for describing and evaluating preventative programmes.

  7. Evaluation of oral stereognostic ability after rehabilitating patients with complete dentures: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, S; Gujjari, Anil Kumar; Thippeswamy, H N; Raghunath, N

    2014-12-01

    Stereognosis has been defined as the appreciation of the form of objects by palpation. Whilst this definition holds good for the manual exploration of objects, it is possible for the shape of objects to be explored intra orally referred to as oral stereognosis. To better understand patients' relative satisfaction with complete dentures, differences in oral stereognostic perception, based on the identification of 6 edible objects was analyzed in a group of 30 edentulous individuals at 3 stages, namely, just before (pre-treatment), 30 min after (30 min post-treatment) and 1 month after (1 month post-treatment) the insertion of new dentures. The time required to identify each object was recorded and the correctness of identification of each object was scored using oral stereognostic score. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman's rank correlation test, Pearson Chi square test was used to statistically analyze the data obtained. OSA scores was significantly increased 1 month post-treatment compared to 30 min post-treatment (p < 0.05). It was found that Oral stereognostic test is reliable for measuring patients' oral stereognostic perception and may be used as one of the clinical aids in appreciating the functional limitations imposed by the prostheses.

  8. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  9. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. Double-blind clinical evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Andersen, R B

    1991-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine is a relatively new anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and anti-depressant effects. Efficacy of 800 mg orally administered s-adenosylmethionine daily versus placebo for six weeks was investigated in 44 patients with primary fibromyalgia in double-blind settings. Tender poi...... effects on primary fibromyalgia and could be an important option in the treatment hereof.......S-adenosylmethionine is a relatively new anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and anti-depressant effects. Efficacy of 800 mg orally administered s-adenosylmethionine daily versus placebo for six weeks was investigated in 44 patients with primary fibromyalgia in double-blind settings. Tender point...... = 0.03) and mood evaluated by Face Scale (P = 0.006) in the actively treated group compared to placebo. The tender point score, isokinetic muscle strength, mood evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory and side effects did not differ in the two treatment groups. S-adenosylmethionine has some beneficial...

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Binita; Bhatia, Hind Pal; Chaudhary, Visuja; Aggarwal, Archana; Kumar Singh, Ashish; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the presence of Candida albicans in extensive carious lesions before and after treatment of the carious lesions and to evaluate the carriage of Candida albicans in children with and without caries. The study was conducted on 60 childrens who were divided into two groups: Experimental group (group 1) and controlled group (group 2). Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups according to the dentition as: Group A (Deciduous), group B (Mixed) and group C (Permanent). Swab samples for mycological studies were collected from the dorsum of the tongue, vestibular sulcus and peak of the palatal vault. All samples were cultured directly on SDA plate (Sabouraud's dextrose agar). Number of Candida colonies was determined by counting colony forming unit on SDA plates. Further identification of Candida albicans was done by germ-tube test and corn-meal agar. Overall prevalence of Candida albicans carriage was significantly higher and mean value of Candida albicans CFU (colony forming unit) was remarkably higher in group 1 (experimental group) as compare to group 2 (control group). Significant reduction in the frequency and mean value of Candida albicans CFU/plate was seen in children after treatment of carious lesions. This study supports the active role of Candida species in dental caries. Hence, Candida albicans may play an important role as a risk factor for dental caries. It was also seen that the oral environment stabilization procedures were able to reduce Candida albicans counts. Thus, these procedures can be considered efficient in the reduction of caries risk. How to cite this article: Srivastava B, Bhatia HP, Chaudhary V, Aggarwal A, Singh AK, Gupta N. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Candida albicans Carriage in Children with and without Dental Caries: A Microbiological in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):108-112.

  11. Evaluation of Oral Stereognostic Ability After Rehabilitating Patients with Complete Dentures: In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi, S.; Gujjari, Anil Kumar; Thippeswamy, H. N.; Raghunath, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stereognosis has been defined as the appreciation of the form of objects by palpation. Whilst this definition holds good for the manual exploration of objects, it is possible for the shape of objects to be explored intra orally referred to as oral stereognosis. To better understand patients’ relative satisfaction with complete dentures, differences in oral stereognostic perception, based on the identification of 6 edible objects was analyzed in a group of 30 edentulous individuals at 3 stages...

  12. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of dipyridamole: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Zhong, Haijun; He, Jing; Xie, Baogang; Liu, Fen; Xu, Helin; Liu, Minmin; Xu, Chunlian

    2011-07-01

    Dipyridamole shows poor and variable bioavailability after oral administration due to pHdependent solubility, low biomembrane permeability as well as being a substrate of P-glycoprotein. In order to improve the oral absorption of dipyridamole, a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for dipyridamole was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The optimum formulation was 18% oleic acid, 12% Labrafac lipophile WL 1349, 42% Solutol HS 15 and 28% isopropyl alcohol. It was found that the performance of self-microemulsification with the combination of oleic acid and Labrafac lipophile WL 1349 increased compared with just one oil. The results obtained from an in vitro dissolution assay indicated that dipyridamole in SMEDDS dissolved rapidly and completely in pH 6.8 aqueous media, while the commercial drug tablet was less soluble. An oral bioavailability study in rats showed that dipyridamole in the SMEDDS formulation had a 2.06-fold increased absorption compared with the simple drug suspension. It was evident that SMEDDS may be an effective approach to improve the oral absorption for drugs having pH-dependent solubility.

  13. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Kakoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, Iran, and included 260 subjects (128 patients with T2DM and 132 healthy controls. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from all subjects and s-IgA levels were determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. The oral cavities and teeth of T2DM patients were evaluated for oral and dental manifestations. Results: Both diabetic and control subjects with higher concentrations of s-IgA had significantly higher numbers of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT and periodontal index (PDI scores (P <0.050. s-IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects with oral candidiasis (P <0.050. Among diabetic patients, significantly higher s-IgA levels were concomitant with xerostomia and denture stomatitis (P ≤0.050. There were no significant differences between s-IgA concentrations and other oral or dental manifestations in either group. Conclusion: Individuals with a greater number of DMFT, a higher PDI score and oral candidiasis had significantly higher s-IgA levels. s-IgA levels were not significantly higher among diabetic patients in comparison to the control group. However, significantly higher s-IgA levels occurred with xerostomia and denture stomatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, s-IgA was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled diabetes compared to those with controlled diabetes.

  14. Evaluation of Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Following Oral Administration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zayerzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties, with potential different applications in nanomedicine, electronics, and other industries. These new applications of carbon nanotubes in different industries lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human. Up to now, all aspects of carbon nanotubes toxicity are not completely clear following human and animal exposures with these novel compounds. The aim of this study was to assess cardiopulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes following oral administration in rats with respect to the histopathological and biochemical evaluation. Methods: In the present investigation, we studied cardiorespiratory toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT with regard to histopathological changes and some biomarkers including TnT, CK-MB and LDH in experimental rats following oral administration. One dose per 24 h of MWCNT suspension was administered orally (gavage technique to animals at the doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day BW for 5 days. Results: The results of these study showed oral administration of MWCNT induces histopathological complications such as severe alveolar edema and hemorrhage in lungs and myocytolysis in heart of all experimental groups of animals. In all of the groups, troponin T level showed no changes when compared to baseline. Lactate dehydrogenase and CK-MB activity showed significant increment in all of animal groups following oral administration of carbon nanotubes. Conclusions: It can be concluded that oral exposure of MWCNT may be toxic for cardiovascular and respiratory systems, because MWCNT induced biochemical alterations and histopathological abnormalities in these vital systems.

  15. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2018-02-01

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon ® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:436-450. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Evaluation of Different Methods for Removing Oral Biofilm in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maria Sonia; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol; Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Della Vedove; Segundo, Alex Semenoff; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Bandeca, Matheus Coêlho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the different methods for removing oral biofilm in combination with 0.12% chlorhexidine, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the General University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Initially, the patients were included in the study and underwent periodontal evaluation by means of the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). The removal of visible biofilm, by a professional, was carried out using a toothbrush and dental floss, followed by the application of a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution. The patients were included in this randomized and controlled study into four groups (total n = 48), as follows: Chlorhexidine and gauze 12/12 h; chlorhexidine and gauze 24/24 h; chlorhexidine and brushing 12/12 h; chlorhexidine and brushing 24/24 h. The patients underwent the biofilm removal protocol for 7 days and then were subjected to a new clinical evaluation as to VPI and GBI. Data analysis was performed through stratification and arrangement of the records, in order to carry out the associations with health indicators used in the study, and the statistical tests used were Kappa and t-test for independent and paired samples. Results: A decrease in the VPI and GBI values when comparing baseline to the final evaluation for all groups was observed. Conclusion: Based on the methodology, it was possible to concluded that chlorhexidine associated with the mechanical action of the toothbrush or gauze in the times 12 h and 24 h in the ICU environment presented the same results as regards amount of visible biofilm. How to cite the article: Oliveira MS, Borges AH, Mattos FZ, Semenoff TA, Segundo AS, Tonetto MR, Bandeca MC, Porto AN. Evaluation of different methods for removing oral biofilm in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):61-4. PMID:25083034

  17. Podoplanin expression in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A G, Deepa; Janardanan-Nair, Bindu; B R, Varun

    2017-12-01

    Podoplanin is a type I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein that is specifically expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Studies have shown that assessment of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells can be used to predict the malignant transformation of potentially malignant disorders and the metastatic tendency of primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of podoplanin in oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with that in normal buccal mucosa by immunohistochemical methods. Immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin was analyzed in 20 cases each of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal buccal mucosa, with monoclonal antibody D2-40. The expression of podoplanin was graded from grade 0-4. There was a statistically significant upregulation of the grades of podoplanin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma(100%), oral submucous fibrosis (90%) and oral leukoplakia (65%) when compared to that in normal mucosa(35%). Podoplanin expression increased with decrease in grades of differentiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma . Podoplanin expression in the samples of oral submucous fibrosis was higher than that in oral leukoplakia. Evaluation of podoplanin expression in the epithelial cells of oral dysplastic lesions may provide valuable information to predict their risk of malignant transformation. Key words: Immunohistochemistry, Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Podoplanin, Squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. A phase I clinical study to evaluate safety of orally administered, genetically engineered Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for canine osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Sara; Henson, Michael; Greengard, Emily; Winter, Amber; Stuebner, Kathleen; Yoon, Una; Wilk, Vicki; Borgatti, Antonella; Augustin, Lance; Modiano, Jaime; Saltzman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We conducted a prospective phase I study to evaluate safety of an orally administered Salmonella encoding IL‐2 (SalpIL2) in combination with amputation and adjuvant doxorubicin for canine appendicular osteosarcoma. Efficacy was assessed as a secondary measure. The first dose of SalpIL2 was administered to 19 dogs on Day 0; amputation was done after 10 days with chemotherapy following 2 weeks later. SalpIL2 was administered concurrent with chemotherapy, for a total of five doses of do...

  19. Cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with oral cleft: a clinical-electrocardiographic-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele C.P. Leite

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to describe the clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic cardiological findings in a group of patients with oral clefts. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study on 70 children (age range from 13 days to 19 years with oral clefts who attended the multidisciplinary program of a university hospital from March 2013 to September 2014. The patients were evaluated by a pediatric cardiologist and underwent detailed anamnesis, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the patients were male; 55.7% presented with cleft lip and palate, and 40.0% presented with health complaints. Comorbidities were found in 44.3%. Relevant pregnancy, neonatal, family and personal antecedents were present in 55.7%, 27.1%, 67.2%, and 24.3% of the patients, respectively. Regarding the antecedents, 15.2% of the patients presented with a cardiac murmur, 49.0% with a familial risk of developing plurimetabolic syndrome, and 6% with family antecedents of rheumatic fever. Electrocardiographic evaluation showed one case of atrioventricular block. Echocardiograms were abnormal in 35.7% of the exams, including 5 cases of mitral valve prolapse — one of which was diagnosed with rheumatic heart disease. CONCLUSION: The finding of a family risk of developing plurimetabolic syndrome and a diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease indicates that patients with oral clefts may be more prone to developing acquired heart disease. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of anamnesis and methodological triangulation (clinical-electrocardiographic-echocardiographic in the investigation of patients with oral clefts and emphasize that cardiological follow-up to evaluate acquired and/or rhythm heart diseases is necessary. This strategy permits comorbidity prevention and individualized planned treatment.

  20. Evaluation of Serum IgA level in nontreated and treated oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research in early cancer detection has led to discovery of many immunological tumor markers that contribute considerably to supplement the method of diagnosis. High serum immunoglobulin A (IgA values in patients with cancer have been used as tumor markers. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and compare the serum IgA levels in nontreated, treated oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC patients, and control group. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in the study. 20 biopsy confirmed oral SCC patients, who have received no medical treatment, 20 oral SCC patients treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy and 20 normal healthy individuals. Venous blood samples were collected from anterior cubital vein and were delivered to the biochemistry laboratory for the estimation of serum IgA level by nephelometry method. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical method employed were the Pearson's Chi-square test and One-way analysis of variance (Welch followed by Games-Howell post-hoc test. Results: We observed significant difference for serum IgA between study subjects in control, nontreated and treated oral SCC patients (P < 0.001. Serum IgA level in nontreated group was significantly higher than treated group and there was an approximately two-fold increase in serum IgA level in nontreated oral SCC patients when compared to that of the normal healthy individuals. Conclusion: Serum level of IgA might be employed as diagnostic and prognostic indicators in oral cancer.

  1. Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2012-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by yeast of the Candida genus, primarily Candida albicans. It is generally associated with predisposing factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, prostheses, and xerostomia. The development of research in animal models is extremely important for understanding the nature of the fungal pathogenicity, host interactions, and treatment of oral mucosal Candida infections. Many oral candidiasis models in rats and mice have been developed with antibiotic administration, induction of xerostomia, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, or the use of germ-free animals, and all these models has both benefits and limitations. Over the past decade, invertebrate model hosts, including Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster, have been used for the study of Candida pathogenesis. These invertebrate systems offer a number of advantages over mammalian vertebrate models, predominantly because they allow the study of strain collections without the ethical considerations associated with studies in mammals. Thus, the invertebrate models may be useful to understanding of pathogenicity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity, interactions of oral microorganisms, and study of new antifungal compounds for oral candidiasis.

  2. Bioadhesive agents in addition to oral contrast media - evaluation in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Schneider, G.; Textor, J.; Schild, H.H.; Fimmers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the additional effect of bioadhesives in combination with iotrolan and barium as oral contrast media in an animal model. Method: The bioadhesives Noveon, CMC, Tylose and Carbopol 934 were added to iotrolan and barium. The solutions were administered to rabbits by a feeding tube. The animals were investigated by computed tomography (CT) and radiography after 0,5, 4, 12, 24 and in part after 48 hours. Mucosal coating and contrast filling of the bowel were evaluated. Results: Addition of bioadhesives to oral contrast media effected long-term contrast in the small intestine and colon, but no improvement in continuous filling and coating of the gastrointestinal tract was detected. Mucosal coating was seen only in short regions of the caecum and small intestine. In CT the best results for coating were observed with tylose and CMC, in radiography additionally with carbopol and noveon. All contrast medium solutions were well tolerated. Conclusion: The evaluated contrast medium solutions with bioadhesives have shown long-term contrast but no improvement in coating in comparison to conventional oral contrast media. (orig.) [de

  3. Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Scott, Jane A; Thomson, W Murray; Stamm, John W; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Wong, Ching; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John

    2014-05-06

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers' general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions such as overweight. It will lead to the

  4. Development and evaluation of oral Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL-OC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Liu, Chang; Pan, Yi-Chen; Jiang, Chen-Xi; Li, Bao-Ru; Yu, Xi-Jie; Wu, Xin-Yu; Zheng, Shu-Ning

    2018-05-03

    In this study scales and items for the Oral Cancer Quality-of-life Questionnaire (QOL-OC) were designed and the instrument was evaluated. The QOL-OC was developed and modified using the international definition of quality of life (QOL) promulgated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and analysis of the precedent measuring instruments. The contents of each item were determined in the context of the specific characteristics of oral cancer. Two hundred thirteen oral cancer patients were asked to complete both the EORTC core quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLC-C30) and the QOL-OC. Data collected was used to conduct factor analysis, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Questionnaire compliance was relatively high. Fourteen of the 213 subjects accepted the same tests after 24 to 48 h demonstrating a high test-retest reliability for all five scales. Overall internal consistency surpasses 0.8. The outcome of the factor analysis coincides substantially with our theoretical conception. Each item shows a higher correlation coefficient within its own scale than the others which indicates high construct validity. QOL-OC demonstrates fairly good statistical reliability, validity, and feasibility. However, further tests and modification are needed to ensure its applicability to the quality-of-life assessment of Chinese oral cancer patients.

  5. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Isha; Moger, Ganapathi; Kumar, N Anil

    2015-01-01

    Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated water and topical clotrimazole in reducing the Candidal species colony-forming unit (CFU) count in oral candidiasis. The study included 40 candidiasis patients of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were randomly assigned to either topical ozone therapy or topical clotrimazole groups. Salivary Candidal CFU counts were assessed during and after the treatments. There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction) was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction). 14 patients (70%) with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30%) whereas only 8 patients (40%) out of 13 (65%) in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  6. A clinical decision support system algorithm for intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy: validity, clinical relevance and usefulness in a three-step evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, H; Hulscher, M; van der Hoeven, C P; Prins, J M; van der Sijs, H; Melles, D C; Verbon, A

    2018-04-26

    To evaluate a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on consensus-based intravenous to oral switch criteria, which identifies intravenous to oral switch candidates. A three-step evaluation study of a stand-alone CDSS with electronic health record interoperability was performed at the Erasmus University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. During the first step, we performed a technical validation. During the second step, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value in a retrospective cohort of all hospitalized adult patients starting at least one therapeutic antibacterial drug between 1 and 16 May 2013. ICU, paediatric and psychiatric wards were excluded. During the last step the clinical relevance and usefulness was prospectively assessed by reports to infectious disease specialists. An alert was considered clinically relevant if antibiotics could be discontinued or switched to oral therapy at the time of the alert. During the first step, one technical error was found. The second step yielded a positive predictive value of 76.6% and a negative predictive value of 99.1%. The third step showed that alerts were clinically relevant in 53.5% of patients. For 43.4% it had already been decided to discontinue or switch the intravenous antibiotics by the treating physician. In 10.1%, the alert resulted in advice to change antibiotic policy and was considered useful. This prospective cohort study shows that the alerts were clinically relevant in >50% (n = 449) and useful in 10% (n = 85). The CDSS needs to be evaluated in hospitals with varying activity of infectious disease consultancy services as this probably influences usefulness.

  7. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  9. Evaluation of topical nalbuphine or oral tramadol as analgesics for corneal pain in dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason S; Bentley, Ellison; Smith, Lesley J

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of topical nalbuphine or oral tramadol in the treatment of corneal pain in dogs. Fourteen male Beagle dogs. Dogs were divided into three treatment groups and sedated with dexmedetomidine (5 μ/kg IV). A 4 mm corneal epithelial wound was created in the right eye (OD) of all dogs. Sedation was reversed with atipamazole IM. All dogs received pre/post ophthalmic examinations. Post operatively, Group NB (n = 5) received topical 1% preservative-free nalbuphine OD q8 h and an oral placebo PO q8 h. Group TR (n = 5) received tramadol (4 mg/kg) PO q8 h and topical sterile saline OD q8 h. Group CNTRL (n = 4) received topical sterile saline OD q8 h and an oral placebo q8 h. All dogs received topical 0.3% gentamicin OD TID until healed. Dogs were pain scored using a pain scoring system modified from the University of Melbourne pain scale at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, then every 6 h by observers masked to treatment, until corneal wounds were healed. Treatment failure was recorded if cumulative pain scores were above a minimum threshold of acceptable pain and rescue analgesia of morphine (1.0 mg/kg IM) was administered subsequently. Four dogs in Group NB, one dog in Group TR, and two dogs in Group CNTRL required rescue analgesia. There was no significant difference in the incidence of treatment failure between groups (P = 0.184). Mean time to rescue was 9.16 h. All corneal wounds were healed by 84 h. The results of this study suggest tramadol rather than nalbuphine should be further investigated for the treatment of corneal pain. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  11. Oral Hygiene and Dietary Habits in Adolescents with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Hassan, Muhamed; Ebenezer, Supriya; Willershausen, Brita

    2016-03-01

    Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOAs) may cause a temporary deterioration of oral hygiene with corresponding gingival inflammatory changes. Optimal oral hygiene and dietary changes are essential in order to avoid periodontal inflammation. The present study investigates to what extent the recommendations made by the orthodontist are followed by young patients. A total of 67 adolescent patients with FOA were examined and interviewed. The control group consisted of 70 patients of the same age who had not undergone any orthodontic treatment. A specific questionnaire (assessing dietary habits, oral hygiene measures) was used and comprehensive oral findings along with oral hygiene status were evaluated. The analysis of the data showed that despite intensive oral hygiene and dietary advice in the patients with FOA, there was no change in diet or oral hygiene habits. There were significantly higher signs of gingival inflammation and amount of dental plaque in FOA patients. Nutritional recommendations and oral hygiene measures for young people with FOA were not adequately enforced. The findings indicate that frequent recalls should be scheduled with repeated reinforcement of oral hygiene and dietary modifications in FOA patients.

  12. Oral candidiasis in patients with psoriasis: correlation of oral examination and cytopathological evaluation with psoriasis disease severity and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Michalski-Santos, Bruna; Carneiro, Sueli; Sampaio, Ana Luisa; Avelleira, Joao Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Pinto, Jane Marcy Neffa; Dias, Eliane Pedra

    2013-06-01

    Infections are known to trigger and exacerbate psoriasis. Although oral candidiasis is often clinically diagnosed, it is not always confirmed by laboratory tests such as oral cytopathology. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients with psoriasis through clinical and cytopathological diagnosis and to investigate the association between oral candidiasis and psoriasis with regards to the severity of the clinical presentation and the type of treatment for psoriasis. A total of 140 patients with psoriasis and 140 healthy control subjects received an oral examination. Scrapings of the tongue were also obtained for a cytopathological examination. The oral examination and the results of the cytopathological smear revealed 37 (26%) cases of candidiasis in the patients with psoriasis and no cases of candidiasis in the healthy control subjects. There was no correlation between the type of psoriasis treatment and the presence of oral candidiasis (P = .616). There was a statistically significant association (P = .033) between the clinical severity of psoriasis and the presence of Candida. This study was limited by the small number of subjects and the lack of follow-up to determine the development of psoriasis after treatment for oral candidiasis. The presence of oral candidiasis is higher in patients with psoriasis and it is associated with disease severity. This increased presence of oral candidiasis was apparent despite any type of treatment for the psoriasis. Cytopathology to rule out oral candidiasis should be used in the routine medical workup of patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. OralCard: a bioinformatic tool for the study of oral proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrais, Joel P; Rosa, Nuno; Melo, José; Coelho, Edgar D; Amaral, Diana; Correia, Maria José; Barros, Marlene; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-07-01

    The molecular complexity of the human oral cavity can only be clarified through identification of components that participate within it. However current proteomic techniques produce high volumes of information that are dispersed over several online databases. Collecting all of this data and using an integrative approach capable of identifying unknown associations is still an unsolved problem. This is the main motivation for this work. We present the online bioinformatic tool OralCard, which comprises results from 55 manually curated articles reflecting the oral molecular ecosystem (OralPhysiOme). It comprises experimental information available from the oral proteome both of human (OralOme) and microbial origin (MicroOralOme) structured in protein, disease and organism. This tool is a key resource for researchers to understand the molecular foundations implicated in biology and disease mechanisms of the oral cavity. The usefulness of this tool is illustrated with the analysis of the oral proteome associated with diabetes melitus type 2. OralCard is available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/oralcard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral cavity evaluation and dental chart registration of coati (Nasua nasua) in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Elisângela P; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Mendes, Guilherme Martines Teixeira; Gioso, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a dental chart, evaluate any oral cavity disease, develop gypsum models of the dental arches, and to register the occlusions found in coatis (Nasua nasua) in captivity. Formulation of the dental chart was assisted by intraoral radiographs from the head of an adult coati cadaver of the same species with the following dental formula: I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2. Seven live coatis of the Nasua nasua species were evaluated. Five of the seven coatis presented ...

  15. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  16. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...

  18. Oral carcinogenicity study with nickel sulfate hexahydrate in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Katherine E.; Bates, Hudson K.; Rush, Rusty E.; Oller, Adriana R.

    2007-01-01

    Until now, existing data on the oral carcinogenicity of nickel substances have been inconclusive. Yet, the assessment of oral carcinogenicity of nickel has serious scientific and regulatory implications. In the present study, nickel sulfate hexahydrate was administered daily to Fischer 344 rats by oral gavage for 2 years (104 weeks) at exposure levels of 10, 30 and 50 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg. This treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in body weight of male and female rats, compared to controls, in an exposure-related fashion at 30 and 50 mg/kg/day. An exposure-dependent increase in mortality was observed in female rats. However, the overall study survival rate (males and females) was at least 25 animals per group (compliant with OECD guidelines) in the treated animals. Daily oral administration of nickel sulfate hexahydrate did not produce an exposure-related increase in any common tumor type or an increase in any rare tumors. One tumor type was statistically increased in a nickel sulfate-treated group compared to the study controls (keratoacanthoma in the 10 mg NiSO 4 ·6H 2 O/kg/day males), but there was no exposure-response relationship for this common tumor type. This study achieved sufficient toxicity to reach the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) while maintaining a sufficiently high survival rate to allow evaluation for carcinogenicity. The present study indicated that nickel sulfate hexahydrate does not have the potential to cause carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure in the Fischer 344 rat. Data from this and other studies demonstrate that inhalation is the only route of exposure that might cause concern for cancer in association with nickel exposures

  19. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  20. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired "t" test. Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients.

  1. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Satyawan G; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.

  2. Prevalence of oral impacts and validity of the Child-Oral Impacts on DailyPerformance (OIDP: pilot study of 10-11 year-old children in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP assesses the impacts of oral health problems on the daily activities ofchildren. Objectives of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the Child-OIDP for use among Italian children and provide initialevidence on its reliability and validity in a sample of 10-11 year-olds. Materials and Method: The Italian Child-OIDP was administered to a convenience sample of 10-11-year-old 5th graders of“Giò Leonardo di Bona” Public School in Cutro (Italy. Informed positive consent was sought and obtained from the participants’parents. Analyses were performed using SAS statistical package; reliability testing referred to internal consistency that was evaluatedusing the Cronbach’s alpha, alpha if item deleted, and inter-item and item-total correlation coefficients. Result: To provide initial evidence for the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Italian Child-OIDP, we invited 103 10-11-year-old schoolchildren and 97 participated in the study (response rate = 94.2%, 50 boys (51.5% and 47 girls (48.5%.Almost all children (95.87% reported that they had experienced at least one problem with their teeth or mouth in the past 3months. All item-total correlation were above 0.20 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.59. Higher Child-OIDP scores were significantlyassociated with worse perceptions in terms of oral health, general health and satisfaction with oral health status, but not withperceived dental treatment needs. Analyses were performed using SAS statistical package; reliability testing referred to internalconsistency that was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha, alpha if item deleted, and inter-item and item-total correlationcoefficients. Conclusion: Child-OIDP index is a measure of oral health-related quality of life that can be applied to Italian children. Initialevidence of its psychometric properties was promising, but future studies should be conducted to fully evaluate its

  3. Role of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.

  4. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with photodynamic therapy: A pilot study

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    Niranzena Panneer Selvam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Oral leukoplakia (OL is the most common potentially malignant disorder that may transform into oral carcinoma. By treating leukoplakia in its incipient stage, the risk of occurrence of oral carcinoma can be prevented. In this aspect, photodynamic therapy (PDT can serve as a useful treatment modality. The aim of the study is to treat patients with OL using PDT in which 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is used as a photosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Five patients with OL were included in the study. They were treated with 10% ALA mediated PDT (light source: Xenon lamp, power: 0.1 W, wavelength: 630 ± 5 nm, total dose: 100 J/cm 2 per session for 6-8 sessions. Follow-up was done for a period of 1 year. Results: One month (4 weeks after ALA-PDT, the response was evaluated based on clinical examination. It was as follows: Complete response: Two patients; partial response: Two patients; and no response: One patient. There was no recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusion: There was satisfactory reduction in the size of the OL lesion without any side-effects. Thus, ALA mediated PDT seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment of OL.

  5. Effect of epicatechin against radiation-induced oral mucositis: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seob Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation-induced oral mucositis limits the delivery of high-dose radiation to head and neck cancer. This study investigated the effectiveness of epicatechin (EC, a component of green tea extracts, on radiation-induced oral mucositis in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of EC on radiation-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed in the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Radiation-induced apoptosis, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and changes in the signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo therapeutic effects of EC for oral mucositis were explored in a rat model. Rats were monitored by daily inspections of the oral cavity, amount of oral intake, weight change and survival rate. For histopathologic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL staining were performed. RESULTS: EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, change of MMP, and intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. EC treatment markedly attenuated the expression of p-JNK, p-38, and cleaved caspase-3 after irradiation in the HaCaT cells. Rats with radiation-induced oral mucositis showed decreased oral intake, weight and survival rate, but oral administration of EC significantly restored all three parameters. Histopathologic changes were significantly decreased in the EC-treated irradiated rats. TUNEL staining of rat oral mucosa revealed that EC treatment significantly decreased radiation-induced apoptotic cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and rat oral mucosa and may be a safe and effective candidate treatment for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.

  6. Common risk factor approach to address socioeconomic inequality in the oral health of preschool children – a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic condition in children and a major contributor to poor general health. There is ample evidence of a skewed distribution of oral health, with a small proportion of children in the population bearing the majority of the burden of the disease. This minority group is comprised disproportionately of socioeconomically disadvantaged children. An in-depth longitudinal study is needed to better understand the determinants of child oral health, in order to support effective evidence-based policies and interventions in improving child oral health. The aim of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) project is to identify and evaluate the relative importance and timing of critical factors that shape the oral health of young children and then to seek to evaluate those factors in their inter-relationship with socioeconomic influences. Methods/Design This investigation will apply an observational prospective study design to a cohort of socioeconomically-diverse South Australian newborns and their mothers, intensively following these dyads as the children grow to toddler age. Mothers of newborn children will be invited to participate in the study in the early post-partum period. At enrolment, data will be collected on parental socioeconomic status, mothers’ general and dental health conditions, details of the pregnancy, infant feeding practice and parental health behaviours and practices. Data on diet and feeding practices, oral health behaviours and practices, and dental visiting patterns will be collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. When children turn 24-30 months, the children and their mothers/primary care givers will be invited to an oral examination to record oral health status. Anthropometric assessment will also be conducted. Discussion This prospective cohort study will examine a wide range of determinants influencing child oral health and related general conditions

  7. Preparation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium orally disintegrating tablets

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    Iancu Valeriu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are dosage forms which disintegrate in mouth within seconds without need of water. This type of quality in dosage form can be attained by addition of different varieties of excipients. Pharmaburst™ 500 is a co-processed excipient system which allows rapid disintegration and low adhesion to punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate 25 mg diclofenac sodium ODTs (orodispersible tablets batches by direct compression method at different compression forces 10 kN (F1 and 20 kN (F2 and directly compressible excipients used in different ratio (Avicel PH 102, magnesium stearate and coprocessed excipient Pharmaburst™ 500, 70% and 80% w/w. The obtained batches were analyzed for appearance, tablet thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and non-compendial methods (wetting time. Co-processed Pharmaburst™ 500 excipient 70% used for sodium diclofenac ODT obtaining determined good results for quality control tests evaluation.

  8. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Piyusha S; Pujar, Pallavi; Subbareddy, V V

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above) were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group). There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  9. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  10. Association of personality traits with oral health-related quality of life independently of objective oral health status: a study of community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hajime; Ikebe, Kazunori; Kagawa, Ryosuke; Okada, Tadashi; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ishioka, Yoshiko; Inomata, Chisato; Tada, Sayaka; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Kurushima, Yuko; Enoki, Kaori; Kamide, Kei; Masui, Yukie; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Arai, Yasumichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is being increasingly used in epidemiologic studies of dentistry. However, patient-reported OHRQoL does not always coincide with clinical measures. Previous studies have shown a relationship between OHRQoL and personality, but did not concomitantly investigate oral function. We aimed to examine the association among personality traits, oral function, and OHRQoL using a large sample of community-dwelling Japanese elderly. The participants (n = 938; age, 69-71 years) were drawn from a complete enumeration of an urban area and a rural area of both the Tokyo metropolitan area and Hyogo Prefecture. The self-perceived impact of OHRQoL was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The oral status and socioeconomic characteristics were recorded in each participant, and personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) were assessed with the NEO-five-factor inventory. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between OHRQoL and other factors, with p Personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of objective measures of oral health status in community-dwelling elderly Japanese. This study showed personality traits are associated with OHRQoL independently of dental status and oral function in old Japanese people. As elderly patients undergo increasingly complex dental treatments, there is a need to evaluate patient personality traits prior to dental treatment and predict patient expectations and responses to planned treatment. This is advantageous in determining the most appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The evaluation of oral health-related factors on the quality of life of the elderly in Babol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Mehdizadeh, Shervin; Najafi, Nazanin; Sayyadi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Considering an increase in elderly population in recent years, it has become necessary to pay attention to this group so that they can have a higher quality of life (QoL). Oral health is one of the factors affecting the QoL of the elderly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral health on the QoL of the elderly population in Babol, Iran. In this study, we used the multi-stage cluster sampling technique to select 300 elderly subjects, over 65 years of age, living in Babol. Oral health-related QoL was evaluated by the Persian version of oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Data were collected on gender, age, occupation, education, the date of the last dental visit, use of prosthetic appliances, and dental treatment needs, including the periodontal, prosthetic, and surgical needs, by interview and examination. Data were analyzed with SPSS software program using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The mean age of the subjects was 71.4 ± 5.6 years, with 183 males (61%) and 117 females (39%). The mean score of OHIP-14 questionnaire was 22.4 ± 8.2, with a range of 5‒50. The highest score was achieved on the psychological discomfort domain. There was no significant difference in OHIP-14 scores according to gender, with significantly lower scores in subjects with academic education. The subjects wearing prosthetic appliances had lower OHIP-14 scores compared to those who did not wear prosthetic appliances. OHIP-14 scores were lower in the dentate individuals compared to the edentulous individuals. There was no correlation between the age and the OHIP-14 score. In general, the results of the present study showed a moderate oral health-related QoL in the elderly living in Babol, who have orodental problems.

  12. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyusha S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group. There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Results: Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P < 0.05 in oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Conclusion: Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  13. Evaluation of an oral telomerase activator for early age-related macular degeneration - a pilot study

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    Dow CT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coad Thomas Dow,1,2 Calvin B Harley3 1McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; 2Chippewa Valley Eye Clinic, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, WI, USA; 3Independent Telomere Biology Consultant, Murphys, CA, USA Purpose: Telomere attrition and corresponding cellular senescence of the retinal pigment epithelium contribute to the changes of age-related macular degeneration. Activation of the enzyme telomerase can add telomeric DNA to retinal pigment epithelium chromosomal ends and has been proposed as a treatment for age-related macular degeneration. We report the use of a small molecule, oral telomerase activator (TA-65 in early macular degeneration. This study, focusing on early macular degeneration, provides a model for the use of TAs in age-related disease.Method: Thirty-eight (38 patients were randomly assigned to a 1-year, double-blinded, placebo-controlled interventional study with arms for oral TA-65 or placebo. Macular functions via micro-perimetry were the primary measured outcomes.Results: The macular function in the arm receiving the TA-65 showed significant improvement relative to the placebo control. The improvement was manifest at 6 months and was maintained at 1 year: macular threshold sensitivity (measured as average dB [logarithmic decibel scale of light attenuation] improved 0.97 dB compared to placebo (P-value 0.02 and percent reduced thresholds lessened 8.2% compared to the placebo arm (P-value 0.04. Conclusion: The oral TA significantly improved the macular function of treatment subjects compared to controls. Although this study was a pilot and a larger study is being planned, it is noteworthy in that it is, to our knowledge, the first randomized placebo-controlled study of a TA supplement. Keywords: drusen, macular degeneration, micro-perimetry, senescence, telomerase activation, telomere

  14. Evaluation of novel oral vaccine candidates and validation of a caprine model of Johne's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Murray E.; Turnquist, Sue E.; Ilha, Marcia R. S.; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Jones, Arthur L.; Whittington, Lisa; Bannantine, John P.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Katani, Robab; Talaat, Adel M.; Li, Lingling; Kapur, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne's Disease Integrated Program (JDIP) Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC), and (2) to validate the AMSC Johne's disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis), or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 × 109 CFU divided in two consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate). All kids were necropsied at 13 months post-challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318) do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329) reduced fecal shedding and tissue colonization. PMID

  15. Evaluation of Novel Oral Vaccine Candidates and Validation of a Caprine Model of Johne's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray E. Hines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a major threat to the dairy industry and possibly some cases of Crohn’s disease in humans. A MAP vaccine that reduced of clinical disease and/or reduced fecal shedding would aid in the control of JD. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the efficacy of 5 attenuated strains of MAP as vaccine candidates compared to a commercial control vaccine using the protocol proposed by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP Animal Model Standardization Committee (AMSC, and 2 to validate the AMSC Johne’s disease goat challenge model. Eighty goat kids were vaccinated orally twice at 8 and 10 weeks of age with an experimental vaccine or once subcutaneously at 8 weeks with Silirum® (Zoetis, or a sham control oral vaccine at 8 and 10 weeks. Kids were challenged orally with a total of approximately 1.44 X 10^9 CFU divided in 2 consecutive daily doses using MAP ATCC-700535 (K10-like bovine isolate. All kids were necropsied at 13 months post challenge. Results indicated that the AMSC goat challenge model is a highly efficient and valid model for JD challenge studies. None of the experimental or control vaccines evaluated prevented MAP infection or eliminated fecal shedding, although the 329 vaccine lowered the incidence of infection, fecal shedding, tissue colonization and reduced lesion scores, but less than the control vaccine. Based on our results the relative performance ranking of the experimental live-attenuated vaccines evaluated, the 329 vaccine was the best performer, followed by the 318 vaccine, then 316 vaccine, 315 vaccine and finally the 319 vaccine was the worst performer. The subcutaneously injected control vaccine outperformed the orally-delivered mutant vaccine candidates. Two vaccines (329 and 318 do reduce presence of JD gross and microscopic lesions, slow progression of disease, and one vaccine (329 reduced fecal shedding and tissue

  16. Pilot study of ice-ball cryotherapy for radiation-induced oral mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Waichiro; Ebihara, Satoshi

    1996-01-01

    Oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy is intractable and may worsen the patient's nutritional condition and interrupt treatment. To reduce the incidence and severity of oral mucositis induced by cancer therapy and promote early improvement of its symptoms, we devised cryotherapy by ice balls using Elase (fibrinolysin and deoxyribonuclease, combined). The therapeutic effect of ice-ball cryotherapy was evaluated in 10 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx who were undergoing radiotherapy. Cryotherapy was continued from the development of oral mucositis until its disappearance. The severity of various symptoms of mucositis were reduced by cryotherapy. Healing required 3 to 16 days (median, 7 days) after the end of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was not interrupted in any cases. This preliminary report suggests that ice-ball cryotherapy is an effective treatment for radiation-induced oral mucositis. (author)

  17. Oral health evaluation in special needs individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Danielle de Moraes; Fröhlich, Paula Cristina Gil Ritter; Rigo, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of the main oral problems present in special needs children and to relate the underlying conditions with the clinical and demographic variables. The study was based on the physical examination of 47 students from the Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais diagnosed as Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and intellectual deficit. For data collection, we used a self-administered questionnaire that included indices of dental caries and oral hygiene, Angle classification, malposition of dental groups and oral hygiene habits. The predominant age group was 12-25 years (46.8%) and most patients were male (55.3%). Regarding daily brushing, 63.8% reported brushing their teeth three times a day, and 85.1% did it by themselves. A total of 48.9% were rated as Angle class I, and 25.5% had no type of malocclusion. A high dental carries index (decayed, missing, filled >10) was observed in 44.7%, and 53.2% had inadequate oral hygiene (zero to 1.16). There was a statistically significant difference between cerebral palsy and the act of the participants brushing their teeth by themselves. There was a high decayed-missing-filled teeth index and malocclusion class I, as well as inadequate oral hygiene. The type of underlying condition of the participants influenced the act of brushing teeth by themselves. Conhecer a prevalência dos principais problemas bucais em crianças com necessidades especiais, e relacionar as doenças de base com variáveis clínicas e demográficas. O estudo foi realizado a partir de exame clínico em 47 alunos da Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais com diagnóstico médico de síndrome de Down, paralisia cerebral e deficit intelectual. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado um questionário autoaplicativo com índices de cárie dentária e higiene oral, classificação de Angle, malposição de grupos dentários e hábitos de higiene oral. A faixa etária predominante foi de 12 a 25 anos (46,8%) e a maioria era do sexo

  18. Oral manifestations of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Raman spectroscopic study of keratin 8 knockdown oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Alam, Hunain; Dmello, Crismita; Vaidya, Milind M.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-03-01

    Keratins are one of most widely used markers for oral cancers. Keratin 8 and 18 are expressed in simple epithelia and perform both mechanical and regulatory functions. Their expression are not seen in normal oral tissues but are often expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Aberrant expression of keratins 8 and 18 is most common change in human oral cancer. Optical-spectroscopic methods are sensitive to biochemical changes and being projected as novel diagnostic tools for cancer diagnosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting minor changes associated with differential level of keratin expression in tongue-cancer-derived AW13516 cells. Knockdown clones for K8 were generated and synchronized by growing under serum-free conditions. Cell pellets of three independent experiments in duplicate were used for recording Raman spectra with fiberoptic-probe coupled HE-785 Raman-instrument. A total of 123 and 96 spectra from knockdown clones and vector controls respectively in 1200-1800 cm-1 region were successfully utilized for classification using LDA. Two separate clusters with classification-efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Leave-one-out cross-validation yielded ~63% efficiency. Findings of the study demonstrate the potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting even subtle changes such as variations in keratin expression levels. Future studies towards identifying Raman signals from keratin in oral cells can help in precise cancer diagnosis.

  20. The oral motor capacity and feeding performance of preterm newborns at the time of transition to oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the oral motor capacity and the feeding performance of preterm newborn infants when they were permitted to start oral feeding. This was an observational and prospective study conducted on 43 preterm newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of UFSM, RS, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were the presence of head and neck malformations, genetic disease, neonatal asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage, and kernicterus. When the infants were permitted to start oral feeding, non-nutritive sucking was evaluated by a speech therapist regarding force (strong vs weak, rhythm (rapid vs slow, presence of adaptive oral reflexes (searching, sucking and swallowing and coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Feeding performance was evaluated on the basis of competence (defined by rate of milk intake, mL/min and overall transfer (percent ingested volume/total volume ordered. The speech therapist's evaluation showed that 33% of the newborns presented weak sucking, 23% slow rhythm, 30% absence of at least one adaptive oral reflex, and 14% with no coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Mean feeding competence was greater in infants with strong sucking fast rhythm. The presence of sucking-swallowing-respiration coordination decreased the days for an overall transfer of 100%. Evaluation by a speech therapist proved to be a useful tool for the safe indication of the beginning of oral feeding for premature infants.

  1. Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

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    Liliana Simões-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.

  2. Evaluation of the miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 Expression Levels in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Bayat, Zeynab; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Shahryar-Hesami, Soroosh; Mahdavinezhad, Ali; Samie, Lida; Solgi, Ghasem

    2017-12-01

    Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that could be considered as a potential premalignant status. To evaluate the miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 expression levels in patients with oral Lichen planus lesions compared to healthy subjects with normal oral mucosa. Forty patients with oral lichen planus and 18 healthy age and gender-matched controls were recruited in this case-control study. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed clinically and pathologically. The expression levels of two miRNAs in peripheral blood samples were determined using commercial TaqMan MicroRNA Assays. Relative quantification of gene expression was calculated by the 2-ΔΔct method. The expression levels of miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 in patients with oral Lichen planus were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. Also, a direct but insignificant correlation was found between miRNA-155 and miRNA-146a expression levels among the patient group. Our findings indicate that miRNA-146a and miRNA-155 could be potential biomarkers for the immunopathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  3. [Exploration of the oral health education experimental teaching for oral health education reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Hu, Wenting; Zhang, Juanjuan; Sun, Yan; Gao, Yuguang

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to improve students' ability in practical and theoretical courses of oral health education and to promote students' learning interest and initiative. Fourth-year students of the oral medical profession from 2006 to 2008 at Weifang Medical University were chosen as research objects for oral health education to explore the experimental teaching reform. The students were divided into test and control groups, with the test group using the "speak out" way of teaching and the control group using the traditional teaching method. Results of after-class evaluation of the test group, as well as final examination and practice examination of the two groups, were analyzed and compared. After-class evaluation results of the test group showed that the "speak out" teaching method was recognized by the students and improved students' ability to understand oral health education. The final examination and practice examination results showed that the score of the test group was higher than that of the control group (P teaching methods can improve students' ability for oral health education, in accordance with the trend of teaching reform.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION OF TOOTHPASTE BASED ON THE CEDAR ESSENTIAL OIL FOR PREVENTING TRUE ORAL PATHOLOGIC HALITOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Ulitovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given the mechanism of the development of halitosis and low efficiency of its self-elimination, means of oral hygiene with antiglycation characteristics should efficiently remove plaque and slow its formation, have antiseptic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties; have high deodorant quality, strengthen natural defense mechanisms and be safe to oral tissues and organism as a whole. Toothpastes and mouthwashes should consist of components that are able to mask and as well detoxify volatile sulphur and nitrogencontaining compounds produced by microorganisms of the oral cavity. The objective is to evaluate the dynamics of deodorant effect of the means of oral hygiene for identifying the effectiveness of preventive measures among the population.Materials and methods. At the department of preventive dentistry of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, we conducted the diagnostic assessment of halitosis based on the method of index determination of the deodorant effect by Ulitovsky S. B. This method allows to monitor the deodorant effect and in a single definition to determine the level of mouth breathing before using the means of hygiene.Results. The research revealed that the indicators of index determination of the deodorant effect by Ulitovsky S. B to the end of the study was 44.78±1.73 % in the 1st group and 26.92±1.61 % in the control group. Based on these data, which depended on the degree of antimicrobial activity of personal means of oral hygiene, the examined sample of prophylactic toothpaste showed the significant activity for such test cultures as Ps. aeruginosa, B. cereus and C. albicans.Conclusions. Based on the evaluating the dynamics of the deodorant effect of the means of oral hygiene throughout the study we identified the increasing of deodorant effect according

  5. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Patients in Omdurman, Sudan: a cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Tasneem Mohammed; Osman, Khansa Awad Alkareem; Mohamed, Safa Abdelrawf; Mohamed, Matab Abdalrhaman; Almahdi, Hatim Mohammed

    2017-03-23

    Oral cancer is a preventable disease. Its occurrence is mostly due to lifestyle. In Sudan, the use of smokeless tobacco (Toombak) has long been linked to oral cancer. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of oral cancer may well aid in early diagnosis and treatment. This is bound to result in increasing survival rates, as well as reducing the oral cancer burden on the society. This study aimed to assess oral cancer awareness regarding knowledge of signs, symptoms, risk factors and sources of the information. Furthermore, it attempts to evaluate attitudes towards oral cancer screening and any previous experience of screening, amongst dental patients attending University of Science and Technology (UST) Dental Teaching Hospital. Omdurman, Sudan. A hospital based cross-sectional study, interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted amongst 500 adult patients attending the UST Dental Hospital during 2015. A total of 57.7% (286) of the individuals demonstrated good knowledge of signs and symptoms, whereas 49% (139) expressed good knowledge of risk factors of oral cancer. For the majority of the individuals 66.1% (290), the most common source of information about oral cancer was from the media, while 33.9% individuals (149), obtained knowledge from direct contact of health workers. The overwhelming majority, 93.2% (466) never screened for oral cancer despite their positive attitude towards it 66.4% (332). Knowledge of risk factors associated significantly with those reported positive attitude towards oral cancer screening and those reported direct contact with health workers as a source of information, (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, females and those living in urban districts scores higher than their counterpart in knowledge of risk factor of oral cancer. In addition, those employed 58.6% (280) and 62.8% (164) with correct believes about oral cancer showed significant association with positive knowledge of signs and symptoms (p ≤ 0.05). Awareness levels, knowledge

  7. Role of depression, anxiety and stress in patients with oral lichen planus: A pilot study

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    Chaithra Kalkur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus and group 2 (Control. DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.

  8. Comparison of the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in histopathologically confirmed premalignant oral lesions and healthy oral mucosa by brush smear detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, Daniel; Burtscher, Doris; Edlinger, Michael; Sölder, Elisabeth; Widschwendter, Andreas; Rasse, Michael; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in oral carcinogenesis is an important topic of research in maxillofacial oncology. Nevertheless, the association between such infections in the oral cavity and the development of oral precancerous lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oral HPV infections and oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia. The case control study included 118 patients with manifest oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia, who underwent surgical biopsy, including a histopathologic grading of the lesion, and 100 control patients without any oral lesions. HPV detection was achieved with a noninvasive brush smear method (Digene Cervical Sampler, Hybrid Capture II-Test). Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations. A significant association was found between high-risk oral HPV infection and the presence of oral premalignant lesions (P = .001). Among all other evaluated parameters, only smoking showed a significant association with the presence of oral lesions. Oral HPV infections may play a role in the pathogenesis of premalignant oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of oral hygiene products: science is true; don't be misled by the facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, M; Moran, J M

    1997-10-01

    Most people in industrialized countries use oral hygiene products. When an oral health benefit is expected, it is important that sufficient scientific evidence exist to support such claims. Ideally, data should be cumulative derived from studies in vitro and in vivo. The data should be available to the profession for evaluation by publication in refereed scientific journals. Terms and phrases require clarification, and claims made by implication or derived by inference must be avoided. Similarity in products is not necessarily proof per se of efficacy. Studies in vitro and in vivo should follow the basic principles of scientific research. Studies must be ethical, avoid bias and be suitably controlled. A choice of controls will vary depending on whether an agent or a whole product is evaluated and the development stage of a formulation. Where appropriate, new products should be compared with products already available and used by the general public. Conformity with the guidelines for good clinical practice appears to be a useful way of validating studies and a valuable guide to the profession. Studies should be designed with sufficient power to detect statistically significant differences if these exist. However, consideration must be given to the clinical significance of statistically significant differences between formulations since these are not necessarily the same. Studies in vitro provide supportive data but extrapolation to clinical effect is difficult and even misleading, and such data should not stand alone as proof of efficacy of a product. Short-term studies in vivo provide useful information, particularly at the development stage. Ideally, however, products should be proved effective when used in the circumstances for which they are developed. Nevertheless, a variety of variable influence the outcome of home-use studies, and the influence of the variable cannot usually be calculated. Although rarely considered, the cost-benefit ratio of some oral

  10. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Oral Ciprofloxacin used in the Comprehensive Treatment of External Bacterial Otitis: An Observational Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Kriukov, Andrey Ivanovich; Kunelskaya, Vera Yakovlevna; Isotova, Galina Nikolaevna; Shadrin, Georgiy Borisovich; Luchsheva, Yuliya Vladislavovna; Yakimov, Vladislav Olegovich; Garg, Amit; Akku, Shyam Prasad; Gupta, Namita

    2017-10-01

    Introduction  Otitis Externa is common ear infection with a prevalence of 1%. Objective  The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy and safety profile with oral ciprofloxacin in the external bacterial otitis (EBO) management. Methods  This is a prospective observational study conducted with EBO outpatients referred to the otorhinolaryngology center in Moscow between March and August 2013. Our study included patients from two cohorts, acute external bacterial otitis (AEBO) - Group 1 - and exacerbation of chronic otitis externa (CEBO) - Group 2. We administered Ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily with standard topical EBO treatment for up to 10 days. Patients underwent evaluation on study visit days 1, 3, 5, and 10 for the severity. Bacteriological examination of ear canal cultures took place on Day 1 and Day 10. Results  We collected data from 60 EBO outpatients (AEBO: N  = 30 and CEBO: N  = 30). Swimming was the major risk factor associated with the disease in addition to the most common pathogenic organisms - Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . was We attained complete resolution of the inflammatory process in 28 (93%) and 27 (90%) patients in the AEBO and CEBO group, respectively. We confirmed this by microbiological test with almost complete eradication of the causative organisms. Overall, we observed good positive dynamics of ear canal with no major side effects. Conclusion  We found that Ciprofloxacin 500 mg, when administered orally twice daily for 7 to 10 days in otitis externa patients is clinically and microbiologically effective and comparatively safer than other antimicrobials.

  11. Pilot study of ice-ball cryotherapy for radiation-induced oral mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Waichiro; Ebihara, Satoshi [National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    Oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy is intractable and may worsen the patient`s nutritional condition and interrupt treatment. To reduce the incidence and severity of oral mucositis induced by cancer therapy and promote early improvement of its symptoms, we devised cryotherapy by ice balls using Elase (fibrinolysin and deoxyribonuclease, combined). The therapeutic effect of ice-ball cryotherapy was evaluated in 10 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx who were undergoing radiotherapy. Cryotherapy was continued from the development of oral mucositis until its disappearance. The severity of various symptoms of mucositis were reduced by cryotherapy. Healing required 3 to 16 days (median, 7 days) after the end of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was not interrupted in any cases. This preliminary report suggests that ice-ball cryotherapy is an effective treatment for radiation-induced oral mucositis. (author).

  12. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluating the potential of cubosomal nanoparticles for oral delivery of amphotericin B in treating fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhiwen Yang,1,3 Meiwan Chen,2 Muhua Yang,1 Jian Chen,1 Weijun Fang,1 Ping Xu11Department of Pharmacy, Songjiang Hospital Affiliated The First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, 3Shanghai Songjiang Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The oral administration of amphotericin B (AmB has a major drawback of poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of glyceryl monoolein (GMO cubosomes as lipid nanocarriers to improve the oral efficacy of AmB. Antifungal efficacy was determined in vivo in rats after oral administration, to investigate its therapeutic use. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2 was used in vitro to evaluate transport across a model of the intestinal barrier. In vivo antifungal results showed that AmB, loaded in GMO cubosomes, could significantly enhance oral efficacy, compared against Fungizone®, and that during a 2 day course of dosage 10 mg/kg the drug reached effective therapeutic concentrations in renal tissue for treating fungal infections. In the Caco-2 transport studies, GMO cubosomes resulted in a significantly larger amount of AmB being transported into Caco-2 cells, via both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, but not macropinocytosis. These results suggest that GMO cubosomes, as lipid nanovectors, could facilitate the oral delivery of AmB.Keywords: glyceryl monoolein cubosomes, oral delivery, amphotericin B, antifungal activity, absorption mechanism

  14. Oral cancer awareness in Spain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, P; Estany-Gestal, A; Bugarín-González, R; Seoane-Romero, J M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the level of oral cancer knowledge and awareness in a Spanish general population. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire applied in the community to randomly selected laypersons. Sample size for the general population was determined by quota sampling, resulting in 1,041 individuals. A total of 1,707 pedestrians were approached (response: 61%). When the participants were asked about what cancers had they heard about (up to ten), oral cancer was mentioned in first place by 2% of the sample and by 22% in any order. When specifically asked about oral cancer, the percentage of interviewees who were familiar with it raised to 72%. Participants were also asked about the main signs or symptoms of oral cancer, and the most frequently (22%) mentioned as the first warning sign was a non-healing ulcer. Tobacco smoking generally was recognised as the most important (57%) risk factor for oral cancer. This pilot study revealed a low awareness of oral cancer, and a poor knowledge of its signs and symptoms and risk factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Effects of ozone nano-bubble water on periodontopathic bacteria and oral cells - in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakumo, Sae; Izumi, Yuichi [Department of Periodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Arakawa, Shinichi; Kondo, Keiko [Department of Lifetime Oral Health Care Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Takahashi, Masayoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8569 (Japan); Mano, Yoshihiro [Hyperbaric Medical Center, Hospital of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the bactericidal activity of a new antiseptic agent, ozone nano-bubble water (NBW3), against periodontopathogenic bacteria and to assess the cytotoxicity of NBW3 against human oral cells. The bactericidal activities of NBW3 against representative periodontopathogenic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) were evaluated using in vitro time-kill assays. The cytotoxicity of NBW3 was evaluated using three-dimensional human buccal and gingival tissue models. The numbers of colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans exposed to NBW3 dropped to below the lower limit of detection (<10 CFUs mL{sup −1}) after only 0.5 min of exposure. There were only minor decreases in the viability of oral tissue cells after 24 h of exposure to NBW3. These results suggest that NBW3 possesses potent bactericidal activity against representative periodontopathogenic bacteria and is not cytotoxic to cells of human oral tissues. The use of NBW3 as an adjunct to periodontal therapy would be promising. (paper)

  17. Effects of ozone nano-bubble water on periodontopathic bacteria and oral cells - in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakumo, Sae; Izumi, Yuichi; Arakawa, Shinichi; Kondo, Keiko; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the bactericidal activity of a new antiseptic agent, ozone nano-bubble water (NBW3), against periodontopathogenic bacteria and to assess the cytotoxicity of NBW3 against human oral cells. The bactericidal activities of NBW3 against representative periodontopathogenic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) were evaluated using in vitro time-kill assays. The cytotoxicity of NBW3 was evaluated using three-dimensional human buccal and gingival tissue models. The numbers of colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans exposed to NBW3 dropped to below the lower limit of detection (<10 CFUs mL −1 ) after only 0.5 min of exposure. There were only minor decreases in the viability of oral tissue cells after 24 h of exposure to NBW3. These results suggest that NBW3 possesses potent bactericidal activity against representative periodontopathogenic bacteria and is not cytotoxic to cells of human oral tissues. The use of NBW3 as an adjunct to periodontal therapy would be promising. (paper)

  18. Acute and Sub-Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Astragalus hamosus Seedpod Ethanolic Extract in Wistar Rats

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    Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral consumption of Astragalus hamosus L. (AH seedpod has been widely prescribed in traditional medicine system. However, its toxicity evaluation has never been investigated. Hence, the current study was performed to evaluate the toxicological profile of AH seedpod in acute and subacute assessments based on the OECD-guidelines 425 and 407 in male and female Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute study, ethanolic extract of AH at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administrated to six female rats. In the subacute assay, AH at the three different oral doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg were administrated to both male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. Results: No death or behavioural changes were observed in the treated animals. In subacute test, in both sexes, no changes in organ weights observed. Biochemically, compared to the control, AH at the dose of 300 mg/kg slightly increased (p<0.05 uric acid and creatinine and declined total cholesterol levels in both male and female rats. However, there is no statistically difference in other parameters such as albumin, triglyceride, blood urea, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase between AH treated groups and untreated controls. Hematologic parameters showed that AH at the maximum dose decreased red blood cells count only in male rats. Histopathological evaluation of liver and kidney exhibited no noticeable alterations in AH treated animals. Conclusion: It could be concluded that high excessive and long term consumption of AH may lead to renal dysfunction and deficiency in hematopoietic system.

  19. Changes in oral microflora after full-mouth tooth extraction : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C M; Winkel, Edwin G; Raangs, Gerwin C; van der Vusse, Marleen L; Rossen, John W A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of full-mouth tooth extraction on the oral microflora, with emphasis on the presence and load of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult patients (n = 30), with moderate to advanced

  20. Oral lesions and dental status among institutionalized orphans in Yemen: A matched case-control study

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    Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs and dental caries and to evaluate oral health practices among institutionalized orphan-children in Sana′a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 202 institutionalized male-orphan-children in the main orphanage in Sana′a city, were matched to 202 non-orphan schoolchildren. Clinical examination included assessment of OMLs based on standard international diagnostic criteria and evaluation of dental status using the Decayed/decayed, Missed/missed and Filled/filled (DMFT/dmft index according to World Health Organization recommendations. Demographic data and oral hygiene practices were obtained by interviewing each subject using special questionnaire form. Results: Majority of children were in the 12-15 year age group. Nine types of lesions were reported among orphans; the most common lesions were fissured tongue (24.3%, herpes labialis (7.9% and traumatic ulcers (2.5%. The occurrence of herpes labialis was found to be significantly higher in orphans than in controls (P < 0.01. The prevalence of dental caries was insignificantly lower among the orphans (84.7% compared with the non-orphans (89.61%; P = 0.136. The mean dmft score was significantly lower in orphans than in controls (2.28 vs. 3.82; P = 0.001. Conclusions: The institutionalized children in this orphanage had a high prevalence of OMLs but low prevalence of dental caries, though they revealed poor oral hygiene practices. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health and oral health practices of children living in orphanages.

  1. Enhanced oral bioavailability of docetaxel by lecithin nanoparticles: preparation, in vitro, and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaili; Cao, Shan; Hu, Fuqiang; Feng, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to investigate the potential of lecithin nanoparticles (LNs) in improving the oral bioavailability of docetaxel. Docetaxel-loaded LNs (DTX-LNs) were prepared from oil-in-water emulsions and characterized in terms of morphology, size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The in vitro release of docetaxel from the nanoparticles was studied by using dialysis bag method. Caco-2 cell monolayer was used for the in vitro permeation study of DTX-LNs. Bioavailability studies were conducted in rats and different pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated after oral administration of DTX-LNs. The results showed that DTX-LNs had a mean diameter of 360 ± 8 nm and exhibited spherical shape with smooth surface under transmission electron microscopy. The DTX-LNs showed a sustained-release profile, with about 80% of docetaxel released within 72 hours. The apical to basolateral transport of docetaxel across the Caco-2 cell monolayer from the DTX-LNs was 2.14 times compared to that of the docetaxel solution (0.15 × 10−5 ± 0.016 × 10−5 cm/second versus 0.07 × 10−5 ± 0.003 × 10−5 cm/second). The oral bioavailability of the DTX-LNs was 3.65 times that of docetaxel solution (8.75% versus 2.40%). These results indicate that DTX-LNs were valuable as an oral drug delivery system to enhance the absorption of docetaxel. PMID:22848177

  2. The prevalence of oral and peri-oral piercings in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2012-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings in young adults based on a systematic review of the available literature. The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through April 2012 to identify appropriate studies. The prevalence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings was evaluated in the general population, as well as by gender and by anatomical site. An independent screening of 1711 unique titles and abstracts resulted in 13 publications that met the eligibility criteria. In total, 11 249 participants (mean age, 20.6 years) were questioned and/or examined for oral and/or peri-oral piercings. In the studies that provided information concerning the presence of oral and/or peri-oral piercings, the prevalence varied from 0.8% to 12%, resulting in a mean prevalence of 5.2%. When examined based on anatomical site, the most common sites were the tongue (a prevalence of 5.6%), followed by the lip (1.5%). Oral piercings were more prevalent in women (5.6%) than men (1.6%). Among the populations that were studied, oral and/or peri-oral piercings were observed in a relatively small percentage (5.2%) of young adults. The prevalence was approximately four times higher among females when compared with males. On the basis of the literature, the tongue was the most common oral site for a piercing. Dental care professionals are in an ideal position to offer information regarding safe piercings and to provide advice regarding oral hygiene, aftercare and possible complications. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Oral health status and oral health behaviors of 12-year-old urban and rural school children in Udupi, Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional study

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    Arun Singh Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.

  4. Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yuan Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Oral leukoplakia (OL is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and oral lichen planus (OLP were further stratified to evaluate the possible synergistic effects for OL-associated malignant transformation. Results: In this cohort, 102 (5.374% of 1898 OL patients were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 26.40-fold in the OL cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 18.46–37.77. To further stratify with OSF and OLP, OL with OSF (58.38; 95% confidence intervals 34.61–98.50 and OL with OLP (36.88; 95% confidence intervals 8.90–152.78 had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OL alone (27.01; 95% confidence intervals 18.91–38.59. The Kaplan–Meier plot revealed the free of malignant transformation rate was significant over the 13 years follow-up period (log-rank test, p < 0.001. Conclusion: OL patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OL. In addition, both OSF and OLP could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OL. However, further studies are required to identify the histopathological and clinical parameters in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation among OPMDs. Keywords: Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Oral lichen planus, Malignant transformation, Nationwide population, Cohort study, Taiwan

  5. Core–shell hybrid nanocapsules for oral delivery of camptothecin: formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ünal, Hale, E-mail: unalhale@gmail.com [Hacettepe University, Division of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Institute of Pure and Applied Science (Turkey); D’Angelo, Ivana [Second University of Napoli, Di.S.T.A.Bi.F. (Italy); Pagano, Ester; Borrelli, Francesca; Izzo, Angelo; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Pharmacy (Italy); Bilensoy, Erem [Hacettepe University, Division of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Institute of Pure and Applied Science (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to design and in vitro–in vivo evaluate oral nanocapsules prepared from amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CDs) or poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) for the effective oral delivery of an anticancer agent, camptothecin (CPT). CPT-loaded anionic and Chitosan (CS)-coated cationic nanocapsules were prepared and characterized in vitro. Morphological analysis was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). CPT release profile was evaluated using dialysis method under sink conditions. To determine the protective effect and drug stability provided by nanocapsules, all the formulations were incubated in simulated gastrointestinal media. Measurement of mucoadhesive tendency of CPT-loaded nanocapsules was realized by turbidimetric method. Penetration of nanocapsules was performed through an artificial mucus model. The permeability of CPT in solution form and bound to nanocapsule formulations were demonstrated across Caco-2 cell line. Finally, the intestinal uptake of nanocapsules was evaluated in vivo, in a mouse model. Both anionic and cationic formulations were in the range of 180–220 nm with a narrow size distribution and desired zeta potential values. CPT-loaded nanocapsules were found to be stable in simulated gastrointestinal media. Turbidimetric measurements confirmed the interaction between nanoparticles and mucin. Penetration of CPT through an artificial mucus gel layer was higher with CS-coated nanocapsules in accordance with the results obtained from permeability studies across Caco-2 cell line. In vivo animal studies confirmed that the intestinal uptake of nanocapsules was significantly higher with cationic nanocapsules. CPT-loaded positively charged CD nanocapsules might be an attractive and promising treatment for oral chemotherapy.

  6. Core–shell hybrid nanocapsules for oral delivery of camptothecin: formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ünal, Hale; D’Angelo, Ivana; Pagano, Ester; Borrelli, Francesca; Izzo, Angelo; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana; Bilensoy, Erem

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and in vitro–in vivo evaluate oral nanocapsules prepared from amphiphilic cyclodextrins (CDs) or poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) for the effective oral delivery of an anticancer agent, camptothecin (CPT). CPT-loaded anionic and Chitosan (CS)-coated cationic nanocapsules were prepared and characterized in vitro. Morphological analysis was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). CPT release profile was evaluated using dialysis method under sink conditions. To determine the protective effect and drug stability provided by nanocapsules, all the formulations were incubated in simulated gastrointestinal media. Measurement of mucoadhesive tendency of CPT-loaded nanocapsules was realized by turbidimetric method. Penetration of nanocapsules was performed through an artificial mucus model. The permeability of CPT in solution form and bound to nanocapsule formulations were demonstrated across Caco-2 cell line. Finally, the intestinal uptake of nanocapsules was evaluated in vivo, in a mouse model. Both anionic and cationic formulations were in the range of 180–220 nm with a narrow size distribution and desired zeta potential values. CPT-loaded nanocapsules were found to be stable in simulated gastrointestinal media. Turbidimetric measurements confirmed the interaction between nanoparticles and mucin. Penetration of CPT through an artificial mucus gel layer was higher with CS-coated nanocapsules in accordance with the results obtained from permeability studies across Caco-2 cell line. In vivo animal studies confirmed that the intestinal uptake of nanocapsules was significantly higher with cationic nanocapsules. CPT-loaded positively charged CD nanocapsules might be an attractive and promising treatment for oral chemotherapy

  7. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  8. Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste perception. Although it is well known that oral coatings can influence sensory perception, there was little information available on the chemical composition and physical properties of oral coatings. ...

  9. A multi-centre evaluation of oral cancer in Southern and Western Nigeria: an African oral pathology research consortium initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, Olufemi Gbenga; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Sigbeku, Opeyemi; Okoh, Dickson; Akinshipo, Abdulwarith Olaitan; Butali, Azeez; Adeola, Henry Ademola

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths among African populations. Lack of standard cancer registries and under-reporting has inaccurately depicted its magnitude in Nigeria. Development of multi-centre collaborative oral pathology networks such as the African Oral Pathology Research Consortium (AOPRC) facilitates skill and expertise exchange and fosters a robust and systematic investigation of oral diseases across Africa. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we have leveraged the auspices of the AOPRC to examine the burden of oral cancer in Nigeria, using a multi-centre approach. Data from 4 major tertiary health institutions in Western and Southern Nigeria was generated using a standardized data extraction format and analysed using the SPSS data analysis software (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Of the 162 cases examined across the 4 centres, we observed that oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) occurred mostly in the 6 th and 7 th decades of life and maxillary were more frequent than mandibular OSCC lesions. Regional variations were observed both for location, age group and gender distribution. Significant regional differences was found between poorly, moderately and well differentiated OSCC (p value = 0.0071). A multi-centre collaborative oral pathology research approach is an effective way to achieve better insight into the patterns and distribution of various oral diseases in men of African descent. The wider outlook for AOPRC is to employ similar approaches to drive intensive oral pathology research targeted at addressing the current morbidity and mortality of various oral diseases across Africa.

  10. Oral infections and orofacial pain in Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rolim, Thaís; Fabri, Gisele Maria Campos; Nitrini, Ricardo; Anghinah, Renato; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Siqueira, José Tadeu T; Cestari, José Augusto Ferrari; de Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan T

    2014-01-01

    Dental infections are frequent and have recently been implicated as a possible risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite a lack of studies investigating orofacial pain in this patient group, dental conditions are known to be a potential cause of pain and to affect quality of life and disease progression. To evaluate oral status, mandibular function and orofacial pain in patients with mild AD versus healthy subjects matched for age and gender. Twenty-nine patients and 30 control subjects were evaluated. The protocol comprised a clinical questionnaire and dental exam, research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index, and included a full periodontal evaluation. AD signs and symptoms as well as associated factors were evaluated by a trained neurologist. A higher prevalence of orofacial pain (20.7%, p Orofacial pain and periodontal infections were more frequent in patients with mild AD than in healthy subjects. Orofacial pain screening and dental and oral exams should be routinely performed in AD patients in order to identify pathological conditions that need treatment thus improving quality of life compromised due to dementia.

  11. Comparison of intra-oral and study cast measurements in the assessment of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsenik, Maja; Farcnik, Franc M; Verdenik, Ivan

    2004-06-01

    Malocclusion assessment methods are based on registrations and measurements made on study casts, which requires that impressions be taken. In addition to being costly and time-consuming, this process can be unpleasant for very young children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intra-oral measurements that compute a malocclusion index score to determine malocclusion severity in the mixed dentition. The research was part of a longitudinal study in Slovenia on a sample of 530 3-year-old children. At 8 years of age (mean 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.2), a cohort of 101 children (44 boys, 57 girls) was randomly selected in a cross-sectional study. Quantitative registrations of space and occlusal anomalies were performed intra-orally as well as on study casts. Kappa (kappa) statistics were used to evaluate the agreement between clinical and study cast malocclusion assessments. Systematic bias of measurements was tested using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The results showed complete agreement between the two measurements for anterior crossbite, anterior open bite and overjet scores (kappa = 1); excellent reliability for the buccal segment relationship (kappa = 0.93), transverse occlusion of posterior teeth (kappa = 0.87); and substantial agreement for overbite (kappa = 0.79) and midline deviation (kappa = 0.71). For the remainder of the traits the agreement was moderate: rotation of incisors (kappa = 0.58), crowding of upper incisors (kappa = 0.51), axial inclination of teeth (kappa = 0.44) and lower incisor crowding (kappa = 0.41). Intra-orally small, but statistically significant scoring of lower incisor rotation and crowding was identified. On the study casts the most favourable axial inclination was found for buccal segment occlusion. Overall classification into severity grades, based on the total malocclusion score, showed excellent agreement between the two methods (kappa = 0.89), without statistically significant bias

  12. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of our study were to determine levels of trefoil factor (TFF) peptides in saliva and oral mucosal tissues from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate whether individual members of TFFs (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) might act as biomarkers of disease....... Materials and methods Saliva samples were from 23 healthy subjects and 23 OSCC patients. Tissue samples were collected from 32 normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 32 OSCC biopsy specimens. ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in saliva and oral mucosal...... tissues, respectively. Results Expression of TFF2 and TFF3 in oral mucosal tissues of OSCC patients was strongly downregulated when compared to healthy subjects (p 

  13. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in a rural population of south kerala - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which continues to challenge the dental professional with its wide spectrum of clinical involvement. This pilot study attempts to evaluate the status of oral lichen planus in a rural population from South Kerala in order to obtain such data as prevalence, distribution according to age, gender, clinical types and site of lesion .A drop in the age group of male population presenting with lichen planus was a significant finding in our study. However, more elaborate epidemiologic studies are required to probe further into this finding.

  14. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is heading towards various types of non-communicable diseases, which are also known as modern epidemics. Among these modern epidemics cancer is among the ten commonest cause of mortality in developing countries including India. Oral cancer is a major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers diagnosed. Ninety percent (90% of oral cancers in South East Asia including India are linked to tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking. Research question: What is the profile of Oral cancer (Oral cavity cases reported in the hospital? Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile associated with Oral cancer cases. Methods: Study Design: Hospital based, Cross -sectional study. Settings: Shri Siddhivinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, Maharashtra. Participants and Sample size: As it is a time bound study sample size comprised of all the confirmed cases of oral cancer reported in the hospital during the study period. The study was carried out from 1st March 2005 to 28th February 2006. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, enquiries regarding modifiable risk factors such as tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, site involved (within oral cavity, staging, histopathological examination, treatment modality used. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using Microsoft excel. Data presented in form of percentages and proportions. Results: Out of the total 160 cases, majority of the subjects were above 40 years age. 36 (22% of subjects were young adults (below 40 years age. 125 (78% subjects were male. Most of the subjects belonged to upper lower and lower middle socio-economic scale according to modified Kuppuswamy classification. It was observed that 139 (87% cases consumed tobacco in all forms. Out of these, ninety cases consumed tobacco in chewable form. Tobacco was chewed mainly in the form of gutka. Only ten (10 female subjects chewed tobacco. No female subjects smoked. The most

  15. Reliability of intra-oral camera using teledentistry in screening of oral diseases – Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion/recommendations: Intra-oral camera was shown to be a reliable tool to identify common oral diseases. Further studies involving applications like sealant retention, pre-malignant lesions, recurrent apthae, gingival recession and dental malocclusion and effectiveness in regular screening are needed.

  16. Oral coatings: a study on the formation, clearance and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral coatings are residues of food and beverages that coat the oral mucosa after consumption. Several studies have reported on the lubrication properties in mouth, and the after-feel and after-taste impact of oral coatings. Further, oral coatings have been suggested to influence subsequent taste

  17. Effect of treatment with fixed and removable dental prostheses. An oral health-related quality of life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate patient-reported effects of treatment with fixed dental prostheses (FDP) and removable dental prostheses (RDP) and relate the change in Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) to the type of treatment and objective dental variables of aesthetics and masti......The aim of the study was to evaluate patient-reported effects of treatment with fixed dental prostheses (FDP) and removable dental prostheses (RDP) and relate the change in Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) to the type of treatment and objective dental variables of aesthetics...... were obtained. The participants completed the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49) before and after treatment. A control group with no need for dental treatment also completed the OHIP-49. All participants had a significant improvement in OHRQoL. The improvement was higher for the RDP group than...

  18. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Iranian children and adolescents: a 12-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, S; Taheri, J B; Toossi, P; Azimi, S; Kawosi Nezhad, Sh

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of oral lichen planus in patients younger than 18 years, referred to a dermatology centre in Iran during 2002-2014. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that could affect the oral mucosa and is a pre-cancerous condition. The disease usually develops in middle age with female predominance and is rare in children. In this retrospective study, cases with definitive histopathologic diagnosis of lichen planus, over a 12-year period from 2002 to 2014 from a dermatologic hospital archive were evaluated. The prevalence of both cutaneous and oral lichen planus, the male:female ratio and site of involvement were calculated using SPSS version 21. Thirty-six of 564 patients younger than 18 years old diagnosed with lichen planus. Two females (0.4%) had oral lichen planus. One patient had erosive, and one had bullous, oral lichen planus. Oral lichen planus had a very low frequency in Iranian population younger than 18 years old, identifying these patients is recommended for long-term follow-up.

  19. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  20. Oral health matters for the nutritional status of older persons-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Ulrika; Jansson, Henrik; Lannering, Christina; Johansson, Linda

    2018-03-01

    To explore the association between oral health and nutritional status in the context of daily care for older people. Oral problems often increase with age and affect a person's ability to chew and swallow. They might also influence the ability to maintain a satisfactory nutritional status. Oral health awareness is therefore of great importance in nursing care for older people. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Swedish quality register, Senior Alert, were used, including structured assessments of both oral and nutritional status using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide-Jönköping and the Mini Nutritional Assessment. In total, 1,156 persons (mean age: 82.8 ± 7.9) had both oral and nutritional assessments registered by the nursing staff in daily care. Approximately 29% of participants had moderate oral health problems. Another 12% had severe problems. Over 60% of the persons were considered at risk of malnutrition or were malnourished. There was a weak correlation between poor nutritional status and poor oral health, and approximately one-third of the persons who were at risk or malnourished had simultaneous oral problems. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that when problems involving voice and swallowing were present, there was also a greater possibility of being assessed as at risk of malnourishment or being malnourished. There is a relationship between oral health problems and nutritional status, indicating the importance of evaluating oral health status in older persons with nutritional problems. Nursing staff involved in care for older people should be aware of the importance of including regular oral health check-ups in their work. There is also a need for nursing staff members and oral health professionals to exchange knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation oral hygiene index in the 12-years-old students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Shirzai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease and dental caries are one of the most important factors of tooth loss and the most common oral health problem, therefore the present study was performed to assess oral hygiene index in the 12-years-old students in Zahedan city.Material and Method: In this descriptive-analytical study, Zahedan city (2009 was divided based on socio-economical situation in to two areas and 10 school (boys & girls school from each area, and 47 students from each school, were selected randomly. Oral hygiene status of 942 12-years-old male and female students was assessed with OHI-S index. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version-15 (t-test and chi-square. Results: The mean OHI-S was 1.43±0.72 and 44.7% persons had well OHI-S, 50.3% had medium OHI-S and 5% had poor OHI-S. The mean OHI-S was 1.42 in boys and 1.44 in girls. Correlation between OHI-S with father occupation (p=0.03 and sequences of tooth brushing (p=0.001 was significant. Conclusion: Oral hygiene status of studied students was in the middle and people who brushes their teeth more time, had higher OHI-S indices

  2. [New approaches to oral cavity opportunistic microbiota study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tets, G V; Vikina, D S; Vecherkovskaia, M F; Domorad, A A; Kharlamova, V V; Tets, V V

    2013-01-01

    Identification of some bacteria of the oral microbiota in humans including opportunistic pathogens capable of causing infections of various locations is a challenging problem for dentistry. Lack of knowledge on oral microbiota is the result of the absence of appropriate culture technique for isolation of pure cultures of those bacteria. The paper presents the study on mixed oral microbial biofilms with isolation and identification of insufficiently explored or still unknown aerobic opportunistic bacteria.

  3. Effects of ozone nano-bubble water on periodontopathic bacteria and oral cells - in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakumo, Sae; Arakawa, Shinichi; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Kondo, Keiko; Mano, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the bactericidal activity of a new antiseptic agent, ozone nano-bubble water (NBW3), against periodontopathogenic bacteria and to assess the cytotoxicity of NBW3 against human oral cells. The bactericidal activities of NBW3 against representative periodontopathogenic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) were evaluated using in vitro time-kill assays. The cytotoxicity of NBW3 was evaluated using three-dimensional human buccal and gingival tissue models. The numbers of colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans exposed to NBW3 dropped to below the lower limit of detection (bacteria and is not cytotoxic to cells of human oral tissues. The use of NBW3 as an adjunct to periodontal therapy would be promising.

  4. Evaluation of cytomorphometric changes in tobacco users and diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Udayashankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers in the age group of 25-75 years. Oral mucosal smears obtained by using a cytobrush were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain and using 20X objective in trinocular Olympus model BX53 with Jenoptik scientific grade-dedicated microphotographic camera images were taken. With ProgRes version 8.0 image analysis software, 20 cells with defined borders were evaluated from each slide. Finally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Minitab and Excel software were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Results: The mean value of the cell area for groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 2838 ± 275.2, 2762.1 ± 511.4, 2861.9 ± 512.9, 2643.8 ± 333.3, and 3064.3 ± 362.7, respectively, the nuclear area (NA was 83.88 ± 9.86, 106.19 ± 13.45, 95.11 ± 14.24, 85.55 ± 21.11, and 80.83 ± 13.45, respectively, and nuclear-to-cellular (N:C ratio was 0.0297, 0.03924, 0.0337, 0.03257, and 0.02678, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, our study elucidates that cytomorphology gauges the effect of tobacco on the oral mucosa and possibly establishes a link between premalignant and malignant transformations even before a lesion is visibly noted.

  5. The evaluation of oral health-related factors on the quality of life of the elderly in Babol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Motallebnejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering an increase in elderly population in recent years, it has become necessary to pay attention to this group so that they can have a higher quality of life (QoL. Oral health is one of the factors affecting the QoL of the elderly. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral health on the QoL of the elderly population in Babol, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used the multi-stage cluster sampling technique to select 300 elderly subjects, over 65 years of age, living in Babol. Oral health-related QoL was evaluated by the Persian version of oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 questionnaire. Data were collected on gender, age, occupation, education, the date of the last dental visit, use of prosthetic appliances, and dental treatment needs, including the periodontal, prosthetic, and surgical needs, by interview and examination. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with SPSS software program using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 71.4 ± 5.6 years, with 183 males (61% and 117 females (39%. The mean score of OHIP-14 questionnaire was 22.4 ± 8.2, with a range of 5‒50. The highest score was achieved on the psychological discomfort domain. There was no significant difference in OHIP-14 scores according to gender, with significantly lower scores in subjects with academic education. The subjects wearing prosthetic appliances had lower OHIP-14 scores compared to those who did not wear prosthetic appliances. OHIP-14 scores were lower in the dentate individuals compared to the edentulous individuals. There was no correlation between the age and the OHIP-14 score. Conclusion: In general, the results of the present study showed a moderate oral health-related QoL in the elderly living in Babol, who have orodental problems.

  6. Oral health-related quality of life after prosthetic rehabilitation in patients with oral cancer: A longitudinal study with the Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire version 3 and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C; Dugad, J

    2016-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation helps to improve the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). The Liverpool Oral Rehabilitation Questionnaire (LORQ) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) are specific tools that measure OHRQOL. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of oral rehabilitation on patients' OHRQOL following treatment for cancer of oral cavity using LORQ version 3 (LORQv3) and OHIP-14 questionnaire. Secondary objectives were to identify issues specific to oral rehabilitation, patients compliance to prosthetic rehabilitation, the effect of radiation treatment on prosthetic rehabilitation, to achieve meaningful differences over a time before & after prosthetic intervention, to carryout and document specific patient-deprived problem. Seventy-five oral cancer patients were studied. Patients were asked to rate their experience of dental problems before fabrication of prosthesis and after 1 year using LORQv3 and OHIP-14. The responses were compared on Likert scale. Patients reported with extreme problems before rehabilitation. After 1 year of prosthetic rehabilitation, there was improvement noticed in all the domain of LORQv3 and OHIP-14. Complete compliance to the use of prosthetic appliances for 1 year study period was noted. In response to the question no. 40 (LORQv3), only 15 patients who belonged to the obturator group, brought to notice the problems which were not addressed in the LORQv3 questionnaire. The study showed that the oral cancer patients coped well and adapted to near normal oral status after prosthetic rehabilitation. This contributed to the improved overall health-related quality of life.

  7. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  8. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Chi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Design. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012 for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions

  9. Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2008-02-28

    A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension.

  10. Evaluation of CT images on metastasis to cervical lymph node in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, Tomokazu; Wada, Takurou; Wakasa, Toru; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Honda, Yasutoshi; Kawai, Noriko; Kishi, Kanji

    1998-01-01

    There have been many reports about the usefulness of CT in diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis from oral cancer. With relatively high diagnostic accuracy, various diagnostic criteria have been used. This study evaluated CT images of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral cancer using these criteria. Eighty-nine cases of various oral cancers (132 lymph node groups) were evaluated regarding cervical lymph node metastasis. In patients with nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter, 58.1% were metastatic (metastatic/total=47/74), while 17.2% of patients with nodes measuring less than 1 cm in minimal axial diameter of lymph node were metastatic (10/58). As for other diagnostic criteria, in patients with spherical nodes, 38.7% (metastatic/total=29/75), in patients showing ring enhancement, 70.4% (19/27) and in patients with fusion, 75.0% (3/4) were metastatic. In addition, in patients with spherical nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter, 59.5% (22/37), in patients with nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter and showing ring enhancement, 78.3% (18/23), in patients with spherical nodes showing ring enhancement, 60.0% (9/15) and in patients with spherical nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter and showing ring enhancement, 64.3% (9/14) were metastatic. In case of disappearance of fat layer (1/1), cancer infiltration of the surrounding tissue was seen. In conclusion, over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter, spherical node and ring enhancement were found to be appropriate diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, CT is essential in diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis from oral cancer. (author)

  11. Prevalence of Oral, Skin, and Oral and Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus in Patients Visiting a Dental School in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omal, PM; Jacob, Vimal; Prathap, Akhilesh; Thomas, Nebu George

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common among adult population. LP can present as skin and oral lesions. This study highlights the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP from a population of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiodiagnosis, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. This is a ongoing prospective study with results of 2 years being reported. LP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological analysis of mucosal and skin biopsy done for all patients suspected of having LP. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software version 14. To test the statistical significance, chi-square test was used. Results: Out of 18,306 patients screened, 8,040 were males and 10,266 females. LP was seen in 118 cases (0.64%). Increased prevalence of LP was observed in middle age adults (40–60 years age group) with lowest age of 12 years and highest age of 65 years. No statistically significant differences were observed between the genders in skin LP group (P=0.12) and in oral and skin LP groups (P=0.06); however, a strong female predilection was seen in oral LP group (P=0.000036). The prevalence of cutaneous LP in oral LP patients was 0.06%. Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of oral LP than skin LP, and oral and skin LP with a female predominance. PMID:22615505

  12. Oral-Only Linezolid-Rifampin Is Highly Effective Compared with Other Antibiotics for Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Study of a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John M; Saini, Vikram; Ashbaugh, Alyssa G; Miller, Robert J; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Ortines, Roger V; Wang, Yu; Sterling, Robert S; Jain, Sanjay K; Miller, Lloyd S

    2017-04-19

    The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI. Oral linezolid with or without oral rifampin, intravenous vancomycin with oral rifampin, intravenous daptomycin or ceftaroline with or without oral rifampin, oral doxycycline, or sham treatment were administered at human-exposure doses for 6 weeks in a mouse model of PJI. Bacterial burden was assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging and ex vivo counting of colony-forming units (CFUs), and reactive bone changes were evaluated with radiographs and micro-computed tomography (μCT) imaging. Oral-only linezolid-rifampin and all intravenous antibiotic-rifampin combinations resulted in no recoverable bacteria and minimized reactive bone changes. Although oral linezolid was the most effective monotherapy, all oral and intravenous antibiotic monotherapies failed to clear infection or prevent reactive bone changes. Combination antibiotic-rifampin regimens, including oral-only linezolid-rifampin and the newer ceftaroline-rifampin combinations, were highly effective and more efficacious than monotherapies when used against a preclinical MRSA PJI. This study provides important preclinical evidence to better optimize future antibiotic therapy against PJIs. In particular, the oral-only linezolid-rifampin option might reduce venous access complications and health-care costs.

  13. Evaluation of date syrup as an oral negative contrast agent for MRCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Arunkumar; Lakshmanan, Prakash Manikka; Sarawagi, Radha; Prabhakaran, Velu

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of date syrup with those of other contrast agents by qualitative and quantitative analysis and in vivo evaluation of the use of date syrup to improve the quality of MRCP images. Phantoms containing date syrup, ferumoxsil, pineapple juice, and water were imaged by 1.5-T MRI with T2-weighted and MRCP sequences, and signal-to-noise ratios were calculated. Biochemical analysis of date syrup was performed to find the nature of iron in it, and the iron content was quantified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Sixty patients underwent MRCP before and 30 minutes after ingestion of 100 mL of date syrup. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images were scored for gastrointestinal tract signal suppression and visualization of various pancreaticobiliary structures. In vitro evaluation showed that images obtained with date syrup had a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to that of images obtained with ferumoxsil in T2-weighted and MRCP sequences. The iron concentration in date syrup was 2.6 mg/dL, and it was in ferric form. Images obtained after oral contrast administration had statistically significant improvement in gastrointestinal tract signal suppression (p Date syrup can be used as a negative oral contrast agent for gastrointestinal tract signal suppression during MRCP and for improving visualization of various pancreaticobiliary structures.

  14. Driving under the influence of drugs -- evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R

    2005-09-10

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.

  15. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto

    2016-03-01

    To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established.

  16. Oral lysine clonixinate in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Krymchantowski,Abouch V.; Barbosa,Jackeline S.; Cheim,Celia; Alves,Luiz A.

    2001-01-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has proven to be effective in various pain syndromes such as renal colic and muscular pain. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral LC compared to placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Sixty four patients with the diagnosis of migraine, according to the IHS criteria, wer...

  17. Oral and non oral diseases and conditions associated with bad breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, M; Rimondini, L

    2011-03-01

    The causes of bad breath are numerous and related to conditions dependent or not on oral and general health. The aim of our observational study is the assessment of the simultaneous relationships between halitosis, oral and/or nonoral diseases, and lifestyles using the principal components analysis of categorical data (CATPCA) to identify the main components involved in the detection of the symptom. A sample of 192 patients, who requested general dental examination at the Dental Clinic, participated at the study. Alimentary and voluptuary habits, general health information, drugs assumption, the status of teeth and intraoral medical devices including fillers, lesions of the oral mucosa, tongue coating score (TCS), plaque index (PI), probing bleeding index (PBI) and organoleptic tests were all evaluated. Data were analysed using CATPCA model. A strong relationship between halitosis and plaque, probing bleeding and tongue coating indexes was observed, whereas incongruous fillers, prostheses, systemic pathologies or diet were not clearly associated with halitosis probably because their effects on breath were clinically sheltered by the periodontal condition. The data of our observational study confirm that halitosis is more indicative of tongue coating and periodontal disease, rather than other oral and non oral associated conditions, like systemic pathologies or specific habits of life.

  18. Outcome measures for oral health based on clinical assessments and claims data: feasibility evaluation in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Riët; Bruers, Josef; van der Galiën, Onno; van der Sanden, Wil; van der Heijden, Geert

    2017-10-05

    It is well known that treatment variation exists in oral healthcare, but the consequences for oral health are unknown as the development of outcome measures is still in its infancy. The aim of this study was to identify and develop outcome measures for oral health and explore their performance using health insurance claims records and clinical data from general dental practices. The Dutch healthcare insurance company Achmea collaborated with researchers, oral health experts, and general dental practitioners (GDPs) in a proof of practice study to test the feasibility of measures in general dental practices. A literature search identified previously described outcome measures for oral healthcare. Using a structured approach, identified measures were (i) prioritized, adjusted and added to after discussion and then (ii) tested for feasibility of data collection, their face validity and discriminative validity. Data sources were claims records from Achmea, clinical records from dental practices, and prospective, pre-determined clinical assessment data obtained during routine consultations. In total eight measures (four on dental caries, one on tooth wear, two on periodontal health, one on retreatment) were identified, prioritized and tested. The retreatment measure and three measures for dental caries were found promising as data collection was feasible, they had face validity and discriminative validity. Deployment of these measures demonstrated variation in clinical practices of GDPs. Feedback of this data to GDPs led to vivid discussions on best practices and quality of care. The measure 'tooth wear' was not considered sufficiently responsive; 'changes in periodontal health score' was considered a controversial measure. The available data for the measures 'percentage of 18-year-olds with no tooth decay' and 'improvement in gingival bleeding index at reassessment' was too limited to provide accurate estimates per dental practice. The evaluated measures 'time to first

  19. Prevention of Oral Candidiasis After Free Flap Surgery: Role of 3% Sodium Bicarbonate Saline in Oral Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Zhang, Fang; Lyu, Xin; Yan, Zhimin; Hua, Hong; Peng, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Relevant reports about oral candidiasis status and prevention measures after free flap surgery for the oral and maxillofacial region are limited. The present study explored oral candidiasis status after free flap surgery and its prevention through a prospective comparative study. One hundred four patients were randomized to a control group (n = 54) and an experimental group (n = 50). Compared with the control group, the experimental group was provided an additional 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care after free flap surgery. The incidence of oral candidiasis was evaluated by objective examination (saliva culture and salivary pH measurement) and subjective evaluation (clinical signs of oral candidiasis) at admission and from postoperative days 1 to 14. The salivary pH values of the 2 groups were lower than the normal salivary pH, and postoperative salivary pH values were always lower than the active range of oral lysozymes in the control group. The salivary pH values of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group from postoperative days 6 to 14 (P < .05). The incidence of oral candidiasis was 13.0% in the control group, which was higher than that in the experimental group (2.0%; P < .05). In addition, advanced age, use of a free flap for the simultaneous repair of intraoral and paraoral defects, and a combination of 2 antibiotic types were risk factors for oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis was common in patients after free flap reconstruction surgery, and the use of 3% sodium bicarbonate saline solution for oral care effectively prevented it. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves: Genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiannan; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Liu, Haibo; Jia, Xudong

    2017-06-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves have a long history of use as an abundant source of sweetener. The aqueous extract of stevia leaves and the predominant constitutes steviol glycosides have been intensively investigated. However, rare studies provided toxicological evaluation of bioactive components in the polar extract regarding their safety on human health. This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves through a battery of in vitro and in vivo tests. Negative results were unanimously obtained from bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay and mouse sperm malformation assay. Oral administration at dietary levels of 1.04%, 2.08% and 3.12% for 90 days did not induce significant behavioral, hematological, clinical, or histopathological changes in rats. Significant reduction of cholesterol, total protein and albumin was observed in female animals only at high dose level. The results demonstrated that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves ethanolic extract, which is rich in isochlorogenic acids, does not possess adverse effects through oral administration in this study. Our data provided supportive evidence for the safety of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves that may potentially be used in functional foods as well as nutritional supplements beyond sweetner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Canine oral mucosa evaluation as a potential autograft tissue for the treatment of unresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Rose L; Smith, Jodi D; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Labial mucosa transplantation for the treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has been reported recently. Postoperative alleviation of clinical signs was noted and assumed to be the result of labial salivary glands providing lubrication to the ocular tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of minor salivary glands (MSG) in the canine oral mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies were collected from six dogs that died (n = 1) or were euthanized (n = 5) for reasons unrelated to this study. The breeds included were two Doberman Pinschers, one Labrador Retriever, one Portuguese Water Dog, one German Shepherd Dog, and one mixed canine. Three were spayed females, and three were castrated males with the median age of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). Samples were obtained by an 8-mm punch biopsy at the following locations of the canine oral cavity: upper rostral labial mucosa at midline, lower rostral labial mucosa at midline, upper labial mucosa near the commissure, lower labial mucosa near the commissure, and buccal mucosa approximately 1 cm caudal to the commissure. Samples were routinely processed with hematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy. At the selected locations, no MSG or other secreting cells were detected. Minor salivary glands are not associated with alleviation of canine KCS symptoms following labial mucosa transplantation. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism leading to the transient improvement of KCS symptoms in canine patients following labial mucosa transplantation. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. The pertinence of oral health indicators in nutritional studies in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Osta, Nada; Hennequin, Martine; Tubert-Jeannin, Stephanie; Abboud Naaman, Nada Bou; El Osta, Lana; Geahchan, Negib

    2014-04-01

    Studies concerning the more appropriate criteria for evaluating oral health in relation to nutrition in the elderly vary greatly. There is a need to identify the most relevant criteria for classifying dental indicators of mastication in nutritional studies, so these indicators may be considered for epidemiological and clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between nutritional deficit and measures of oral health in a group of elderly. A convenience sample of independent elderly aged 65 years or more attending two primary care clinics in Beirut, Lebanon was selected. Data were collected from a questionnaire including the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and questions about perception of xerostomia and chewing problems. The oral examinations recorded decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), the prosthetic status and the number of functional units (FU). The sample was composed of 121 women (mean age: 71.59 ± 5.97 years) and 80 men (mean age: 72.74 ± 6.98 years). They were allocated to two groups: 85 participants suffering from malnutrition (MNA score nutritional status (MNA score ≥ 24). Parameters that explain MNA variations were perception of xerostomia (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.66-7.34]), number of FU (OR = 2.79, 95% CI [1.49; 5.22]), and GOHAI score (OR = 2.905, 95% CI [1.40; 6.00]). Further studies exploring factors affecting nutrition in the elderly should take into consideration perception of xerostomia, number of FUs and GOHAI score. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents’ preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Kristin S.; Barker, Judith C.; Shiboski, Stephen; Guzman, Estela Pantoja; Hiatt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents’ oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-hour interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children’s oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management and parent skill-building activities. Methods Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0–5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental tooth brushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and posttests, and again between post-test and three month follow up consisted of McNemar’s test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Results Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n= 105 pretest, n=95 posttest, n=79 second posttest). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At posttest, 44% of parents

  4. Evaluation of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in oral hospital diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniele C F; de Sá, Júlia S M; Cerqueira, Isabela B; Oliveira, Ana P F; Morgano, Marcelo A; Quintaes, Késia D

    2014-10-01

    Many trace elements are nutrients essential to humans, acting in the metabolism as constituents or as enzymatic co-factors. The iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium contents of hospital diets (regular, blend and soft) and of oral food complement (OFC) were determined, evaluating the adequacy of each element in relation to the nutritional recommendations (DRIs) and the percent contribution alone and with OFC. Duplicate samples were taken of six daily meals and of the OFC on two non-consecutive days from a hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil) in May and September of 2010 and January of 2011. The elements were determined by ICP OES. Of the diets, the soft diet showed the highest elements content. Offering the OFC was insufficient to provide adequate levels of the trace elements. The oral hospital diets were inadequate in relation to the RDAs for the trace elements studied and the use of the OFCs was insufficient to compensate the values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of prolidase activity and oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid contact reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batu, Şule; Ofluoğlu, Duygu; Ergun, Sertan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Uslu, Ezel; Güven, Yegane; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prolidase activity and oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCR) using serum and salivary samples and to compare these biomarkers with each other as well as with a group of healthy subjects in order to be able to opine their role in the estimation of OLP and OLCR. Eighteen recently diagnosed patients with OLP, 32 patients with OLCR and 18 healthy controls with matched periodontal status were recruited to the study. Prolidase activity, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), sialic acid (SA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) levels in both serum and saliva were determined. Additionally, salivary flow rate and its buffering capacity were estimated. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. No statistically significant differences were observed between the study groups and the control group regarding to the basic characteristics and the periodontal status (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between OLP and OLCR groups regarding to the distribution of lesions' type, severity, and location (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two study groups with regard to Prolidase activity, MDA, SA, and AOPPs (P ˃ 0.05), whereas statistically significant differences were found between the two study groups and the control group with regard to all evaluated parameters except of serum prolidase (P ˂ 0.01). Moderate correlation was found between salivary MDA and the OLP/OLCR lesion severity, whereas a weak correlation was observed between serum SA and the OLP/OLCR lesion severity (P ˂ 0.05). The findings of this study suggest an increased prolidase activity and oxidative stress and imbalance in the antioxidant defense system in biological fluids of patients with OLP and OLCR when compared with the healthy subjects

  6. Dental patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to oral cancer: the need of a nation-wide oral cancer prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral cancer (OC) knowledge, including risk factors and clinical symptoms, among patients attending Dental Departments within large Italian University hospitals. Methods: 2200 questionnaires were sent to four hospitals in order to assess patients’ knowledge regarding epidemiological and clinical features of oral cancer; oral cancer knowledge was assessed overall and stratified by oral cancer family history. Associations between exposures of...

  7. Evaluation of Student Reflection as a Route to Improve Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the use of guided self-reflection and peer feedback activities to improve student oral communication in a large ChE class (n ~ 100) setting. Student performance tracked throughout an experimental semester indicated both reflection activities accelerated improvement in oral communication over control; student perception of the…

  8.  A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF ORAL HEALTH AND ORAL-HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FRAIL ELDERLY PERSONS ON ADMISSION TO A SPECIAL ORAL-HEALTHCARE PROGRAM IN COPENHAGEN CITY,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Hede, Borge; Nielsen, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of oral health and oral health-related quality of life among frail elderly persons on admission to a special oral health care programme in Copenhagen City, Denmark Aim: To describe the oral health and the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of citizens in Copenhagen...... City on admission to a specific oral health-care programme for disabled elderly persons. Further, to analyse how various factors influence the oral health and the OHRQoL among these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 189 persons (average 85 years) consecutively admitted to a special oral...... health-care programme. Clinical data and data from interviews comprising social factors, life-style, dental visit habits, oral hygiene practices and self-perceived oral health were collected. A modified index on perceived dysfunction, discomfort and disability due to oral disorders was used. Results...

  9. Novel piroxicam-loaded nanospheres generated by the electrospraying technique: physicochemical characterisation and oral bioavailability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Omer; Din, Fakhar Ud; Kim, Dong Wuk; Park, Jong Hyuck; Woo, Kyu Bong; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Youn, Yu Seok; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Rashid, Rehmana; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-06-01

    To determine if a novel electrospraying technique could be applied to an oral drug delivery system for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble piroxicam; the nanospheres were generated with drug and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using electrospraying technique; and their physicochemical properties, solubility, release and pharmacokinetics were evaluated in comparison with piroxicam powder. All nanospheres had significantly increased drug solubility and dissolution rates in comparison with the drug powder. In particular, the nanosphere composed of piroxicam and PVP at a weight ratio of 2:8 gave about 600-fold higher solubility, 15-fold higher release rate and 3-fold higher AUC in comparison to piroxicam powder, leading to significantly enhanced oral bioavailability in rats, due to the mingled effect of nanonisation along with transformation to the amorphous state. Thus, this electrospraying technique can be utilised to produce a novel oral nanosphere delivery system with enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble piroxicam.

  10. Effectiveness evaluation of Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program for improving Spanish-speaking parents' preventive oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, K S; Barker, J C; Shiboski, S; Pantoja-Guzman, E; Hiatt, R A

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Contra Caries Oral Health Education Program (CCOHEP) for improving low-income, Spanish-speaking parents' oral health knowledge and behaviors for their young children. Mexican American children in the United States suffer disproportionately high prevalence and severity of early childhood caries, yet few evaluated, theory-based behavioral interventions exist for this population. CCOHEP is a theory-based curriculum consisting of four 2-h interactive classes designed for and by Spanish speakers and led by designated community health educators (promotoras). Topics included children's oral hygiene, caries etiology, dental procedures, nutrition, child behavior management, and parent skill-building activities. Low-income Spanish-speaking parents/caregivers of children aged 0-5 years were recruited through community services in an agricultural city in California. Survey questions from the Oral Health Basic Research Facts Questionnaire measuring oral health-related behaviors and knowledge were verbally administered before, immediately after, and 3 months after attendance at CCOHEP. Five questions measured aspects of parental toothbrushing for their children (frequency, using fluoridated toothpaste, brushing before bed, not drinking or eating after nighttime brushing, adult assistance), three questions measured other oral health behaviors, and 16 questions measured oral health-related knowledge. Analyses of within-person changes between pre- and post-tests and again between post-test and 3-month follow-up consisted of McNemar's test for binary outcomes and sign tests for ordinal outcomes. Overall, 105 caregivers participated in CCOHEP (n = 105 pretest, n = 95 post-test, n = 79 second post-test). At baseline, all parents self-reported doing at least one aspect of toothbrushing correctly, but only 13% reported performing all five aspects according to professional guidelines. At post-test, 44% of parents reported completing all aspects of

  11. Evaluation of dentist-patient relationship toward the treatment of oral diseases after the usage of internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among all innovative technologies, net is one among the recent and also the most innovative media by that one will keep connected with the remainder of the planet. This facility provides huge volume of oral health consciousness at the side of oral health info to net users who eventually have an effect on the dentist–patient relationship. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the attitude of patients and dentists for the treatment of oral diseases after the use of internet by the patient. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from 153 dentists and 449 patients. The data from the dentists were collected from hospitals and private practices. Data from the patients were collected in urban area. The questions asked to dentists and patients were such that each respective question in both the questionnaires gave the same conclusion. Results: Dentists (56.2% agreed changes in patients thinking after the usage of internet. Within 21–40 years, 40.4% of dentists agreed that internet represents a threat to dentist–patient relationship. Conclusion: The usage of internet by the patients had brought about changes in patients thinking and the dentists had modified or guided patients in the use of oral health information obtained from the internet.

  12. Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of curcumin self-nano phospholipid dispersion as an approach to enhance oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed N; Komeil, Ibrahim A; Fouda, Mohamed A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of self-nano phospholipid dispersions (SNPDs) based on Phosal(®) to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR). SNPDs were prepared with Phosal(®) 53 and Miglyol 812 at different surfactant ratio. Formulations were evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and robustness toward dilution, TEM as well as in vitro drug release. The in vivo oral absorption of selected formulations in comparison to drug suspension was evaluated in rats. Moreover, formulations were assessed for in vitro characteristic changes before and after storage. The SNPDs were miscible with water in any ratio and did not show any phase separation or drug precipitation. All the formulas were monodisperse with nano range size from 158±2.6 nm to 610±6.24 nm. They passed the pharmacopeial tolerance for CUR dissolution. No change in dissolution profile and physicochemical characteristics was detected after storage. CUR-SNPDs are found to be more bioavailable compared with suspension during an in vivo study in rats and in vitro release studies failed to imitate the in vivo conditions. These formulations might be new alternative carriers that enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble molecules, such as CUR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral health in relation to all-cause mortality: the IPC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Margaux; Darnaud, Christelle; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Batty, G David; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-03-15

    We evaluated the association between oral health and mortality. The study population comprised 76,188 subjects aged 16-89 years at recruitment. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 ± 2.4 years. Subjects with a personal medical history of cancer or cardiovascular disease and death by casualty were excluded from the analysis. A full-mouth clinical examination was performed in order to assess dental plaque, dental calculus and gingival inflammation. The number of teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth (HR = 2.31, [95% CI: 1.40-3.82]) and functional masticatory units <5 (HR = 2.40 [95% CI 1.55-3.73]). Moreover, when ≥3 oral diseases were cumulated in the model, the risk increased for all-cause mortality (HR = 3.39, [95% CI: 2.51-5.42]), all-cancer mortality (HR = 3.59, [95% CI: 1.23-10.05]) and non-cardiovascular and non-cancer mortality (HR = 4.71, [95% CI: 1.74-12.7]). The present study indicates a postive linear association between oral health and mortality.

  14. Oral zinc supplementation for children with acute diarrhoea: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfa, Rola Abu; El Aish, Khaled I Abu; El Raai, Mohamed; El Gazaly, Nermeen; Shatat, Ahmed

    2018-02-21

    Diarrhoea causes 15% of under-5 mortality in developing countries. Zinc (Zn) stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn given with standard treatment to children with acute or moderate diarrhoea. In this quasi-unmasked, parallel-group study, we enrolled children with diarrhoea at El-Dorra Paediatric Hospital, Gaza Strip, occupied Palestinian territory. Inclusion criteria were children with more than three unformed stools in the preceding 24 h, duration of diarrhoea up to 72 h, and ability to accept oral fluids or feeds. Recruited children were assigned equally to either oral rehydration salts (control group) or oral rehydration salts plus Zn sulphate (Zn group; 10 mg for children younger than 6 months; 20 mg for children aged 6 months and older). All treatments were taken orally for 14 days. Primary outcomes were duration and frequency of diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes included changes in bodyweight, drugs side-effects, and episodes of any or severe dehydration. Data were analysed with SPSS. Outcome measures were compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test, student's t test, odds ratio, or χ 2 test. The study was approved by the ministry of health and the Helsinki Committee in the Gaza Strip. Parents of the children provided verbally informed consent before participation. We enrolled 140 children (aged 1-120 months). Duration of diarrhoea in the Zn group was shorter than in the control group (2·34 days in the Zn group vs 7·20 days in the control group; pZinc supplementation added to standard treatment with oral rehydration salts was effective and resulted in good treatment of diarrhoea. None. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo evaluation of thiolated chitosan tablets for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millotti, Gioconda; Laffleur, Flavia; Perera, Glen; Vigl, Claudia; Pickl, Karin; Sinner, Frank; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Chitosan-6-mercaptonicotinic acid (chitosan-6-MNA) is a thiolated chitosan with strong mucoadhesive properties and a pH-independent reactivity. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo potential for the oral delivery of insulin. The comparison of the nonconjugated chitosan and chitosan-6-MNA was performed on several studies such as mucoadhesion, release, and in vivo studies. Thiolated chitosan formulations were both about 80-fold more mucoadhesive compared with unmodified ones. The thiolated chitosan tablets showed a sustained release for 5 h for the polymer of 20 kDa and 8 h for the polymer of 400 kDa. Human insulin was quantified in rats' plasma by means of ELISA specific for human insulin with no cross-reactivity with the endogenous insulin. In vivo results showed thiolation having a tremendous impact on the absorption of insulin. The absolute bioavailabilities were 0.73% for chitosan-6-MNA of 20 kDa and 0.62% for chitosan-6-MNA 400 kDa. The areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of chitosan-6-MNA formulations compared with unmodified chitosan were 4.8-fold improved for the polymer of 20 kDa and 21.02-fold improved for the polymer of 400 kDa. The improvement in the AUC with regard to the most promising aliphatic thiomer was up to 6.8-fold. Therefore, chitosan-6-MNA represents a promising excipient for the oral delivery of insulin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy. Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus.

  17. Relationship of a turbidity of an oral rinse with oral health and malodor in Vietnamese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy A V

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the turbidity of mouth-rinse water and oral health conditions, including oral malodor, in patients with (n = 148) and without (n = 231) periodontitis was examined. The turbidity of 20 mL distilled water that the patients rinsed in their mouths 10 times was measured using a turbidimeter. Oral malodor was evaluated using an organoleptic test and Oral Chroma. Oral health conditions, including decayed teeth, periodontal status, oral hygiene status, proteolytic activity of the N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-2-napthilamide (BANA) test on the tongue coating, and salivary flow rate, were assessed. Turbidity showed significant correlations with oral malodor and all oral health parameters in the periodontitis group. In the non-periodontitis group, turbidity showed significant correlations with oral malodor and oral health parameters, including dental plaque, tongue coating, BANA test, and salivary flow rate. The regression analysis indicated that turbidity was significantly associated with methyl mercaptan and the BANA test in the periodontitis group, and with hydrogen sulfide, dental plaque, tongue coating, and salivary flow rate in the non-periodontitis group. The findings of the present study indicate that the turbidity of mouth-rinse water could be used as an indicator of oral health conditions, including oral malodor. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of erythritol in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Alex K; de Cock, Peter; Crincoli, Christine M; Means, Charlotte; Wismer, Tina; Pappas, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are widely used in the formulation of tooth-friendly and reduced-calorie foods. Considering the significant health benefits of polyols in products formulated for human use, there is increased interest in evaluating potential uses in companion animal applications. Erythritol and xylitol are two polyols which are currently widely used in products ranging from reduced-sugar foods to personal care and cosmetics. Published studies have shown that both of these compounds are well-tolerated in rodents. Their toxicity profiles differ when comparing canine safety data. Doses of xylitol as low as 0.15 g/kg-BW in dogs can result in life-threatening hypoglycemia and acute liver failure, whereas erythritol is well-tolerated in dogs with reported No Adverse Effect Levels upwards of 5 g/kg-BW/day in repeat-dose studies. While pivotal studies substantiating the safe use of erythritol in humans have been published, there are limited published studies to support the safe use of erythritol in dogs. Here we present the results of an acute oral and a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs. Given the potential health benefits of oral products formulated with erythritol and the data presented herein substantiating the safe use in dogs, erythritol can be safely used in products for canines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipid nanoparticles of zaleplon for improved oral delivery by Box-Behnken design: optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhipala, Narendar; Janga, Karthik Yadav

    2017-07-01

    Zaleplon (ZL) is a hypnotic drug prescribed for the management of insomnia and convulsions. The oral bioavailability of ZL was low (∼30%) owing to poor water solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. The cornerstone of this investigation is to develop and optimize solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of ZL with the aid of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to improve the oral bioavailability. A design space with three formulation variables at three levels were evaluated in BBD. Amount of lipid (A 1 ), amount of surfactant (A 2 ) and concentration of co-surfactant (%) (A 3 ) were selected as independent variables, whereas, particle size (B 1 ), entrapment efficiency (B 2 ) and zeta potential (ZP, B 3 ) as responses. ZL-SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization with ultrasonication method and evaluated for responses to obtain optimized formulation. Morphology of nanoparticles was observed under SEM. DSC and XRD studies were examined to understand the native crystalline behavior of drug in SLN formulations. Further, in vivo studies were performed in Wistar rats. The optimized formulation with 132.89 mg of lipid, 106.7 mg of surfactant and 0.2% w/v of co-surfactant ensued in the nanoparticles with 219.9 ± 3.7 nm of size, -25.66 ± 2.83 mV surface charge and 86.83 ± 2.65% of entrapment efficiency. SEM studies confirmed the spherical shape of SLN formulations. The DSC and XRD studies revealed the transformation of crystalline drug to amorphous form in SLN formulation. In conclusion, in vivo studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated an improvement in the oral bioavailability of ZL from SLN over control ZL suspension. The enhancement in the oral bioavailability of ZL from SLNs, developed with the aid of BBD, explicated the potential of lipid-based nanoparticles as a potential carrier in improving the oral delivery of this poorly soluble drug.

  20. Rapid prototyping modelling in oral and maxillofacial surgery: a two year retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Suomalainen, Anni; Stoor, Patricia; Mesimäki, Karri; Kontio, Risto K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of rapid prototyping (RP) models in medicine to construct bony models is increasing. Material and Methods The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively the indication for the use of RP models in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2009-2010. Also, the used computed tomography (CT) examination ? multislice CT (MSCT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) - method was evaluated. Results In total 114 RP models were fabricated for 102 patients. ...

  1. Fractal analysis in oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Bhai Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractal analysis (FA quantifies complex geometric structures by generating a fractal dimension (FD, which can measure the complexity of mucosa. FA is a quantitative tool used to measure the complexity of self-similar or semi-self-similar structures. Aim and Objective: The study was done to perform the FA of oral mucosa with keratotic changes, as it is also made up of self-similar tissues, and thus, its FD can be calculated. Results: In oral leukoplakia, keratinization increases the complexity of mucosa, which denotes fractal geometry. We evaluated and compared pretreated and post-treated oral leukoplakia in 50 patients with clinically proven oral leukoplakia and analyzed the normal oral mucosa and lesional or keratinized mucosa in oral leukoplakia patients through FA using box counting method. Conclusion: FA using the fractal geometry is an efficient, noninvasive prediction tool for early detection of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant conditions in patients.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  3. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  4. Oral health of adults in northern Norway – A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Adekoya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a deficiency of data on oral health of adults in northern Norway, and available reports indicate poorer oral health in the north as compared with the rest of the country. The objective of this pilot study was to develop and test out tools for a larger epidemiological study of oral health among adults in northern Norway. The study was conducted in the municipalities of Nordkapp and Båtsfjord located in the northernmost county, Finnmark. Questionnaires and letters of invitation were sent to 100 randomly selected individuals in each town, in total 200. Those who filled and returned the questionnaires were sent appointment cards to a free oral examination at the local dental clinic. The main finding from the study was a low response rate; 34% responded to the questionnaire and 26.5% attended the oral examination. Response rate was highest among women above forty years old (37% and lowest among men under forty years (12%. There is a necessity for further studies and strategies to increase response rate to subsequent oral epidemiologic studies in northern Norway. Radiological examination is not necessary for such studies but a questionnaire and a physical oral examination should be included.

  5. In vivo evaluation of an oral salmon calcitonin-delivery system based on a thiolated chitosan carrier matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggi, Davide; Kast, Constantia E; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2003-12-01

    To develop and evaluate an oral delivery system for salmon calcitonin. 2-Iminothiolane was covalently bound to chitosan in order to improve the mucoadhesive and cohesive properties of the polymer. The resulting chitosan-TBA conjugate (chitosan-4-thiobutylamidine conjugate) was homogenized with salmon calcitonin. mannitol, and a chitosan-Bowman-Birk inhibitor conjugate and a chitosan-elastatinal conjugate (6.75 + 0.25 + 1 + 1 + 1). Optionally 0.5% (m/m) reduced glutathione. used as permeation mediator, was added. Each mixture was compressed to 2 mg microtablets and enteric coated with a polymethacrylate. Biofeedback studies were performed in rats by oral administration of the delivery system and determination of the decrease in plasma calcium level as a function of time. Test formulations led to a significant (p thiolated chitosan, chitosan-enzyme-inhibitor conjugates and the permeation mediator glutathione seems to represent a promising strategy for the oral delivery of salmon calcitonin.

  6. Effect of oral hygiene education and motivation on removable partial denture wearers: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Machado, Ana Lucia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two different preventive oral hygiene education and motivation programmes on the plaque and gingival index, as well as denture hygiene of patients provided with removable partial denture (RPD) during a 12-month follow-up. A total of 53 partially edentulous patients were recruited for this study. The presence or absence of plaque and gingival bleeding by gentle probing was scored on all tooth surfaces at the preliminary visit. The plaque and gingival indexes were measured using the Löe index. Following treatment, the patients were randomly divided into three groups. In Control Group I, subjects were instructed to continue their personal oral hygiene routine. In Group II, participants were given verbal instructions and a self-educational manual on oral hygiene without illustrations. In Group III, oral hygiene guidance was delivered using a combination of verbal instructions and a self-teaching manual. To evaluate the effect of the different modes of instruction, the presence or absence of plaque and gingival bleeding was scored on all tooth surfaces (day zero examination) and re-examined 7, 15 and 30 days, 3, 6 and 12 months following RPD placement. The state of denture hygiene was evaluated 7, 15 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months following rehabilitation. Parametric statistics was applied to dental plaque and gingival indexes. For accumulation of plaque and calculus on the RPD, non-parametric statistic was applied. The frequency of plaque found during the preliminary visit was higher than that found in the other periods. With regard to gingival index, significant difference was found between the preliminary visit examination and other periods. There was a significant difference in the plaque accumulation on the denture surface between groups I and III. The different methods of oral hygiene instruction used in this study indicate that the type of education was not of significant importance.

  7. Avaliação do exame citopatológico como método para diagnosticar a paracoccidioidomicose crônica oral Evaluation of cytopathologic exam for diagnosis of oral chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sivieri de Araújo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o exame citológico esfoliativo no diagnóstico das lesões orais da paracoccidioidomicose, foram estudados oito portadores desta doença. Em todos os casos, demonstrou-se o fungo através de esfregaços citológicos corados com impregnação pela prata Gomori-Grocott. Conclui-se que a citologia esfoliativa oral é um método diagnóstico útil e válido na paracoccidioidomicose, podendo auxiliar no controle terapêutico das formas orais desta micose.With the aim of evaluating exfoliative cytology for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis oral lesions, eight patients that presented the disease were studied. The presence of fungi was demonstrated in all these cases. It was concluded that the oral exfoliative cytology exam can be effectively used in the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and contribute to the therapeutic control of oral forms of this mycosis.

  8. Lipid-based oral delivery systems for skin deposition of a potential chemopreventive DIM derivative: characterization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Cedar H A; Patel, Ketan; Patel, Apurva R; Faria, Henrique A M; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Safe, Stephen; Singh, Mandip

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the oral route as a viable potential for the skin deposition of a novel diindolylmethane derivative (DIM-D) for chemoprevention activity. Various lipid-based oral delivery systems were optimized and compared for enhancing DIM-D's oral bioavailability and skin deposition. Preformulation studies were performed to evaluate the log P and solubility of DIM-D. Microsomal metabolism, P-glycoprotein efflux, and caco-2 monolayer permeability of DIM-D were determined. Comparative evaluation of the oral absorption and skin deposition of DIM-D-loaded various lipid-based formulations was performed in rats. DIM-D showed pH-dependent solubility and a high log P value. It was not a strong substrate of microsomal degradation and P-glycoprotein. SMEDDs comprised of medium chain triglycerides, monoglycerides, and kolliphor-HS15 (36.70 ± 0.42 nm). SNEDDs comprised of long chain triglycerides, cremophor RH40, labrasol, and TPGS (84.00 ± 14.14 nm). Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) consisted of compritol, miglyol, and surfactants (116.50 ± 2.12 nm). The blank formulations all showed >70 % cell viability in caco-2 cells. Differential Scanning Calorimetry confirmed the amorphization of DIM-D within the lipid matrices while Atomic Force Microscopy showed particle size distribution similar to the dynamic light scattering data. DIM-D also showed reduced permeation across caco-2 monolayer that was enhanced (p < 0.05) by SNEDDs in comparison to SMEDDs and NLC. Fabsolute for DIM-D SNEDDs, SMEDDs, and NLC was 0.14, 0.04, and 0.007, respectively. SNEDDs caused 53.90, 11.32, and 15.08-fold more skin deposition of DIM-D than the free drug, SMEDDs, and NLC, respectively, at 2 h following oral administration and shows a viable potential for use in skin cancer chemoprevention. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Oral human papillomavirus infection, sexual behaviors and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in southeast of China: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liu, Fangping; Wu, Junfeng; Qiu, Yu; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Cai, Lin; Lin, Lisong; He, Baochang

    2016-12-01

    The causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains controversial. Most of previous studies did not consider the potential modification effect of sexual behaviors when evaluating the role of HPV infection in OSCC risk. To explore the independent and joint effects of oral HPV infection and sexual behaviors on OSCC in Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from September 2012 to September 2015 in Fujian, China. HPV DNA genotypes were detected in tumor tissues of 178 OSCC patients and oral exfoliated cells of 189 frequency-matched controls using flow-through hybridization and gene chip. Epidemiologic data were collected with a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated with unconditional logistic regression models. The overall HPV prevalence was 14.04% in OSCC patients and 3.17% in controls. HPV-18 was the most prevalent type in cases and controls (10.67% vs. 2.12%). Oral HPV infection was strongly associated with an increased risk of OSCC: the ORs were 7.21 (95% CI: 2.61-19.88) for HPV16/18 and 7.59 (95% CI: 2.34-24.64) for HPV-18. Moreover, the significant associations were only observed in females, young adults, married population, merchants, non-smokers, non-alcohol drinkers and non-tea drinkers. Additionally, the first intercourse below 22years of age and oral sex practice did not show an association with OSCC. But there was a significantly multiplicative interaction between HPV 16/18 and age at first intercourse for OSCC (P interaction factor for OSCC in Fujian area. Furthermore, there might be a combined effect of HPV 16/18 and age at first intercourse on OSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  11. Biochemical Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Honey in Oral Mucosal Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergiz Yılmaz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the therapeutic value of honey in oral mucosal ulcers healing in comparison with Glyceroloxytriester (TGO. We also aimed to biochemically evaluate the healing effects of honey which had been collected from the Blacksea region flora on mucosal ulcers resulting in material loss.Thirty wistar rats (240±30 g were enrolled in this study. Excisional wounds were performed in all rats for animal oral mucosal ulcer model. They were randomly allocated to three groups: group 1 was treated with Apitherapeutic agent or honey (0,1 ml, 2x1, group 2 was treated with TGO (0,1ml, 2x1 locally, Group 3 served as the control group.Following the surgical procedure on day 7, biopsy specimens were taken from right buccal mucosa and on day 14 biopsy specimens were taken from left bucal mucosa in all rats. Afterwards, hydroxy pyroline levels were measured. Data were analyzed statisticallyThere was no statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 2, and also between Group 2 and 3, but there was statistically significant difference between Group 1 and 3 on day 7. There was no statistically significant difference between Group 1, 2 and 3 on day 14.

  12. Analysis of human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma using p16: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Rao, R. S.; Amrutha, N.; Sanketh, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate the association of HPV in histological grades of OSCC using p16 (p16INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subjects and Methods: This study consists of 30 histological diagnosed cases of OSCC (10-well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [WDOSCC], 10-moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [MDOSCC] and 10-poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [PDOSCC]). The sections were subjected to IHC procedure using p16. Two parameters in immunohistochemical p16 expression were evaluated by 3 observers based on the criteria by Galgano M. Tetal (2010) (a) percentage of p16 positive cases (b) pattern of p16 staining in various grades of OSCC. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test. Results: Totally, 30 samples of 0SCC, p16 positivity was noted in 26/30 (86.66%). Of 26 positive cases, p16 staining was positive in 7/10 (70%) of WDOSCC, 9/10 (90%) in MDOSCC and, 10/10 (100%) PDOSCC. Incidentally, we also found single dispersed cell staining in WDOSCC, patchy staining in MDOSCC and more diffuse staining pattern predominant in PDOSCC. Conclusions: Our study revealed an association between HPV and OSCC. Diffuse staining pattern was noted in PDOSCC, which in turn depicts the increase viral overload, which might have an influence on its aggressive behavior. PMID:24818098

  13. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of levocetirizine dihyrochloride oral thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gunjan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to develop a fast releasing oral polymeric film, with good mechanical properties, instant disintegration and dissolution, producing an acceptable taste when placed on tongue. Solvent casting method was used to prepare oral films. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, an antihistaminic was incorporated to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The polymers selected were HPMC E 15 and PVA. Propylene glycol was the plasticizers used. Nine batches of films with drug were prepared using different combinations of polymers and plasticizer concentration. The resultant films were evaluated for weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, thickness, surface pH, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. The optimized films which disintegrated in less than 30 sec, releasing 85-98% of drug within 2 minutes. The percentage release was varying with concentration of plasticizer and polymer. The films made with HPMC: PVA (1:2 released 96% of drug in 1 min, which was the best release amongst all.

  14. Will Maintenance of Oral Hygiene in Nursing Home Residents Prevent Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylotte, Joseph M

    2018-03-01

    This article is an evaluation of the literature on oral hygiene as a risk factor for nursing home-associated pneumonia (NHAP) and with interventions to improve oral hygiene and reduce the incidence of NHAP. The background for this article is that studies that have evaluated interventions to improve oral hygiene and prevent NHAP have conflicting results. To try to understand the reason for these results, the objective was to examine risk factor and intervention studies and determine their methodological validity. Review of studies evaluating oral hygiene status as a risk factor for NHAP found multiple methodological problems, resulting in limited evidence to support this association. Studies of intervention methods, whether finding benefit or not in preventing NHAP, all had methodological limitations. Therefore, it is unclear whether oral hygiene is a risk factor for NHAP and whether improving oral hygiene decreases the incidence of this infection. A recommendation is made that future studies should carefully define the etiology of suspected NHAP using molecular techniques when evaluating methods to prevent this infection because viral pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis may mimic bacterial pneumonia even though, at times, there may be coinfection with bacteria. In this latter situation, improving oral hygiene may not prevent pneumonia. Therefore, viral infection and pneumonitis with or without bacterial coinfection need to be excluded so that the focus is on prevention of bacterial pneumonia. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anirudh

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers in India, unlike in the West are the most common cancers encountered, be it a primary or a tertiary referral practice. This makes the study and management of these cancers an important issue especially for the otolaryngologist. It is well known that the most common variant of oral cancers is the squamous cell carcinoma. Also the etiology is well established; with tobacco use in both smoking and smokeless forms, alcohol, betel nut and recently the Human Papilloma virus infection being implicated. Certain conditions which definitely increase the probability of getting oral cancers are known and this study aims in revisiting these aspects of pre-malignancy. The progression from a pre-cancerous lesion/condition to frank cancer is well established across many studies and many specialties. Also timely recognizing these pre-cancerous conditions and administration of proper treatment will greatly help in reducing the morbidity and mortality from subsequent much advanced and dangerous oral cancer. Keeping these facts in mind this study was planned to study the established pre-cancerous lesions which are known to progress to oral cancers.

  16. Is compromised oral health associated with a greater risk of mortality among nursing home residents? A controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Anna-Luisa; Hassel, Alexander Jochen; Schröder, Johannes; Rammelsberg, Peter; Zenthöfer, Andreas

    2017-08-30

    The objective of this controlled clinical study was to evaluate the association between oral health and 1-year mortality among nursing home residents with or without oral health intervention. This research was part of a multidisciplinary intervention study (EVI-P) performed in 14 nursing homes in Germany. Two-hundred and nineteen nursing home residents were included in the study and assigned to an intervention group, for which dental health education was offered and ultrasonic baths were used for denture cleaning (n = 144), or to a control group (n = 75). Before the intervention, each participant was examined, and dental status, plaque control record (PCR), Denture Hygiene Index, and results from the Revised Oral Assessment Guide were recorded. Amount of care needed and dementia were also assessed, by use of the Barthel Index and the Mini Mental State Examination, respectively. Participant mortality was determined after 12 months, and bivariate analysis and logistic regression models were used to evaluate possible factors affecting mortality. Bivariate analysis detected a direct association between greater mortality and being in the control group (p = .038). Participants with higher PCR were also more likely to die during the study period (p = .049). For dentate participants, the protective effect of being in the intervention group was confirmed by multivariate analysis in which covariates such as age and gender were considered. Oral hygiene and oral health seem to affect the risk of mortality of nursing home residents. Dental intervention programs seem to reduce the risk of 1-year mortality among nursing home residents having remaining natural teeth. Further studies, with larger sample sizes and evaluation of the causes of death, are necessary to investigate the reasons for these associations.

  17. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup

    2014-01-01

    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmac......Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary...... and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties...

  18. Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the potency of oral polio vaccine using RD cell line and evaluation of growth using different serum concentration and volume of media. ... The culture flasks containing different volumes of growth medium with 10% serum concentration such as 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 ml were added to a series of culture flasks. All the ...

  19. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS AMONG ROMANIAN HIV PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela ARBUNE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the oral health problems on HIV youth patients from Galati. Materials and method. A cross-sectional study assessed 102 patients with mean age 22. The most frequent oral manifestations on HIV infected youth under ART are erythema marginatum, periodontitis, candidosis and hypertrophia gingivalis. Results and discussion. Dental decay-missing-filled index on HIV patients is high. Viral HIV replication, long time pediatric exposure on HIV, male sex, smoking, and oral inflamation are related to dental poor condition. Exodontic therapy is comon among HIV youth. However, persistence of some associated oral infections is related to individual or behavioral risk factors, but also to some newly found mechanisms, such as disfunctional immune reconstruction. Seeing to antiretroviral treatment, the severity and frequency of oral manifestations decreased among HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions. Developing medical, social and educational programs is imperative for improving the oral health of HIV youth of Galati.

  20. Subjective vs. objective evaluation of gallbladder opacification during oral cholecystography in comparative clinical trials: implications for studies involving visual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fon, G.T.; Hunter, T.B.; Berk, R.N.; Patton, D.D.; Capp, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    Radiographs and CT images taken during oral cholecystography in dogs were interpreted in an independent, blind fashion by three radiologists on two occasions and visual assessment of gallbladder density compared to the actual CT values. While there was significant intra- and inter-observer variation, the mean scores for the observers' interpretations of both radiographs and prints correlated well with the actual CT values (p > 0.05). In five out of six comparisons between first and second readings, the observers gave a lower score on the second reading. The considerable variation reflects the problems inherent in subjective evaluation of agents that produce small but measurable differences in radiographic density. Studies involving such subjective data have to be carefully designed in order to obtain meaningful results

  1. Oral Antibacterial Therapy for Acne Vulgaris: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenfeld, Amanda; Nagler, Arielle R; Orlow, Seth J

    2017-08-01

    To some degree, acne vulgaris affects nearly every individual worldwide. Oral antibiotic therapy is routinely prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory acne; however, long-term use of oral antibiotics for acne may have unintended consequences. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the efficacy and appropriate use of oral antibiotics in the treatment of acne. A systematic search of MEDLINE was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of oral antibiotics for acne. Overall, 41 articles that examined oral antibiotics compared with placebo, another oral therapy, topical therapy, alternate dose, or duration were included in this study. Tetracyclines, macrolides, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are effective and safe in the treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory acne. Superior efficacy of one type or class of antibiotic could not be determined, therefore the choice of antibiotic is generally based on the side-effect profile. Although different dosing regimens have been studied, there is a lack of standardized comparator trials to determine optimal dosing and duration of each oral antibiotic used in acne. The combination of oral antibiotics with a topical therapy is superior to oral antibiotics alone. This article provides a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of oral antibiotics for acne. Due to heterogeneity in the design of the trials, there is insufficient evidence to support one type, dose, or duration of oral antibiotic over another in terms of efficacy; however, due to increasing resistance to antibiotics, dermatologists should heed consensus guidelines for their appropriate use.

  2. EGFR status in oral squamous cell carcinoma: comparing immunohistochemistry, FISH and CISH detection in a case series study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Vanessa F?tima; Gleber-Netto, Frederico Omar; de Sousa, S?lvia Ferreira; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; de Aguiar, Maria C?ssia Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) with the gene amplification evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and their association with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, we tested the sensibility and specificity of CISH in comparison with FISH. Design Case series study Setting Oral surgery and pathology department in ...

  3. The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Neto Pimentel, Dalva Regina; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Avelar Alchorne, Maurício Mota

    2006-01-01

    Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. To assess the frequency of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were submitted to jugal mucosa, soft palate and tongue biopsies, in altered or in pre-established sites. The cross-sections were stained by techniques of hematoxilin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen. Granuloma and alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli findings determined the specific histopathological involvement. The study involved 19 patients with an average of 2.5 years of disease progression. Specific histopathological involvement occurred in the tongue and soft palate of one lepromatous patient with an apparently normal oral mucosa. (1) Clinical alterations in the oral mucosa does not imply disease involvement, it is necessary to have histopathological confirmation. (2) Apparent specific clinical alterations are rare. (3) The clinically normal oral mucosa can show specific histopathological involvement.

  4. Evaluation of oral and periodontal status of leprosy patients in Dindigul district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jacob Raja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: After the introduction of the multidrug therapy, the incidence of leprosy is decreasing every year. However, periodontal complaints are commonly seen in these patients due to compromised immunity and impaired oral hygiene. The aim of the present study is to assess the oral and periodontal status of the leprosy patients in Dindigul district. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 62 patients treated in a leprosy center at Dindigul district. Among these, 22 (35.5% were female patients and 40 were male patients (64.5%. Age ranges between 40 and 70 with the mean age being 52. Facial changes, periodontal status, dental caries, attrition, tooth loss, plaque index (Silness and Loe, and calculus component of oral hygiene index-simplified were assessed. Results: Majority of the patients presented with loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, saddle nose, ocular involvement, and leonine facies. Gingival recession (54.8% was a predominant finding followed by tooth loss (69.5%, mobility (60.86%, attrition (56%, chronic pulpitis (34.7%, and dental caries (26%. Most of the patients had severe periodontitis. Conclusions: Compromised immunity and altered autonomy pave way for many dental complaints such as periodontitis and deposits in tooth with poor oral hygiene. Awareness about the oral health problems and reinforcement of oral hygiene should be insisted to the leprosy patients to prevent further morbidity.

  5. Pathogenesis of oral FIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Miller

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Modern quantitative analyses applied to natural FIV oral infection could significantly further our understanding of lentiviral oral disease and transmission. We therefore characterized FIV salivary viral kinetics and antibody secretions to more fully document oral viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate that: (i saliva of FIV-infected cats contains infectious virus particles, FIV viral RNA at levels equivalent to circulation, and lower but significant amounts of FIV proviral DNA; (ii the ratio of FIV RNA to DNA is significantly higher in saliva than in circulation; (iii FIV viral load in oral lymphoid tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes is significantly higher than mucosal tissues (buccal mucosa, salivary gland, tongue; (iv salivary IgG antibodies increase significantly over time in FIV-infected cats, while salivary IgA levels remain static; and, (v saliva from naïve Specific Pathogen Free cats inhibits FIV growth in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that oral lymphoid tissues serve as a site for enhanced FIV replication, resulting in accumulation of FIV particles and FIV-infected cells in saliva. Failure to induce a virus-specific oral mucosal antibody response, and/or viral capability to overcome inhibitory components in saliva may perpetuate chronic oral cavity infection. Based upon these findings, we propose a model of oral FIV pathogenesis

  6. Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin in severe oral lichen planus--results of a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M; Urosevic-Maiwald, M; Goldinger, S M; Frauchiger, A L; Dreier, J; Belloni, B; Mangana, J; Jenni, D; Dippel, M; Cozzio, A; Guenova, E; Kamarachev, J; French, L E; Dummer, R

    2016-02-01

    Patients with severe oral lichen planus refractory to standard topical treatment currently have limited options of therapy suitable for long-term use. Oral alitretinoin (9-cis retinoic acid) was never systematically investigated in clinical trials, although case reports suggest its possible efficacy. To assess the efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin taken at 30 mg once daily for up to 24 weeks in the treatment of severe oral lichen planus refractory to standard topical therapy. We conducted a prospective open-label single arm pilot study to test the efficacy and safety of 30 mg oral alitretinoin once daily for up to 24 weeks in severe oral lichen planus. Ten patients were included in the study. Primary end point was reduction in signs and symptoms measured by the Escudier severity score. Secondary parameters included pain and quality of life scores. Safety parameters were assessed during a follow-up period of 5 weeks. A substantial response at the end of treatment, i.e. >50% reduction in disease severity measured by the Escudier severity score, was apparent in 40% of patients. Therapy was well tolerated. Adverse events were mild and included headache, mucocutaneous dryness, musculoskeletal pain, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone and dyslipidaemia. Alitretinoin given at 30 mg daily reduced disease severity of severe oral lichen planus in a substantial proportion of patients refractory to standard treatment, was well tolerated and may thus represent one therapeutic option for this special group of patients. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kazanowska-Dygdała

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. Results In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients. The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.

  8. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavities of patients with leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanowska-Dygdała, Magdalena; Duś, Irena; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in men. This gastrointestinal pathogen is closely related to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and the increased risk of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have indicated oral cavities as possible Helicobacter pylori reservoirs. Helicobacter pylori has been detected both in supragingival and subgingival plaques, and also in saliva. In addition, the relationship between lesions of oral mucosa and the presence of H. pylori has been evaluated and described in some studies. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity of patients with oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. The study included 54 patients with oral leukoplakia, 72 with oral lichen planus lesions, and 40 healthy controls. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity samples was analyzed using a single-step Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. All patients underwent a periodontal examination and the following clinical parameters were collected: pocket depth, bleeding, and plaque indexes. The periodontal status was assessed using the Offenbacher classification. In most patients, pathological lesions were in typical sites on the buccal mucosa (leukoplakia in 88%, and oral lichen planus in 93% of patients). The DNA of the Helicobacter pylori was present in 20% of patients with leukoplakia and 23% of patients with lichen planus. We did not find the DNA of H. pylori in healthy controls. The periodontal status described by periodontal indices was worse in the investigated group than in the control group. These findings suggest that the H. pylori presence in oral cavities may be related with leukoplakia and lichen planus oral lesions.

  9. Close association between oral Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, S; Moriyama, M; Hayashida, J-N; Tanaka, A; Maehara, T; Ieda, S; Nakamura, S

    2012-10-01

    Heightened interest in oral health has lead to an increase in patients complaining of xerostomia, which is associated with various oral mucosal disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. We evaluated whole salivary flow rate and presence of oral mucosal disorders in 48 patients with xerostomia and 15 healthy controls. The number of Candida species was measured as colony-forming units after propagation on selective medium. Identification of Candida at the species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We then examined the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal symptoms. Compared with controls, patients with xerostomia exhibited significantly decreased whole salivary flow rate, increased rate of oral mucosal symptoms, and higher numbers of Candida. Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabrata was isolated from the angle of the mouth. These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Wylon

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals.Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies.The mean 25(OHD serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l. In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OHD serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002. The increase of 25(OHD serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264.Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OHD concentrations.

  11. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS AMONG ROMANIAN HIV PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela ARBUNE; Oana-Mirela POTÂRNICHIE; Silvia MARTU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the oral health problems on HIV youth patients from Galati. Materials and method. A cross-sectional study assessed 102 patients with mean age 22. The most frequent oral manifestations on HIV infected youth under ART are erythema marginatum, periodontitis, candidosis and hypertrophia gingivalis. Results and discussion. Dental decay-missing-filled index on HIV patients is high. Viral HIV replication, long time pediatric exposu...

  12. Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate infection control in oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Camila; da Silva Tagliaferro, Elaine P; Corrente, José E; Ambrosano, Glaucia M B

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To create and validate a questionnaire to evaluate infection control in oral radiology. Methods: The questionnaire was developed after review of the literature, which included published articles and the biosafety protocols available from healthcare agencies. The initial version of the questionnaire was composed of 14 multiple choice questions and was divided into 3 domains on handwashing, disinfection/protection of surfaces and disinfectant used. Content validity was assessed by two expert committees, which reviewed the content and scope of the questionnaire and the relevance of each item, respectively. Reliability was evaluated using test–retest and internal consistency methods with 115 undergraduate dentistry students. Construct validity was assessed using the known-groups technique and factor analysis. The known-groups technique involved 641 undergraduate dentistry students, 20 PhD students and 15 oral radiology professors. In the factor analysis, 3 radiology technicians also participated in addition to the 641 undergraduates, 20 PhD students and 15 oral radiology professors. Results: The content validity results were found to be satisfactory to excellent for the ordinal variables (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.722–1.000) and good to great for the yes/no questions (kappa = 0.662–0.913) in terms of reliability and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). After a factor analysis, some questions were excluded, and the questions were grouped into new domains. Significant differences were observed between answers from different groups. The final version of the questionnaire was composed of nine domains. Conclusions: The questionnaire created was found to exhibit good psychometric properties for assessing infection control in oral radiology. PMID:28112553

  13. Oral HPV Infection and Sexuality: A Cross-Sectional Study in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bloome

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75, bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32 and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11 The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2% for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75 vs. 12.5% (4/32, p = 0.784. There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0–1.1 and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1–4.6. Twenty-five percent (3/12 of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106 of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104. For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110, oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039. A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70 vs. 35.5% (11/31, p-value 0.411 and for

  14. Human oral microbiome and prospective risk for pancreatic cancer: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaozhou; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Wu, Jing; Peters, Brandilyn A; Jacobs, Eric J; Gapstur, Susan M; Purdue, Mark P; Abnet, Christian C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Miller, George; Ravel, Jacques; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2018-01-01

    A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study. We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. From pre-diagnostic oral wash samples, we characterised the composition of the oral microbiota using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. The associations between oral microbiota and risk of pancreatic cancer, controlling for the random effect of cohorts and other covariates, were examined using traditional and L1-penalised least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression. Carriage of oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , were associated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer (adjusted OR for presence vs absence=1.60 and 95% CI 1.15 to 2.22; OR=2.20 and 95% CI 1.16 to 4.18, respectively). Phylum Fusobacteria and its genus Leptotrichia were associated with decreased pancreatic cancer risk (OR per per cent increase of relative abundance=0.94 and 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99; OR=0.87 and 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95, respectively). Risks related to these phylotypes remained after exclusion of cases that developed within 2 years of sample collection, reducing the likelihood of reverse causation in this prospective study. This study provides supportive evidence that oral microbiota may play a role in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  15. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, N; Mehdipour, M; Najafi, Sh; Bahramian, A; Garjani, Sh; Khoeini Poorfar, H

    2014-06-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immunologic-based disease involving skin and mucosa. This disease is generally divided into two categories: erosive and non-erosive. Many etiologic factors are deliberated regarding the disease; however, the disorders of immune system and the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and monocytes are more highlighted. Zinc is an imperative element for the growth of epithelium and its deficiency induces the cytotoxic activity of T-helper2 cells, which seems to be associated with lichen planus. This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of serum zinc in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) and to compare it with the healthy control group to find out any feasible inference. A total of 22 patients with erosive oral lichen planus, 22 patients with non erosive OLP and 44 healthy individuals as the control group were recruited in this descriptive-comparative study. All the participants were selected from the referees to the department of oral medicine, school of dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Serum zinc level was examined for all the individuals with liquid-stat kit (Beckman Instruments Inc.; Carlsbad, CA). Data were analyzed by adopting the ANOVA and Tukey tests, using SPSS 16 statistical software. The mean age of patients with erosive and non-erosive LP was 41.7 and 41.3 years, respectively. The mean age of the healthy control group was 34.4 years .The mean serum zinc levels in the erosive and non erosive lichen planus groups and control groups were 8.3 (1.15), 11.15 (0.92) and 15.74 (1.75) μg/dl respectively. The difference was statistically significant (poral lichen planus. This finding may probably indicate the promising role of zinc in development of oral lichen planus.

  16. Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah L; Gau, Jeff M; Merrell, Laura K; Bleck, Jennifer R; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William

    2013-06-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2015-09-01

    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p child and the family domains, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.92, 0.89 and 0.78 for the total, child and family domains, respectively. The scale demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability for assessing the impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case-control study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Bray, Freddie; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association between the incidence of oral cancer in India and oral hygiene habits, diet, chewing and smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol. We also assessed the effects of oral hygiene habits with oral cancer risk among chewers versus never chewers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pune, India, based on face-to-face interviews, anthropometry, and intra-oral examinations conducted for 187 oral cancer cases and 240 controls. Poor oral hygiene score was associated with a significant risk of oral cancer (adjusted OR=6.98; 95%CI 3.72-13.05). When stratified by tobacco-chewing habit, the poor oral hygiene score was a significant risk factor only among ever tobacco chewers (adjusted OR=14.74; 95%CI 6.49-33.46) compared with never chewers (adjusted OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.14-3.63). Dental check-ups only at the time of pain by ever-chewers with poor oral hygiene was associated with an elevated risk (adjusted OR=4.22; 95%CI 2.44-7.29), while consumption of green, yellow, and cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. A linear dose-response association was observed between oral cancer and chewing tobacco in terms of age at initiation, duration, and frequency of chewing per day (P25 years (adjusted OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.14-4.71) elevated the risk of oral cancer. Good oral hygiene habits - as characterized by healthy gums, brushing more than once daily, use of toothpaste, annual dental check-ups, and a minimal number of missing teeth - can reduce the risk of oral cancer significantly. In addition to refraining from chewing/smoking tobacco, a diet adequate in fruits and vegetables may protect against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mobasheri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is one of the major congenital anomalies observed in newborns. This study explored the risk factors for oral clefts in Gorgan, Northern Iran.  Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Gorgan, Northern Iran between April 2006 and December 2009. The case group contained 33 newborns with oral clefts and the control group contained 63 healthy newborns. Clinical and demographic factors, including date of birth, gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, parental ethnicity, and the mother's parity, age, education and intake of folic acid were recorded for analysis.  Results: A significant association was found between parity higher than 2 and the risk of an oral cleft (OR= 3.33, CI 95% [1.20, 9.19], P> 0.02. According to ethnicity, the odds ratio for oral clefts was 0.87 in Turkmens compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.25, 2.96] and 1.11 in native Fars people compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.38, 3.20]. A lack of folic acid consumption was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts but this was not statistically significant (OR = 1.42, CI 95% [0.58, 3.49]. There were no significant associations between sex (OR boy/girl = 0.96, CI 95% [0.41, 2.23], parent familial relations (OR = 1.07, CI 95% [0.43, 2.63], mother's age and oral clefts.  Conclusions:  The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly.

  20. Systematic reviews of oral complications from cancer therapies, Oral Care Study Group, MASCC/ISOO : methodology and quality of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate

  1. The value of the per oral pneumocolon in the study of the distal ileal loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minordi, L.M.; Vecchioli, A.; Dinardo, G.; Bonomo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To verify the diagnostic accuracy of per oral pneumocolon in the identification of both normal and pathological patterns in patients with suspected or proven small bowel disease. Materials and methods: Per oral pneumocolon was performed after small bowel follow-through examinations in a series of 42 selected patients. The terminal ileum visibility, the loop location and possible pathological patterns were evaluated separately before and after insufflation. In post-insufflation images the presence/absence of reflux and grade of reflux were evaluated. Results: The diagnostic quality of per oral pneumocolon as compared with per oral small bowel examination was superior in 23 of the 42 patients (54.8%; group 1), similar in nine of the 42 (21.4%; group 2), and inferior in 10 of the 42 (23.8%; group 3). Transvalvular reflux was present in 22 of 23 (95.6%) patients from group 1 and only in one of 10 patients (10%) from group 3 (p < 0.001: statistically significant difference). Among the 24 of 42 (57.1%) patients with suspected or proven Crohn's disease, per oral pneumocolon increased the confidence with which the ileum was considered normal in 12 patients and it allowed a better evaluation of the disease extent and the differentiation between prolonged spasms and stenosis in five patients. Conclusion: In conclusion per oral pneumocolon should be performed after a small bowel follow-through examination in selected patients

  2. Oral Health Behavior of Parents as a Predictor of Oral Health Status of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...

  3. Preventive Effect of Rebamipide Gargle on Chemoradiotherpy-Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients with Oral Cancer: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasuda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer.Material and Methods: Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks. The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy.Results: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12 or placebo-gargle (n = 12 during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3 was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036. In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group.Conclusions: For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  4. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog's oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosema Santin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis.

  5. Evaluation of smartphone oral contraceptive reminder applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Noga; Zite, Nikki B; Wallace, Lorraine S

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most widely used contraceptive method among women of reproductive age in the United States (US). Routine download and use of health-related smartphone applications (apps) continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of English-language, smartphone-platform OC reminder apps currently available for download in the US. During June-July 2013, official Internet-based, mobile app platforms for the two major smartphone operating systems in the US-Android (Google Play Store) and iPhone (iTunes)-were searched. "Birth control," "the pill," and "contraception" were entered into the search-bar of each Smartphone store. Apps were assessed for the following: cost, health care professionals' involvement in app development, reminder mechanisms, and functionality. Of the 39 unique OC reminder apps meeting inclusion criteria, 7 (18%) did not operate as intended when downloaded. Most apps functioned without an Internet connection (97%) and included pop-up notifications (84%). Certain app features overcome common causes of missing an alarm, and hypothetically, may minimize likelihood of an OC user missing a daily pill. Health care providers should inform users of potential pitfalls and advise them that an OC reminder app should be not be used as a sole reminder method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Muller, Sara H.; Pameijer, Frank A.; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures.

  7. A retrospective clinical and radiographic study on healing of periradicular lesions in patients taking oral bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Angela; Glickman, Gerald; He, Jianing

    2009-11-01

    Bisphosphonates have been related to impaired bone remodeling. The impact of oral bisphosphonates on periradicular healing has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing of periradicular lesions in patients taking oral bisphosphonates after root canal therapy. Thirty-four teeth with preoperative periradicular radiolucencies were identified in patients undergoing oral bisphosphonate therapy. These cases were examined clinically and radiographically to determine treatment outcome. Thirty-eight control teeth were selected from a pool of patients not taking bisphosphonates. Nonsurgical root canal treatment and retreatment was performed by endodontic residents and undergraduate dental students at Baylor College of Dentistry using nonstandardized protocols. In the bisphosphonate group, 73.5% of the lesions healed, whereas the control cases had a healing rate of 81.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). The results of this preliminary short-term study suggest that patients taking long-term oral bisphosphonates can expect a satisfactory outcome with evidence of periradicular healing after conventional root canal treatment. Thus, root canal treatment may be considered a safe and realistic alternative to extraction in patients on bisphosphonate therapy.

  8. Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Raeefa; Gaballah, Kamis

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at four major hospitals in the UAE. The study was based on histopathology reports of biopsies of oral tissues. Results Of the 992 oral biopsy reports retrieved, 147 cases of malignant tumors were found which accounted for 14.9% of the total biopsies. Fifteen different types of malignant lesions were diagnosed, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most prevalent and made up 11.4% of the overall oral biopsies retrieved. The commonest presentation of cancer was ulceration (31.17%), followed by lumps and white lesions. The most common site where the lesions were diagnosed was the tongue (51.9%), followed by the cheeks and lips. OSCC accounted for 77% of all malignancies reported. Neck dissections were conducted in only 20.8% of all OSCC cases diagnosed at Mafraq and Tawam hospitals, of which 43.75% showed evidence of neck metastasis. Conclusion Oral cancer is not an uncommon disease in the UAE. This may mandate more awareness campaigning, including screening procedures for early detection of cancerous lesions and other potentially malignant oral diseases. Elective neck dissections to detect lymph node metastasis should be more routinely performed, in particular for tongue carcinomas because of the early neck involvement potential. PMID:23985381

  9. Research studies on in vitro and ex vivo yield of the miconazole nitrate from oral biomucoadhesive tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, Magdalena; Cojocaru, Ileana; Scutariu, Mihaela Monica; Popovici, Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Among the various routes of drug administration, the oral mucosa is perhaps the most often preferred by patients and medical staff. However, oral administration of drugs has disadvantages, which may limit or prevent oral administration of some drugs, especially peptides and proteins, little when they are inserted in special administration systems for the colon. The disaggregation of some oral biomucoadhesive tablets and the in vitro yield of the miconazole nitrate was evaluated and in parallel with this, the evaluation of the in vivo yield of the antifungal from the pharmaceutical form. Thus, for a clear determination of the oral mucobioadhesive tablets' disintegration with miconazole nitrate, it was necessary to implement a method to simulate the conditions of the oral cavity at a flow of solution (artificial saliva) similar to that of the human one. miconazole nitrate. The determination of disintegration time according to method A (FRX); the disaggregation of oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate by means of simulation methods of in vitro conditions; the quantitative determination of the miconazole nitrate by means of HPLC method, after the in vitro dissolution test; the study of miconazole nitrate's yield in dynamic condition from biomucoadhesive tablets in the presence of artificial saliva (AFNOR). The yield profile of the miconazole nitrate in the disintegration solutions by means of classical method from FR X, by HPLC dosage was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the oral mucobioadhesive tablets was determined, that varies in time, depending on the type and relation of matrix forming polymers; a low yield speed of the miconazole nitrate from the tablets was determined; the yield profile of miconazole nitrate in disintegration solutions by means of the new suggested method was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the formulated biomucoadhesive tablets is of swelling and erosion.

  10. Malnutrition in patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer-prevalence and relationship with oral symptoms : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess prevalence of malnutrition after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer and to explore how oral symptoms relate to malnutrition after treatment. In this cross-sectional study, malnutrition (weight loss a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 10% in 6 months or a

  11. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; José de Macêdo, Dário; Suely Barros Dantas, Fernanda; Dos Santos Menezes, Karla; Filipe Bezerra Silva, Diego; Alves de Melo Junior, William; Fabia Cabral Cavalcanti, Alidianne

    2018-04-24

    Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%). Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%). Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2%) was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9%) and tongue (17.7%) being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%). Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  12. Continuous low-dose oral chemotherapy in recurrent and persistent carcinoma of cervix following chemoradiation: A comparative study between prolonged oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Baruah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy and toxicities of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide and oral etoposide in patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with recurrent and persistent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease were enrolled in this trial. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients each with one group receiving low dose oral cyclophosphamide (100 mg/day and the other group receiving low-dose oral etoposide (50 mg/day. Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: Oral etoposide was not well tolerated with grade 2 neutropenia occurring in 33.3% and grade 3 neutropenia in 6.6% and thrombocytopenia occurring in 13.3%. Oral cyclophosphamide group on the other hand was better tolerated with none of the patients having thrombocytopenia and 6.6% patients having grade 2 neutropenia. There were two complete response (15.38% and one partial response at the end of study (7.6% in the cyclophosphamide group whereas there was no complete response and two partial response (16.6% in the oral etoposide group. Conclusion: Long-term, low-dose oral etoposide was found to be less tolerated without any significant effect with patients with persistent and recurrent cervical cancer with gross pelvic disease following full course of chemoradiation therapy in contrast to oral cyclophosphamide which was found to be effective and well-tolerated by the patients.

  13. Oral cavity evaluation and dental chart registration of coati (Nasua nasua) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Elisângela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Mendes, Guilherme M; Gioso, Marco A

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a dental evaluate any oral cavity disease, develop gypsum models of the dental arches, and to register the occlusions found in coatis (Nasua nasua) in captivity Formulation of the dental chart was assisted by intraoral radiographs from the head of an adult coati cadaver of the same species with the following dental formula.: I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2. Seven live coatis of the Nasua nasua species were evaluated. Five of the seven coatis presented with various dental abnormalities as follows: dental plaque (71.4 0%), gingivitis (71.4 %), periodontitis (57.1 %), dental stain (42.9 %), dental abrasion (57.1 %), dental fracture (57.1 %), pulp exposure (42.9 %), malocclusion (57.1 %) and supernumerary teeth (14.2 %).

  14. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  15. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sugandha; Vengal, Manoj; Raju, Bina; Patil, Neelkant; Sathosker, Sujatha; Bateja, Sumit; David, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in chewers. A total of 1209 chewers were identified and categorized into three main groups based on the type of lesion: betel quid oral lichenoid lesions only, betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in association with quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions, and no lesions. Multinomial regression analyses were used to determine associations between dependent and independent variables. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions were more common in individuals who chewed quid comprising both tobacco and areca nut, and in those who chewed it two to three, or greater than three, times a day. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions + quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions were more likely to occur in females, and in individuals who chewed quid containing both tobacco and areca nut, in their processed and unprocessed forms, and greater than three times a day. The prevalence of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions was higher than that reported in previous studies conducted in India. Increase in the frequency and duration of quid chewing was associated with increased likelihood of developing these oral lichenoid lesions. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Use of Curcumin Mouthrinse in Radio-Chemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Karthikeya; Guledgud, Mahima V; Kulkarni, P K; Keshari, Deepika; Tayal, Srishti

    2015-08-01

    Oral Mucositis is a complex and distinct pathobiologic entity resulting in injuries in mucosa that is a common complication in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Phytochemicals, such as Curcumin, turmeric extract, has attracted great attention for its therapeutic benefits in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, chemosensibilizing and radiosensibilizing activities against various types of cancers and the complications associated with their management. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin mouthwash in the management of Oral Mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy. The research group consisted of 20 adult cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy at the Regional Oncology Centre, who were evaluated for signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and then randomly divided into two groups. Standard preventive oral care i.e. chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% was given to one group while the other group was provided with freshly prepared curcumin mouthwash; each to be used thrice daily. Oral mucositis was assessed at days 0, 10 and 20. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), and a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; patient reporting scale of 0-10) were used. Adverse events were tracked. Descriptive statistics, Independent sample t-test and repeated measure ANOVA test were performed. Statistically significant difference was found in the NRS (p=0.000), Erythema (p=0.050), ulceration (p=0.000) and WHO scores (p=0.003) between the two groups. Curcumin was found to be better than chlorhexidine mouth wash in terms of rapid wound healing and better patient compliance in management of radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. No oral or systemic complications were reported.

  17. In vivo evaluation of an oral drug delivery system for peptides based on S-protected thiolated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Barthelmes, Jan; Iqbal, Javed; Perera, Glen; Thurner, Clemens C; Friedl, Heike; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2012-06-28

    The aim of the present study was the development and evaluation in vitro as well as in vivo of an oral delivery system based on a novel type of thiolated chitosan, so-called S-protected thiolated chitosan, for the peptide drug antide. The sulfhydryl ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA) was covalently attached to chitosan (CS) in the first step of modification. In the second step, these thiol groups of thiolated chitosan were protected by disulfide bond formation with the thiolated aromatic residue 6-mercaptonicotinamide (6-MNA). Absorptive transport studies of antide were evaluated ex vivo using rat intestinal mucosa. Matrix tablets of each polymer sample were prepared and their effect on the absorption of antide evaluated in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, tablets were examined in terms of their disintegration, swelling and drug release behavior. The resulting S-protected thiomer (TGA-MNA) exhibited 840μmol of covalently linked 6-MNA per gram thiomer. Based on the implementation of this hydrophobic ligand on the thiolated backbone, the disintegration behavior was reduced greatly and a controlled release of the peptide could be achieved. Furthermore, permeation studies with TGA-MNA on rat intestine revealed a 4.5-fold enhanced absorptive transport of the peptide in comparison to antide in solution. Additional in vivo studies confirmed the potential of this novel conjugate. Oral administration of antide in solution led to only very small detectable quantities in plasma with an absolute and relative bioavailability (BA) of 0.003 and 0.03%, only. In contrast, with antide incorporated in TGA-MNA matrix tablets an absolute and relative BA of 1.4 and 10.9% could be reached, resulting in a 421-fold increased area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) compared to the antide solution. According to these results, S-protected thiolated chitosan as oral drug delivery system might be a valuable tool for improving the bioavailability of peptides. Copyright

  18. Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung-Yuan; Chiu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Yu, Hui-Chieh; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2018-05-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral lichen planus (OLP) were further stratified to evaluate the possible synergistic effects for OL-associated malignant transformation. In this cohort, 102 (5.374%) of 1898 OL patients were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 26.40-fold in the OL cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 18.46-37.77). To further stratify with OSF and OLP, OL with OSF (58.38; 95% confidence intervals 34.61-98.50) and OL with OLP (36.88; 95% confidence intervals 8.90-152.78) had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OL alone (27.01; 95% confidence intervals 18.91-38.59). The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed the free of malignant transformation rate was significant over the 13 years follow-up period (log-rank test, p < 0.001). OL patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OL. In addition, both OSF and OLP could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OL. However, further studies are required to identify the histopathological and clinical parameters in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation among OPMDs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluation of oral and dental health of 6-12 year-old students in Kermanshah city

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    Mohammad Reza Nokhostin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral and dental health are among the most important aspects of individual health. Thus, it is necessary to determine community’s oral health status. Various epidemiological studies are required at different levels to assess the efficacy of preventive, oral and dental health control programs in a society. Complications such as nutritional adverse effects, periodontal diseases and adverse psychological effects of dental caries and etc. could be prevented by in-time diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to assess DMF, dmf index and periodontal status in 6-12 year-old students in Kermanshah City in 2009. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected through interview and dental clinical examination using disposable dental explorer, dental mirror, periodontal probe, a flash light and a marker. Data were entered into a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and oral and dental health status of subjects (WHO oral health assessments form. A total of 1050 students aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for their oral health status in Kermanshah City. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 software. T-test and chi square test were also used for analysis. Results: A total of 50% of boys and 52% of girls were susceptible to dent facial problems due to caries, extraction, premature loss of deciduous teeth, and congenital or acquired maxillofacial problems following conditions like mouth breathing due to adenoid and etc. Overall, 18.3% of 6 year old students were caries free. Among middle school students, DMFT was 1.65±1.82 and 3.88±2.72 among female and male 12 year old students, respectively. In general, 19.8% of elementary and 16.8% of 12 year old students had clinically healthy gingiva 21.6% of 6 to 12 year old students did not brush their teeth. A significant correlation was found between the frequency of tooth brushing per day and mean dmft, mean DMFT and gingival health (P<0

  20. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire (OHL-AQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shaleen; Nagarajappa, Sandesh; Dasar, Pralhad L; Mishra, Prashant

    2016-10-01

    Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013), consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire - Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation back-translation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015) and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and pLiteracy Adult Questionnaire - Hindi Version were 0.94 and 0.70, respectively. Comparisons of varying levels of oral health literacy with self-reported oral health established significant concurrent validity (p=0.01). Significant

  1. Evaluation of micronuclear frequencies in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid contact reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhanoğlu, A; Ergun, S; Kaya, M; Warnakulasuriya, S; Erbağcı, M; Öztürk, Ş; Deniz, E; Özel, S; Çefle, K; Palanduz, Ş; Tanyeri, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCRs) or with oral lichen planus (OLP) and compare their MN scores with those of healthy controls (HCs). The study group included 21 patients (mean age 51.3 ± 12.4; 6 males, 15 females) with OLCRs and 22 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 14.4; 4 males, 18 females) with OLP who were clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed according to WHO diagnostic criteria (WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Precancerous Lesions, 1978). All patients with OLCR demonstrated contact allergy to tested dental materials when evaluated by skin patch testing according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG), while all OLP patients tested negative to patch testing. Seventeen individuals with no oral mucosal disorders (mean age 51.7 ± 11.3; 8 males, 9 females) were recruited to constitute the healthy control group. [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: the term, 'mean age' has been added to the text in parenthesis throughout the Material and Methods section.] Clinical features including type of OLP, location, disease severity, presence of skin lesions, presence of systemic disease including any allergies and dental (periodontal) status were recorded. MN analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes and on smears of buccal epithelial cells of all three study groups. Most OLP and OLCR lesions were of reticular type (83%), and OLP lesions were distributed bilaterally on the buccal mucosa (90.5%). The medians of MN frequencies in buccal epithelial cells in OLP and OLCR groups were significantly higher when compared with HC group (P < 0.001). [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: in the results, 2nd sentence, the word 'lymphocytes' has been removed.] There was no significant difference between OLP group (14

  2. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of orally disintegrating clopidogrel tablets

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    Gamal Mohamed Mahrous

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent advances in drug delivery systems have aimed to achieve better patient compliance. One of these advances is the formulation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs that dissolve instantaneously, releasing drugs within a few seconds without the need of water. The main objective of this paper was to prepare and develop ODTs of clopidogrel. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression. The effect of three superdisintegrants, namely crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate, using three different disintegration times on the dissolution rate was investigated. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro drug release. Furthermore, the interaction of clopidogrel with the formulation excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. DSC studies revealed that there were no interactions between the drug and the excipients used. All tablets had hardness values in the range 4.0-5.2 kp and friability lower than 1%. The weight and drug content uniformity of all formulations was within official limits according to BP. In vitro drug release studies of the ODTs showed that more than 90% of the drug was released within ten minutes. A palatability test in human volunteers showed acceptable taste and mouth feel. Thus, the obtained results conclusively demonstrated successful rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets and acceptable palatability.

  4. Evaluation of capability of ultrasound with elastometry and elastography for diagnosis of subclinical regional metastases of cancer of the oral mucosa

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    Yu. V. Alymov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of ultrasound capabilities for diagnosis of subclinical regional metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa.Introduction. Incidence of oral cancer in Russia is 3.86 per 100,000 population, and it’s increasing with the mean annual rate of 1.88 %. Head and neck cancer is characterized by high risk of metastases in regional lymph nodes which varies from 40 to 80 %. Lymph nodes status affects the treatment plan and appears to be the main predictive factor. Therefore, evaluation of the pathways of regional lymphatic outflow in oral mucosa cancer is of prime importance for disease prognosis and treatment selection. Ultrasound investigation (USI is one of the main instrumental methods of regional lymph node investigation in oral mucosa cancer patients. Nevertheless, effectiveness of B-mode USI, elastometry and elastography for diagnosis of occult metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa has not been investigated. There is no consensus on the threshold values of S-wave velocity and elastographic parameters in diagnosis of occult metastases.Materials and methods. Patients with oral mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (stage cT1–3N0M0 were included in the study. All patients had morphologically verified diagnosis. At the first stage (outpatient before inclusion into the study, all patients were evaluated by palpation and B-mode USI. If during USI metastases were suspected, FNAB was performed. Patients with cytologically confirmed metastases were not eligible for the study. During the clinical trial, 102 (82.3 % patients underwent B-mode USI, and 22 (17.7 % patients underwent USI with elastometry and elastography. USI results were compared with results of histological examination of cervical lymph nodes. Statistical evaluation of USI in different modes was performed.Results. B-mode USI was characterized by 88.2 % specificity, 0 % sensitivity, 80.4 % accuracy, and 44.1 % efficacy. Positive

  5. Advanced progress of microencapsulation technologies: in vivo and in vitro models for studying oral and transdermal drug deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P L; Gambari, R

    2014-03-28

    This review provides an overall discussion of microencapsulation systems for both oral and transdermal drug deliveries. Clinically, many drugs, especially proteins and peptides, are susceptible to the gastrointestinal tract and the first-pass metabolism after oral administration while some drugs exhibit low skin permeability through transdermal delivery route. Medicated microcapsules as oral and transdermal drug delivery vehicles are believed to offer an extended drug effect at a relatively low dose and provide a better patient compliance. The polymeric microcapsules can be produced by different microencapsulation methods and the drug microencapsulation technology provides the quality preservation for drug stabilization. The release of the entrapped drug is controlled and prolonged for specific usages. Some recent studies have focused on the evaluation of drug containing microcapsules on potential biological and therapeutic applications. For the oral delivery, in vivo animal models were used for evaluating possible treatment effects of drug containing microcapsules. For the transdermal drug delivery, skin delivery models were introduced to investigate the potential skin delivery of medicated microcapsules. Finally, the challenges and limitations of drug microencapsulation in real life are discussed and the commercially available drug formulations using microencapsulation technology for oral and transdermal applications are shown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating fidaxomicin versus oral vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Paul M; Hutton, David W; Collins, Curtis D

    2013-01-01

    Fidaxomicin is a novel treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). This new treatment, however, is associated with a higher acquisition cost compared with alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin or oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing fidaxomicin with oral vancomycin for the treatment of CDIs in the United States by creating a decision analytic model from the third-party payer perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with fidaxomicin compared with oral vancomycin was $67,576/quality-adjusted life-year. A probabilistic Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis showed that fidaxomicin had an 80.2% chance of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. Fidaxomicin remained cost-effective under all fluctuations of both fidaxomicin and oral vancomycin costs. The decision analytic model was sensitive to variations in clinical cure and recurrence rates. Secondary analyses revealed that fidaxomicin was cost-effective in patients receiving concominant antimicrobials, in patients with mild to moderate CDIs, and when compared with oral metronidazole in patients with mild to moderate disease. Fidaxomicin was dominated by oral vancomycin if CDI was caused by the NAP1/Bl/027 Clostridium difficile strain and was dominant in institutions that did not compound oral vancomycin. Results of our model showed that fidaxomicin may be a more cost-effective option for the treatment of CDIs when compared with oral vancomycin under most scenarios tested. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of oral ketamine and oral midazolam as sedative agents in pediatric dentistry

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    Damle S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The safe and effective treatment of uncooperative or combative preschool children with extensive dental needs is one of pediatric dentist′s ongoing challenges. The traditional methods of behavior management are no longer acceptable to parents as they are not ready to spare more time for dental treatment of their children. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed and carried out to evaluate the sedative effects of oral ketamine and oral midazolam prior to general anesthesia. Twenty uncooperative children in the age-group of 2-6 years were selected after thorough medical examination and investigations. Informed consent was obtained from the parent. This was a randomized double-blind study. An anesthesiologist administered either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam or 5 mg/kg ketamine orally. The heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were recorded at regular intervals. The sedation and anxiolysis scores were also recorded. The parents were asked to answer a questionnaire at the follow-up session the next day on the surgical experience of the parent and the child and side effects experienced, if any. When the data was subjected to statistical analysis, it was observed that both drugs resulted in adequate sedation at the end of 30 min, with oral midazolam providing significantly better anxiolysis. The heart rate and respiratory rate were marginally higher with oral ketamine. The questionnaire revealed a better response with oral midazolam; side effects were more prominent with oral ketamine.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of oral multiparticulate formulations of acid-labile drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Säure-labile Medikamente werden leicht in saurem Medium abgebaut, welche hauptsächlich als enterisch beschichtete Dosierungsformen für die orale Verabreichung formuliert wurden. Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, orale multipartikuläre Formulierungen von säure-labilen Medikamenten, mit Ilaprazol, Lansoprazol und Rabeprazol Natrium als Modellarzneistoffe vorzubereiten. Der Einfluss der Wirkstofflöslichkeit von Lansoprazol und Rabeprazol Natrium und des Kerntyps, wurde auf das Übe...

  9. Oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices among rural-urban migrant children in Guangzhou: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ning; Cai, Li; Xu, Caijuan; Guan, Han; Jin, Yu

    2017-06-07

    Despite the growing number of rural-urban migrant children in China, follow-up observation on the oral health of migrant children is still scarce. This study described the changes of oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices in migrant children over a period of one year. Possible factors affecting changes were also investigated. The study used purposive sampling to select five private schools of migrant children in Guangzhou. A total of 1900 students in Grades 3 and 4 were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used in November 2011 to understand their basic situations, including oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices. A final survey was conducted in April 2013 to detect any changes. The mean accuracy of oral health knowledge was 53.17% and 59.42% in 2011 and 2013, respectively (p oral hygiene, dietary habits and parental practices increased at the follow-up evaluation (p oral health knowledge were more likely to achieve significantly positive changes in score of knowledge (p oral hygiene (beta estimate = 0.68, p parental practices in the baseline survey were more likely to obtain beneficial changes. No significant associations between demographic characteristics and changes of oral health knowledge and behaviors (p > 0.05) were observed. Oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices among migrant children significantly improved at the follow-up assessment. However, the overall situation was still poor. Positive and effective health education and prevention programs tailored to rural-urban migrant children with varying levels of oral health knowledge, behaviors and parental practices will be needed.

  10. Chamomile infusion cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Ciol, Marcia A; de Melo, Nilce Santos; Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu de Souza; Leite, André Ferreira; Manzi, Natália de Melo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare cryotherapy made only with water and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion for prevention and reduction of intensity of oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. This is a randomized pilot study with two groups: cryotherapy made only with water (control group, n = 18) and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion (chamomile group, n = 20). Both groups were instructed to swish the ice around in their oral cavity for at least 30 min during chemotherapy. Assessment of oral mucosa occurred on days 8, 15, and 22 after the first day of chemotherapy. Fifty percent of the patients in the control and 30 % in the chamomile group developed oral mucositis. Mouth pain score was higher in patients in the control group on all evaluations (p = 0.02 for day 8, p = 0.09 for day 15, and p = 0.14 for day 22). Patients in the chamomile group never developed mucositis with grade 2 or higher. Presence of ulceration was statistically significant on day 8 (16 % in the control vs. 0 % in the chamomile group, p = 0.10), but not in days 15 and 22, although 11 % still had ulcerations in the control group and none in the chamomile group. The occurrence of oral mucositis was lower in patients in the chamomile group than in the control group. When compared to the controls, the chamomile group presented less mouth pain and had no ulcerations. Cryotherapy was well tolerated by both groups, and no toxicity related to chamomile was identified.

  11. Oral health behavior of parents as a predictor of oral health status of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors of children and their parents. Oral health status of children was examined. The parent and their children oral health relationship were tested using regression and correlation analysis. Results. About 222 parents and children participated in the study. There was a significant relationship between history of having dental problems in parents and dmft index in their children (P = 0.01). There was a significant relationship between parental frequency of tooth brushing and child frequency of tooth brushing (P = 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between parental frequency of dental visits and those of their children (P = 0.1). Conclusion. The study concluded that some important health behaviors in parents, such as tooth brushing habits are important determinants of these behaviors in their young children. So promoting parent knowledge and attitude could affect their children oral health behavior and status.

  12. Oral Health Promotion in Schools: Rationale and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…

  13. An overview of four studies of a continuous oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel 90 mcg/ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Halbreich, Uriel; Grubb, Gary S

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of four studies that evaluated a continuous oral contraceptive (OC) containing levonorgestrel (90 mcg) and ethinyl estradiol (20 mcg; LNG/EE) for managing premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).......This article presents an overview of four studies that evaluated a continuous oral contraceptive (OC) containing levonorgestrel (90 mcg) and ethinyl estradiol (20 mcg; LNG/EE) for managing premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)....

  14. Evaluation of oral health-related quality of life among Sudanese schoolchildren using Child-OIDP inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovik Tordis A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on oral health-related quality of life, in addition to clinical measures, is essential for healthcare policy makers to promote oral health resources and address oral health needs. Objectives This paper aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of Child-OIDP, estimating the prevalence, severity and causes of oral impacts on daily performances in 12-year-old public and private school attendees in Khartoum State and to identify socio-demographic and clinical correlates of oral impacts as assessed by the Child-OIDP inventory. Methods The Child-OIDP questionnaire was translated into Arabic was administered to a representative sample of 1109 schoolchildren in Khartoum state. Clinical measures employed in this study included DMFT index, Gingival index, Plaque index and Dean's index. A food frequency questionnaire was used to study the sugar-sweetened snack consumption. Results The instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties and is considered as a valid, reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.73 and practical inventory for use in this population. An impact was reported by 54.6% of the schoolchildren. The highest impact was reported on eating (35.5% followed by cleaning (28.3% and the lowest impacts were on speaking (8.6% and social contact (8.7%. Problems which contributed to all eight impacts were toothache, sensitive teeth, exfoliating teeth, swollen gums and bad breath. Toothache was the most frequently associated cause of almost all impacts in both private and public school attendees. After adjusting for confounders in the 3 multiple variable regression models (whole sample, public and private school attendees, active caries maintained a significant association with the whole sample (OR 2.0 95% CI 1.4-2.6 and public school attendees (OR 3.5 95% CI 2.1-5.6, and higher SES was associated with only public school attendees' Child-OIDP (OR 1.9 95% 1.1-3.1. Conclusion This study showed that the

  15. Linguistic adaptation and psychometric evaluation of original oral health literacy-adult questionnaire (OHL-AQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHALEEN VYAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguistically adapted oral health literacy tools are helpful to assess oral health literacy among local population with clarity and understandability. The original oral health literacy adult questionnaire, Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire, was given in English (2013, consisting of 17 items under 4 domains. The present study rationalizes to culturally adapt and validate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi language. Thus, we objectified to translate Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire into Hindi and test its psychometric properties like reliability and validity among primary school teachers. Methods: The Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire was translated into Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version using the World Health Organization recommended translation backtranslation protocol. During pre-testing, an expert panel assessed content validity of the questionnaire. Face validity was assessed on a small sample of 10 individuals. A cross-sectional study was conducted (June-July 2015 and OHL-AQ-H was administered on a convenient sample of 170 primary school teachers. Internal consistency and testretest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, respectively, with 2 weeks interval to ascertain adherence to the questionnaire response. Predictive validity was tested by comparing OHL-AQ-H scores with clinical indicators like oral hygiene scores and dental caries scores. The concurrent and discriminant validity was assessed through self-reported oral health and through negative association with sociodemographic variables. The data was analyzed by descriptive tests using chi-square and bivariate logistic regression in SPSS software, version 20 and p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: The mean OHL-AQ-H score was 13.58±2.82. ICC and Cronbach’s alpha for Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire – Hindi Version

  16. Multimedia patient education to assist oral impression taking during dental treatment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Dandan; Liang, Beilei; Du, Wenzhi; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jie; He, Min; Lu, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Proper cooperation between patient and dentist is of great help to make a good oral impression. However, patients are frequently confused when information is given through traditional verbal description. The present study compared the effectiveness of the multimedia information delivery ways with the traditional verbal manner on patients' understanding level in oral impression taking. The recruited 191 participating patients were randomly assigned to the control group (the verbal group) and two intervention groups (the video group and the picture group) according to the information delivery manner. After intervention, the patients' understanding degree was measured by questionnaire and performance evaluation of behavior feedback on the provided information quantitatively. Also, patients' self-assessment of satisfaction was interviewed by telephone. All data was analyzed by SPSS 14.0 software, and p≤0.05 was set as significant difference in advance. One-Way ANOVA and Chi-square showed there were no statistically significant differences in the mean age, gender composition, and educational level among the three groups (P>0.05). In both questionnaire assessment and performance evaluation, One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD indicate that the video group gained a higher score than the verbal group or the picture group (P0.05). Higher percentage of satisfaction was reported by patients in the two multimedia groups than that in the control group. Oral impression taking is a consecutive process that requires action cooperation between dentists and patients simultaneously. This particularity makes it more suitable for multimedia delivery. The delivery of tailored information using multimedia in this study was favored by most patients and could improve the degree of patient understanding of the oral impression taking procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary mRNA markers having the potential to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma segregated from oral leukoplakia with dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Evangelia; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Konstantinos; Kouidou, Sofia; Markopoulos, Anastasios; Antoniades, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    In the current study the presence of extracellular IL-1B, IL-8, OAZ and SAT mRNAs in the saliva was evaluated as a tool in the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma. 34 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1N0M0/T2N0M0, 20 patients with oral leukoplakia and dysplasia (15 patients with mild dysplasia and 5 with severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma) and 31 matched healthy-control subjects were included in the study. The presence of IL-1B, IL-8, OAZ and SAT mRNA was evaluated in extracellular RNA isolated from saliva samples using sequence-specific primers and real-time RT-PCR. ROC curve analysis was used to estimate the ability of the biomarkers to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The data reveal that the combination of these four biomarkers provides a good predictive probability of up to 80% (AUC=0.799, p=0.002) for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma but not patients suffering from oral leukoplakia with dysplasia. Moreover, the combination of only the two biomarkers (SAT and IL-8) also raises a high predictive ability of 75.5% (AUC=0.755, p=0.007) approximately equal to the four biomarkers suggesting the use of the two biomarkers only in the prediction model for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients limiting the economic and health cost in half. SAT and IL-8 mRNAs are present in the saliva in high quality and quantity, with a good discriminatory ability for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients only but not for patients with oral leukoplakia and dysplasia an oral potentially malignant disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a form of pathological fibrosis affecting the oral mucosa. There is compelling evidence to implicate the habitual chewing of areca nut with the development of OSF. Because collagens are the major structural components of connective tissues, including oral submucosa, the composition of collagen within each tissue needs to be precisely regulated to maintain tissue integrity. Arecoline stimulates fibroblasts to increase the production of collagen by 150%. Aim: As the role of collagenase is implicated in cleaving the collagen under physical conditions, this study was carried out to evaluate the role of collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1 in a pathologic condition like OSF. Settings and Design: A total of 40 patients were included in the study, comprising of 30 OSF as Group 1 and 10 normal buccal mucosa tissue as Group 2. Materials and Methods: Both the groups were stained for MMP-1 by the immunohistochemical method using the streptavidin HRP-biotin labeling technique. MMP-1 expression intensity in the epithelium and connective tissue was decreased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test of association was used to determine the difference in the expression of MMP-1 between OSF and normal buccal mucosa and among different histological gradings of OSF. Results: The results were statistically significant. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the expression of MMP-1 among different histological grades of OSF in Group 1.

  20. Fibrinogen Demonstration in Oral Lichen Planus: An Immunofluorescence Study on Archival Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirol, Pallavi D; Naik, Veena; Kale, Alka

    2015-10-01

    Lichen planus is a premalignant condition with minimal diagnostic aids. This study is an attempt to use paraffin embedded sections of lichen planus with immunofluorescein stain and to evaluate the immunofluorescent sections to establish pattern of fibrinogen deposition. Thirty-five paraffin embedded sections of old and new cases of oral lichen planus (study group) and five normal oral mucosa (control group) were chosen. Two sections of each (H & E) case were taken, one was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and another with fluorescein isothiocynate conjugate (FITC) polyclonal rabbit antibody against fibrinogen. Fluorescent findings were examined with a fluorescent microscope. A high statistical significant correlation was found in respect to fluorescence positivity, intensity of fluorescence and distribution of fluorescence each with p < 0.0001 and fluorescence at blood vessel walls (p = 0.0003). This study suggested that paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining in routine set up where only formalin fixed tissues are received. Paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining when only formalin fixed tissues are received.

  1. Development and in vitro-in vivo evaluation of a water-in-oil microemulsion formulation for the oral delivery of troxerutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Yu, Qing; Zhao, Qianru; Chen, Wei; Lin, Yuanjie; Jin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a W/O microemulsion formulation of troxerutin to improve its oral bioavailability. The W/O microemulsion was optimized using a pseudo-ternary phase diagram and evaluated for physical properties. In vitro MDCK cell permeability studies were carried out to evaluate the permeability enhancement effect of microemulsion, and in vivo absorption of troxerutin microemulsion in the intestine was compared with that of solution after single-dose administration (56.7 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. The optimal formulation consisted of lecithin, ethanol, isopropyl myristate and water (23.30/11.67/52.45/12.59 w/w) was physicochemical stable and the mean droplet size was about 50.20 nm. In vitro study, the troxerutin-loaded microemulsion showed higher intestinal membrane permeability across MDCK monolayer when compared with the control solution. The W/O microemulsion can significantly promote the intestinal absorption of troxerutin in rats in vivo, and the relative bioavailability of the microemulsion was about 205.55% compared to control solution. These results suggest that novel W/O microemulsion could be used as an effective formulation for improving the oral bioavailability of troxerutin.

  2. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats with nanoscale and pigment grade titanium dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Brown, S C; Donner, E M

    2015-10-01

    Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of

  3. Preparation, characterization and ex vivo evaluation of an orally disintegrating film formulation containing pyrazinamide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adeleke, Oluwatoyin A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vivo Evaluation of an Orally Disintegrating Film Formulation Containing Pyrazinamide O. A. Adeleke 1, P-C. Tsai 2, B. B. Michniak-Kohn 2 1 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 2 Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey Purpose...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL NIFEDIPINE-LOADED POLYMERIC NANOCAPSULES: PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION, PHOTOSTABILITY STUDIES, IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Piazzon Tagliari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nifedipine (NFP-loaded polymeric nanocapsules were prepared and characterised with a view to protect the drug from degradation. Nanocapsule suspensions were prepared using two different surfactants (pluronic F68 and polyvinyl alcohol. Physicochemical stability and in vivoantihypertensive effect were evaluated. The particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency remained constant during a period of 28 days of exposure under light irradiation. A smaller particle size and a higher zeta potential were obtained for the nanocapsules prepared with Pluronic F68 as surfactant. The solid drug and the nanocapsules were submitted to light exposure for 28 days. After this period of time, the percentage of drug remaining in the PF68NFP and PVANFP nanocapsules was 28.1% and 21.3%, respectively. In contrast, the solid drug was completely degraded after 4 days, suggesting that the nanocapsule suspensions promoted significant protection of the drug against light exposure. In addition, in vivo studies were carried out, which demonstrated that the formulations with polyvinyl alcohol exhibited a very rapid onset of action after oral administration in rats and led to faster drug release. The nanoparticles developed can be considered as an alternative for improving NFP stability in liquid formulations.

  5. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions.

  6. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of the disintegration of orally rapid disintegrating tablets by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamanaka, Azusa; Uchino, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Kuniko; Sadamoto, Kiyomi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To measure the rapid disintegration of Oral Disintegrating Tablets (ODT), a new test (XCT) was developed using X-ray computing tomography (X-ray CT). Placebo ODT, rapid disintegration candy (RDC) and Gaster®-D-Tablets (GAS) were used as model samples. All these ODTs were used to measure oral disintegration time (DT) in distilled water at 37±2°C by XCT. DTs were affected by the width of mesh screens, and degree to which the tablet holder vibrated from air bubbles. An in-vivo tablet disintegration test was performed for RDC using 11 volunteers. DT by the in-vivo method was significantly longer than that using the conventional tester. The experimental conditions for XCT such as the width of the mesh screen and degree of vibration were adjusted to be consistent with human DT values. Since DTs by the XCT method were almost the same as the human data, this method was able to quantitatively evaluate the rapid disintegration of ODT under the same conditions as inside the oral cavity. The DTs of four commercially available ODTs were comparatively evaluated by the XCT method, conventional tablet disintegration test and in-vivo method.

  8. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332

  9. Assessment of Tissue Eosinophilia as a Prognosticator in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma—An Image Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Association of tissue eosinophilia with oral squamous cell carcinoma has shown variable results ranging from favourable to unfavourable or even having no influence on prognosis. Also, very few studies have been done to know the role of eosinophils in premalignancy. So the present study investigated role of eosinophilic infiltration in oral precancer and cancer and its possible use as a prognosticator. 60 histopathologically proven cases (20 cases each of metastatic and nonmetastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia with dysplasia of various grades were included. Congo red is used as a special stain for eosinophils. Each specimen slide was viewed under high power in 10 consecutive microscopic fields for counting of eosinophils. As a result, a significant increase in eosinophil count was found in oral carcinomas compared to dysplasia. Nonmetastatic cases showed higher counts than metastatic carcinomas. So, it is concluded that eosinophilia is a favourable histopathological prognostic factor in oral cancer. Moreover, higher eosinophil counts in carcinoma group compared to dysplasia group proved that they might have a role in stromal invasion thus suggesting that quantitative assessment of tissue eosinophilia should become a part of the routine histopathological diagnosis for oral precancer and OSCC.

  10. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  11. Effect of oral health education and fluoridated dentifrices on the oral health status of visually impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired children are challenged everyday in their everyday skills. Oral hygiene practices among visually impaired children require a special approach with time and patience. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral health education and fluoridated dentifrices on the oral health status of visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Fifty visually impaired children between 8 and 12 years of age formed the study group. Oral health education and motivation was done with the help of Braille. Modified Bass method of brushing was taught to the children and the required dental treatment was done. Subjects were randomly divided into two equal groups fluoridated and non-fluoridated. Oral hygiene index -simplified, DMFT, deft index, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus count were assessed at baseline, immediately after the treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 month intervals. The oral health awareness was assessed using a questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study. Results: At baseline, the mean OHI-S, DMFT and deft scores were 2.72, 0.47, and 0.51 respectively. At the end of 12 months there was a significant decrease in OHI-S scores in the fluoridated group. No significant difference was seen in DMFT and deft between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated groups at the different time interval. After the oral health education and comprehensive treatment there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in both groups; however, at the end of 3, 6, 12 months there was a significant decrease in fluoridated group as compared to the non-fluoridated. The oral health awareness increased significantly at the end of the study. Conclusion: The oral health education and motivation formulated for the visually impaired children was effective in improving their oral health status. Fluoridated dentifrices decreased the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts and improved the oral hygiene status.

  12. Enhanced oral bioavailability and sustained delivery of glimepiride via niosomal encapsulation: in-vitro characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Amira Mohamed; AbouSamra, Mona Mahmoud; ElShebiney, Shaimaa Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potency of niosomes, for glimepiride (GLM) encapsulation, aiming at enhancing its oral bioavailability and hypoglycemic efficacy. Niosomes containing nonionic surfactants (NIS) were prepared by thin film hydration technique and characterized. In-vitro release study was performed using a dialysis technique. In-vivo pharmacodynamic studies, as well as pharmacokinetic evaluation were performed on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. GLM niosomes exhibited high-entrapment efficiency percentages (E.E. %) up to 98.70% and a particle size diameter ranging from 186.8 ± 18.69 to 797.7 ± 12.45 nm, with negatively charged zeta potential (ZP). Different GLM niosomal formulation showed retarded in vitro release, compared to free drug. In-vivo studies revealed the superiority of GLM niosomes in lowering blood glucose level (BGL) and in maintaining a therapeutic level of GLM for a longer period of time, as compared to free drug and market product. There was no significant difference between mean plasma AUC 0-48 hr of GLM-loaded niosomes and that of market product. GLM-loaded niosomes exhibited seven-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability in comparison with free drug. These findings reinforce the potential use of niosomes for enhancing the oral bioavailability and prolonged delivery of GLM via oral administration.

  13. An Open-Label Evaluator Blinded Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Nutritional Supplement in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Anna J.; Hughes, Olivia Bosshardt; Canazza, Agnese; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel oral supplement, Forti5?, containing green tea extract, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, melatonin, beta-sitosterol, and soy isoflavones, and in the management of subjects with androgenetic alopecia. Design: A prospective case series of 10 subjects. Setting: Open-label, evaluator-blinded, proof-of-concept study. Participants: Ten adult subjects with androgenetic alopecia completed the study. Subjects were not allowed to use oral o...

  14. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-based nanogels/gels for oral delivery of myricetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yashu; Xia, Mengxin; Wang, Huizhen; Li, Guowen; Shen, Hongyi; Ji, Guang; Meng, Qianchao; Xie, Yan

    2016-08-25

    A novel nanogel/gel based on chitosan (CS) for the oral delivery of myricetin (Myr) was developed and evaluated comprehensively. The particle size of the obtained Myr-loaded CS/β-glycerol phosphate (β-GP) nanogels was in the range of 100-300nm. The rheological tests showed that the sol-gel transition happened when the nanogels were exposed to physiological temperatures, and 3D network structures of the gelatinized nanogels (gels) were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Myr was released from CS/β-GP nanogel/gel in acidic buffers via a Fickian mechanism, and this release was simultaneously accompanied by swelling and erosion. Moreover, the nanogel/gel exhibited no cytotoxicity by MTT assay, and the oral bioavailability of Myr in rats was improved with an accelerated absorption rate after Myr was loaded into CS/β-GP nanogel/gel. In summary, all of the above showed that CS/β-GP nanogel/gel was an excellent system for orally delivering Myr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First international collaborative study to evaluate rabies antibody detection method for use in monitoring the effectiveness of oral vaccination programmes in fox and raccoon dog in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasniewski, M; Almeida, I; Baur, A

    2016-01-01

    The most effective and sustainable method to control and eliminate rabies in wildlife is the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of target species, namely foxes and raccoon dogs in Europe. According to WHO and OIE, the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns should be regularly assessed via disease...... surveillance and ORV antibody monitoring. Rabies antibodies are generally screened for in field animal cadavers, whose body fluids are often of poor quality. Therefore, the use of alternative methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed to improve reliability of serological...... results obtained on wildlife samples. We undertook an international collaborative study to determine if the commercial BioPro ELISA Rabies Ab kit is a reliable and reproducible tool for rabies serological testing. Our results reveal that the overall specificity evaluated on naive samples reached 96...

  16. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-03-01

    Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed. For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (pnutritional habits and obesity. Obesity and dental/periodontal diseases are multifactorial diseases that follow similar risk patterns and develop from an interaction between chronic conditions originating early in life. It is important for all health professionals to educate patients at risk about the progression of periodontal and dental diseases and the importance of proper oral hygiene.

  17. Value of oral effervescent powder administration for multidetector CT evaluation of esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, Kristina I., E-mail: ringe.kristina@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Simone, E-mail: Meyer.simone.rad@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Ringe, Bastian P., E-mail: Ringe.bastian@mh-hannover.de [Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Winkler, Michael, E-mail: Winkler.michael@mh-hannover.de [Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Wacker, Frank, E-mail: Wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Raatschen, Hans-Juergen, E-mail: Raatschen.hans-juergen@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Oral effervescent powder improves esophageal distension and wall assessment at CT. • This technique improves detection and T staging of esophageal cancer at CT. • It can be easily adopted in clinical routine in patients with esophageal pathology. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess the value of oral effervescent powder (EP) for evaluation of esophageal distension, and for detection and staging of esophageal cancer with contrast-enhanced CT. Materials and methods: 84 patients without esophageal pathology and 52 patients with histological confirmed diagnosis of esophageal cancer were included in this prospective IRB-approved study. Half of the patients in both groups received EP prior to CT. Esophageal distension was assessed by planimetry of the inner (IA) and outer area (OA). Two blinded readers evaluated the datasets separately with regard to diagnosis of esophageal cancer (yes/no) and staging (T0-T4), if applicable. Distension results were compared (t-Test). In patients with cancer sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV were calculated. CT staging results were compared to histopathology (Cohen-k). Results: IA and IA/OA were significantly larger after EP as compared to the group without EP (p < 0.05). Sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV for cancer detection cancer were as follows: 78%/78%, 98%/98%, 95%/95%, 87%/87% with EP; 60%/68%, 98%/98%, 94%/94%, 80%/83% without EP. Staging with EP was good (k = 0.84/0.67) and moderate without EP (k = 0.58/0.59). Conclusions: Administration of EP prior to CT results in good distension of the esophagus, and improves detection and staging of esophageal cancer, as compared to control studies without EP.

  18. Evaluation of Oral Mucositis Occurrence in Oncologic Patients under Antineoplastic Therapy Submitted to the Low-Level Laser Coadjuvant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy has been widely used in treating many conditions, including oral mucositis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral mucositis in patients undergoing antineoplastic therapy submitted to preventive and therapeutic treatment with low-level laser therapy. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 51 children and adolescents of both sexes with malignant neoplasias who developed oral mucositis and underwent low-level laser therapy. Data were collected on sex, age, type and degree of neoplasia, region affected, and remission time. 64.7% of the patients were male and were between 3 and 6 years of age (39.2%. Acute lymphoid leukemia was the most frequent neoplasm (37.3%. Regarding the maximum oral mucositis, grade 2 (41.2% was predominant, with jugal mucosa (29.9% and tongue (17.7% being the most affected regions. The majority of cases presented lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days (44.0%. Most patients were young, male, and diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Predominance of grade 2 oral mucositis was observed, with jugal mucosa and tongue being the most affected regions, with the majority of cases presenting lesion remission time between 4 and 7 days. Low-level laser therapy has been shown to be an essential therapy in the prevention and treatment of these lesions, since it is a non-invasive and low-cost method.

  19. Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Su, Ni-Yu; Yu, Hui-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is one of the well-recognized oral potentially malignant disorders. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OSF in a Taiwanese population. A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OSF cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral leukoplakia (OL) was further stratified to evaluate for the possible synergistic effects of OSF-associated malignant transformation. In this cohort, 71 (9.13%) of 778 cases of OSF were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 29.26-fold in the OSF cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 20.55-41.67). To further stratify with OL, OSF with OL (52.46%; 95% confidence intervals 34.88-78.91) had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OSF alone (29.84%; 95% confidence intervals 20.99-42.42). The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed the rate free of malignant transformation was significant over the 13-year follow-up period (log-rank test, Ptransformation was 5.1, 2.7, and 2.2 years for non-OSF, OSF alone, and OSF with OL, respectively. Oral submucous fibrosis patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OSF. OL could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OSF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Evaluation of potential practical oral contrast agents for pediatric magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III; Cincinnati Univ., OH; Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH

    1989-01-01

    Development of a practical oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to improve differentiation of bowel from adjacent structures. In order to find a readily available, inexpensive, non-toxic, palatable solution for use in the pediatric population, several formulas, milk products and a common oral sedative were evaluated in vitro. T1, T2 and signal intensity measurements were performed on a 1.5 T system. Similac with standard iron proved to be a useful high signal intensity agent on multiple pulse sequences. Early in vivo experience in four normal volunteers indicates that this agent provides excellent delineation of the stomach and duodenum from contiguous viscera. Distal small bowel visualization is less predictabel. Further clinical trials should confirm the utility of this solution, which contains a combination of iron salts and paramagnetic metallic ions. (orig.)

  3. Beyond word recognition: understanding pediatric oral health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Julia Anne; Huebner, Colleen E; Leggott, Penelope J; Mouradian, Wendy E; Mancl, Lloyd A

    2011-01-01

    Parental oral health literacy is proposed to be an indicator of children's oral health. The purpose of this study was to test if word recognition, commonly used to assess health literacy, is an adequate measure of pediatric oral health literacy. This study evaluated 3 aspects of oral health literacy and parent-reported child oral health. A 3-part pediatric oral health literacy inventory was created to assess parents' word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, and comprehension of 35 terms used in pediatric dentistry. The inventory was administered to 45 English-speaking parents of children enrolled in Head Start. Parents' ability to read dental terms was not associated with vocabulary knowledge (r=0.29, P.06) of the terms. Vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with comprehension (r=0.80, PParent-reported child oral health status was not associated with word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, or comprehension; however parents reporting either excellent or fair/poor ratings had higher scores on all components of the inventory. Word recognition is an inadequate indicator of comprehension of pediatric oral health concepts; pediatric oral health literacy is a multifaceted construct. Parents with adequate reading ability may have difficulty understanding oral health information.

  4. Professional and patient-based evaluation of oral rehabilitation in patients with tooth agenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueled, Erik; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Trab Damsgaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The outcome of oral rehabilitation is usually monitored with clinical tests rather than by patient's perception of change. The aim of this study was to describe the objective measure and subjective perception of oral rehabilitation in patients with tooth agenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  5. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  6. Theoretical and hands-on guidance from dental hygienists promotes good oral health in elderly people living in nursing homes, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleskog, B; Lindqvist, L; Wårdh, I; Engström, A; von Bültzingslöwen, I

    2018-04-12

    Oral health in nursing homes for elderly is often unsatisfactory, and oral health education to nursing staff has not shown sufficient results why there is need for novel approaches. The aim of the study was to trial a new oral healthcare educational programme and to evaluate the effects on residents' oral health. In addition, attitudes among the nursing staff in the intervention nursing home were explored. In a controlled clinical trial, two comparable nursing homes were randomly assigned for intervention or control. Interventions included weekly theoretical and hands-on guidance from dental hygienists on oral hygiene procedures and discussions on oral care routines. The residents' oral health, measured by the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG), dental plaque and gingival bleeding were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months. Attitudes among the staff to oral health care were measured at the intervention nursing home. Revised Oral Assessment Guide gums and lips scores showed a tendency to decrease in the intervention group, but remained high in the control group. Plaque levels improved significantly after intervention, and a trend towards less gingival bleeding was observed. The intervention nursing staff seemed to be more aware of their own limitations concerning oral health care after intervention and valued more frequent contact with dental services to a greater extent. The oral healthcare situation for elderly people today is so complex that theoretical education at the group level regarding different aspects of oral health is not sufficient. Individual hands-on guidance by dental hygienists on a regular basis in everyday care may be a new approach. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. powder: acute toxicity, 90 days oral toxicity study and micronucleus assay in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sacha Inchi has been consumed for years by indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, its toxicological potential has not been sufficiently studied. Aims: To assess the acute, sub-chronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of Sacha Inchi powder obtained from Plukenetia volubilis L. Methods: A dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered to rats and mice and toxicity symptoms for 14 days were observed. In repeated dose study, the product was orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes. Animals received 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of the product for 90 days. At the end, animals were sacrificed and samples were done for hematological and biochemical analysis, organ weighs and histopathological examination. Genotoxicity potential of Sacha Inchi powder was evaluated through micronucleus test in mice. Negative controls received the vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.5% used. Results: No morbidity or mortality at 2000 mg/kg of the product were found. Sacha Inchi powder oral administration during 90 days to rats did not lead to death, body weight gain, food consumption, or adverse events. No significant changes on hematological or biochemical parameters, organ weights or histopathological findings were observed. Induction of micronucleus formation attributable to the product was not found in mice. Conclusions: No toxicity effects after oral acute exposure of Sacha Inchi power to rats and mice were observed. Neither toxicity attributable to oral doses of the product up to 500 mg/kg during 90 days to rats were found. Results suggested Sacha Inchi powder does not have genotoxicity potential under our experimental conditions.

  8. Applicability and fairness of the oral examination in undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applicability and fairness of the oral examination in undergraduate psychiatry training in South Africa. ... Objective: There are several methods of evaluating medical students' performance, such as written examination, oral examination and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Many studies have focused on the ...

  9. Emotional assessment of patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; do Carmo Carvalho, Bruna Fernandes; Balducci, Ivan; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Nicodemo, Denise; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic immune-mediated disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.5-2.5% in the general population. Patients with oral lichen planus are often emotionally unstable and anxious and may develop concomitant systemic disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate emotional characteristics of patients with oral lichen planus. Two groups were studied: the first group consisted of 48 patients with a diagnosis of oral lichen planus, and the second group consisted of controls without the disease matched for age and gender at a proportion of 1:1. The emotional state of the patients was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, and the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. The present investigation demonstrated the presence of anxiety and depression in patients with oral lichen planus and a negative impact of the disorder on the patient's quality of life as indicated by impairment of the physical aspect, vitality, mental health, and social aspect domains. This could indicate that associated psychological treatment may be important in the follow-up of these patients. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Evaluation of resting brain conditions measured by two different methods (i.v. and oral administration) with 18F-FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, M.; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Rikimaru, Hisashi; Tashiro, Manabu; Ozaki, Kaoru; Watanuki, Shoichi; Miyake, Masayasu; Ido, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate regional differences between brain activity in two resting control conditions measured by 3D PET after administration of FDG through either the intravenous (i.v.) or the oral route. Ten healthy male volunteers engaged in the study as the i.v. group (mean age, 26±9.3 years, ±S.D.) who received FDG intravenously and another 10 volunteers as the oral group (mean age, 27.9±11.3 years, ±S.D.) who received FDG per os. A set of 3D-PET scans (emission and transmission scans) were performed in both groups. To explore possible functional differences between the brains of the two groups, the SPM-96 software was used for statistical analysis. The results revealed that glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus and left cerebellar hemisphere in the i.v. group than in the oral group. Metabolically active areas were found in the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdaloid nucleus, pons and cerebellum in the oral group when compared with the i.v. group. These differences were presumably induced by differences between FDG kinetics and/or time-weighted behavioral effects in the two studies. This study suggests the need for extreme caution when selecting a pooled control population for designated activation studies. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    OpenAIRE

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration tes...

  12. No detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in oral lichen planus: Results of a preliminary study in a French cohort of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson Regnault, Marie; Vigarios, Emmanuelle; Projetti, Fabrice; Herbault-Barres, Beatrice; Tournier, Emilie; Lamant, Laurence; Sibaud, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease considered as a CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune reaction, which may be triggered by undetermined virus. Recent reports have described the detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA in oral samples from healthy patients and in patients with different forms of oral cancers. We therefore investigated in a prospective way whether MCPyV was detectable in oral lesions of patients with active OLP. Our preliminary results do not support the hypothesis that OLP may be triggered by MCPyV infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the involvement of other human polyomaviruses in OLP pathogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparative study of 2 oral care protocols in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérôme; Raybaud, Evelyne; Chabanne, Russell; Cosserant, Bernard; Faure, Jean Sébastien; Guérin, Renaud; Calvet, Laure; Pereira, Bruno; Mourgues, Charline; Guelon, Dominique; Traore, Ousmane

    2017-03-01

    The quality of oral care is important in limiting the emergence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intubated patients. Our main objective was to measure the quality improvement in oral care following the implementation of a new oral care protocol. We also monitored VAP rates. This was a cohort study of patients in 5 adult ICUs covering different specialties. During period 1, caregivers used a foam stick for oral care and during period 2 a stick and tooth brushing with aspiration. Oral chlorhexidine was used during both periods. The caregivers rated improvement in oral health on the basis of 4 criteria (tongue, mucous membranes, gingivae, and teeth). Caregiver satisfaction was also assessed. The incidence of VAP was monitored. A total of 2,030 intubated patients admitted to intensive care units benefited from oral care. The patient populations during the 2 periods were similar with regard to demographic data and VAP potential risk factors. Oral health was significantly better from the third day of oral care in period 2 onward (period 1, 6.4 ± 2.1; period 2, 5.6 ± 1.8; P = .043). Caregivers found the period 2 protocol easier to implement and more effective. VAP rates decreased significantly between the 2 periods (period 1, 12.8%; period 2, 8.5%; P = .002). Our study showed that the implementation of a simple strategy improved the quality of oral care of patients in intensive care units, and decreased VAP rates. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-Radiotherapy dental evaluation criteria and treatment needs of oral side effects after head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Carvalho de Andrade, Marco Aurelio; De Andrade Elias, Rogerio; Ajudarte Lopes, Marcio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present pre-radiotherapy evaluation criteria and the main needs for treatment of these patients after the radiation therapy. Were revised articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese language between 1995 and 2009 indexed in Pubmed and Scielo. The keywords were oral cancer and radiotherapy, complications in head and neck radiotherapy, oral pre-radiotherapy evaluation.The adverse complications of radiotherapy in head and neck area could be temporary or late. The late effects, such as radiation caries and osteorradionecrosis could be directly associated with the fact that previous dental evaluation was not performed and can severely affect the post-operatory quality of life. The participation of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team and dental evaluation of the patients that will receive radiotherapy in the head and neck area are of vital importance to improve the post-operatory quality of life of these patients

  15. Dysbiosis of oral buccal mucosa microbiota in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Gong, D; Shi, C; Shao, F; Shi, J; Fei, J

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial community structure of buccal mucosa in patients with oral lichen planus was evaluated and compared with healthy control. Buccal scraping samples have been taken on 43 oral lichen planus patients (21 erosive and 22 non-erosive) and 21 mucosal healthy volunteers. The V3 hypervariable 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 94.26% of the total buccal bacteria were classified into 15 abundant genera. Eight of these abundant genera could be detected in all cases, namely Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilu, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. Four abundant bacteria showed significantly different prevalence at the genus level: Streptococcus was more abundant (P oral microbiome. Further studies should be taken to elucidate the inner relationship between these observed changes and OLP development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Common risk indicators for oral diseases and obesity in 12-year-olds: a South Pacific cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Pichot, Hélène; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Hennequin, Martine

    2018-01-08

    Despite the increasing need to prevent obesity and oral diseases in adolescents worldwide, few studies have investigated the link existing between these conditions and their common risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the oral health and weight status of New Caledonian Children (aged 6,9,12 years) and to identify, amongst 12-year-olds, risk indicators that may characterize the groups of children affected by oral diseases, obesity or both diseases. This survey evaluated in 2011-2012 the oral health and stature-weight status and related risk indicators in a national representative sample of 6, 9 and 12 years-old children in New Caledonia. Dental status, chewing efficiency, height, weight and waist circumference were clinically recorded at school. The body mass index (BMI) and the waist to height ratio (WtHR) were calculated. For BMI the WHO Cut-offs were used. Twelve years-old participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and behavioural variables. For statistical analysis, the Clinical Oral and Global Health Index (COGHI) was developed and used. Twelve years-old children were categorised into four groups; Oral Diseases (ODG), Obesity (OG), Obesity and Oral Diseases (ODOG) and a Healthy Group (HG). A multivariate analysis was conducted using mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression models. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greatly increasing from 6 years (respectively 10.8% [8.8;13.3] and 7.8% [6.0;9.9]) to 12 years (respectively 22.2% [19.9;24.7] and 20.5% [18.2;22.9]) and one third of the 12-yr-olds had an excess of abdominal adiposity. At age 12, 36.6% of the children were healthy (HG), 27.3% had oral diseases (ODG), 19.7% were obese (OG) and 16.5% had both conditions (ODOG). Geographical location, ethnicity, tooth-brushing frequency and masticatory disability were significant risk factors for the OG, ODOG and ODG groups. Ethnicity and masticatory impairment were common risk indicators for the association of oral

  17. Evaluation of Oral Health status and influential factors in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze oral health status and influential factors in children with autism living in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Subjects and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in two steps: 1 ‑ questionnaire and 2 ‑ interview. This study was conducted ...

  18. Classification of clinical autofluorescence spectra of oral leukoplakia using an artificial neural network : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staveren, HJ; van Veen, RLP; Speelman, OC; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN

    The performance of an artificial neural network was evaluated as an alternative classification technique of autofluorescence spectra of oral leukoplakia, which may reflect the grade of tissue dysplasia. Twenty-two visible lesions of 21 patients suffering from oral leukoplakia and six locations on

  19. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  20. Oral health promotion for institutionalised elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Clemson, N

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate educational approaches specifically for improvement of oral hygiene behaviour amongst institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian......; 2) active involvement of residents only; 3) active involvement of both residents and staff. The programme comprised three 1-h sessions at monthly intervals in groups of five to six residents or members of staff. The analysis of the results showed poor oral health and oral hygiene, high objective...... need for oral care but low perceived need. The programme had little impact on most of the included variables and only about half of the participants remembered the programme 2 months after its termination. The implications of the study are that groups of elderly need to be differentiated further so...

  1. The oral microbiota in patients with pancreatic cancer, patients with IPMNs, and controls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H; Satagopan, Jaya; Xu, Youming; Ling, Lilan; Leong, Siok; Orlow, Irene; Saldia, Amethyst; Li, Peter; Nunes, Pamela; Madonia, Vincent; Allen, Peter J; O'Reilly, Eileen; Pamer, Eric; Kurtz, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Poor oral health appears to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, possibly implicating the oral microbiota. In this pilot study, we evaluated the characteristics of the oral microbiota in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), and healthy controls. Forty newly diagnosed PDAC patients, 39 IPMN patients, and 58 controls, excluding current smokers and users of antibiotics, provided saliva samples. Common oral bacterial species were comprehensively surveyed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA microbial genes. We obtained measures of diversity and the mean relative proportions of individual taxa. We explored the degree to which these measures differed according to respondent characteristics based on individual interviews. PDAC cases did not differ in diversity measures from either controls or IPMN cases. PDAC cases had higher mean relative proportions of Firmicutes and related taxa, while controls had higher mean relative proportions of Proteobacteria and related taxa. Results were generally similar when comparing PDAC to IPMN cases. Among IPMNs and controls combined, younger individuals had higher levels of several taxa within the Proteobacteria. The only other variable consistently related to mean relative proportions was mouthwash use, with taxa within Firmicutes more common among users. While there were no differences in diversity of the oral microbiota among these groups, there were differences in the mean relative proportions of some taxa. Characteristics of the oral microbiota are not associated with most measures of oral health.

  2. Oral health-related quality of life in patients with stroke: a randomized clinical trial of oral hygiene care during outpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruoxi; Lam, Otto L T; Lo, Edward C M; Li, Leonard S W; McGrath, Colman

    2017-08-09

    This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral hygiene care in improving oral health- and health-related quality of life (OHRQoL and HRQoL) among patients receiving outpatient stroke rehabilitation. Subjects were randomized to: (1) a conventional oral hygiene care programme (COHCP) comprising a manual toothbrush, and oral hygiene instruction, or (2) an advanced oral hygiene care programme (AOHCP) comprising a powered toothbrush, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse, and oral hygiene instruction. The interventional period lasted for 3 months, followed by a 3-month observational period. HRQoL was assessed by SF-12, and OHRQoL was assessed by Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), and Oral Health Transitional Scale (OHTS). Participants in AOHCP group had significantly better OHRQoL at the end of clinical trial as assessed by OHTS (p < 0.01), and at the end of observational study as assessed by GOHAI (p < 0.05) than those in the COHCP. Participants in the AOHCP group had significantly better HRQoL as assessed by physical component summary score (PCS) the end of both 3 and 6 months (both p < 0.05). This study provided the evidence that the AOHCP was more effective than the COHCP within stroke rehabilitation in improving subjective health.

  3. Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafar Golalipour

    2011-01-01

     Conclusions:  The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly.

  4. Assessment and Evaluation of Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of Patients with Dental Implants Using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) - A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzarea, Bader K

    2016-04-01

    Peri-implant tissue health is a requisite for success of dental implant therapy. Plaque accumulation leads to initiation of gingivitis around natural teeth and peri-implantitis around dental implants. Peri-implantitis around dental implants may result in implant placement failure. For obtaining long-term success, timely assessment of dental implant site is mandatory. To assess and evaluate Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of individuals with dental implants using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Total 92 patients were evaluated for assessment of the health of peri-implant tissues by recording, Plaque Index (PI), Probing Pocket Depth (PD), Bleeding On Probing (BOP) and Probing Attachment Level (PAL) as compared to contra-lateral natural teeth (control). In the same patients Quality of Life Assessment was done by utilizing Oral Health Impact Profile Index (OHIP-14). The mean plaque index around natural teeth was more compared to implants and it was statistically significant. Other three dimensions mean bleeding on probing; mean probing attachment level and mean pocket depth around both natural teeth and implant surfaces was found to be not statistically significant. OHIP-14 revealed that patients with dental implants were satisfied with their Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Similar inflammatory conditions are present around both natural teeth and implant prostheses as suggested by results of mean plaque index, mean bleeding on probing, mean pocket depth and mean probing attachment level, hence reinforcing the periodontal health maintenance both prior to and after incorporation of dental implants. Influence of implant prostheses on patient's oral health related quality of life (as depicted by OHIP-14) and patients' perceptions and expectations may guide the clinician in providing the best implant services.

  5. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygi...

  6. Evaluation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents' Operative Skills: Feasibility and Engagement Study Using SIMPL Software for a Mobile Phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Leonard B; Cappetta, Alyssa; George, Brian C; Lahey, Edward T; Bohnen, Jordan D; Troulis, Maria J

    2017-10-01

    There are no universally accepted tools to evaluate operative skills of surgical residents in a timely fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a smartphone application, SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning), developed by a multi-institutional research collaborative, to achieve a high rate of timely operative evaluations and resident communication and to collect performance data. The authors hypothesized that these goals would be achieved because the process is convenient and efficient. This was a prospective feasibility and engagement study using SIMPL to evaluate residents' operative skills. SIMPL requires the attending surgeon to answer 3 multiple-choice questions: 1) What level of help (Zwisch Scale) was required by the trainee? 2) What was the level of performance? 3) How complex was the case? The evaluator also can dictate a narrative. The sample was composed of 3 faculty members and 3 volunteer senior residents. Predictor variables were the surgeons, trainees, and procedures performed. Outcome variables included number and percentage of procedures performed by faculty-and-resident pairs assessed, time required to complete assessments, time lapsed to submission, percentage of assessments with narratives, and residents' response rates. From March through June 2016, 151 procedures were performed in the operating room by the faculty-and-resident teams. There were 107 assessments submitted (71%). Resident response (self-assessment) to faculty evaluations was 81%. Recorded time to complete assessments (n = 75 of 107) was shorter than 2 minutes. The time lapsed to submission was shorter than 72 hours (100%). Dictations were submitted for 35 evaluations (33%). Data for the type of help, performance, and complexity of cases were collected for each resident. SIMPL facilitates timely intraoperative evaluations of surgical skills, engagement by faculty and residents, and collection of detailed procedural

  7. Effect of mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel on oral malodor: a randomized, open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iha, Kosaku; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Takeshita, Toru; Hirofuji, Takao

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel on oral malodor. An open-label, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to assess oral malodor and clinical parameters related to oral malodor before and after mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel (n = 9) or with gel not including hinokitiol (n = 9). Mouth cleaning included the teeth, gingiva, and tongue and was carried out 3 times per day for 4 weeks. Organoleptic test (OLT) scores (P = .021), levels of hydrogen sulfide (P = .008) and methyl mercaptan (P = .020), frequency of bleeding on probing, average probing pocket depth, and plaque index significantly improved in the group using hinokitiol. In contrast, only the OLT score (P = .031) significantly improved in the control group after the treatment regimen. Mouth cleaning with hinokitiol-containing gel may be effective for reduction of oral malodor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation and Comparison of the Biopathology of Collagen and Inflammation in the Extracellular Matrix of Oral Epithelial Dysplasias and Inflammatory Fibrous Hyperplasia Using Picrosirius Red Stain and Polarising Microscopy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Soma Susan; Sarojini, Sreenivasan Bargavan; George, Giju Baby; Vinod, Sankar; Mathew, Philips; Babu, Anulekh; Sebastian, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The role of tumour inflammation and the dysplastic epithelial-stromal interactions on the nature of collagen fibres in the extracellular matrix of dysplastic epithelium is not fully understood. The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the inflammation and pathological stromal collagen (loosely packed thin disorganized collagen) present in mild, moderate and severe epithelial dysplasias with that of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasias. The basement membrane intactness of epithelial dysplasias was also evaluated to determine if dysplastic epithelial mesenchymal interaction has any role in the integrity of stromal collagen in epithelial dysplasia. Oral epithelial dysplasias, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia and normal oral mucosal samples were used for the study. Packing, thickness and orientation of collagen fibres in mild, moderate and severe grades of oral epithelial dysplasias (n = 24), inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (n = 8) and normal oral mucosal samples (n = 8) were analysed based on the polarisation of collagen fibres in picrosirius red polarising stain under polarising microscope. All the grades of epithelial dysplasias showed greenish yellow birefringence confirming the presence of loosely arranged pathological collagen in the presence of moderate inflammation. All the cases of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia showed red polarisation hue and moderate inflammation. A statistically significant difference was found in the packing and orientation of collagen when epithelial dysplasias and inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia were compared (P collagen even in mild epithelial dysplasia suggests that tumourigenic factors are released to connective tissue stroma much earlier than expected. Hence we suggest considering the integrity of extracellular matrix collagen, intactness of basement membrane and inflammation associated with dysplasia along with the anaplasia of epithelial cells in the microscopic assessment of dysplastic epithelium.

  9. An evaluation of the retromolar space for oral tracheal tube placement for maxillofacial surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Suman; Rattan, Vidya; Bhardwaj, Neerja

    2006-11-01

    The eruption of the first and second permanent molar teeth may influence the size of the retromolar space. In this study we evaluated the adequacy of the retromolar space for retromolar intubation and any effect of eruption of the first and second permanent molar teeth on this space in children. Children 3-15 yr of age, undergoing surgery other than facial surgery were included for evaluation of the retromolar space. After standard oral tracheal intubation, the endotracheal tube was shifted to the retromolar space and the mandible was slowly closed to achieve centric occlusion. At the same time, any increase in airway resistance or decrease in oxygen saturation was noted. In the second part of the study, the feasibility of retromolar intubation in pediatric patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery with intraoperative maxillomandibular fixation was assessed. There was enough space for endotracheal tube placement in the retromolar region. The eruption of the first and second permanent molar teeth did not affect intubation. It was possible to achieve centric occlusion in 79 of 80 children with the endotracheal tube positioned in the retromolar space. Retromolar intubation was successfully accomplished in six pediatric patients undergoing maxillomandibular fixation and maxillofacial surgery. The retromolar space can be safely used for intubation in children when intraoperative maxillomandibular fixation, and simultaneous access to the nose and oral cavity are needed.

  10. Acute oral safety study of sodium caseinate glycosylated via maillard reaction with galactose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, Maria A; Ares, Irma; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, Maria R; Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-03-01

    In order to potentially use sodium caseinate (SC) glycated with galactose (Gal) in the food industry as a new functional ingredient with proved technological and biological properties, an evaluation of oral acute toxicity has been carried out. An acute safety study with SC-Gal glycoconjugates in the Wistar rat with a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight was conducted. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates were well tolerated; no adverse effects or mortality was observed during the 2-week observation period. No abnormal signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or alterations in food and water consumption occurred. After this period, no changes in hematological and serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or gross pathology or histopathology were detected. It was concluded that SC-Gal glycoconjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction were well tolerated in rats at an acute oral dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight. The SC-Gal glycoconjugates have a low order of acute toxicity, and the oral 50 % lethal dose for male and female rats is in excess of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight.

  11. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions. PMID:25071922

  12. Correlation of serum biomarkers (TSA & LSA) and epithelial dysplasia in early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Hemant; Kumar, C Anand

    Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, which is usually preceded by oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditions. Altered glycosylation of glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, fucose, etc. are amongst the important molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate usefulness of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and serum Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as markers of oral precancerous lesions and histopathologically correlating them with grades of epithelial dysplasia. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with oral precancer (Leukoplakia & OSMF), 25 patients with untreated oral cancer and 25 healthy subjects. Serum sialic acid (total and lipid bound) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Tissue samples from all the patients were evaluated for dysplasia. Serum levels of total and lipid bound sialic acid were significantly elevated in patients with oral precancer and cancer when compared with healthy subjects. Analysis of variance test documented that there is progressive rise in serum levels of sialic acid with the degree of dysplastic changes in oral precancer patients. We observed positive correlation between serum levels of the markers and the extent of malignant disease (TNM Clinical staging) as well as histopathological grades. The results suggested that serum levels of TSA and LSA progressively increases with grades of dysplasia in precancerous groups and cancer group, when compared with healthy controls. These glycoconjugates, especially LSA has the clinical utility in indicating a premalignant change.

  13. Oral health of pediatric AIDS patients: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, I H; Pizzo, P A; Atkinson, J C

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is steadily increasing among American children. The dental needs of these patients are significant. This study evaluated the oral health of forty children being treated for HIV-infection at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Eight of twenty-two patients in primary dentition (36 percent) had baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD). These cases required extensive dental restoration usually under general anesthesia. Tooth development was delayed in 31 percent of patients. Candidiasis was the most common soft tissue abnormality, found in 35 percent of children. Preventive and therapeutic dental programs should be instituted to meet the special needs of pediatric AIDS patients.

  14. Pilot study to train dentists to communicate about oral cancer: the impact on dentists' self-reported behaviour, confidence and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awojobi, O; Newton, J T; Scott, S E

    2016-01-22

    To evaluate the effect of a brief, focused training session on the use of an oral cancer communication guide on dentists' intentions, self-efficacy and beliefs with regards to communicating about oral cancer with patients. Pre-post intervention study. The training session took place in a lecture theatre at King's College London. Dentists working in various settings were trained on the use of the oral cancer communication guide via a structured session that included an update on oral cancer, modelling the use of the guide in practice, and role playing. Dentists (n = 39) completed questionnaires pre-training, immediately post-training (n = 31) and after 2 weeks (n = 23). Questionnaires assessed current practice, self-efficacy and barriers to discussing oral cancer. A significantly higher proportion of dentists reported that they informed patients that they were being screened for oral cancer post-training (44%) than pre-training (16%). Significantly fewer perceived barriers and higher self-efficacy to discuss oral cancer were also reported. Training dentists in the use of the guide showed positive impact by reducing perceived barriers and increasing self-efficacy.

  15. Characterizing scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals through evaluation of bibliometric indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetè, Stefano; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; De Carlo, Alessandro; Lorusso, Felice; Di Nicola, Marta; Piattelli, Adriano; Gherlone, Enrico; Polimeni, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the scientific production of Italian Oral Surgery professionals by evaluating different bibliometric indices. The bibliometric evaluation was conducted on the Scopus Database upon all the Active Members joining three important Italian scientific societies in Oral Surgery (SIdCO, SIO, and SICOI). The scientific production was analysed by considering the number of total publications, number of total citations, h-index, and hc-index. Moreover, the overall sample was divided into two groups (Academics and Not Academics), according to the fact the professionals had or not a university position, and then into sub-groups according to the different career lengths. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the scientific productivity amongst groups. For all the considered parameters a lack of homogeneity between groups was reported, and significantly greater mean values were recorded for the Academics compared to the Not Academics Group. Moreover, the h-index values increased more regularly as the career length progressed than the hc-index values, even if the last seemed to be less variable. h- and hc-indices are both stable bibliometric parameters, but as the hc-index values are related not only to the number of citation but also to their age, it seems to be less influenced by the authors' career length. Bibliometric analysis of the scientific production in dentistry may facilitate the recognition of factors that may further enhance research activity and clinical performance and be useful for a comparative assessment of authors or research groups in terms of quality and quantity of the scientific production.

  16. Tools for evaluating oral health and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettie, Nirmal F; Ramachandiran, Hari; Anand, Vijay; Sathiamurthy, Anusha; Sekaran, Preethi

    2015-08-01

    The seven dimensions of quality of life are required for a healthy living. Any impairment or disability affects any one or more of these dimensions resulting in functional impairment or handicap, which indicates the presence of disease. The success of any oral treatment depends on how far the individual is relieved of his disease process. Relief of symptoms provides patient comfort and enable functional activities. This well-being is considered as a measure of oral health and reflects patient satisfaction. This article presents various instruments or tools available in the form of a questionnaire that estimates patient satisfaction and thereby oral health.

  17. Human MutL homolog 1 immunoexpression in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A prospective study in Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Narendra T; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Ahire, Manisha S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mammalian mismatch repair system is responsible for maintaining genomic stability during repeated duplications, and human MutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) protein constitutes an important part of it. Various isolated studies have reported the altered expression of hMLH1 in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Research is lacking in the quantitative estimation and comparison of hMLH1 expression in OL and OSCC. Aims: To evaluate, quantify and compare hMLH1 immunoexpression in normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. Settings and Design: Thirty patients of OL and thirty patients of OSCC formed the study group and thirty patients were included in the control group (normal oral mucosa). Formalin-fixed paraffin wax blocks were prepared from the tissue samples. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 was performed, and the total number of positive cells was counted in high-power fields, and based on that percentage positivity of hMLH1 was calculated in all the cases. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal–Wallis and t-test were used. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mean hMLH1 value in control group, leukoplakia and OSCC was 78.26, 54.33 and 40.97 respectively. hMLH1 immunoexpression showed decreasing indexes from control group to leukoplakia and then further to OSCC. hMLH1 expression was significantly lower in OSCC as compared to leukoplakia. There was no significant correlation of mean hMLH1 expression between different clinical and histopathological stages of leukoplakia and OSCC. Conclusions: hMLH1 immunoexpression was inversely related to the degree of dysplasia. These findings suggest that there is a progressive decrease in hMLH1 expression from control to leukoplakia and further to OSCC. Thus, it can be concluded that hMLH1 can be used as a reliable biomarker for malignant transformation. PMID:27721611

  18. Evaluation of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment in patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo; Medici Filho, Edmundo; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de; Castilho, Julio Cezar de Melo; Furukawa, Souhei

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, 1042 cases where reviewed in School Dentistry - Osaka Univ. Seven hundred and fifteen were male and three hundred and twenty-seven were female. Ora cancer was affected more male than female patients, with mean age of 582 years old. The tongue was the most common anatomic localization of oral cancer. In tongue, the use of external radiotherapy y combined with brachytherapy and brachytherapy isolated presented better results than chemotherapy combined with external radiotherapy. In buccal mucosa, there was not differences in the treatment's results using external radiotherapy and combined chemotherapy and external radiotherapy. In tongue's floor and upper and jaw gingiva the combined treatment with chemotherapy and external radiotherapy presented better results than isolated external radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Management with Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Rachel J.; Hays, Karen E.; Hebert, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    Oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide (second generation sulfonylurea) and metformin (biguanide) are attractive alternatives to insulin due to lower cost, ease of administration, and better patient adherence. The majority of evidence from retrospective and prospective studies suggests comparable efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide and metformin as compared to insulin when used in the treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Glyburide and metformin have altered pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and both agents cross the placenta. In this article, we review the efficacy, safety and dosage of oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Additional research is needed to evaluate optimal dosage for glyburide and metformin during pregnancy. Comparative studies evaluating the effects of glyburide and metformin on long-term maternal and fetal outcomes are also needed. PMID:25315294

  20. An Assessment of the Oral Bioavailability of Three Ca-Channel Blockers Using a Cassette-Microdose Study: A New Strategy for Streamlining Oral Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Kataoka, Makoto; Suzaki, Yuki; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morimoto, Takuya; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Inano, Akihiro; Togashi, Kazutaka; Mutaguchi, Kuninori; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    A cassette-microdose (MD) clinical study was performed to demonstrate its usefulness for identifying the most promising compound for oral use. Three Ca-channel blockers (nifedipine, nicardipine, and diltiazem) were chosen as model drugs. In the MD clinical study, a cassette-dose method was employed in which three model drugs were administered simultaneously. Both intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration studies were conducted to calculate the oral bioavailability (BA). For comparison, p.o. studies with therapeutic dose (ThD) levels were also performed. In all studies, blood concentrations of each drug were successfully determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with the lower limit of quantification of 0.2-2.0 pg/mL. Oral BA of nifedipine in the MD study was approximately 50% and in the same range with that obtained in the ThD study, whereas other two drugs showed significantly lower BA in the MD study, indicating a dose-dependent absorption. In addition, compared with the ThD study, absorption of nicardipine was delayed in the MD study. As a result, nifedipine was considered to be most promising for oral use. In conclusion, a cassette-MD clinical study is of advantage for oral drug development that enables to identify the candidate having desired properties for oral use. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  2. Evaluation of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in oral hospital diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Cerqueira, Isabel B.; Oliveira, Ana P. F. de; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Many trace elements are nutrients essential to humans, acting in the metabolism as constituents or as enzymatic co-factors. The iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium contents of hospital diets (regular, blend and soft) and of oral food complement (OFC) were determined, evaluating the adequacy of each element in relation to the nutritional recommendations (DRIs) and the percent contribution alone and with OFC. Methods: Duplicate samples were taken of six daily meals ...

  3. Oral health-related quality of life in Iranian patients with spinal cord injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Kumar, Santhosh; Scheerman, Janneke F M; Lin, Chung-Ying; Fridlund, Bengt; Jansson, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to compare the oral health variables, general, and oral health-related quality of life (QoL), depression, and anxiety between spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and healthy controls and also to determine the key factors related to the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the SCI patients. A total of 203 SCI patients and 203 healthy controls were enrolled. Patients and healthy adults were invited to attend a dental clinic to complete the study measures and undergo oral clinical examinations. OHRQoL was assessed by the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and the general health-related quality of life (GHRQoL) was evaluated by SF-36. In SCI patients, depression and anxiety were recorded using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), while Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) was used to assess dependence and disability. All the subjects were examined for caries which was quantified using the decayed, missing, and filled Teeth (DMFT) index, gingival bleeding index (GI), plaque index, and periodontal status by community periodontal index (CPI). The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed significant differences between the two groups in terms of oral health expressed in DMFT, oral hygiene, and periodontal status, controlled for age, gender, family income, and occupational status (poral hygiene practices, greater levels of plaque, gingival bleeding, and caries experience than the healthy controls. In addition, more number of SCI patients had periodontal pockets and dry mouth than the comparative group. SCI patients experienced more depression and anxiety, poor GHRQoL, and OHRQoL than the healthy control group. The factors that influenced OHRQoL in SCI patients were age, toothbrushing frequency, smoking, oral clinical status, depression, physical component of GHRQoL, and level of lesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative clinical study testing the effectiveness of school based oral health education using experiential learning or traditional lecturing in 10 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kavvadia, Katerina; Taoufik, Konstantina; Oulis, Constantine J

    2015-04-28

    School based oral health education through traditional lecturing has been found successful only in improving oral health knowledge, while has low effectiveness in oral hygiene and gingival health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experiential learning (EL) oral health education to traditional lecturing (TL), on enhancing oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior as well as oral hygiene, gingival health and caries of 10-year-old children. Eighty-four children were recruited for the EL and 100 for the TL group from 3 locations in Greece. Data regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior were collected via questionnaires. Data regarding dental plaque, gingivitis and caries were collected by clinical examination. The evaluation using questionnaires and clinical examination was assessed at baseline and 6 and 18 months afterwards. Two calibrated pediatric dentists examined the students using a periodontal probe and artificial light. Modified hygiene index (HI) was used for dental plaque recording, the simplified gingival index (GI-S) was used for gingivitis and DMFT, based on BASCD criteria, for dental caries. Based on a dedicated manual, the teacher applied in the classroom the oral health educational program using EL. EL group had statistically significant better hygiene than the TL at 6 months (p 0.05) and attitude (p > 0.05) at 6 months in comparison to baseline. EL program was found more successful than TL in oral hygiene improvement. Both oral health education programs improved the oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of children. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02320162).

  5. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral...

  6. Systematic review of basic oral care for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Deborah B; Fulton, Janet S; Park, Jumin; Brown, Carlton G; Correa, M Elvira P; Eilers, June; Elad, Sharon; Gibson, Faith; Oberle-Edwards, Loree K; Bowen, Joanne; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate research in basic oral care interventions to update evidence-based practice guidelines for preventing and treating oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing radio- or chemotherapy. A systematic review of available literature was conducted by the Basic Oral Care Section of the Mucositis Study Group of MASCC/ISOO. Seven interventions--oral care protocols, dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine, and calcium phosphate--were evaluated using the Hadorn (J Clin Epidemiol 49:749-754, 1996) criteria to determine level of evidence, followed by a guideline determination of one of the following: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible, using Somerfield's (Classic Pap Cur Comments 4:881-886, 2000) schema. Fifty-two published papers were examined by treatment population (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant) and by whether the intervention aimed to prevent or treat OM. The resulting practice suggestions included using oral care protocols for preventing OM across all treatment modalities and age groups and not using chlorhexidine mouthwash for preventing OM in adults with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Considering inadequate and/or conflicting evidence, no guidelines for prevention or treatment of OM were possible for the interventions of dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine in patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or calcium phosphate. The evidence for basic oral care interventions supports the use of oral care protocols in patient populations receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy and does not support chlorhexidine for prevention of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Additional well-designed research is needed for other interventions to improve the amount and quality of evidence guiding future clinical

  7. Impact of oral hygiene on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Bahmani, M; Amin, M

    2015-08-01

    To assess the impact of oral hygiene of preschool children and parental attitude on children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, 396 children of Shiraz kindergartens were selected by a randomized cluster sampling. Children's oral hygiene was assessed using the Simplified Debris Index (DI-S) and a self-made questionnaire about oral hygiene habits. Children's OHRQoL was evaluated by the Farsi version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (F-ECOHIS). The effect of oral hygiene determinants on OHRQoL was measured using Pearson and Spearman correlation, independent-sample t-test and anova. Children's mean DI-S and F-ECOHIS scores were 1.19 (± 0.77) and 19.36 (±8.42), respectively. Only 75% of the children had their teeth brushed once a day or more, and in 28%, toothbrushing had started before 2 years of age. DI-S values (P children. Children's OHRQoL was also significantly associated with parents' attitude towards the importance of brushing deciduous teeth (P = 0.002). Oral health status of preschool children in Shiraz was less than optimal and had a significant impact on their OHRQoL. Therefore, improvement of children's OHRQoL could be achieved by improving their home dental care. Strategies promoting parental attitude about the importance of children's toothbrushing may significantly influence children's oral hygiene and are highly recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hepatitis C and Oral Lichen Planus: Evaluation of their Correlation and Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, João Paulo; Linden, Maria Salete Sandini; da Silva, Soluete Oliveira; Trentin, Micheline Sandini; Matos, Felipe de Souza; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and oral lichen planus (OLP), and further examine the relationship between age, sex, systemic diseases and drugs with the presence of HCV infection or OLP. A longitudinal clinical study was carried out from March 2010 to December 2013 with 51 individuals, of whom 33 had been presented with HCV (HCV-positive group) and 18 had OLP (OLP-positive group), in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. Hepatitis C virus-positive individuals who presented lesions compatible with OLP were subjected to an intraoral biopsy for histopathological diagnosis, while OLP-positive individuals underwent anti-HCV serological test for diagnosis of HCV infection. Data on age, sex, systemic diseases and drugs used were recorded for later analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and by Pearson's Chi-square test, with a 5% significance level (p 0.05). There was a significant relationship between HCV infection and manifestation of OLP. Age, sex, systemic diseases and drugs were not identified as risk factors for the development of these diseases. The OLP could serve as an indicative of HCV infection in asymptomatic patients, thus enabling early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis and hence, a better prognosis.

  9. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  10. Poor oral status is associated with rehabilitation outcome in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Ai; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Tsuji, Yuri

    2017-04-01

    Poor oral status is associated with increased physical dependency and cognitive decline. Malnutrition, a potential result of poor oral status, is associated with poorer rehabilitation outcome and physical function. However, the association between oral status and rehabilitation outcome is not fully understood. The present study investigated the association of poor oral status with rehabilitation outcome in older patients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out of 108 consecutive patients (mean age 80.5 ± 6.8 years; 50.9% men) who were admitted to convalescent rehabilitation wards. The Revised Oral Assessment Guide was used to evaluate oral status. Rehabilitation outcome was evaluated by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) on discharge. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine the associations between poor oral status and motor-FIM on discharge. According to the Revised Oral Assessment Guide score, 14.8% of participants had normal oral status, 52.8% had slight to moderate oral problems and 32.4% had severe oral problems. The median scores of motor-FIM on admission and on discharge were 52 (interquartile range 25-70) and 75 (interquartile range 51-89), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the Revised Oral Assessment Guide score and the motor-/cognitive-FIM scores on admission were significant independent factors for motor-FIM on discharge, after adjusted for sex, age, length of stay, nutritional status, handgrip and causative diseases (P < 0.001). Poor oral status is associated with rehabilitation outcome in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 598-604. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. The effect of sodium bicarbonate oral rinse on salivary pH and oral microflora: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Siddhartha; Khan, Mohsin Ali; Singh, Nishi; Agrawal, Amiya; Khare, Vinita

    2017-01-01

    Present study is designed to explore the effect of sodium bicarbonate oral rinse on salivary pH and oral micro flora. Twenty five healthy subjects were recruited for the study in department of dentistry in Era Medical College. Subjects were abstained from tooth brushing overnight pre rinse (control) samples were collected after one hour of dinner and were asked to rinse with pre calibrated freshly prepared sodium bicarbonate solution. The salivary samples were then collected the following morning using sterile gauze in marked bottles. Aerobic bacterial culture was done by plating the sample directly from the swab on the surface of Blood agar and Mac Conkeys media respectively. The colony forming units and ph were calculated for the pre rinse and post rinse saliva sample. Results shows that salivary pH increased significantly after sodium Bicarbonate oral rinse. There was a marginal decrease in number of CFU/ml for bacteria especially Viridans Streptococci, Moraxella species. Sodium Bicarbonate oral rinse may be considered as a cheap and effective alternative for chlorhexidine and alcohol based mouth wash, especially where long duration usage is required.

  12. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  13. Ketorolac tromethamine floating beads for oral application: Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou el Ela, Amal El Sayeh F.; Hassan, Maha A.; El- Maraghy, Dalia A.

    2013-01-01

    The floating beads have been employed to make a sustained release of the drug in the stomach and to decrease the dose of the drug and hence overcome its side effects. The common benefits of the floating beads were it is easy preparation, without the need of a high temperature, and high percentage of the drug entrapment. In the present work, the Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating beads were prepared by extrusion congealing method utilizing calcium carbonate as a gas forming agent. The physical characters of the produced beads were investigated such as KT yield, KT loading, and entrapment efficiency of the drug. In addition, floating behavior, swelling, particle size, morphology and KT stability were also evaluated. In vitro drug release study was carried out, and the kinetics of the release was evaluated using the linear regression method. Furthermore, the in vivo analgesic effect of KT after oral administration of the selected formula of floating beads (F10) was carried out using hot plate and tail flick methods. Oral commercial KT tablets and KT solution were used for the comparison. The prepared beads remained floated for more than 8 h. The optimized formulation (F10) exhibited prolonged drug release (more than 8 h) and the drug release follows the Higuchi kinetic model, with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas (n = 0.466). Moreover, F10 showed a sustained analgesic effect as compared to the commercial tablet. PMID:25161380

  14. Effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions against oral and oropharyngeal reservoirs of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Otto L T; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2012-03-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) are opportunistic pathogens and continue to cause a large number of hospital-acquired infections. AGNB residing in the oral cavity and oropharynx have been linked to nosocomial pneumonia and septicemia. Although AGNB are not considered members of the normal oral and oropharyngeal flora, medically compromised patients have been demonstrated to be susceptible to AGNB colonization. A literature search was conducted to retrieve articles that evaluated the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions in reducing the oral and oropharyngeal carriage of AGNB in medically compromised patients. Few studies have documented the use of mechanical oral hygiene interventions alone against AGNB. Although a number of studies have employed oral hygiene interventions complemented by antiseptic agents such as chlorhexidine and povidone iodine, there appears to be a discrepancy between their in vitro and in vivo effectiveness. With the recognition of the oral cavity and oropharynx as a reservoir of AGNB and the recent emergence of multidrug and pandrug resistance in hospital settings, there is a pressing need for additional high-quality randomized controlled trials to determine which oral hygiene interventions or combination of interventions are most effective in eliminating or reducing AGNB carriage. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elimination of oral candidiasis may increase stimulated whole salivary flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Sato, Jun; Asaka, Takuya; Morimoto, Masahiro; Hata, Hironobu; Satoh, Chiharu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa

    2016-11-01

    Candida infections are frequently encountered fungal infections in the oral mucosa. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eliminating Candida spp. on stimulated whole salivary flow rate (SWS) in patients with oral candidiasis. This study involved 66 patients with oral candidiasis. Fifty-two consecutive patients, successfully treated by antifungal therapy, were available to examine the effect of elimination of oral Candida spp. on SWS (success group); the 14 patients who tested positive for Candida after therapy were retrospectively included (control group). SWS were used to measure saliva production. Moreover, tongue pain and xerostomia were evaluated using visual analog score (VAS). By eliminating oral Candida spp., SWS significantly increased in the success group after antifungal therapy [SWS: mean value 0.89±0.51ml/min (median 0.82ml/min: 0.15-2.14) to mean value 1.16±0.58ml/min (median 1.05ml/min: 0.2-2.93), Poral Candida spp. in patients with oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of resting brain conditions measured by two different methods (i.v. and oral administration) with {sup 18}F-FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, M.; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Rikimaru, Hisashi; Tashiro, Manabu; Ozaki, Kaoru; Watanuki, Shoichi; Miyake, Masayasu; Ido, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center

    2001-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate regional differences between brain activity in two resting control conditions measured by 3D PET after administration of FDG through either the intravenous (i.v.) or the oral route. Ten healthy male volunteers engaged in the study as the i.v. group (mean age, 26{+-}9.3 years, {+-}S.D.) who received FDG intravenously and another 10 volunteers as the oral group (mean age, 27.9{+-}11.3 years, {+-}S.D.) who received FDG per os. A set of 3D-PET scans (emission and transmission scans) were performed in both groups. To explore possible functional differences between the brains of the two groups, the SPM-96 software was used for statistical analysis. The results revealed that glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus and left cerebellar hemisphere in the i.v. group than in the oral group. Metabolically active areas were found in the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdaloid nucleus, pons and cerebellum in the oral group when compared with the i.v. group. These differences were presumably induced by differences between FDG kinetics and/or time-weighted behavioral effects in the two studies. This study suggests the need for extreme caution when selecting a pooled control population for designated activation studies. (author)

  17. Evaluation of cachexia in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with cancer suffer from a wasting syndrome associated with anorexia/cachexia. Anorexia is associated with a marked loss of appetite and/or an aversion to food. Cachexia is associated with loss of body mass and is often associated with weakness, fatigue leading to poor quality of life. It has been observed in those individuals with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, a premalignant condition, are generally thin and there seems to be a relation between loss of appetite and consumption of areca nut in these individuals. Aims: Evaluation of cachexia in OSMF patients based on the criteria given for defining cachexia by group of scientists and clinicians in the cachexia consensus conference. Materials and methods: Twenty OSMF cases (group I and 20 healthy individuals with areca nut chewing habit (group II were assessed for body mass index (BMI, hemoglobin and serum albumin level. Their fatigue and anorexia scores were calculated by using structured questionnaires. Results: Correlation between fatigue and anorexia was statistically significant for OSMF group but was statistically not significant in group 11. Comparisons of BMI, hemoglobin, fatigue and anorexia between two groups were statistically not significant, however, serum albumin was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that the early process of cachexia begins during the progression of OSMF. The areca nut chewing practice associated with OSMF may play some role in this context.

  18. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  19. An oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer: Development and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Ronny; Hoyer, Herbert; Perera, Glen; Schnürch, Andreas Bernkop

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer/reduced glutathione (GSH) system providing a protective effect toward nucleases and permeation enhancement. A polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate (PCP-Cys) was synthesized. Enzymatic degradation of a model oligonucleotide by DNase I and within freshly collected intestinal fluid was investigated in the absence and presence of PCP-Cys. Permeation studies with PCP-Cys/GSH versus control were performed in vitro on Caco-2 cell monolayers and ex vivo on rat intestinal mucosa. PCP-Cys displayed 223 ± 13.8 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer. After 4h, 61% of the free oligonucleotides were degraded by DNase I and 80% within intestinal fluid. In contrast, less than 41% (DNase I) and 60% (intestinal fluid) were degraded in the presence of 0.02% (m/v) PCP-Cys. Permeation studies revealed an 8-fold (Caco-2) and 10-fold (intestinal mucosa) increase in apparent permeability compared to buffer control. Hence, this PCP-Cys/GSH system might be a promising tool for the oral administration of oligonucleotides as it allows a significant protection toward degrading enzymes and facilitates their transport across intestinal membranes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of quality of life of patients with oral sqamous cell carcinoma. Comparison of two treatment protocols in a prospective study - first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltfang, J.; Bloch-Birkholz, A.; Neukam, F.W.; Kessler, P.; Grabenbauer, G.; Leher, A.

    2003-01-01

    Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study prospectively evaluates quality of life in two groups consisting of 53 neoadjuvant and primarily surgically treated patients with oral cancer, using the quality-of-life core questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the head and neck cancer module (H and N 35) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Results: Postoperatively both groups showed a marked reduction in quality of life. 1 year later quality of life had equalized between the two groups to such an extent that the quality of life scores had almost reached the preoperative level. Both groups showed specific impairments in the symptom scales. In the neoadjuvant therapy group however, global health and the emotional status were reduced to a greater degree than in the other group. Conclusion: Temporary limitations in quality of life can be expected after tumor treatment of oral cancer as presented here. Neoadjuvant therapy concept is more aggressive and might result in a longer disease-free survival, but the restriction in quality of life is more severe. Primary goal is the eradication of the tumor. Nevertheless preservation or reconstruction of a maximum of function is essential for a high level of quality of life. (orig.) [de

  1. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a case-control study of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its increasing trend in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusingha, Pensiri; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Loyha, Kulchaya; Promthet, Supannee; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Chuerduangphui, Jureeporn; Pientong, Chamsai

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an independent risk factor for development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aimed to investigate the role of HPV infection and the trend in percentage of HPV-associated OSCC over a 5-year period in northeastern Thailand. In this case-control study, 91 exfoliated oral cell samples and 80 lesion cell samples from OSCC cases and exfoliated oral cells from 100 age/gender-matched controls were collected. HPV infection was investigated by PCR using GP5+/GP6+ primers followed by HPV genotyping using reverse line blot hybridization. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate HPV oncogene transcription. Temporal trends of HPV infection were evaluated in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OSCC tissues using in situ hybridization. HPV DNA was found in 17.5% (14/80) of lesion samples from OSCC cases and 29.7% (27/91) of exfoliated oral cell samples from the same cases. These values were significantly higher than in exfoliated oral cell samples from controls (13%, 13/100). HPV-16 was the genotype most frequently found in OSCC cases (92.8%, 13/14 infected cases). Interestingly, HPV oncogene mRNA expression was detected and correlated with OSCC cases (P cases were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression. There was a trend of increasing percentage of HPV-associated OSCC from 2005 to 2010. This was especially so for females with well-differentiated tumors in specific tongue sub-sites. We suggest that HPV infection plays an important role in oral carcinogenesis in northeastern Thailand. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of screening for oral cancer and precancer in a company headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, M C; Evans, A W; Hughes Hallet, C M; Jullien, J A; Speight, P M; Zakrzewska, J M

    1995-04-01

    Oral cancer and precancer appear to fulfil many of the criteria for a disease suitable for mass screening. Several commercial organisations in the UK have introduced screening for their employees. One program has been formally evaluated over the course of 1 yr. Of 553 company headquarters staff aged > or = 40 yr, 292 (53%) responded to the well-publicised screening invitation and received a simple clinical examination of the oral mucosa from one of two company dentists. In addition, 17 staff were screened from a separate company work-site. After screening, subjects were examined independently by an oral medicine specialist with access to the relevant diagnostic aids. The dentists' screening decisions were validated against the specialist's definitive diagnoses (the 'gold standard'). The true prevalence of subjects with lesions diagnosed as positive (white patch, red patch or ulcer of greater than 2 weeks' duration) was 17 (5.5%). Overall, sensitivity was 0.71 and specificity, 0.99. The compliance rate to screening among headquarters subjects in seven occupational categories did not differ significantly from the occupational profile for all headquarters personnel. Estimates of relative risk of a positive diagnosis were calculated by logistic regression for five independent variables; gender, age, moderate smoking, heavy smoking, and smoking combined with greater than low risk alcohol consumption. Only heavy smoking (> or = 20 cigarettes per day) produced a significant odds ratio (3.43, P < 0.05).

  4. Mechanistic Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation for Formulation Development and Bioequivalence Evaluation: Report of an FDA Public Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Duan, J; Kesisoglou, F; Novakovic, J; Amidon, G L; Jamei, M; Lukacova, V; Eissing, T; Tsakalozou, E; Zhao, L; Lionberger, R

    2017-08-01

    On May 19, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hosted a public workshop, entitled "Mechanistic Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation for Formulation Development and Bioequivalence Evaluation." The topic of mechanistic oral absorption modeling, which is one of the major applications of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation, focuses on predicting oral absorption by mechanistically integrating gastrointestinal transit, dissolution, and permeation processes, incorporating systems, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and the drug product information, into a systemic mathematical whole-body framework. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. Evaluation of FTA ® paper for storage of oral meta-genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Magdalena; Stumpp, Sascha N; Grischke, Jasmin; Eberhard, Jörg; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the short-term storage of meta-genomic DNA from native oral biofilms on FTA(®) paper. Thirteen volunteers of both sexes received an acrylic splint for intraoral biofilm formation over a period of 48 hours. The biofilms were collected, resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline, and either stored on FTA(®) paper or directly processed by standard laboratory DNA extraction. The nucleic acid extraction efficiencies were evaluated by 16S rDNA targeted SSCP fingerprinting. The acquired banding pattern of FTA-derived meta-genomic DNA was compared to a standard DNA preparation protocol. Sensitivity and positive predictive values were calculated. The volunteers showed inter-individual differences in their bacterial species composition. A total of 200 bands were found for both methods and 85% of the banding patterns were equal, representing a sensitivity of 0.941 and a false-negative predictive value of 0.059. Meta-genomic DNA sampling, extraction, and adhesion using FTA(®) paper is a reliable method for storage of microbial DNA for a short period of time.

  6. Dental and medical health status and oral health knowledge among visually impaired and sighted female schoolchildren in Riyadh: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    AlSadhan, Salwa A.; Al-Jobair, Asma M.; Bafaqeeh, Mariam; Abusharifa, Hanadi; Alagla, Maram

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of visual impairment on oral health in the literature is inconclusive, and the available information on the medical and dental health status of visually impaired children is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental and medical health status, and to assess the oral health knowledge of visually impaired girls aged 6–12 years, and compare them to that of sighted children. Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 79 visually impaired ...

  7. Drug repurposing: a systematic approach to evaluate candidate oral neuroprotective interventions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M Vesterinen

    Full Text Available To develop and implement an evidence based framework to select, from drugs already licenced, candidate oral neuroprotective drugs to be tested in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.Systematic review of clinical studies of oral putative neuroprotective therapies in MS and four other neurodegenerative diseases with shared pathological features, followed by systematic review and meta-analyses of the in vivo experimental data for those interventions. We presented summary data to an international multi-disciplinary committee, which assessed each drug in turn using pre-specified criteria including consideration of mechanism of action.We identified a short list of fifty-two candidate interventions. After review of all clinical and pre-clinical evidence we identified ibudilast, riluzole, amiloride, pirfenidone, fluoxetine, oxcarbazepine, and the polyunsaturated fatty-acid class (Linoleic Acid, Lipoic acid; Omega-3 fatty acid, Max EPA oil as lead candidates for clinical evaluation.We demonstrate a standardised and systematic approach to candidate identification for drug rescue and repurposing trials that can be applied widely to neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the interaction between oral kaempferol and ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Meng; Guo, Zengjun; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of ethanol on oral bioavailability of kaempferol in rats, namely, at disclosing their possible interaction. Kaempferol (100 or 250 mg kg-1 bm) was administered to the rats by oral gavage with or without ethanol (600 mg kg-1 bm) co-administration. Intravenous administration (10 and 25 mg kg-1 bm) of kaempferol was used to determine the bioavailability. The concentration of kaempferol in plasma was estimated by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. During coadministration, a significant increase of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve as well as the peak concentration were observed, along with a dramatic decrease in total body clearance. Consequently, the bioavailability of kaempferol in oral control groups was 3.1 % (100 mg kg-1 bm) and 2.1 % (250 mg kg-1 bm). The first was increased by 4.3 % and the other by 2.8 % during ethanol co-administration. Increased permeability of cell membrane and ethanolkaempferol interactions on CYP450 enzymes may enhance the oral bioavailability of kaempferol in rats.

  9. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries.

  10. In vitro evaluation of isolation possibility of stem cells from intra oral soft tissue and comparison of them with bone mar-row stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torkzaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stem cells are of great interest for regenerating disturbed tissues and organs. These cells are commonly isolated from the bone marrow, but there has been interest in other tissues in the recent years. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of isolation of stem cells from oral connective tissue and investigated their characteristics.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sampling from the bone marrow and oral connective tissue of a beagle dog was performed under general anesthesia. Bone marrow stem cell isolation was performed according to the established protocols. The samples obtained from oral soft tissue were broken to small pieces and after adding collagenase I, the samples were incubated for 45 minutes in 37°C. Other processes were similar to the processes which were carried out on bone marrow cells. Then cell properties were compared to evaluate if the cells from the connective tissue were stem cells.Results: The cells from the bone marrow and connective tissue had the same morphology. The result of colony forming unit assay was relatively similar. Population doubling time was similar too. In addition, both cell groups differentiated to osteoblasts in osteogenic media.Conclusion: The cells isolated from the oral connective tissue had the characteristics of stem cells, including fibroblastoid morphology, self renewal properties, high proliferation rate and differentiation potential.

  11. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, A G; Merkel, D J; Glaza, S M; Sorenson, S R

    2007-02-01

    Two acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in rats to evaluate safety of a patented preparation of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage (BioCell Collagen II) containing collagen type II, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. In the acute oral toxicity study, five males and five females of Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg of the test product per kg body weight and observed for 14 days. All animals survived and exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination conducted on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. In the subchronic study, Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males, 40 females) were divided into four same-sex groups (10 animals/group). Animals in each group were administered daily either 0, 30, 300 or 1000 mg of the test product per kg of body weight for over 90 days. All animals survived and showed no significant changes in their body weights and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in several parameters, they were generally not dose-related or considered to be of toxicological significance. In conclusion, the results from the two oral toxicity studies with male and female young adult rats indicated that the test preparation from hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage collagen (BioCell Collagen II) was well tolerated at all four doses tested.

  12. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  13. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  14. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonisation with Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzurovic, Selma; Babajic, Emina; Masic, Tarik; Smajic, Rubina; Selmanagic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine relationship between oral hygiene and colonisation of Candia species in oral cavity. Maintenance oral hygiene is reducing pathological agents in the mouth and preventing violation of oral health. Study included 140 patients. For oral hygiene assessement were used the dental plaque index, oral hygiene index and dental calculus index. Ph test strips were used to determine pH of saliva. For isolation of Candida species oral swabs were taken to all patients. It was found out that pH of oral cavity does not varies notably, no matter of oral hygiene level. Candida species were identified in 28.6% respondents. The most present were Candida albicans, in 85% cases. The presence of plaque, tartar and high index oral hygiene (IOH) in patients with Candida is statistically significant. It was found that 83.4% of patients with Candida poorly maintained oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene is associated with a significantly higher score in the presence of tartar, plaque and high IOH. In total patient's population 67% has amalgam fillings. Presence of amalgam fillings in patients with identified Candida was statistically significant. This study indicates low level of oral hygiene. Correlation between presence of Candida species and poor oral hygiene was proved. Also Candida was more present among patients with amalgam fillings. Improvement of oral hygiene is necessery for oral health and health in general, as well.

  15. Recognition of patient-reported impairment in oral aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand Jensen, Katrine; Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2014-01-01

    Scale (OES). Background variables were: gender, age, work-situation, education-level, marital status, number and location of teeth, wearing a removable dental prosthesis (RDP), and smile line. Results: A significant correlation was found between the overall professional evaluation and the OHIP-Aes score...... of prosthodontic replacements. The oral esthetics was professionally evaluated using the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), compiling 13 different esthetic aspects and an overall evaluation. The patient-reported impairment was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile Aesthetic (OHIP-Aes) and the Oral Esthetic...

  16. A Study on Oral Health of Children with Cardiac Diseases in Mashhad, Iran in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoudi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Preventing oral disease is the most desirable way of ensuring good dental health for children with heart disease. Dental and gingival infections in patients with cardiac problems may lead to infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral and dental health status in children with heart disease referred to a cardiac center compared with the control group.

    Materials and Methods. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, case group consisting of 100 patients 2-12 years old with heart disease were examined for oral and dental status in Pediatric Cardiac Center in Mashhad, Iran, in 2004. Fifty healthy children with the same age as the case group referring to the Department of Pedodontics, Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry served as the control group. For each patient, dental and medical history, dmft, DMFT, debris index, tooth brushing status as well as parental knowledge of infective endocarditis and their economic status was registered on a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square and t-tests.

    Results. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in dmft (3.92 ± 3.99 and 3.54 ± 3.33, respectively, DMFT (3.7 ± 4 and 1.47 ± 1.72, respectively and their components. Tooth brushing status and debris index were significantly worse in the study group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. 35% of parents were aware of the importance of good oral health in cardiac children although none of them knew about infective endocarditis. Most of the parents in study group had low (30% to medium (53% economic status.

    Conclusion. In this study, the children with cardiac disease did not have a good oral and dental health status. Developing strategies toward preventive dental care of children with cardiac problems and informing their parents is suggested.

  17. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  18. Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS), a service of the Postgraduate Dental College, is chartered by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management...

  19. Chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens and biopharmaceuticals: protocols for expression, purification, or oral delivery and functional evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N Dolendro; Ding, Yi; Daniell, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Many vaccine antigens and biopharmaceutical proteins have been expressed at high levels via the chloroplast genome and their functionality has been evaluated using in vitro assays in cell cultures (i.e., macrophage lysis assay, inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus-induced cytopathicity in baby hamster kidney cells, or inhibition of human HIV infection in TZM-BL cells) as well as protection after challenge with bacterial or viral pathogens or antitumor assays or delay the onset of insulitis in suitable animal models. Production of therapeutic proteins in chloroplasts eliminates the expensive fermentation technology. Moreover, oral delivery of chloroplast-derived therapeutic proteins eliminates expensive purification steps, cold storage, cold transportation, and delivery via sterile needles, thereby further decreasing their cost. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for chloroplast transformation including the construction of chloroplast transformation vectors, delivery of DNA into plant cells using particle bombardment, selection and regeneration of transformants by tissue culture, confirmation of transgene integration into the chloroplast genome and homoplasmy, evaluation of foreign gene expression, purification of foreign protein, or oral delivery via bioencapsulation, functional evaluation using in vitro and in vivo assays, and evaluation of immunity after challenge with pathogens in suitable animal models.

  20. A randomized controlled trial evaluating early versus traditional oral feeding after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of early oral feeding after colorectal operations. METHODS: A total of 199 patients underwent colorectal surgery and were randomly assigned to early feeding (n = 99 or a regular diet (n = 100. Patients’ characteristics, diagnoses, surgical procedures, comorbidity, bowel movements, defecation, nasogastric tube reinsertion, time of tolerance of solid diet, complications, and length of hospitalization were assessed. RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedures, and comorbidity. In the early feeding group, 85.9% of patients tolerated the early feeding schedule. Bowel movements (1.7±0.89 vs. 3.27±1.3, defecation (3.4±0.77 vs. 4.38±1.18 and time of tolerance of solid diet (2.48±0.85 vs. 4.77±1.81 were significantly earlier in the early feeding group. There was no change between the groups in terms of nasogastric tube reinsertion, overall complication or anastomotic leakage. Hospitalization (5.55±2.35 vs. 9.0±6.5 was shorter in the early feeding group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that early oral feeding after elective colorectal surgery was not only well tolerated by patients but also affected the postoperative outcomes positively. Early postoperative feeding is safe and leads to the early recovery of gastrointestinal functions.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Janice S; Sarracini, Karin L M; Meneghim, Marcelo C; Pereira, Antônio C; Ortega, Edwin M M; Martins, Natália S; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren and the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) instrument. Brazilian schoolchildren, 8-10 yr of age, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups--dental caries treatment (DCT) and caries-free (CF)--according to their caries experience [decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing or filled secondary teeth (DMFT) values of ≥ 0]. The CPQ8-10 instrument was administered at baseline and at 4 wk of follow-up (i.e. 4 wk after completion of dental treatment). In the DCT group, increases in CPQ8-10 scores were observed between the baseline and follow-up results. However, longitudinal evaluation of the CF group demonstrated no statistically significant difference in CPQ8-10 scores. Responsiveness of the CPQ8-10 instrument (magnitude of change in CPQ8-10 scores) in the DCT group was greater (effect size >0.7) than in the CF group. The findings of this study show that dental caries treatment has an important impact on OHRQoL of children. The CPQ8-10 was considered an acceptable instrument for longitudinal measurement of changes in OHRQoL. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and anxiolytics intake are independently associated with oral Candida infection in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor-Bratic, Marija; Cankovic, Milos; Dragnic, Natasa

    2013-10-01

    Many factors have been proposed to influence oral infection with yeast. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral yeasts in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and control subjects, and to perform a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors that influence oral Candida infection in OLP patients. In this cross-sectional study, 90 new patients with OLP and 90 sex- and age-matched control subjects with no mucosal lesions were interviewed about their health status, use of medication, and smoking and alcohol habits. Swab and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected and salivary pH was measured. A positive Candida culture was more prevalent among OLP patients (48.9%) than among control subjects (26.7%). Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species in both groups. By logistic regression analysis, unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.11-0.24 ml min(-1) (OR = 5.90) and 0.25-0.32 ml min(-1) (OR = 3.51) and benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake (OR = 8.30) were independently associated with the presence of Candida among OLP patients. Age, denture wearing, levels of dentition, decreased salivary pH, antihypertensive drugs, and alcohol consumption were not associated with oral Candida infection in OLP patients. The results indicate that data on benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake and evaluation of unstimulated whole salivary flow rate should be considered as part of the clinical evaluation to identify OLP patients at risk for Candida infection. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  3. Diversity Considerations for Promoting Early Childhood Oral Health: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prowse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several groups in Manitoba, Canada, experience early childhood caries (ECC, including Aboriginal, immigrant, and refugee children and those from select rural regions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers from four cultural groups on early childhood oral health and ECC. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus groups recruited parents and caregivers from four cultural groups. Discussions were documented, audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed for content based on themes. Results. Parents and caregivers identified several potential barriers to good oral health practice, including child’s temperament, finances, and inability to control sugar intake. Both religion and genetics were found to influence perceptions of oral health. Misconceptions regarding breastfeeding and bottle use were present. One-on-one discussions, parental networks, and using laypeople from similar backgrounds were suggested methods to promote oral health. The immigrant and refugee participants placed emphasis on the use of visuals for those with language barriers while Hutterite participants suggested a health-education approach. Conclusions. These pilot study findings provide initial insight into the oral health-related knowledge and beliefs of these groups. This will help to inform planning of ECC prevention and research strategies, which can be tailored to specific populations.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene–gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs—namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4—were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes. The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72–2.23; confidence intervals (CIs: 0.94–5.30, p < 0.03–0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP–SNP interactions.

  5. Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gadodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a portal of entry to various smoking and smokeless tobacco products, oral cavity is prone to deleterious effects. Present study consist of epidemiological survey to elucidate oral lesions in pan vendors. Aims and objectives: To detect oral lesions in pan vendors and compare it with controls. To detect habit pattern and prevalence of OSMF and other lesions in pan vendors as compared to controls- To identify, recognize and evaluate the possible etiology for OSMF, encompassing various chewing and smoking habits. Materials and methods: Study population consist of 170 pan vendors with age ranging from 15 to 55 years and equal number of sex matched controls selected randomly. Results: Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendors is statistically significantly higher as compared to controls. The habit of arecanut chewing in various forms was present in all cases. The habit of smoking and smokeless tobacco products was present in all cases. Conclusion: Pan vendors are at higher risk for oral lesions than controls. There is increase in relative risk with increase in duration and frequency of habit.

  6. Relating French Immersion Teacher Practices to Better Student Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Olson Beal, Heather K.; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This study examined seven Louisiana kindergarten immersion teachers' practices to evaluate students' oral target language production and compare the oral production elicited when different instructional practices were used over a single semester. Three rounds of three 20-minute observations in three different contexts--circle time, direct…

  7. The Oral Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin Treatment in Acne Vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-31

    Jan 31, 2016 ... prospective case-control study aimed to evaluate the oral adverse effects of isotretinoin in Turkish ... chronic oral disease of humankind that is characterized by progressive .... using a periodontal probe, mirror, and air syringe under adequate ..... reported that isotretinoin produced a significant salivary flow ...

  8. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Ahmad A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Al-Aboosi, Mustafa M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oral Candida colonization and candidosis in a group of patients with psoriasis and controls. A total of 100 patients with psoriasis and matched controls underwent the concentrated oral rinse test for Candida isolation. Candida species were identified by the VITEK 2 Identification System. Categorical variables were evaluated using the χ(2) test. The median Candida count was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 3% of the patients with psoriasis. The Candida count and prevalence were significantly higher in the patients with psoriasis compared with controls (69% vs 44%, P Oral Candida was significantly higher in late-onset (at age ≥30 years) compared with early-onset psoriasis (at age oral Candida colonization and candidiasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the predisposing factor(s) for oral Candida in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary flow rate and pH in patients with oral pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Brilli, K; Pattarino, F; Foglio-Bonda, A

    2017-01-01

    Determine salivary pH and flow rate (FR) in a sample of 164 patients who came to Oral Pathology ambulatory, 84 suffering from oral lesions and 80 without oral lesions. Another aim was to evaluate factors that influence salivary flow rate. Subjects underwent clinical examination and completed an anamnestic questionnaire in order to obtain useful information that was used to classify participants in different groups. Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) was collected using the spitting method at 11:00 am. The FR was evaluated with the weighing technique and a portable pHmeter, equipped with a microelectrode, was used to measure pH. Both univariate and classification (single and Random Forest) analyses were performed. The data analysis showed that FR and pH showed significant differences (p pH = 6.69) and the ones without oral lesions (FR = 0.492 mL/min, pH = 6.96). By Random Forest, oral lesions and antihypertensive drugs were ranked in the top two among the evaluated variables to discretize subjects with FR = 0.16 mL/min. Our study shows that there is a relationship between oral lesions, antihypertensive drugs and alteration of pH and FR.

  10. Comparative study on the results of consecutive oral cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Park, Yang Ok; Yoo, Ho Joon

    1974-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1924, oral cholecystography has been used as a screening method in the diagnosis of the gallbladder disease. Recently, intravenous cholangiography has become a most valuable method in the diagnosis of biliary tract pathology because of its advantage of simultaneous visualization of the gallbladder and bile ducts in a short time. However, opinions vary considerably as to the significance of nonvisualization of the gallbladder with oral cholecystography. In attempt to evaluate how much intravenous cholangiography does contribute to the diagnosis in the cases that the gallbladder cannot be opacified or can only faintly visualized by the oral method, we have made a clinical observation in 168 patients, in whom intravenous cholangiography had been performed within a week following oral cholecystography, at Korea General Hospital during the last three years from January 1969 to December 1971. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The results of oral cholecystography in 168 cases were as follow; well opacification of the gallbladder in 10 cases, faint opacification in 46 cases and nonopacification in 112 cases. 2. In 37.5% (42 cases) of 112 gallbladder not opacified by the oral method, the gallbladder was subsequently opacified by the intravenous method, and 11.6% (14 cases) turned out to be normal when examined by the intravenous method. 3. Further demonstration of abnormalities could be obtained with the aid intravenous cholangiography in 28 cases (16.6%); cholelithiasis in 12 cases and choledocholithiasis in 16 cases. 4. In every cases of 14 patients whose gallbladder were virtually not opacified by both oral and intravenous methods bit the common bile ducts could be opacified by intravenous cholangiography, definite abnormalities were identified in the gallbladder at surgery

  11. Radiological evaluation of long term complications of oral rehabilitations of thin ridges with titanium blade implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diotallevi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of orthopantomography (OPT in the diagnosis of long term complications in oral rehabilitations with blade implants. Materials and methods A total of 235 blade implants in 189 patients, inserted between 1988 and 2003, were retrospectively analyzed. The records consisted of a first OPT taken between January and December 2010, and a second one 12 months after. The evaluation of implant health considered: integrity of the blade, normal radiological representation of the bone around the implant, dense and cortical appearance of bone around the implant collar. The evaluation of radiological complications considered: implant fracture, bone resorption around the implant, recession of the bone around the implant collar. Results The sensitivity of the panoramic evaluation was equal to 100%. The complications detected were 5 cases of periimplantitis, 9 cases of bone pericervical bone recession and 3 cases of fracture of the implant body. In cases of pericervical bone resorption the following radiological check up 12 months after the first one showed the progression of the disease in 6 out of 9 cases, with irreversible implant failure. In subjects with a radiological pattern of implant health there were no complications in the subsequent check up after 12 months. In the subjects with complications the specificity was equal to 100%. Conclusion The radiographic evaluation by the means of OPT has shown high sensitivity in the diagnosis of long term complications of oral rehabilitations with blade implants and allows prompt therapeutic interventions. Radiological complications appeared mostly in the long term check ups and mainly consisted in recession of the bone around the neck or around the entire implant. More rarely implant fractures occurred, which, in the case of blades, sometimes were not associated with any clinical symptoms: therefore, postsurgical evaluation should not be separated from

  12. Evaluation of methamphetamine-associated socioeconomic status and addictive behaviors, and their impact on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Haertel-Petri, Roland; Kesting, Marco R

    2015-11-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse can lead to multiple health hazards. In particular, the substance is associated with devastating effects on oral health including symptoms such as rampant caries, gingiva inflammation, and xerostomia, whereby the term "Meth Mouth" occurs in the current literature. However, "Meth Mouth" pathology is primarily described on the basis of individual cases or has been evaluated without consideration of the mass of potential influencing factors. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of accompanying factors and circumstances on oral health in cases of chronic methamphetamine abuse. In cooperation with two centers for addiction medicine, we assessed the data of 100 chronic methamphetamine users and 100 matched-pair controls between March 2012 and November 2013. We investigated their socioeconomic status, details of methamphetamine consumption behavior, collateral consumption of sugar beverages, nicotine alcohol, and other addictive substances including cannabis, opioids, other stimulants, and hallucinogens, and dental care. We found considerably greater unstable social circumstances, a high collateral consumption of substances with pathogenic potential for the stomatognathic system, and significantly poorer dental care in the methamphetamine-user group. Various factors have to be considered with regard to methamphetamine use and its influence on oral health. These factors can trigger potential damage by the drug methamphetamine possibly leading to the symptoms of "Meth Mouth", and should be considered in prevention and therapy strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential metallothionein expression in oral lichen planus and amalgam-associated oral lichenoid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G-G; Servato, J-P-S; Borges, F-C; Rosa, R-R; Siqueira, C-S; de Faria, P-R; Loyola, A-M; Cardoso, S-V

    2018-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by T cells, which manifests as reticular (white) or erosive (red) lesions, that are eventually painful. Oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) are distinguished from OLP by the presence of precipitating factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of metallothionein, which is involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and the anti-oxidative response, could serve as a differential diagnostic for OLP and OLL. We evaluated the expression of metallothionein in 40 cases of OLP and 20 cases of OLL using immunohistochemistry. White OLP has higher concentrations of metallothionein than red OLP in basal and parabasal layers. Moreover, metallothionein was more frequently observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of basal cells in OLP patients compared to the same regions of OLL cases. Metallothionein levels are related to OLP severity and may contribute to a differential diagnosis between OLP and OLL.

  14. Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Antivalle, M; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Dell'Acqua, D; Panni, B; Caruso, I

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral chicken type II collagen (CII) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sixty patients with clinically active RA of long duration (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 years) were treated for 6 months with oral chicken CII at 0.25 mg/day (n = 31) or with placebo (n = 29) in a double-blind randomized study. The response rate to treatment of the collagen-treated group, based on the ACR 20% criteria, was higher than that of the control group but this difference was not statistically significant at any time. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis did not show statistically significant improvement in any of the several secondary outcome measures over the 6 months of the study in the collagen-treated patients in comparison with the placebo-treated group. However, in 2 collagen-treated patients we observed a clinical remission according to the criteria of the American Rheumatism Association. Our study seems to show that the oral treatment of RA patients with chicken CII is ineffective and results in only small and inconsistent benefits. Furthermore, our results raise the possibility that in a sub-group of patients oral collagen administration, usually considered devoid of harmful effects, may actually induce disease flares.

  15. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral İbuprofen in the Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kervancıoğlu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since indomethacin has many side effects, ibuprofen has been started to be used with beneficial results and less side effects for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in recent years. The frequency of PDA, and the effects and side effects of oral ibup