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Sample records for study employing immunocytochemical

  1. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  2. [Immunocytochemical studies on the phase of differentiation of hatching gland cells in brine shrimp, Artemia salina].

    Li, Ling; Fan, Ting Jun; Wang, Xiao Feng; Cong, Ri Shan; Yu, Qiu Tao; Zhong, Qi Wang

    2004-04-01

    Hatching enzyme (HE), synthesized in hatching gland cells (HGCs), plays vital roles in animal hatching. Immunocytochemical techniques employing anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum, prepared from Xenopus HE and with specificity to brine shrimp HE, were first used to investigate the differentiation and variability of hatching gland cells (HGCs) in the hatching process of embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina, in this study. HGCs with immunoreactivity to anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum were identified, for the first time, in brine shrimp embryos during hatching process. Immunocytochemical staining results showed that, (1) HE-positive immunoreactivity is really specific to Artemia HE, and its appearance and disappearance are closely correlated with the hatching process of Artemia salina. (2) Artemia HGCs, first appeared in embryos 5 hours before hatching and disappeared 4 hours after hatching, were also a transient type of cells, with an existence period of 9 hours. (3) The head portion of Artemia embryo is probably the initial position of HE secretion, and likely to be the main position of HE secretion as well. The detailed process and mechanism need to be studied. (4) The appearance of HGCs is in a synchronous mode from places all over the embryos, and their disappearance is also in a synchronous mode. (5) The number of HGCs increased gradually along with embryo development process and reached a maximum number at hatching. Contrarily, the number of HGCs decreased gradually after hatching, and HGCs disappeared 5 hours after hatching. However, the intensity of HE-positive reaction was almost at the same level at the period of HGCs'presence. (6) Artemia HGCs were distributed throughout the body of embryos at all time during their presence. Therefore, it can concluded that Artemia HGCs, as a transient type of cells, first appeared in embryos 4 hours before hatching and disappeared in embryos 5 hours after hatching, and with distinguished patterns of appearance, disappearance and

  3. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone density, trace elements, biomechanical properties and immunocytochemicals

    Aras, N.K.; Korkusuz, F.; Akkas, N.; Laleli, Y.; Kuscu, L.; Gunel, U.

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as an absolute decrease in the amount of bone to a level below required for mechanical support. It is an important bone disease in elderly people in many countries. Unfortunately, there is no reliable statistical data in Turkey for the incidence of osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mass is the important cause in fractures in osteoporosis. Therefore, we intend to study both bone density and other variables such as trace elements, biomechanical properties and other immunocytochemicals in bone, all combined might give an information about the cause and prevention of osteoporosis. (author)

  4. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  5. Expression and localization of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the goldfish retina--an in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical study

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Kamphuis, W.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    The expression and distribution of AMPA, kainate and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits was studied in the goldfish retina. For the immunocytochemical localization of the AMPA receptor antisera against GluR2, GluR2/3 and GluR4 were used, and for in situ hybridization rat specific probes for GluR1 and

  6. Persistent Angiogenesis in the Autism Brain: An Immunocytochemical Study of Postmortem Cortex, Brainstem and Cerebellum

    Azmitia, E. C.; Saccomano, Z. T.; Alzoobaee, M. F.; Boldrini, M.; Whitaker-Azmitia, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, we conducted an immunocytochemical search for markers of ongoing neurogenesis (e.g. nestin) in auditory cortex from postmortem sections of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched control donors. We found nestin labeling in cells of the vascular system, indicating blood vessels plasticity. Evidence of angiogenesis was…

  7. An immunocytochemical study of the germinal layer vasculature in the developing fetal brain using Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Gould, S J; Howard, S

    1988-10-01

    The characteristics of the germinal matrix vasculature were studied in the developing fetal brain using immunocytochemical methods. A preliminary comparative immunocytochemical study was made on six fetal brains to compare endothelial staining by Ulex europaeus I lectin with that of antibody to Factor VIII related antigen. Ulex was found to stain germinal layer vessels better than Factor VIII related antigen. Subsequently, the germinal layers of a further 15 fetal and preterm infant brains ranging from 13 to 35 weeks' gestation were stained with Ulex europaeus I to demonstrate the vasculature. With increasing gestation, there was a gradual increase in vessel density, particularly of capillaries. This was not a uniform process. A plexus of capillaries was prominent immediately beneath the ependyma while the more central parts of the germinal matrix contained fewer, but often larger diameter, vessels. The variation in vessel density which was a feature of the later gestation brains may have implications for local blood flow and may be a factor in haemorrhage at this site.

  8. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study of a rare genetic sperm tail defect that causes infertility in humans.

    Baccetti, Baccio; Bruni, Emanuele; Gambera, Laura; Moretti, Elena; Piomboni, Paola

    2004-08-01

    To characterize and describe the ontogenesis of a rare flagellar defect affecting the whole sperm population of a sterile man. Case report. Regional referral center for male infertility in Siena, Italy. A 28-year-old man with severe asthenozoospermia. Physical and hormonal assays, semen analysis, and testicular biopsy. Semen samples and testicular biopsies were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy; immunocytochemical study with anti-beta-tubulin and anti-AKAP 82 antibodies was performed to detect the presence and distribution of proteins. Ultrastructural analysis of ejaculated spermatozoa and testicular biopsy revealed absence of the fibrous sheath in the principal-piece region of the tail. Fibrous sheath-like structures were observed in cytoplasmic residues and residual bodies released by spermatids in the seminiferous epithelium. Other anomalies observed were supplementary axonemes and mitochondrial helix elongation. These features were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining. This rare sperm tail defect, characterized by absence of the fibrous sheath, presence of supplementary axonemes, and an abnormally elongated midpiece, originates in the seminiferous tubules during spermiogenesis, as detected in testicular biopsy sections. These defects occur in the whole sperm population, and therefore a genetic origin could be suggested.

  9. Regulatory peptides in the upper respiratory system and oral cavity of man. An immunocytochemical and radioimmunological study

    Hauser-Kronberger, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study a dense network of peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the upper respiratory system and the oral cavity of man was investigated. The occurrence, distribution and concentrations of regulatory peptide immunoreactivities in human nasal mucosa, soft palate, ventricular fold, vocal cord, epiglottis, subglottis, glandula submandibularis and glandula parotis were investigated using highly efficient immunocytochemical and radio-immunological methods. In the tissues investigated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and other derivatives from the VIP-precursor (peptide histidine methionine = PHM), prepro VIP (111-122)), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its C-flanking peptide (CPON), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, neurokinin A, bombesin-flanking peptide and somatostatin were detected. The regulatory peptides demonstrated also included the recently isolated peptides helospectin and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP). Single endocrine-like cells were for the first time demonstrated within the respiratory epithelium and in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa and soft palate and in groups within ducts. Ultrastructural immunelectronmicroscopy was performed using an ABC-pre-embedding method. In addition, semithin Epon resin sections were immunostained. The concentrations of VIP, NPY, CGRP, substance P and neurokinin A were measured using radioimmunological methods. The peptide immunoreactivities demonstrated in a dense network of neuronal structures and endocrine cells give indication for the presence of a complex regulatory system with potent physiological mechanisms in the upper respiratory system and allocated tissues of man

  10. Neural Connectivity and Immunocytochemical Studies of Anatomical Sites Related to Nauseogenic and Emetic Reflexes

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of neuroanatomical structures and neurochemical processes related to motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate neurochemical changes in the central nervous system that are related to motion sickness with the objective of defining neural mechanisms important to this malady. For purposes of exposition, the studies and research finding have been classified into five categories. These are: immunoreactivity in the brainstem, vasopressin effects, lesion studies of area postrema, role of the vagus nerve, and central nervous system structure related to adaptation to microgravity.

  11. The nervous system of Tricladida. I. Neuroanatomy of Procerodes littoralis (Maricola, Procerodidae) : an immunocytochemical study

    Reuter, M.; Gustafsson, M.K.S.; Sahlgren, C.; Halton, D.W.; Maule, A.G.; Shaw, C.

    1995-01-01

    The organization of the nervous system of Procerodes littoralis (Tricladida, Maricola, Procerodidae) was studied by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies to authentic flatworm neuropeptide F (NPF) (Moniezia expansa). Compared to earlier investigations of the neuroanatomy of tricladid flatworms, the

  12. The nervus terminalis in the mouse: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical studies.

    Jennes, L

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing neurons and fibers in the olfactory bulb was studied with light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in combination with retrograde transport of "True Blue" and horseradish peroxidase and lesion experiments. GnRH-positive neurons are found in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, intrafascicularly throughout the nervus terminalis, in a dorso-ventral band in the caudal olfactory bulb, in various layers of the main and accessory olfactory bulb, and in the basal aspects of the nasal epithelium. Electron microscopic studies show that the nerve fibers in the nervus terminalis are not myelinated and are not surrounded by Schwann cell sheaths. In the ganglion terminale, "smooth" GnRH neurons are seen in juxtaposition to immunonegative neurons. Occasionally, axosomatic specializations are found in the ganglion terminale, but such synaptic contacts are not seen intrafascicularly in the nervus terminalis. Retrograde transport studies indicate that certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis were linked to the amygdala. In addition, a subpopulation of nervus terminalis-related GnRH neurons has access to fenestrated capillaries whereas other GnRH neurons terminate at the nasal epithelium. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale result in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. The results suggest that GnRH in the olfactory system of the mouse can influence a variety of target sites either via the blood stream, via the external cerebrospinal fluid or via synaptic/asynaptic contacts with, for example, the receptor cells in the nasal mucosa.

  13. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

  14. Complement activation in the Parkinson's disease substantia nigra: an immunocytochemical study

    Conant Stephanie B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory processes are increased in the Parkinson's disease (PD brain. The long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated, in retrospective studies, with decreased risk for PD, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to development of this disorder. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of complement activation, a major inflammatory mechanism, in PD. Methods Substantia nigra specimens from young normal subjects (n = 11–13, aged normal subjects (n = 24–28, and subjects with PD (n = 19–20, Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 12–13, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 9 were stained for iC3b and C9, representing early- and late-stage complement activation, respectively. Numbers of iC3b+, C9+, and total melanized neurons in each section were counted in a blinded fashion. Nonparametric analyses were used to evaluate differences between groups and to evaluate correlations between complement staining, numbers of melanized neurons, and the duration of PD. Results Lewy bodies in both PD and DLB specimens stained for iC3b and C9. Staining was also prominent on melanized neurons. The percentage of iC3b+ neurons was significantly increased in PD vs. aged normal and AD specimens, and in young normal vs. aged normal specimens. C9 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in PD vs. AD specimens, but unlike iC3b, the increased C9 staining in PD and young normal specimens did not achieve statistical significance vs. aged normal specimens. iC3b and C9 staining in PD specimens was not correlated with the numbers of remaining melanized neurons, nor with the duration of PD. Conclusion Complement activation occurs on Lewy bodies and melanized neurons in the PD substantia nigra. Early complement activation (iC3b is increased on melanized neurons in PD vs. aged normal specimens, and late-stage complement activation (C9 also tends to increase. This latter finding suggests that complement

  15. Expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in leukoplakia and oral cancer: an immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Alessandra Dutra da SILVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical correlation of adhesion (E-cadherin and cell differentiation (involucrin molecules in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological samples and biopsies were obtained from male and female patients aged over 30 years with oral leukoplakia (n = 30 and oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 22. Cell scrapings and the biopsy were performed at the site of the lesion and histological slides were prepared for the immunocytochemical analysis of exfoliated oral mucosal cells and for the immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy tissues using E-cadherin and involucrin. Spearman’s correlation and kappa coefficients were used to assess the correlation and level of agreement between the techniques. Immunostaining for E-cadherin and involucrin by both techniques was similar in the superficial layers of the histological sections compared with cell scrapings. However, there was no statistical correlation and agreement regarding the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in oral leukoplakia (R = 0.01, p = 0.958 (Kappa = 0.017, p = 0.92 or in oral squamous cell carcinoma (R = 0.26, p = 0.206 (Kappa = 0.36, p = 0.07. The immunoexpression of E-cadherin and involucrin in tissues is consistent with the expression patterns observed in exfoliated oral mucosal cells, despite the lack of a statistically significant correlation. There is an association of the histopathological characteristics of leukoplakia with the expression E-cadherin and of the microscopic aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical expression of involucrin.

  16. Generation patterns of four groups of cholinergic neurons in rat cervical spinal cord: a combined tritiated thymidine autoradiographic and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemical study

    Phelps, P.E.; Barber, R.P.; Vaughn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines the generation of cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord in order to determine whether the transmitter phenotype of neurons is associated with specific patterns of neurogenesis. Previous immunocytochemical studies identified four groups of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the cervical enlargement of the rat spinal cord. These cell groups vary in both somatic size and location along the previously described ventrodorsal neurogenic gradient of the spinal cord. Thus, large (and small) motoneurons are located in the ventral horn, medium-sized partition cells are found in the intermediate gray matter, small central canal cluster cells are situated within lamina X, and small dorsal horn neurons are scattered predominantly through laminae III-V. The relationships among the birthdays of these four subsets of cholinergic neurons have been examined by combining 3H-thymidine autoradiography and ChAT immunocytochemistry. Embryonic day 11 was the earliest time that neurons were generated within the cervical enlargement. Large and small ChAT-positive motoneurons were produced on E11 and 12, with 70% of both groups being born on E11. ChAT-positive partition cells were produced between E11 and 13, with their peak generation occurring on E12. Approximately 70% of the cholinergic central canal cluster and dorsal horn cells were born on E13, and the remainder of each of these groups was generated on E14. Other investigators have shown that all neurons within the rat cervical spinal cord are produced in a ventrodorsal sequence between E11 and E16. In contrast, ChAT-positive neurons are born only from E11 to E14 and are among the earliest cells generated in the ventral, intermediate, and dorsal subdivisions of the spinal cord

  17. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  18. A comparison of Giardia microti and Spironucleus muris cysts in the vole: an immunocytochemical, light, and electron microscopic study.

    Januschka, M M; Erlandsen, S L; Bemrick, W J; Schupp, D G; Feely, D E

    1988-06-01

    We have shown that cysts of the genus Spironucleus share many common morphological features with Giardia cysts including: 2-4 nuclei, flagellar axonemes, a distinct cyst wall, and they even display the same immunostaining as Giardia cysts when labeled with antibodies specific for Giardia cyst wall. A direct comparison of Spironucleus muris and Giardia microti cysts have revealed that cysts of S. muris are significantly smaller than cysts of G. miroti. At the ultrastructural level, the cyst walls are similar in fibrillar appearance, but the width of the S. muris cyst wall is significantly less than that of G. microti. The cysts of S. muris also differ from G. microti in that they contain a striated rootlet fiber, flagellar sheath, and numerous glycogen rosettes. Characteristic features of Giardia include the adhesive disc and median body. Although the cysts of Spironucleus and Giardia are similar in appearance, these unique morphological features can be used to distinguish between the 2 protozoa and should be employed in the detection of Giardia cysts in water samples.

  19. Improved immunocytochemical detection of daunomycin

    Ohara, Koji; Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2007-01-01

    and mitochondria of heart muscle cells may help to improve our understanding of the cardiac toxicity of DM and related anthracyclin antibiotics. A number of ELISA tests were carried out in order to elucidate the mechanisms of H2O2-assisted antigen retrieval. A possible mechanism is that DM is reduced and converted......Improved immunocytochemical (ICC) detection of the anthracycline anticancer antibiotic daunomycin (DM) has been achieved by used of hydrogen peroxide oxidation prior to ICC staining for DM. The new method greatly enhanced the localization of DM accumulation in cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscle...... to its semiquinone and/or hydroquinone derivative in vivo. Oxidation by hydrogen peroxide acts to convert these derivatives back to the native antigen. The improved ICC methodology using oxidation to recreated native antigens from reduced metabolites may be helpful also with respect to the localization...

  20. The early effects of radiation on in vitro explants of mouse pancreas. A morphological and immunocytochemical study

    Kosanlavit, R.

    2001-01-01

    Prodromal radiation sickness involving the digestive system may occur less than an hour following whole-body or abdominal irradiation, and may be of such severity as to prevent cancer patients from completing their course of radiotherapy. The contribution of radiation-induced pancreatic damage to radiation sickness is poorly understood. This study seeks to demonstrate the early effects of X-rays (0.5-10 Gy) on mouse pancreas in vitro. The response of exocrine acinar cells, and endocrine cells from the islets of Langerhans was examined using immunocytochemistry, light and transmission electron microscopy, and morphometric analysis. There was an approximate 50% decrease in the mean number of zymogen granules in acinar cells following 10 Gy irradiation at 1 hour, which may have been due to the acceleration of enzyme secretion or the interruption of enzyme synthesis or a combination of both. The frequency distributions of zymogen granules diameter showed minor change. The gross structure of acinar cells appeared not to be affected by irradiation at the doses and times used. Following 5 and 10 Gy irradiation a few pancreatic endocrine cells within each islet lost their chromogranin A-immunoreactivity whereas other islet cells showed more intense immunostaining for chromogranin A. A dose of 10 Gy significantly decreased the volume density of glucagon-containing cells at 1 hour. Doses of 5 and 10 Gy slightly decreased the volume density of somatostatin-containing cells from 30 minutes to 3 hours. Such changes in the expression of endocrine products from these cells are likely to have profound physiological effects. Radiation induced no changes in the volume density of insulin and PP-containing cells. The results of the present study suggest that X-irradiation induce changes to exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells, and that this may contribute to some of the symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  1. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): an immunocytochemical study.

    Oviedo, Marco V Neira; Romoser, William S; James, Calvin Bl; Mahmood, Farida; Reisen, William K

    2011-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. For arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. Virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. For transmission to occur, the virus must overcome several "barriers", including barriers to midgut infection and/or escape and salivary infection and/or escape. By examining the spatial/temporal infection dynamics of Culex tarsalis strains infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), we identified tissue tropisms and potential tissue barriers, and evaluated the effects of viral dose and time postingestion. METHODS: Using immunostained paraffin sections, WEEV antigens were tracked in four Cx. tarsalis strains: two recently colonized California field strains - Coachella Valley, Riverside County (COAV) and Kern National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR); and two laboratory strains selected for WEEV susceptibility (high viremia producer, HVP), and WEEV resistance (WR). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Tissues susceptible to WEEV infection included midgut epithelium, neural ganglia, trachea, chorionated eggs, and salivary glands. Neuroendocrine cells in the retrocerebral complex were occasionally infected, indicating the potential for behavioral effects. The HVP and COAV strains vigorously supported viral growth, whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR

  2. Comparative immunocytochemical study of FMRFamide neuronal system in the brain of Danio rerio and Acipenser ruthenus during development.

    Pinelli, C; D'Aniello, B; Sordino, P; Meyer, D L; Fiorentino, M; Rastogi, R K

    2000-02-07

    The distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers was investigated in the central nervous system of developing zebrafish and juvenile sturgeon (sterlet). Adult zebrafish was also studied. In zebrafish embryos FMRFamide-ir elements first appeared 30 h post-fertilization (PF). Ir somata were located in the olfactory placode and in the ventral diencephalon. FMRFamide-ir fibers originating from diencephalic neurons were found in the ventral telencephalon and in ventral portions of the brainstem. At 48 h PF, the ir perikarya in the olfactory placode displayed increased immunoreactivity and stained fibers emerged from the somata. At 60 h PF, bilaterally, clusters of FMRFamide-ir neurons were found along the rostro-caudal axis of the brain, from the olfactory placode to rostral regions of the ventro-lateral telencephalon. At 60 h PF, numerous ir fibers appeared in the dorsal telencephalon, optic lobes, optic nerves, and retina. Except for ir fibers in the hypophysis at the age of 72 h PF, and a few ir cells in the nucleus olfacto-retinalis (NOR) at the age of 2 months PF, no major re-organization was noted in subsequent ontogenetic stages. The number of stained NOR neurons increased markedly in sexually mature zebrafish. In adult zebrafish, other ir neurons were located in the dorsal zones of the periventricular hypothalamus and in components of the nervus terminalis. We are inclined to believe that neurons expressing FMRFamide originate in the olfactory placode and in the ventricular ependyma in the hypothalamus. On the same grounds, a dual origin of FMRFamide-ir neurons is inferred in the sturgeon, an ancestral bony fish: prior to the observation of ir cells in the nasal area and in the telencephalon stained neurons were noted in circumventricular hypothalamic regions.

  3. Infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus in four strains of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae: an immunocytochemical study

    Neira Oviedo MV

    2011-04-01

    , whereas the WR and KNWR strains were less competent. Consistent with earlier studies, WEEV resistance appeared to be related to a dose-dependent midgut infection barrier, and a midgut escape barrier. The midgut escape barrier was not dependent upon the ingested viral dose. Consistent with midgut infection modulation, disseminated infections were less common in the WR and KNWR strains than in the HVP and COAV strains. Once the virus disseminated from the midgut, all strains were able to develop salivary gland infections. The possible roles of observed pathology will be discussed in a subsequent paper.Keywords: western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Culex tarsalis, vector competence, viral tropism, mosquito/virus interaction

  4. Immunocytochemical applications in neuroanatomy. Demonstration of connections, transmitters and receptors

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Wouterlood, F.G.; Matsuyama, T.; Strosberg, A.D.; Buwalda, B.; Gaykema, R.P.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper we review immunocytochemical methods for anterograde tracing with the lectin Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), combined PHA-L tracing - neurotransmitter immunocytochemistry, and the immunocytochemical localization of receptor proteins. These methods will be mainly

  5. The development of striatal patch/matrix organization after prenatal methylazoxymethanol: a combined immunocytochemical and bromo-deoxy-uridine birthdating study.

    Snyder-Keller, A M

    1995-10-01

    The antimitotic drug methylazoxymethanol was used to destroy striatal patch neurons during their three-day-period of neurogenesis in the rat. Single or multiple injections of methylazoxymethanol were given during embryonic days 13-15, the period when patch neurons are known to undergo their final cell division. Methylazoxymethanol treatments produced a dramatic reduction in striatal volume. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the continued presence of patches of neurons that were substance P-immunoreactive and devoid of calbindin and enkephalin immunoreactivity. Both the number of patches and relative volume occupied by patches was reduced in methylazoxymethanol-treated striata. Patch neurons could also be labelled by an intrastriatal injection of FluoroGold during the first postnatal week. The early ingrowth of nigrostriatal dopamine afferents was less noticeably patchy in the methylazoxymethanol-treated animals, in part owing to an overall increase in density. Large reductions in the number of neurons immunoreactive for choline acetyltransferase were observed, whereas NADPH diaphorase-stained neurons were not reduced unless methylazoxymethanol was given on embryonic day 15. Injections of bromo-deoxy-uridine, either during or after the 24 h that each methylazoxymethanol injection was considered to be effective, revealed that (i) some patch neurons continued to be generated in the 24-h period following methylazoxymethanol administration, and (ii) many patch neurons were generated after the effects of methylazoxymethanol had worn off. These findings demonstrate that it was impossible to completely eliminate the patches using methylazoxymethanol injections during the period of patch neurogenesis. However, methylazoxymethanol treatment during this time did produce a dramatic loss of cells and a relatively greater reduction in patch volume. Despite this disruption, the appropriate compartmentalization of neuroactive substances appeared to be maintained.

  6. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Disseminated Tumor Cells and Micrometastasis in Bone Marrow of Patients with Nonmetastatic and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications—An Immunocytochemical Study

    Nigel P. Murray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is important in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells and activates angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of MMP-2 expression in circulating prostate cells (CPCs, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs, and micrometastasis (mM in bone marrow of men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. Tumor cells were identified with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent processing with anti-MMP-2, its expression was compared with Gleason score, concordance of expression, and metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Results. 215 men participated, CPCs were detected in 62.7%, DTCs in 62.2%, and mM in 71.4% in nonmetastatic cancer; in metastatic cancer all had CPCs, DTCs, and mM detected. All CPCs and DTCs expressed MMP-2; in mM MMP-2 expression was positively associated with increasing Gleason score. MMP-2 expression in CPCs and DTCs showed concordance. In low grade tumors, mM and surrounding stromal cells were MMP-2 negative, with variable expression in high grade tumors; in metastatic disease, both mM and stromal cells were MMP-2 positive. Conclusions. CPCs and DTCs are different from mM, with inhibition of MMP-2 expression in mM of low grade tumors. With disease progression, MMP-2 expression increases in both mM and surrounding stromal cells, with implications for the use of bisphosphonates or MMP-2 inhibitors.

  7. The nervous system of the basal mollusk Wirenia argentea (Solenogastres): a study employing immunocytochemical and 3D reconstruction techniques

    Todt, Christiane; Bchinger, Thomas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    is present in most compartments of the nervous system, while serotonergic immunoreactivity appears to be restricted to the longitudinal nerve cords, the cerebro-pedal commissure and part of the cerebral ganglion. The buccal system shows immunoreactivity against none of the neurotransmitters....

  8. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  9. [125I]Bolton-Hunter neuropeptide-Y-binding sites on folliculo-stellate cells of the pars intermedia of Xenopus laevis: A combined autoradiographic and immunocytochemical study

    De Rijk, E.P.; Cruijsen, P.M.; Jenks, B.G.; Roubos, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been established that neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is a potent inhibitor of alpha MSH release from the pars intermedia of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The location of binding sites for NPY in the pars intermedia of the pituitary has now been studied with light microscopic autoradiography, using a dispersed cell labeling method with the specific NPY receptor ligand [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter NPY. The majority of radioactive labeling was associated with folliculo-stellate cells; the percentage of labeling as well as the mean number of grains were approximately 5 times higher for folliculo-stellate cells than for melanotropes. An excess of nonlabeled NPY drastically reduced radiolabeling of folliculo-stellate cells, but had no effect on the degree of labeling of melanotropes. These results show that folliculo-stellate cells of X. laevis possess specific binding sites for NPY and indicate that NPY exerts its inhibitory action on the release of alpha MSH in an indirect fashion, by acting on the folliculo-stellate cells

  10. Immunocytochemical investigation of immune cells within human primary and permanent tooth pulp.

    Rodd, H D; Boissonade, F M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in the number and distribution of immune cells within human primary and permanent tooth pulp, both in health and disease. The research took the form of a quantitative immunocytochemical study. One hundred and twenty-four mandibular first permanent molars and second primary molars were obtained from children requiring dental extractions under general anaesthesia. Following exodontia, 10-microm-thick frozen pulp sections were processed for indirect immunofluorescence. Triple-labelling regimes were employed using combinations of the following: (1) protein gene product 9.5, a general neuronal marker; (2) leucocyte common antigen (LCA); and (3) Ulex europaeus I lectin, a marker of vascular endothelium. Image analysis was then used to determine the percentage area of immunostaining for LCA. Leucocytes were significantly more abundant in the pulp horn and mid-coronal region of intact and carious primary teeth, as compared to permanent teeth (P < 0.05, anova). Both dentitions demonstrated the presence of well-localized inflammatory cell infiltrates and marked aborization of pulpal nerves in areas of dense leucocyte accumulation. Primary and permanent tooth pulps appear to have a similar potential to mount inflammatory responses to gross caries The management of the compromised primary tooth pulp needs to be reappraised in the light of these findings.

  11. Strategies employed for LHC software performance studies

    Nowak, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to collect and assess the software performance related strategies employed by the major players in the LHC software arena: the four main experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) and the two main software frameworks (Geant4 and ROOT). As the software used differs between the parties, so do the directions and methods in optimization, and their intensity. The common feeling shared by nearly all interviewed parties is that performance is not one of their top priorities and that maintaining it at a constant level is a satisfactory solution, given the resources at hand. In principle, despite some organized efforts, a less structured approach seems to be the dominant one, and opportunistic optimization prevails. Four out of six surveyed groups are investigating memory management related effects, deemed to be the primary cause of their performance issues. The most commonly used tools include Valgrind and homegrown software. All questioned groups expressed the desire for advanced tools, s...

  12. [Immunocytochemical demonstration of astrocytes in brain sections combined with Nissl staining].

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Otellin, V A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop an easy and reliable protocol of combined preparation staining, which would unite the advantages of immunocytochemical demonstration of astrocytes with the availability to evaluate functional state of neurons provided by Nissl technique. The presented protocol of paraffin sections processing allows to retain high quality of tissue structure and provides for selective demonstration of astrocytes using the monoclonal antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein and contrast Nissl staining of cells. The protocol can be used without any changes for processing of brain sections obtained from the humans and other mammals with the exception of mice and rabbits.

  13. Immunocytochemical detection of astrocytes in brain slices in combination with Nissl staining.

    Korzhevskii, D E; Otellin, V A

    2005-07-01

    The present study was performed to develop a simple and reliable method for the combined staining of specimens to allow the advantages of immunocytochemical detection of astrocytes and assessment of the functional state of neurons by the Nissl method to be assessed simultaneously. The protocol suggested for processing paraffin sections allows preservation of tissue structure at high quality and allows the selective identification of astrocytes with counterstaining of neurons by the Nissl method. The protocol can be used without modification for processing brain specimens from humans and various mammals--except mice and rabbits.

  14. Employability of Graduates from International Development Studies ...

    Knowledge to shape learning This study will collect and analyze longitudinal data ... Canadian Consortium of University Programs in International Development ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... an opportunity for the awardees to develop their skills and network with some of ...

  15. A STUDY ON THE ISSUES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS AND PRACTICES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS IN UAE

    SYED HUSSAIN HAIDER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People who belongs to underdeveloped and developing countries, focus on getting employment in different developed countries. In the recent past years the number of people working in different countries has increased dramatically. In Pakistan it’s a trend of moving to different countries to get better employment opportunities. For employment Hong Kong, Singapore, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are considered as the favorable countries for the Pakistanis. Despite the fact, these countries don’t offer favorable and secured working environment to the immigrants, but still people prefer to go there for better earnings. Employment issues such as low wage rate, preference to residents, absence of contractual nexus, and sexual abuse etc. are common. This study aims to identify the major gaps in the implementation of laws regarding immigrant work force and the conditions of immigrants working in these countries. The study is qualitative and the respondents are those who have work experience of minimum three years. The results of this study shows that employers hardly follow labor laws for the immigrant work force, where as some countries have a clear policy which is enforced by their government. There is a dire need to do legislation regarding the rights of immigrant workforce and its implementation.

  16. The validity of immunocytochemical expression of cyclin D1 in fine needle aspiration cytology of breast carcinoma

    Ezzat, N.; Hafez, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to study the validity of cyclin D1 expression, a cell Fenac; cycle regulatory protein, on (fine needle aspiration cytology) FNAC samples in patients with breast Breast carcinoma; carcinoma using immunostaining technique. Cyclin D1 Patient and methods: This is a study done on 70 patients with primary breast carcinoma, presented to Cytology Unit, Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. They underwent preoperative FNAC and diagnosed as breast carcinoma. The cytologic and tissue section slides were subjected to cyclin D1 immunocytochemical staining. Only the nuclear immunoreactivity for cyclin D1 was considered specific. The rate of concordance, and discordance, and kappa value were calculated. Relation between cytologic expression of cyclin D1 and different clinico pathologic parameters was evaluated. Results: Cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression was observed in 53/70 cases (75.7%) in cytologic smears. In histologic sections of the corresponding cases, cyclin D1 was detected in 48/70 cases (68.6%). The concordance rate of cyclin D1 expression in the FNA and histologic sections was 87.1% while the discordance rate was 12.9%. Kappa showed a value of 0.65. A statistically significant relation was found between cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression and hormonal status as well as nuclear grade. Conclusion: Cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression can be performed successfully on cytologic samples with a high concordance rate and agreement with histologic results. This can help in determining tumor biology, and plan for patients treatment. The marker showed a significant relation with hormone receptor status and nuclear grade

  17. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour: Cytological and immunocytochemical features

    Filho Adhemar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA. Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.

  18. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  19. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS.The study included 213 (89.9% of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment.After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS and primary progressive (PPMS. Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed.Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  20. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Bøe Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Grytten, Nina; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment. After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS) had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS). Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed. Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  1. Domestic Employment In Career Centered Families: A Case Study ...

    Domestic Employment In Career Centered Families: A Case Study Of Covenant University Ota, ... Gender and Behaviour ... However, eighty three (83) useable instruments were returned with the teaching staff having the highest response rate.

  2. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis - A population study

    Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Torkildsen, Nina Agnethe Grytten; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. METHODS: The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logist...

  3. Frailty, prefrailty and employment outcomes in Health and Employment After Fifty (HEAF) Study.

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; Syddall, Holly; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Coggon, David; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. No previous studies, however, have focused on whether the 'frailty' phenotype (which predicts adverse events in the elderly) is associated with employment difficulties. To provide information, we assessed associations in the Health and Employment After Fifty Study, a population-based cohort of 50-65-year olds. Subjects, who were recruited from 24 English general practices, completed a baseline questionnaire on 'prefrailty' and 'frailty' (adapted Fried criteria) and several work outcomes, including health-related job loss (HRJL), prolonged sickness absence (>20 days vs less, past 12 months), having to cut down substantially at work and difficulty coping with work's demands. Associations were assessed using logistic regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. In all, 3.9% of 8095 respondents were classed as 'frail' and 31.6% as 'prefrail'. Three-quarters of the former were not in work, while 60% had left their last job on health grounds (OR for HRJL vs non-frail subjects, 30.0 (95% CI 23.0 to 39.2)). Among those in work, ORs for prolonged sickness absence, cutting down substantially at work and struggling with work's physical demands ranged from 10.7 to 17.2. The PAF for HRJL when any frailty marker was present was 51.8% and that for prolonged sickness absence was 32.5%. Associations were strongest with slow reported walking speed. Several associations were stronger in manual workers than in managers. Fried frailty symptoms are not uncommon in mid-life and are strongly linked with economically important adverse employment outcomes. Frailty could represent an important target for prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Separation from supported employment: a retrospective chart review study.

    West, Michael; Targett, Pamela; Wehman, Paul; Cifu, Gabriella; Davis, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine job separations from supported employment (SE). The aim was to identify the types and nature of separations and precipitating events leading to the separation. A retrospective chart review methodology was utilized. The study was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Southeast United States by a university-based SE program. Participants were 47 SE clients who had been placed into and separated from 67 jobs. Using a coding form, information regarding the type of separation and issues that preceded the separation were recorded. Data were aggregated using descriptive statistics. The largest number of separations was due to termination, followed by resignation and mutual consent of the employer and employee. The mean number of issues leading to the separation was 2.2, ranging from one to five. Only eight positive issues were found (compared to 116 negative and 20 neutral), the most prevalent being entry into an educational or training program. Common negative issues included poor work performance, attendance and punctuality problems, conflicts with the supervisor, and social and behavioral issues. The findings of this study illustrate the need to address job retention issues during the job development process, finding the most appropriate person-job fit and workplace culture for each client. The findings also support the need for vigilant and regular communication between the SE program and employers to intervene quickly when problems arise. Separation from Supported Employment (SE) SE is an evidence-based employment practice that has been shown effective across multiple disability groups. Studying job separations can provide valuable information for improving service. Locating the best person-job fit, as well as frequent contract with employers, can help prevent unnecessary job loss.

  5. Employment Composition: A Study of Australian Employment Growth, 2002–2006

    Jeremy Lawson; Crystal Ossolinski

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to examine whether there was a change in employment rates for people with ‘low employment’ characteristics between 2002 and 2006, which was a period of strong employment growth. In particular, it estimates the relationships between employment and personal and household characteristics using a binomial logit model, with a comparison of the coefficients in 2002 and 2006 providing tentative evidence o...

  6. A STUDY ON THE ISSUES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS AND PRACTICES OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS IN UAE

    SYED HUSSAIN HAIDER; MINAA FATIMA; MUZAFFAR ASAD; ALAA ZUHAIR AHMAD ALMANSOUR

    2016-01-01

    People who belongs to underdeveloped and developing countries, focus on getting employment in different developed countries. In the recent past years the number of people working in different countries has increased dramatically. In Pakistan it’s a trend of moving to different countries to get better employment opportunities. For employment Hong Kong, Singapore, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are considered as the favorable countries for the Pakistanis. Despite the fact, these countries don’t offer fa...

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Work After Retirement: Examining Predictors of Bridge Employment, Continued Career Employment, and Retirement.

    Bennett, Misty M; Beehr, Terry A; Lepisto, Lawrence R

    2016-09-01

    Older employees are increasingly accepting bridge employment, which occurs when older workers take employment for pay after they retire from their main career. This study examined predictors of workers' decisions to engage in bridge employment versus full retirement and career employment. A national sample of 482 older people in the United States was surveyed regarding various work-related and nonwork related predictors of retirement decisions, and their retirement status was measured 5 years later. In bivariate analyses, both work-related variables (career goal achievement and experienced pressure to retire) and nonwork-related variables (psychological distress and traditional gender role orientation) predicted taking bridge employment, but in multinomial logistic regression, only nonwork variables had unique effects. Few predictors differentiated the bridge employed and fully retired groups. Nonwork variables were salient in making the decision to retire, and bridge employment may be conceptually more similar to full retirement than to career employment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  9. Employing Case Study Methodology in Special Educational Settings

    Rouse, Angelise M.

    2016-01-01

    In general, case studies are a preferred strategy when "how" or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (Yin, 2009). This article will examine the advantages and disadvantages of employing case study…

  10. An employer's experience with infertility coverage: a case study.

    Silverberg, Kaylen; Meletiche, Dennis; Del Rosario, Gina

    2009-12-01

    A case study of Southwest Airlines, a Fortune 500 company, demonstrates that a well-designed infertility coverage plan can control resource use. This successful model could be used by employers who wish to ensure that their employees have access to high-quality, cost-effective infertility services in a managed-care environment.

  11. Student employment and study effort for engineering students

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Harder, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    more than those in studies from e.g. UK and US [3, 4, 5]. A similar trend was seen in a study from Norway [6]. Government financial support seems to limit the amount of hours spent on paid work but not the percentage of students who take on paid work. Thus, full-time studies with benefits of increased...... capabilities and experience gained through employment could be aided by proper policies. Additionally, one of the highest impacts on study activity was the perceived study environment. As the engineering students have four hours per week of interaction with an instructor for each five ECTS...... to answer if the full-time student is under demise in these settings as opposed to settings without financial support [1, 2]. The research consisted of a web-based survey amongst all students at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The students in this survey had fewer employment hours and studied...

  12. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-04-02

    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  13. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  14. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  15. Immunocytochemical electron microscopic study and western blot analysis of paramyosin in different invertebrate muscle cell types of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and the snail Helix aspersa.

    Royuela, M; García-Anchuelo, R; Arenas, M I; Cervera, M; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R

    1996-04-01

    The presence and distribution pattern of paramyosin have been examined in different invertebrate muscle cell types by means of Western blot analysis and electron microscopy immunogold labelling. The muscles studied were: transversely striated muscle with continuous Z lines (flight muscle from Drosophila melanogaster), transversely striated muscle with discontinuous Z lines (heart muscle from the snail Helix aspersa), obliquely striated body wall muscle from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and smooth muscles (retractor muscle from the snail and pseudoheart outer muscular layer from the earthworm). Paramyosin-like immunoreactivity was localized in thick filaments of all muscles studied. Immunogold particle density was similar along the whole thick filament length in insect flight muscle but it predominated in filament tips of fusiform thick filaments in both snail heart and earthworm body wall musculature when these filaments were observed in longitudinal sections. In obliquely sectioned thick filaments, immunolabelling was more abundant at the sites where filaments disappeared from the section. These results agree with the notion that paramyosin extended along the whole filament length, but that it can only be immunolabelled when it is not covered by myosin. In all muscles examined, immunolabelling density was lower in cross-sectioned myofilaments than in longitudinally sectioned myofilaments. This suggests that paramyosin does not form a continuous filament. The results of a semiquantitative analysis of paramyosin-like immunoreactivity indicated that it was more abundant in striated than in smooth muscles, and that, within striated muscles, transversely striated muscles contain more paramyosin than obliquely striated muscles.

  16. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study.

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M M; Mansour, M; Williams, J W; Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Birch, L; Prins, G S

    2004-05-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male pups received DES at a dose of 10 microg per rat on alternate days from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 12. Controls received olive oil vehicle only. Tissue samples were collected on Days 18 (prepuberty), 41 (puberty), and 120 (adult) of age. DES-induced abnormalities were evident at 18 days of age and included smaller, lighter, and thinner penis, loss of cavernous spaces and associated smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis. Fat cells virtually filled the entire area of the corpora cavernosa at puberty and adulthood. Plasma testosterone (T) was reduced to an undetectable level, while LH was unaltered in all treated groups. AR-positive cells were ubiquitous and their profile (incidence and staining intensity) did not differ between control and treated rats of the respective age groups. Conversely, ERalpha-positive cells were limited to the stroma of corpus spongiosus in all age groups of both control and treated rats, but the expression in treated rats at 18 days was up-regulated in stromal cells of corpora cavernosa, coincident with the presence of morphological abnormalities. Hence, this study reports for the first time DES-induced developmental, morphological abnormalities in the body of the penis and suggests that these abnormalities may have resulted from decreased T and/or overexpression of ERalpha.

  17. Turkish Women Seafarers and A Quastionnaire Study on Employment Situation

    Hatice Yġlmaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, women have struggled to gain a place and establish their presence in social life. Mostly, they have continued their life in the position of carrying out family responsibilities. When women want to get involved in the business world, they are facing some problems arising from dogmatic thinking and prejudices, especially among the professions with "male-dominated" judiciary. Maritime profession, one of the oldest professions in the world, was also regarded as a single-gender area until the 20th century. However, in recent years, economical and political changes in the world, equal opportunity in education and incentive works of the International Maritime Organization have led women to work as seafarers. Although female seafarers constitute 2% of the world seafarers, this ratio is higher in developed countries than that of undeveloped or developing countries (URL-1. There is very little information regarding women seafarers in general, including the actual population size. Most of studies focus on passenger ships or cruise ships, not cargo ships (Sohyun, 2010. It is difficult to find relevant studies regarding women seafarers in the world, including in Turkey. In Turkey, women have played an active role and gained an apparent identity in the maritime sector since the 2000s. According to 2015 data, Turkey is ranks the 14th in the world maritime trade with more than 27,6 million deadweight tonnage and manages 1530 vessels (UNCTAD, 2015. In Turkey, many studies related to the employment of seafarers are carried out as in the whole world. However, studies on the employment of women seafarers should be paid more attention. In this study, a questionnaire was carried out with the personnel department managers in Turkish shipping companies. Employment, career, educational status of female seafarers and the general difficulties they face were revealed.

  18. Legal Knowledge of Legislated Employment Rights: An Empirical Study

    Hapriza Ashari; Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik Mahmod

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to assess the level of basic knowledge of statutory employment rights at the workplace as prescribed by the Malaysian Employment Act 1955. The statutory employment rights comprises of a variety of individual employment rights such as protections of wages, statutory right to the general standard of working time, statutory right to rest day, public holidays, annual leave and sick leave as well as female employee’s statutory right to paid maternity leave. A field survey was car...

  19. Utility of an immunocytochemical assay using aqueous humor in the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis.

    Felten, Sandra; Matiasek, Kaspar; Gruendl, Stefanie; Sangl, Laura; Hartmann, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    In cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) without effusion, antemortem diagnosis is challenging. Uveitis is common in these cats. It was the aim of this study to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of an immunocytochemical assay (ICC) in aqueous humor of cats suspected of having FIP. The study included 26 cats with immunohistochemically confirmed FIP and 12 control cats for which FIP was suspected due to similar clinical or laboratory changes, but which suffered from other diseases confirmed via histopathology. All aqueous humor samples were collected postmortem by paracentesis. ICC was carried out as avidin-biotin complex method. Sensitivity, specificity, and the overall accuracy including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Immunocytochemistry was positive in 16 of 25 cats with FIP and 2 of 11 control cats (one cat with lymphoma, one with pulmonary adenocarcinoma). Aqueous humor samples of one cat with FIP and of one control cat were excluded from statistical analysis. Sensitivity was 64.0% (95% CI: 42.5-82.0); specificity 81.8% (95% CI: 48.2-97.7); and overall accuracy 69.4% (95% CI: 51.9-83.7). As false-positive results occurred and specificity is most important in the diagnosis of FIP, the diagnostic utility of ICC in aqueous humor is limited. Further studies are required to clarify the origin of false-positive ICC results. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@ewea.org; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  1. Direct employment in the wind energy sector. An EU study

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Alcala de Henares, 28802 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers - including major sub-components - are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles - project managers, engineers and O and M technicians - is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice. (author)

  2. Direct employment in the wind energy sector: An EU study

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is often said to have positive effects on employment, but few studies have systematically dealt with this matter. This article presents estimates of direct wind energy employment in all EU countries, gathered for the first time. By using a thematic survey, the authors have been able to analyse aspects such as gender distribution, company profiles and the shortage of skilled workers reported by wind energy companies. The outcomes show that wind energy deployment creates a significant number of jobs (over 104,000 in 2008), and does so at a time when other energy sectors are shrinking. There is a clear relationship between MW installed and number of jobs, but the use of a single EU job/MW ratio is not feasible, due to differences in the export/import capacity. Wind turbine manufacturers-including major sub-components-are responsible for the lion's share of the jobs, and there is a marked prevalence of males in the workforce. The scarcity of specialist roles-project managers, engineers and O and M technicians-is not likely to be solved unless a series of educational, mobility and dissemination measures are put into practice.

  3. Employment preferences of Lithuanian MA graduates in economic studies

    Vaitiekus Novikevičius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available People may demonstrate preferences for different alternatives when choosing a workplace, for example: wages, career opportunities or workplace location. It is therefore important to determine which of the alternatives provides the maximum performance for the respondents. For this purpose, the authors have carried out extensive research of utility functions, originated theoretical models and / or employed practically. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of such research in Lithuania. The paper aims to examine the preferences and financial incentives based on the utility aspect Lithuanian master’s graduates in economic studies, including financial incentives, when they choose a workplace. The paper formulates the definition of the utility functions and the analysis its types. Moreover, it analyzes the utility functions of the MA graduates in economic studies from four universities, distinguishes their preferences and major financial incentives which give them the maximum utility.

  4. [Method of immunocytochemical demonstration of cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system of laboratory animals].

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Grigor'ev, I P; Kirik, O V; Zelenkova, N M; Sukhorukova, E G

    2013-01-01

    A protocol of immunocytochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a key enzyme of acetylcholine synthesis, in paraffin sections of the brain of some laboratory animals, is presented. The method is simple, gives fairly reproducible results and allows for demonstration of ChAT in neurons, nerve fibers, and terminals in preparations of at least three species of laboratory animals including rat, rabbit, and cat. Different kinds of fixation (10% formalin, 4% paraformaldehyde, or zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde) were found suitable for immunocytochemical visualization of ChAT, however, optimal results were obtained with the application of zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde

  5. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J. (East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma

  7. Immunocytochemical identification of adenohypophyseal cells in the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), an Amazonian basal teleost.

    Borella, M I; Venturieri, R; Mancera, J M

    2009-03-01

    The adenohypophysis (AH) of juvenile pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), a representative species of the Osteoglossomorpha (bonytongue fishes, one of the oldest living groups of the teleosts), was studied using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The AH is comprised of the pars distalis (PD), without a clear distinction between rostral pars distalis (RPD) and proximal pars distalis (PPD), and the pars intermedia (PI). The neurohypophysis (NH) is positioned on top of the PD and penetrates and branches into the PI. In the most rostral dorsal portion of the PD, adrenocorticotropic cells and fusiform gonadotropic cells were found. In the central PD, scarce prolactin-producing cells and growth-hormone-producing cells were located mainly in the dorsal part, whereas round gonadotropic cells were abundant in the ventral portion of this region. Human thyrotropin immunoreactive cells were not found in the entire AH. In the PI, melanotropic, some adrenocorticotropic, and somatolactin-producing cells were located intermingled surrounding the neurohypophyseal branches. Our results showed that the A. gigas pituitary has some basal characteristics between the ancient Actinopterygii and the more derived teleosts.

  8. Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries

    Messina, Julián

    2004-01-01

    We live in a service economy, but the extent of development of service employment differs across developed countries. This paper assesses the role of structural factors and institutions in explaining the common patterns and main di?erences in the recent expansion of service employment in OECD countries. It finds that GDP per capita, the size of the government sector and the extent of urbanization are positively associated with the service employment share. However, the evidence suggests that ...

  9. Evaluation of the importance of employment pacts and the case study - Moravian-Silesian employment pact in the Czech Republic

    MSc. Šárká Prudká

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool that is used in the world and Europe to a comprehensive and systematic solution of the employment at the regional level. These are the so-called employment pacts. The theme is the more up-to-date due to the onset of the global economic crisis since 2008, which brought a deepening of socio-economic problems in the labour market, with negative implications upon an increasing rate of unemployment. The Moravian-Silesian Employment Pact has been chosen for the case study. It was established as the first one of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the structurally affected region of Silesia. The result is the finding that employment pacts are generally a useful tool to resolve problems in regional labor markets.

  10. Studying place practices and consumption through volunteer-employed photography

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Møller, Karina Torp

    2016-01-01

    upon such choices. Additionally, we argue that the employed data collection techniques, involving a combination of volunteer-employed photography with participants’ comments on their own photos and information about their socio-demographic profile, constitute a particularly apt approach for shedding...

  11. Work Ethic and Employment Status: A Study of Jobseekers

    Hill, Roger B.; Fouts, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been numerous changes within the workplace during the past century, employers continue to search for employees with a strong work ethic. Employers often cite a strong work ethic as the most desired characteristic in a new employee. Work ethic can be described as a set of characteristics and attitudes in which an individual…

  12. TRENDS IN YOUTH EMPLOYMENT: ROMANIA CASE OF STUDY

    Laura PATACHE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing poverty and creating employment are the twin challenges of Europe 2020 strategy. During the crisis period, relative poverty has been increased among 0-17 years of age group and in some Romanian development regions. The European Union is concerned in taking action on increasing youth employment, because: the youth unemployment rate is more than twice as high as the adult one; the chances for a young unemployed person of finding a job are low, when young people do work, their jobs tend to be less stable; early leavers from education and training are a high-risk group; resignation is an increasing concern; a significant percent of young people were neither in employment nor in education or training (NEETs; there are significant skills mismatches on Europe's labour market. This paper presents the dynamics of the Romanian youth employment in the development regions of Romania between 2008 and 2014.

  13. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study

    Ana Paula Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that are important to learning communities and the labour market has been the subject of controversy because it involves heterogeneous motives among different groups.This paper compares the perceptions of employability skills in a sample of teachers from the Universidade Aberta and a sample of students who attend a local learning centre at this University. The research focused on the following dimensions: a the most important employability skills, and b the employability skills to be developed in online undergraduate degrees. To collect the required data, a questionnaire was prepared and applied to students and teachers, taking the theoretical model of Knight and Yorke (2006 as its main reference. In spite of the specificity of each group, the results revealed some similarities between students and teachers with regard to employability. The conclusions also highlighted the need to promote research on this matter in online education.

  14. Who benefits from supported employment: a meta-analytic study.

    Campbell, Kikuko

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: This meta-analysis sought to identify which subgroups of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) benefited from evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: We used meta-analysis to pool the samples from 4 randomized controlled trials comparing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment to well-regarded vocational approaches using stepwise models and brokered services. Meta-analysis was used to determine the magnitude of effects for IPS\\/control group differences within specific client subgroups (defined by 2 work history, 7 sociodemographic, and 8 clinical variables) on 3 competitive employment outcomes (obtaining a job, total weeks worked, and job tenure). RESULTS: The findings strongly favored IPS, with large effect sizes across all outcomes: 0.96 for job acquisition, 0.79 for total weeks worked, and 0.74 for job tenure. Overall, 90 (77%) of the 117 effect sizes calculated for the 39 subgroups exceeded 0.70, and all 117 favored IPS. CONCLUSIONS: IPS produces better competitive employment outcomes for persons with SMI than alternative vocational programs regardless of background demographic, clinical, and employment characteristics.

  15. Impact of cancer on employment: A qualitative study exploring employment changes and financial coping strategies following breast cancer

    Yek-Ching Kong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802 

  16. Employability in Online Higher Education: A Case Study

    Silva, Ana Paula; Lourtie, Pedro; Aires, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, learning in distance education universities has become more interactive, flexible, collaborative, and participative. Nevertheless, some accounts have highlighted the importance of developing more instrumental and standardized educational practices to answer the challenges of employability. In fact, the choice of skills that…

  17. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in Hungary.

    Horvath, Reka; Abraham, Arpad; Horvath, Tibor; Kopeczi-Bocz, Tamas

    Most deficiencies of the Hungarian labor market emerge from a combination of the transition crisis and special features of the economy or transition process. The most crucial labor market problem is low employment. Negative impacts are high taxation and social security contributions; reduced investment, job creation, and economic growth; and…

  18. Developing Career and Employability Skills: A US Case Study.

    Zinser, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Western Michigan University's technical teacher education program developed a course on teaching career and employability skills using state standards and benchmarks as a framework. Preservice teachers complete five projects: job shadowing, professional portfolio, written lesson plan, videotape and self-critique of lesson plan, and an application…

  19. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and substance P in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis: Effects of vagal stimulation on GAD immunoreactivity

    Damelio, F.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by means of its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the neuropeptide substance P in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and gelatinous nucleus (GEL). In addition, electrical stimulation was applied to the night vagus nerve at the cervical level to assess the effects on GAD-immunoreactivity (GAR-IR). GAD-IR terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. They showed pronounced density at the level of the ASP and gradual decrease towards the solitary complex. Nerve cells were not labelled in our preparations. Ultrastructural studies showed symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contracts between labelled terminals and non-immunoreactive dendrites, axons, or neurons. Some of the labelled terminals contained both clear- and dense-core vesicles. Our preliminary findings, after electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, revealed a bilateral decrease of GAD-IR that was particularly evident at the level of the ASP. SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed varying densities in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. In our preparations, the lateral sub-division of the NTS showed the greatest accumulation. The ASP showed medium density of immunoreactive varicosities and terminals and the AP and GEL displayed scattered varicose axon terminals. The electron microscopy revealed that all immunoreactive terminals contained clear-core vesicles which make symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contact with unlabelled dendrites. It is suggested that the GABAergic terminals might correspond to vagal afferent projections and that GAD/GABA and substance P might be co-localized in the same terminal allowing the possibility of a regulated release of the transmitters in relation to demands.

  20. "It's about fitting in with the organisation": A qualitative study of employers of nurse practitioners.

    Leidel, Stacy; Hauck, Yvonne; McGough, Shirley

    2018-04-01

    To explore the views of employers about the value nurse practitioners (NPs) add to health services, enablers and barriers to employing NPs, and intentions to employ NPs or expand NP services in the future. Research on Australian NPs has focused on NPs' experiences or patient-related factors like waiting times. Few studies have explored NP roles from the perspective of employers. Australian NPs employed by the private sector are eligible for reimbursement by the national health insurance scheme (Medicare Australia), potentially generating revenue for employers and broadening their career opportunities. We aimed to explore private sector employers' views on the barriers and facilitators to employing NPs and to identify factors affecting NP employability. A qualitative descriptive exploratory study. Employers of NPs from 23 private and nonprofit health services in Western Australia were interviewed. Inductive content analysis was used to explore the data. Enablers to employing an NP included enhanced customer service and improved health outcomes. Barriers to employing an NP included lack of financial benefit and inadequate experience or qualifications. Employers also identified future directions for NP employability, such as filling a gap that added value to the health service. Employers wanted NPs to work towards a shared vision of patient care that aligned with organisational needs. Findings can inform NP education and workforce planning to optimally meet employer and patient health needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Immunocytochemical localization and immunochemical characterization of an insulin-related peptide in the pancreas of the urodele amphibian, Ambystoma mexicanum

    Hansen, G N; Hansen, B L; Jørgensen, P N

    1989-01-01

    The pancreas of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, was investigated by immunocytochemical methods for the presence of immunoreactivity to a number of antisera raised against mammalian insulins. All anti-insulin antisera tested revealed substantial amounts of reaction products confined solely...

  2. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  3. Feasibility study of fusion breeding blanket concept employing graphite reflector

    Cho, Seungyon, E-mail: sycho@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept adopts graphite as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. • Its feasibility was investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. • A nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket. • Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions. • In conclusion, the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition. - Abstract: To obtain high tritium breeding performance with limited blanket thickness, most of solid breeder blanket concepts employ a combination of lithium ceramic as a breeder and beryllium as a multiplier. In this case, considering that huge amount of beryllium are needed in fusion power plants, its handling difficulty and cost can be a major factor to be accounted for commercial use. Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. Its feasibility has been investigated in view point of the nuclear performance as well as material-related issues. In this paper, a nuclear analysis is performed under the fusion reactor condition to address the feasibility of graphite reflector in breeding blanket, considering tritium breeding capability and neutron shielding and activation aspects. Also, the chemical stability of the graphite is investigated considering the chemical stability under accident conditions, resulting in that the adaptation of graphite reflector in breeding blanket is intrinsically safe and plausible under fusion reactor condition.

  4. Forces affecting employment dynamics in Drenthe; Case study in a leading rural region in the Netherlands

    Terluin, I.J.; Post, J.H.; Wisselink, A.J.; Overbeek, M.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the focus is on employment dynamics in Drenthe since the beginning of the 1980s. This study is part of an EU wide research project on employment development in leading and lagging rural regions of the EU. Total employment in Drenthe increased by 24,500 jobs or with over 20% in the

  5. Working While Studying: The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Dropout Rates

    Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many possible reasons why students leave university prior to degree completion, and one of the more commonly cited is being employed while studying. This paper analyses the impact of employment status on dropout rates using survival analysis. It finds that employment status does have an impact on dropout rates; students who work full…

  6. The bigger the worse? A comparative study of the welfare state and employment commitment

    van der Wel, Kjetil A.; Halvorsen, Knut

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how welfare generosity and active labour market policies relate to employment commitment. As social policy is increasingly directed towards stimulating employment in broader sections of society, this article particularly studies employment commitment among groups with traditionally weaker bonds to the labour market. This is also theoretically interesting because the employment commitment in these groups may be more affected by the welfare context than is the employme...

  7. Employing Two Factor Authentication Mechanisms: A Case Study

    Lawrence, Cameron; Fulton, Eric; Evans, Gerald; Firth, David

    2014-01-01

    This case study examines the life of a digital native who has her online accounts hacked, passwords reset, and is locked out of important online resources including her university email account and Facebook. Part one of the case study examines how the hack was perpetrated and the fallout of losing control of one's digital identity. Part two of the…

  8. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  9. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Sandberg DavidE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.

  10. Barriers to Employment Among Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries in the Mental Health Treatment Study.

    Milfort, Roline; Bond, Gary R; McGurk, Susan R; Drake, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This study examined barriers to employment among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries who received comprehensive vocational and mental health services but were not successful in returning to work. This study examined barriers to employment among 430 SSDI beneficiaries with mental disorders who received evidence-based vocational and mental health services for two years but worked less than one month or not at all. Comprehensive care teams, which included employment specialists, made consensus judgments for each participant, identifying the top three barriers to employment from a checklist of 14 common barriers. Teams most frequently identified three barriers to employment: poorly controlled symptoms of mental illness (55%), nonengagement in supported employment (44%), and poorly controlled general medical problems (33%). Other factors were identified much less frequently. Some SSDI beneficiaries, despite having access to comprehensive services, continued to experience psychiatric impairments, difficulty engaging in vocational services, and general medical problems that limited their success in employment.

  11. Immunocytochemical demonstration of polyamines in nucleoli and nuclei

    Shin, Masashi; Nakamuta, Hiromichi; Oda-Ueda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    in both nucleoli and nuclei of a variety of cell types. Detection of nucleolar and nuclear PAs required novel pretreatment procedures involving protease and/or DNase digestion of specimens prior to immunoreaction. Double fluorescence staining confirmed the localizations. This suggests that PAs may...... be important to the formation of ribosomes in nucleoli, as well as adds support to biochemical studies suggesting that PAs are involved in many biological events in the nucleus. Further biochemical studies will be needed to substantiate this hypothesis....

  12. Factors associated with persons with disability employment in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Naraharisetti, Ramya; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-10-07

    Over twenty million persons with disability in India are increasingly being offered poverty alleviation strategies, including employment programs. This study employs a spatial analytic approach to identify correlates of employment among persons with disability in India, considering sight, speech, hearing, movement, and mental disabilities. Based on 2001 Census data, this study utilizes linear regression and spatial autoregressive models to identify factors associated with the proportion employed among persons with disability at the district level. Models stratified by rural and urban areas were also considered. Spatial autoregressive models revealed that different factors contribute to employment of persons with disability in rural and urban areas. In rural areas, having mental disability decreased the likelihood of employment, while being female and having movement, or sight impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. In urban areas, being female and illiterate decreased the likelihood of employment but having sight, mental and movement impairment (compared to other disabilities) increased the likelihood of employment. Poverty alleviation programs designed for persons with disability in India should account for differences in employment by disability types and should be spatially targeted. Since persons with disability in rural and urban areas have different factors contributing to their employment, it is vital that government and service-planning organizations account for these differences when creating programs aimed at livelihood development.

  13. Employing Machine-Learning Methods to Study Young Stellar Objects

    Moore, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Vast amounts of data exist in the astronomical data archives, and yet a large number of sources remain unclassified. We developed a multi-wavelength pipeline to classify infrared sources. The pipeline uses supervised machine learning methods to classify objects into the appropriate categories. The program is fed data that is already classified to train it, and is then applied to unknown catalogues. The primary use for such a pipeline is the rapid classification and cataloging of data that would take a much longer time to classify otherwise. While our primary goal is to study young stellar objects (YSOs), the applications extend beyond the scope of this project. We present preliminary results from our analysis and discuss future applications.

  14. Immunocytochemical characterization of explant cultures of human prostatic stromal cells

    A. Kooistra (Anko); A.M.J. Elissen (Arianne ); J.J. Konig (Josee); M. Vermey; Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); J.C. Romijn (Johannes); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe study of stromal-epithelial interactions greatly depends on the ability to culture both cell types separately, in order to permit analysis of their interactions under defined conditions in reconstitution experiments. Here we report the establishment of explant cultures of human

  15. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers' employment was investigated separately. Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers' employment, household income and mothers' psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Family and mothers' employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers' transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers’ employment was investigated separately. Results Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers’ employment, household income and mothers’ psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Conclusions Family and mothers’ employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers’ transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. PMID:24889054

  17. Hypergravity exposure decreases gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity in axon terminals contacting pyramidal cells in the rat somatosensory cortex: a quantitative immunocytochemical image analysis

    D'Amelio, F.; Wu, L. C.; Fox, R. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Polyakov, I.

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of exposure to hypergravity (hyper-G) was conducted by using computer-assisted image processing. The area of GABA-IR axosomatic terminals apposed to pyramidal cells of cortical layer V was reduced in rats exposed to hyper-G compared with control rats, which were exposed either to rotation alone or to vivarium conditions. Based on previous immunocytochemical and behavioral studies, we suggest that this reduction is due to changes in sensory feedback information from muscle receptors. Consequently, priorities for muscle recruitment are altered at the cortical level, and a new pattern of muscle activity is thus generated. It is proposed that the reduction observed in GABA-IR of the terminal area around pyramidal neurons is the immunocytochemical expression of changes in the activity of GABAergic cells that participate in reprogramming motor outputs to achieve effective movement control in response to alterations in the afferent information.

  18. Differences in sickness absence between self-employed and employed doctors: a cross-sectional study on national sample of Norwegian doctors in 2010

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors have a low prevalence of sickness absence. Employment status is a determinant in the multifactorial background of sickness absence. The effect of doctors’ employment status on sickness absence is unexplored. The study compares the number of sickness absence days during the last 12 months and the impact of employment status, psychosocial work stress, self-rated health and demographics on sickness absence between self-employed practitioners and employed hospital doctors in Norway. Methods The study population consisted of a representative sample of 521 employed interns and consultants and 313 self-employed GPs and private practice specialists in Norway, who received postal questionnaires in 2010. The questionnaires contained items on sickness absence days during the last 12 months, employment status, demographics, self-rated health, professional autonomy and psychosocial work stress. Results 84% (95% CI 80 to 88%) of self-employed and 60% (95% CI 55 to 64%) of employed doctors reported no absence at all last year. In three multivariate logistic regression models with sickness absence as response variable, employment category was a highly significant predictor for absence vs. no absence, 1 to 3 days of absence vs. no absence and 4 to 99 days of absence vs. no absence), while in a model with 100 or more days of absence vs. no absence, there was no difference between employment categories, suggesting that serious chronic disease or injury is less dependent on employment category. Average or poor self-rated health and low professional autonomy, were also significant predictors of sickness absence, while psychosocial work stress, age and gender were not. Conclusion Self-employed GPs and private practice specialist reported lower sickness absence than employed hospital doctors. Differences in sickness compensation, and organisational and individual factors may to a certain extent explain this finding. PMID:24885230

  19. Immunocytochemical analysis of syntaxin-1 in rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Yang, Ruibiao; Ma, Huazhi; Thomas, Stacey M; Kinnamon, John C

    2007-06-20

    Mammalian buds contain a variety of morphological taste cell types, but the type III taste cell is the only cell type that has synapses onto nerve processes. We hypothesize that taste cell synapses utilize the SNARE protein machinery syntaxin, SNAP-25, and synaptobrevin, as is used by synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) for Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Previous studies have shown that taste cells with synapses display SNAP-25- and synaptobrevin-2-like immunoreactivity (LIR) (Yang et al. [2000a] J Comp Neurol 424:205-215, [2004] J Comp Neurol 471:59-71). In the present study we investigated the presynaptic membrane protein, syntaxin-1, in circumvallate taste buds of the rat. Our results indicate that diffuse cytoplasmic and punctate syntaxin-1-LIR are present in different subsets of taste cells. Diffuse, cytoplasmic syntaxin-1-LIR is present in type III cells while punctate syntaxin-1-LIR is present in type II cells. The punctate syntaxin-1-LIR is believed to be associated with Golgi bodies. All of the synapses associated with syntaxin-1-LIR taste cells are from type III cells onto nerve processes. These results support the proposition that taste cell synapses use classical SNARE machinery such as syntaxin-1 for neurotransmitter release in rat circumvallate taste buds. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Employer branding i Statens vegvesen: en studie av hvordan employer branding kan vinkles for å forsterke organisasjonstilknytning

    Sadovic, Una

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave - OLA 4090 Organisasjon, ledelse og arbeid. Universitetet i Oslo. Denne oppgaven vil berøre temaet employer branding. Et sterkt employer brand er med på å øke attraktiviteten til en arbeidsplass og medvirker på hvor lenge arbeidstakere blir værende hos en arbeidsgiver. Arbeid med employer branding kan ofte deles inn i to perspektiver, et internt og eksternt. Ifølge Maxwell og Knox (2009) er de fleste forskere opptatt av hva som gjør en organisasjon attraktiv for potensielle a...

  1. Antecedents of perceived graduate employability: A study of student volunteers in a community-based organisation

    Suki Goodman

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question. Main findings: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation comes out on top. Practical implications/managerial implications: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work. Contribution/value-add: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability.

  2. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  3. Extending a model of precarious employment: A qualitative study of immigrant workers in Spain.

    Porthé, Victoria; Ahonen, Emily; Vázquez, M Luisa; Pope, Catherine; Agudelo, Andrés Alonso; García, Ana M; Amable, Marcelo; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1980s, changes in the labor market have modified power relations between capital and labor, leading to greater levels of precarious employment among workers. Globalization has led to a growth in migration, as people leave their countries in search of work. We aimed to describe the dimensions of precarious employment for immigrant workers in Spain. Qualitative study using analytic induction. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 129 immigrant workers in Spain with documented and undocumented administrative status. Data quality was ensured by triangulation. Immigrant workers reported that precarious employment is characterized by high job instability, a lack of power for negotiating employment conditions, and defenselessness against high labor demands. They described insufficient wages, long working hours, limited social benefits, and difficulty in exercising their rights. Undocumented workers reported greater defenselessness and worse employment conditions. This study allowed us to describe the dimensions of precarious employment in immigrant workers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Recommended Skill Requirements of Recent Management Information Systems Graduates for Employment: A Modified Delphi Study

    Strnad, Michael A., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Modified Delphi study was to achieve a consensus and forecast a prediction from expert IT hiring managers on what skills are required of MIS graduates for employment. In doing so, guidance could be provided to academic leaders who design curricula for MIS students on the required skills for employment. This study was conducted…

  5. Individual Placement and Support in Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Observational Study of Employment Outcomes.

    Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance L; Barnett, Scott D; Njoh, Eni; Dixon, Thomas M; Holmes, Sally Ann; LePage, James P; Ota, Doug; Sabharwal, Sunil; White, Kevin T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of a 24-month program of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (SE) on employment outcomes for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal, observational multisite study of a single-arm, nonrandomized cohort. SCI centers in the Veterans Health Administration (n=7). Veterans with SCI (N=213) enrolled during an episode of either inpatient hospital care (24.4%) or outpatient care (75.6%). More than half the sample (59.2%) had a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). IPS SE for 24 months. Competitive employment. Over the 24-month period, 92 of 213 IPS participants obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 43.2%. For the subsample of participants without TBI enrolled as outpatients (n=69), 36 obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 52.2%. Overall, employed participants averaged 38.2±29.7 weeks of employment, with an average time to first employment of 348.3±220.0 days. Nearly 25% of first jobs occurred within 4 to 6 months of beginning the program. Similar employment characteristics were observed in the subsample without TBI history enrolled as outpatients. Almost half of the veterans with SCI participating in the 24-month IPS program as part of their ongoing SCI care achieved competitive employment, consistent with their expressed preferences at the start of the study. Among a subsample of veterans without TBI history enrolled as outpatients, employment rates were >50%. Time to first employment was highly variable, but quite long in many instances. These findings support offering continued IPS services as part of ongoing SCI care to achieve positive employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group, The

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Design: Cohort study. Su...

  7. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity.Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment.Design: Cohort study.Subje...

  8. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  9. How Persons with a Neuromuscular Disease Perceive Employment Participation : A Qualitative Study

    Baziel van Engelen; Yvonne Heerkens; Josephine Engels; Astrid Kinébanian; Ton Satink; Marie-Antoinette van Minis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A qualitative study was carried out to understand how people with a slow progressive adult type neuromuscular disease (NMD) perceive employment participation. Methods 16 paid employed persons with NMD were interviewed in open, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the constant

  10. Keep the expert! Occupational expertise, perceived employability and job search: A study across age groups

    Vos, A. de; Forrier, A.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; De Cuyper, N.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE - In the current war for talent employers are concerned about the idea that the best employees are more likely to leave the organization for another employer (i.e. the management paradox). This study tests this management paradox. The purpose of this paper is to advance our understandings

  11. Introduction to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health Employment Conditions Network (EMCONET) study, with a glossary on employment relations.

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Santana, Vilma; Quinlan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the conditions and power relations of employment are known to be crucial health determinants for workers and their families, the nature of these relations and their effects on health have yet to be fully researched. Several types of employment--precarious employment in developed countries; informal sectors, child labor, slavery, and bonded labor in developing countries--expose workers to risky working conditions. Hazardous work and occupation-related diseases kill approximately 1,500 workers, globally, every day. Growing scientific evidence suggests that particular employment conditions, such as job insecurity and precarious employment, create adverse health effects; yet the limited number of studies and the poor quality of their methods prevent our understanding, globally, the complexity of employer-employee power relations, working conditions, levels of social protections, and the reality of employment-related health inequalities. This article introduces a special section on employment-related health inequalities, derived from the EMCONET approach, which focuses on (1) describing major methods and sources of information; (2) presenting theoretical models at the micro and macro levels; (3) presenting a typology of labor markets and welfare states worldwide; (4) describing the main findings in employment policies, including four key points for implementing strategies; and (5) suggesting new research developments, a policy agenda, and recommendations. This introduction includes a glossary of terms in the emerging area of employment conditions and health inequalities.

  12. A longitudinal study of employment and skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities.

    Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved

  13. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  14. Employability of mentally ill persons in India: A self-report-based population study

    Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The employment status of mentally ill patients is a reflection of their productivity, control of illness besides providing therapeutic benefits and integration into mainstream society. Owing to the associated stigma, self-reporting of mental illness (SRMI often is rare. Census exercise of India in 2011 provides an insight of SRMI and employment status of such people. This study was undertaken to consider the role of gender, age group, and place on the employment status of SRMI. Methodology: Frequency of SRMI, age group, gender, and employment status was gathered from Indian 2011 census sources. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were employed. P≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Majority (68.6% of the SRMI people resides in rural areas, in the economically productive age group of 15–59 years (75.88% and often males (57.51%. Of the SRMI as reported in the data, 78.62% were not employed while 2.4% of them were currently employed. The employability frequency distributions of SMRIs were statistically different in terms of area, age group, and gender with significance. Discussion: Although the mental illness data of 2011 census was rejected by mental health professionals citing discrepancy and underestimating of the prevalence of mental illness, it provides a robust estimate of the employability, self-reporting tendency of mental illness. The association of the factors provides a unique insight into SRMIs in India. Conclusion: Understanding the interplay of factors may yield robust estimates and clues for policy framers to formulate employment-related policies for employment opportunities for mentally ill patients.

  15. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi

  16. Employment Outcome Ten Years after Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Grauwmeijer, Erik; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Haitsma, Ian K; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the probability of employment and predictors of employment in patients with moderate- to- severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) over 10-year follow-up. One hundred nine patients (18-67 years) were included with follow-up measurements 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months and 10 years post-TBI. Potential predictors of employment probability included patient characteristics, injury severity factors, functional outcome measured at discharge from the hospital with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Barthel Index (BI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM). Forty-eight patients (42%) completed the 10-year follow-up. Three months post-TBI, 12% were employed, which gradually, but significantly, increased to 57% after 2-years follow-up (p employed persons had less-severe TBI, shorter length of hospital stay (LOS), and higher scores on the GOS, BI, FIM, and FAM at hospital discharge than unemployed persons. No significant differences in age, sex, educational level, living with partner/family or not, pre-injury employment, professional category, psychiatric symptoms, or discharge destination were found. Longitudinal multivariable analysis showed that time, pre-injury employment, FAM, and LOS were independent predictors of employment probability. We concluded that employment probability 10 years after moderate or severe TBI is related to injury severity and pre-injury employment. Future studies on vocational rehabilitation should focus on modifiable factors and take into consideration the effects of national legislation and national labor market forces.

  17. Employer Branding

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  18. [Economic development and married women's employment in Taiwan: a study of female marginalization].

    Lu, Y

    1994-07-01

    As in other developing countries, the industrial development in Taiwan seems to marginalize female workers. This study tries to examine the trend of women's employment status, using both macro- and micro-level data. The statistics suggest that female employment had significantly declined during the early stages of industrialization. Although rapid economic development has expanded women's job opportunities, most women are concentrated in lower-status jobs and the informal sector. Informal employment is especially prevalent among married women. In the micro-level analysis the study examines the factors that led to the marginalization of women's labor force. The empirical analysis applies a multinomial logistic model to a 1980 KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey sample of 3859 married women. The results suggest that married women's work patterns in terms of formal vs. informal employment are determined by the family organization rather than by labor market conditions. Wives from families with small businesses are more likely to be involved in informal employment. Wives also tend to work informally when they have young children. On the other hand, the effects of labor market conditions are mediated by the types of family economy. Therefore the women's informal employment in Taiwan, as a characteristic of female marginalization, is the result of the sexual division of labor in the family organization and the prevalence of the family business, rather than that of being excluded into the marginal forms of employment through the process of capitalistic production, as argued by the female marginalization theorists.

  19. Self-employment as a solution for attitudinal barriers: a case study.

    Quinton, Melanie C

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study to examine attitudinal barriers to employment and underemployment. We follow the career path of PR, a woman with multiple physical impairments, as she seeks financial independence through several employment strategies. In these, she faced attitudinal barriers and employment situations without opportunity for advancement. Eventually, PR opens her own business, turning to an alternative loan program to acquire the funds necessary to purchase a ready-made vehicle that matches her needs for accessible transportation. Use of this vehicle to provide delivery services for her business has more than doubled her income.

  20. E-government and employment services a case study in effectiveness

    Fugini, Maria Grazia; Valles, Ramon Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic government (e-Government) by analyzing two employment- service systems in Italy and Catalonia: the Borsa Lavoro Lombardia Portal (Lombardy Employment Services Portal) and the Servei d'Ocupació de Catalunya (Catalan Employment Services Portal). The evaluation methodology used in the case studies and the related set of technical, social, and economic indicators are clearly described. The technological and organizational features of the systems of the two systems are then compared and their impacts assessed

  1. Demographic characteristics and employment among people with severe mental illness in a multisite study.

    Burke-Miller, Jane K; Cook, Judith A; Grey, Dennis D; Razzano, Lisa A; Blyler, Crystal R; Leff, H Stephen; Gold, Paul B; Goldberg, Richard W; Mueser, Kim T; Cook, William L; Hoppe, Sue K; Stewart, Michelle; Blankertz, Laura; Dudek, Kenn; Taylor, Amanda L; Carey, Martha Ann

    2006-04-01

    People with psychiatric disabilities experience disproportionately high rates of unemployment. As research evidence is mounting regarding effective vocational programs, interest is growing in identifying subgroup variations. Data from a multisite research and demonstration program were analyzed to identify demographic characteristics associated with employment outcomes, after adjusting for the effects of program, services, and study site. Longitudinal analyses found that people with more recent work history, younger age, and higher education were more likely to achieve competitive employment and to work more hours per month, while race and gender effects varied by employment outcome. Results provide strong evidence of demographic subgroup variation and need.

  2. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study.

    Andersen, John Roger; Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Våge, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented. Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female) regarding employment status (working versus not working) and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate). Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery. Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%), but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  3. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study

    John Roger Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented.Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female regarding employment status (working versus not working and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery.Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%, but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  4. Employers' views on the promotion of workplace health and wellbeing: a qualitative study.

    Pescud, Melanie; Teal, Renee; Shilton, Trevor; Slevin, Terry; Ledger, Melissa; Waterworth, Pippa; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-07-11

    The evidence surrounding the value of workplace health promotion in positively influencing employees' health and wellbeing via changes to their health behaviours is growing. The aim of the study was to explore employers' views on the promotion of workplace health and wellbeing and the factors affecting these views. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, 10 focus groups were conducted with employers selected from a range of industries and geographical locations within Western Australia. The total sample size was 79. Three factors were identified: employers' conceptualization of workplace health and wellbeing; employers' descriptions of (un)healthy workers and perceptions surrounding the importance of healthy workers; and employers' beliefs around the role the workplace should play in influencing health. Progress may be viable in promoting health and wellbeing if a multifaceted approach is employed taking into account the complex factors influencing employers' views. This could include an education campaign providing information about what constitutes health and wellbeing beyond the scope of occupational health and safety paradigms along with information on the benefits of workplace health and wellbeing aligned with perceptions relating to healthy and unhealthy workers.

  5. The influence of social capital on employers' use of occupational health services: a qualitative study.

    Ståhl, Christian; Åborg, Carl; Toomingas, Allan; Parmsund, Marianne; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2015-10-23

    Occupational health services may have a strategic role in the prevention of sickness absence, as well as in rehabilitation and return to work after sick leave, because of their medical expertise in combination with a close connection to workplaces. The purpose of this study was to explore how employers and occupational health service providers describe their business relations and the use of occupational health services in rehabilitation in relation to the organization of such services. The study uses a theoretical framework based on social capital to analyse the findings. Interviews and focus groups with managers with Swedish public employers (n = 60), and interviews with occupational health services professionals (n = 25). Employers emphasized trustful relationships, local workplace knowledge, long-term contracts and dialogue about services for good relationships with occupational health providers. Occupational health providers strove to be strategic partners to employers, promoting preventive work, which was more easily achieved in situations where the services were organized in-house. Employers with outsourced occupational health services expressed less trust in their providers than employers with internal occupational health provision. Social capital emerges as central to understanding the conditions for cooperation and collective action in the use of occupational health services, with reference to structural (e.g. contracts), relational (e.g. trust) as well as cognitive (e.g. shared vision) dimensions. The study suggests that attention to the quality of relationships is imperative for developing purposeful occupational health service delivery in rehabilitation and return to work.

  6. Employment insecurity, workplace justice and employees' burnout in Taiwanese employees: a validation study.

    Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Hsun-Yin; Li, Pei-Rong; Hsu, Jin-Huei

    2011-12-01

    Employment insecurity and workplace injustice are important psychosocial hazards. However, few studies of these associations have been conducted in Chinese-speaking populations. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales, and examined their associations with the levels of workers' burnout status in Taiwanese workers. Study subjects were participants in a national survey of employees in Taiwan, consisting of 9,636 men and 7,406 women. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess employment insecurity (six items) and workplace justice (nine items), as well as other psychosocial work characteristics. After the survey was completed, in-depth interviews with 10 employees were conducted for a qualitative evaluation. Cronbach's α was 0.87 or greater for the workplace justice scale and 0.76 or greater for the employment insecurity scale, indicating satisfactory internal consistencies. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a factor pattern consistent with the theoretically assumed structure, except that the items with statements in reversed direction were loaded on separated factors. Higher levels of employment insecurity and lower levels of workplace justice were associated with higher burnout scores. However, results from the qualitative interviews suggested that some questionnaire items contained double-barreled questions, and some questions were misinterpreted or considered irrelevant by participants. The Chinese version of employment insecurity and workplace justice scales were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity. However, improvement of these scales is still needed.

  7. Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

    van Solinge, Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the present study examines the factors associated with entry into self-employment post-retirement, after a worker has left a regular salaried position. This decision is modelled as a choice between full retirement and prolonged labour force participation, in the form of either a typical wage-providing job or self-employment. Data were derived from the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Work and Retirement Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of older workers (50 years and over) employed by three private sector organisations and employed as civil servants in the Netherlands. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The results of this study show that the decision to pursue self-employment is primarily taken by retirees with relatively high levels of financial and human capital (wealth and educational attainment), those possessing entrepreneurial attitudes (high self-efficacy scores) and those who perceive their retirements to be completely involuntary. The results lend support to self-employment being selected as a postretirement path through opportunity rather than out of necessity. The fact that the retirements of the studied population were generally quite early, while not considered involuntary also suggests that the timing of the decision to retire may be driven by the emergence of new (business) opportunities.

  8. Brand Awareness in the Context of Mistrust: The Case Study of an Employment Agency

    Kristina Ročkutė

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness is important for a good market performance of a company. However, research on the contextual preconditions needed for the improvement of brand awareness is limited, particularly in specific service sectors such as employment agencies. We present the research results of the preconditions for the improvement of awareness (which is one of the dimensions of brand equity in an employment agency. We also analyze the effects of the perceived trust of customers on the improvement of brand awareness in the employment sector. As a case study, we present an example of an employment agency in Lithuania. This research is particularly timely in the Lithuanian context, where high levels of emigration are having a considerable negative impact on companies and their major internal operations—human resource management, marketing, and strategic planning—challenging the aims of long-term socially sustainable development. This research paper has a high relevance for other high-emigration economies.

  9. Immunocytochemical characterization of lung tumors in fine-needle aspiration. The use of cytokeratin monoclonal antibodies for the differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

    Bruderman, I; Cohen, R; Leitner, O; Ronah, R; Guber, A; Griffel, B; Geiger, B

    1990-10-15

    In the current study, immunocytochemical typing of intermediate filaments was used for a differential diagnosis of human lung tumors from transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsies (TFNAB). The authors have compared the cytologic diagnosis of 53 lung cancer cases with the immunofluorescence patterns obtained using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, five of which (KG 8.13, KM 4.62, Ks B.17, KS 8.12, KK 8.60) react with specific cytokeratin polypeptides and one with vimentin (VIM 13.2). Only in six of 23 samples cytologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma did the immunocytochemical typing of cytokeratins (ICTC) confirm the cytologic diagnosis. In seven cases some of the tumor cells stained positively with antibody Ks B.17 specific for simple epithelial keratin (No: 18), suggesting the presence of some cells of glandular origin. In ten additional cases the ICTC was in conflict with the cytologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (i.e., antibodies Ks 8.12 and KK 8.60 were negative, and antibody Ks B.17, positive) supporting a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. In 14 of 18 cases cytologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, the ICTC confirmed the diagnosis whereas in four cases additional presence of some squamous cells was noticed. The ICTC labeling of cases cytologically diagnosed as undifferentiated and large cell carcinomas was similar to that of the group of adenocarcinomas. Thus, the application of cytokeratin typing for TFNAB samples seems to provide a vital complementation to routine cytologic study, especially for cases cytologically diagnosed as squamous carcinoma.

  10. Studying Abroad as a Sorting Criterion in the Recruitment Process: A Field Experiment among German Employers

    Petzold, Knut

    2017-01-01

    As the experience of studying abroad can signal general and transnational human capital, it is considered to be increasingly important for professional careers, particularly in the context of economies' internationalization. However, studies using graduate surveys face problems of self-selection and studies on employers' opinions face problems of…

  11. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  12. Employment status of patients receiving maintenance dialysis – peritoneal and hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    B S Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease takes a heavy toll of quality of life of the patient. Several factors such as fatigue and decreased physical capability, impaired social and mental functioning, contribute to this forlorn state. To meld maintenance dialysis treatment with a regular employment can be a serious test. A cross-sectional study of employment of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in a state government tertiary institute in South India was performed between June 2015 and December 2015. Patients who completed 3 months of regular dialysis were only included in the study. The number of patients on hemodialysis was 157 and on peritoneal dialysis was 69. The employment status before the initiation of dialysis was 60% (93 out of 155 and 63.7% (44 out of 69 in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. After initiation, the loss of employment was observed in 44% (41 out of 93 in hemodialysis and 51.2% (26 out of 44 in peritoneal dialysis (P = 0.2604. Even though there was fall of absolute number of job holders in both the blue and white collar jobs, the proportion of jobholders in the white collar job holders improved. On univariate analysis, the factors which influenced the loss of employment were males, age between 50 and 60 years, number of comorbidities >2, illiteracy and blue collar versus white collar job before the initiation of dialysis. The majority of patients had the scores above 80 on Karnofsky performance scale and the majority belonged upper and middle classes than lower classes on modified Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale; however, the loss of employment was also disproportionately high. There appeared a substantial difference in the attitude of the patients toward the employment. There was no difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the loss of employment of our patients.

  13. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Hawkins, S S; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2008-01-01

    In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Cohort study. A total of 13 113 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002 in the United Kingdom, who had complete height/weight data and parental employment histories. Parents were interviewed when the child was aged 9 months and 3 years, and the child's height and weight were measured at 3 years. Overweight (including obesity) was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. A total of 23% (3085) of children were overweight at 3 years. Any maternal employment after the child's birth was associated with early childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 1.14 [1.00, 1.29]), after adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors. Children were more likely to be overweight for every 10 h a mother worked per week (OR [95% CI]; 1.10 [1.04, 1.17]), after adjustment. An interaction with household income revealed that this relationship was only significant for children from households with an annual income of pound33 000 ($57 750) or higher. There was no evidence for an association between early childhood overweight and whether or for how many hours the partner worked, or with mothers' or partners' duration of employment. These relationships were also evident among mothers in employment. Independent risk factors for early childhood overweight were consistent with the published literature. Long hours of maternal employment, rather than lack of money may impede young children's access to healthy foods and physical activity. Policies

  14. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors: a population-based study from the PROFILES registry.

    Tamminga, S J; Bültmann, U; Husson, O; Kuijpens, J L P; Frings-Dresen, M H W; de Boer, A G E M

    2016-04-01

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands participated. Clinical data were collected from the cancer registry. Information on employment, insurance, socio-demographic characteristics, long-term side effects, and quality of life was collected with questionnaires. Of the 223 cancer survivors (response rate 87 %), 71 % were employed. Of the cancer survivors who tried to obtain insurance, 6 % reported problems with obtaining health care insurance, 62 % with life insurance, and 16 % with a mortgage. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (OR 1.07, CI 1.02-1.11), higher level of fatigue (OR 1.07, CI 1.01-1.14), and lower educational level (OR 3.22, CI 1.46-7.09) were associated with not having employment. Employment was associated with higher quality of life. Many thyroid cancer survivors face problems when obtaining a life insurance, and older, fatigued, and lower educated thyroid cancer survivors may be at risk for not having employment.

  15. Study on the situation of female employment in the Guangxi Zhuangzhu autonomous region.

    Liu, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the gap between the female labor force and employment opportunities in Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region (GZAR) in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census and the 1% sample survey in 1995. GZAR has undergone recent market reforms. In 1995, the total number of employed persons was 24,520,500, of whom 46.8% were women; 46.3% were employed women in 1990. Female employment grew by 8.3% during 1990-95; male employment grew by 5.8%. GZAR has a higher rate of female employment than other provinces. The female employment rates in GZAR, Guangdong, and Guizhou were fairly stable. Rates were the highest in the middle age group and lowest among the old and young. Women in GZAR begin work at an earlier age. The higher female employment rate is attributed to expansion of the light and service industries and migration of males outside home areas. During 1990-95, the number of women working declined in agriculture and increased in light industry and service sectors, especially in wholesale and retail trades, finance and insurance, and restaurants. Women in professions increased. Female professionals were 331/10,000 in GZAR, 410/10,000 in Guizhou, and 743/10,000 in Guangdong. Female professionals were better educated than male professionals. The percentage of illiterates and semiliterates declined by 3.0% for women and 1.8% for men. More women than men worked in areas that required strength. Female unemployment was high; reemployment was higher for males. Four suggestions are made to improve women's economic position.

  16. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering on Educational and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…

  17. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  18. Methodological Appendix of Research Methods Employed in the Mexican American Education Study.

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released Mexican American Education Study findings in a series of documents: (1) "The Ethnic Isolation of Mexican Americans in the Public Schools of the Southwest" (ED 052 849), "The Unfinished Education" (ED 056 821), and "The Excluded Student" (ED 062 069). The research methods employed in the study are…

  19. Education as a signal of trainability: results from a vignette study with Italian employers

    Di Stasio, V.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on queuing theory, this study explores the relationship between education and labour market entry from the perspective of employers. On the basis of vignette study, we simulated a hiring process with a sample of recruiters and human resource managers. We analysed the role of education in the

  20. Loss of permanent employment and its association with suicidal ideation: a cohort study in South Korea.

    Yoon, Seohyun; Kim, Ja Young; Park, Jooyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2017-09-01

    Objective Precarious employment is associated with worse mental health, but it is unclear whether changes in employment status are related to suicidal behaviors. This study examined the association between change in employment status and suicidal ideation among workers in South Korea. Methods To maximize power of the analysis, we combined data from the ongoing Korean Welfare Panel Study. We analyzed 3793 participants who were permanent workers at baseline (2011-2014) and who either: (i) maintained permanent employment; (ii) became a full-time precarious worker; (iii) became a part-time precarious worker; or (iv) became unemployed in the following year (2012-2015). Suicidal ideation was assessed annually by asking participants, "Have you ever seriously thought about dying by suicide in the past year?" Logistic regression was applied to examine associations between change in employment status and suicidal ideation, adjusting for potential confounders such as lifetime suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms at baseline. Results Participants who became part-time precarious workers were more likely to have suicidal ideation [odd ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-5.25, P=0.033] compared to those who remained permanent workers. In analysis restricted to workers who never previously thought about dying by suicide, suicidal ideation was more common among those who became either full-time (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.09-4.99, P=0.029) or part-time (OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.46-10.64, P=0.007) precarious workers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that change in employment status from permanent to precarious employment may increase suicidal ideation among workers in South Korea.

  1. How Does Millennials’ Perception on Their Employers Affect Their Work Ethic? A Study in Hong Kong

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work ethic of millennial employees has raised considerable attention in Hong Kong. Current article examined how the millennials’ perception on their employers would have an effect on their own work ethic. A survey study of 212 millennial respondents showed that the millennials in general perceived their employers positively and embraced good work ethic. Two variables – perception and work ethic – are significantly related. The study also revealed that millennials in Hong Kong hold peculiar interpretations of work and leisure, and of work and success. It was suggested that parenting, educational system, and modern working environments might have caused these interpretations.

  2. Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: a longitudinal study of the health effects.

    Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-08-01

    This study analysed interactions between job insecurity and temporary employment and health. We tested the violation hypothesis (whether permanent employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) and the intensification hypothesis (whether temporary employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) in a longitudinal setting. Previous research on this topic is scarce and based on cross-sectional data. A population cohort (n=1071) was surveyed at age 30 and age 42. Exposure to temporary employment during this 12-year period was elicited with a job-time matrix and measured as the score of 6-month periods. Exposure to job insecurity was measured according to the perceived threat of unemployment. Health at follow-up was assessed as optimal versus suboptimal self-rated health, sleep quality and mental health. In addition to sociodemographics and baseline health, the analyses were adjusted for exposure to unemployment, non-employment and self-employment during the 12-year period. 26% of participants had been exposed to temporary employment. The effect of job insecurity on health was the same in the exposed and unexposed groups, that is the violation hypothesis was not supported. Non-significant interactions between the exposures and all health outcomes also indicated null findings regarding the intensification hypothesis. These findings suggest that perceived job insecurity can lead to adverse health effects in both permanent and temporary employees. Policies should aim to improve work-related well-being by reducing job insecurity. Efforts towards 'flexicurity' are important, but it is equally important to remember that a significant proportion of employees with a permanent contract experience job insecurity.

  3. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  4. Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers’ disadvantage, as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers’ well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4:529–536

  5. [Psychological contract in the light of flexible employment: The review of studies].

    Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Consequences of occupational asthma on employment and financial status: a follow-up study.

    Ameille, J; Pairon, J C; Bayeux, M C; Brochard, P; Choudat, D; Conso, F; Devienne, A; Garnier, R; Iwatsubo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in employment and income following a diagnosis of occupational asthma, and to determine what factors might affect these changes. Two hundred and nine patients with occupational asthma were reviewed on average 3.1 yrs after the diagnosis had been made. They were contacted by telephone or were sent a self-administered questionnaire by post. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to determine which variables were associated with loss of employment after the diagnosis. At the time of review, 44% of patients had left their previous job and 25% were currently unemployed. Remarkably, 32% remained exposed to the offending agents in the same job. Forty six percent of the patients had suffered a reduction of income (84% of those who had left their employer versus 19% of those still employed in the same company (p company, level of education, and age at the time of diagnosis were significantly associated with a risk for becoming unemployed or having a new employer after the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Occupational asthma results in severe socioeconomic consequences. The French compensation system for occupational asthma should be revised, as the criteria currently used to determine compensation for this disease largely underestimate the social and occupational damages.

  7. A case-control study of employment status and mortality in a cohort of Australian youth.

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a link in young populations between unemployment and ill health. The purpose of this study is to correlate mortality with employment status in two cohorts of young Australian males, aged 17-25 years, from 1984 to 1988. Two youth cohorts consisting of an initially unemployed sample (n = 1424 males) and a population sample (n = 4573 males), were surveyed annually throughout the study period. Those lost to follow-up during the survey period were matched with death registries across Australia. Employment status was determined from weekly diaries and death certificates and was designated as: employed or student; unemployed; not in the work force (excluding students). Conditional logistic regression, using age- and cohort- matched cases (deaths) and controls (alive), was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dying with regard to employment status, taking into account potential confounders such as ethnicity, aboriginality, educational attainment, pre-existing health problems, socio-economic status of parents, and other factors. Twenty three male survey respondents were positively matched to death registry records. Compared to those employed or students (referent group), significantly elevated ORs were found to be associated with neither being in the workforce nor a student for all cause, external cause, and external cause mortality other than suicide. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, survey cohort, ethnicity, pre-existing physical and mental health status, education level, and socio-economic status of parent(s). A statistically significant increasing linear trend in odds ratios of male mortality for most cause groups was found across the employment categories, from those employed or student (lowest ORs), through those unemployed, to those not in the workforce (highest ORs). Suicide was higher, but not statistically significantly, in those unemployed or not in the workforce. Suicide also was associated, though not significantly, with

  8. Self-Employment of Immigrants: A Cross-National Study of 17 Western Societies

    Tubergen, Frank van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role of immigrants' country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being self-employed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and labor-force surveys from 14 countries in the European…

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Impacts of an Employer-Supported Child Care Program

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.

    2011-01-01

    Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…

  10. Classifying University Employability Strategies: Three Case Studies and Implications for Practice and Research

    Farenga, Stéphane A.; Quinlan, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study documents three main strategic models used by Russell Group Careers Services to support students' preparation for graduate careers. It is framed against the backdrop of a challenging graduate labour market, discussions of employability in the literature and the policy assumption that universities are responsible for…

  11. Design of the study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, M.S.; Joling, C.I.; Blatter, B.M. van; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of healthy and productive work participation among persons aged 45–64 years. A research framework was developed with main outcomes of productivity and transitions in

  12. German Dual Curricula to Improve School to Employment Transition: A Case Study

    Stephens, Maria Cecilia Noche

    2015-01-01

    The German Dual System is a model educational and employment approach that other nations could emulate. The ability of young apprentices to work and study at the same time to gain both practical and theoretical skills leads to more meaningful education and decreased dropout and youth unemployment rates. The collaboration of the government,…

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of the [3H]estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    Grossman, A.; Oppenheim, J.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Beaudoin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant amounts of an estradiol-binding protein (EBP) are present in pancreatic acinar cells. This protein differs from the one found in female reproductive tissues and secondary sex organs (which is commonly referred to as estrogen receptor). EBP has now been purified from rat pancreas and was used as an antigen to induce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum obtained was purified initially by ammonium sulfate fractionation and then still further by interaction with a protein fraction from pancreas that was devoid of estradiol-binding activity. The latter procedure was used to precipitate nonspecific immunoglobulin Gs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the anti-EBP antibody reacted specifically with a doublet of protein bands having mol wt of 64K and 66K. When this purified antibody was used as an immunocytochemical probe in conjunction with protein-A-gold, acinar cells were labeled on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, on the plasma membrane, and in mitochondria. This specific labeling pattern was not observed when preimmune serum was used. No labeling was observed over the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, or zymogen granules with purified anti-EBP antibodies. The unexpected distribution of EBP in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria is discussed

  14. Immunocytochemical characterization of primary cell culture in canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Luis M.M. Flórez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Immunochemistry with anti-vimentin, anti-lysozyme, anti-alpha 1 antitrypsin, anti-CD3 and anti-CD79α antibodies has been used for characterization of primary cell culture in the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT. Samples for primary cell culture and immunohistochemistry assays were taken from eight dogs with cytological and clinical diagnosis of TVT. To validate the immunochemical results in the primary cell culture of TVT, a chromosome count was performed. For the statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test with p<0.05 was used. TVT tissues and culture cells showed intense anti-vimentin immunoreactivity, lightly to moderate immunoreactivity for anti-lysozyme, and mild for anti-alpha-antitrypsin. No marking was achieved for CD3 and CD79α. All culture cells showed chromosomes variable number of 56 to 68. This is the first report on the use of immunocytochemical characterization in cell culture of TVT. Significant statistic difference between immunochemistry in tissue and culture cell was not established, what suggests that the use of this technique may provide greater certainty for the confirmation of tumors in the primary culture. This fact is particularly important because in vitro culture of tumor tissues has been increasingly used to provide quick access to drug efficacy and presents relevant information to identify potential response to anticancer medicine; so it is possible to understand the behavior of the tumor.

  15. The peculiarities' study of higher education applicants' employment in pharmaceutical specialties of full-time training

    A. A. Kotvitska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of applicants of pharmaceutical higher education has both positive and negative impact on the quality of educational services provided by institutions, especially in terms of knowledge and skills acquired by student. Objective is to study peculiarities of higher education employment, full-time training, and features driving them to conclude labor agreements. Materials and methods. During the study, we used juridical and comparative legal methods of analysis. Results. The study has defined the following features of the employment of applicants of higher education in the health care institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises and organizations. The current legislation provides the applicants of higher education enrolled in HEIs for full-time training with a right to make a free choice of the field of study, profession, type of occupation and work. The relationship developed between an applicant and higher education institutions are not to be regarded as an employment relationship. The working under the items of labor agreement for person who combine it with the full-time education is not a part or combination or sharing, and is considered the main place of job. Thus, it stipulates maintenance of records book of the employed worker according to the general procedure. An applicant of higher education has discretion to choose working hours (full- or part-time working day, full- or part-time working week with taking into consideration the HEIs schedule and only in the free time. When full-time operating in frameworks of collective agreement at enterprise, institution, or organization, having accounted peculiarities of operation, non-standardized working day for some positions can be set. The current legislation stipulates possibility of employment for persons without higher pharmaceutical education to the health care institutions on the clearly defined positions. Conclusions.The country authority has created and is providing favorable

  16. A Descriptive Study of Occupational Health Services in Self-employed Enterprises (Nanoscale Enterprises, Shiraz, Iran

    Mehdi Jahangiri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed a poor level of the implementation of occupational health services in Iranian self-employed enterprises. Based on the findings, providing basic training on the occupational health, more enforcing in conduction of health examinations and providing PPE, and taking appropriate strategies aimed at eliminating or minimizing work environment harmful agents are the major factor that should be considered to improve the level of occupational health services among the studied enterprises.

  17. NICKEL HYDROXIDE FILMS IN CONTACT WITH AN ELECTROACTIVE SOLUTION. A STUDY EMPLOYING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS

    RICARDO TUCCERI

    2018-01-01

    The deactivation of nickel hydroxide films after prolonged storage times without use was studied. This study was carried out in the context of the Rotating Disc Electrode Voltammetry (RDEV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) when the nickel hydroxide film contacts an electroactive solution and a redox reaction occurs at the Au-Ni(OH)2|electrolyte interface. Deferasirox (4-(3,5-bis(2- hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid) was employed as redox species in solution. Limi...

  18. ‘Placement budgets’ for supported employment – improving competitive employment for people with mental illness: study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Nordt Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vocational integration of people with mental illness is poor despite their willingness to work. The ‘Individual Placement and Support’ (IPS model which emphasises rapid and direct job placement and continuing support to patient and employer has proven to be the most effective vocational intervention programme. Various studies have shown that every second patient with severe mental illness was able to find competitive employment within 18 months. However, the goal of taking up employment within two months was rarely achieved. Thus, we aim to test whether the new concept of limited placement budgets increases the effectiveness of IPS. Methods/Design Six job coaches in six out-patients psychiatric clinics in the Canton of Zurich support unemployed patients of their clinic who seek competitive employment. Between June 2010 and May 2011 patients (N=100 are randomly assigned to three different placement budgets of 25h, 40h, or 55h working hours of job coaches. Support lasts two years for those who find a job. The intervention ends for those who fail to find competitive employment when the respective placement budgets run out. The primary outcome measure is the time between study inclusion and first competitive employment that lasted three months or longer. Over a period of three years interviews are carried out every six months to measure changes in motivation, stigmatization, social network and social support, quality of life, job satisfaction, financial situation, and health conditions. Cognitive and social-cognitive tests are conducted at baseline to control for confounding variables. Discussion This study will show whether the effectiveness of IPS can be increased by the new concept of limited placement budgets. It will also be examined whether competitive employment leads in the long term to an improvement of mental illness, to a transfer of the psychiatric support system to private and vocational networks, to an increase

  19. Student employment

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  20. Equality of employment opportunities for nurses at the point of qualification: an exploratory study.

    Harris, Ruth; Ooms, Ann; Grant, Robert; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Chu, Christine Sek Fun; Sayer, Jane; Burke, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Securing employment after qualification is of utmost importance to newly qualified nurses to consolidate knowledge and skills. The factors that influence success in gaining this first post are not known. The study aimed to describe the first post gained after qualification in terms of setting, nature of employment contract and geographical distribution and explore the relationship between a range of factors (including ethnicity) and employment at the point of qualification. An exploratory study using structured questionnaires and secondary analysis of data routinely collected by the universities about students and their progress during their course. The study was conducted in eight universities within a large, multicultural city in the UK as part of the 'Readiness for Work' research programme. Eight hundred and four newly qualified nurses who had successfully completed a diploma or degree from one of the universities; a response rate of 77% representing 49% of all graduating students in the study population. Data were collected by self-completed semi-structured questionnaires administered to students at the time of qualification and at three months post-qualification. Routinely collected data from the universities were also collected. Fifty two percent of participants had been offered a job at the point of qualification (85% of those who had applied and been interviewed). Of these, 99% had been offered a nursing post, 88% in the city studied, 67% in the healthcare setting where they had completed a course placement. 44% felt "confident" and 32% "very confident" about their employment prospects. Predictors of employment success included ethnicity, specialty of nursing and university attended. Predictors of confidence and preparedness for job seeking included ethnicity, nursing specialty, gender and grade of degree. Newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups were less likely to get a job and feel confident about and prepared for job seeking. This

  1. Perceptions of employers and unemployed youth on the proposed youth employment wage subsidy incentive in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal study

    Vuyokazi N. Mtembu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has high levels of unemployment and severe problem of youth unemployment. This implies that the country requires a comprehensive strategy to create more jobs for the youth. Policymaking is one of the strategies that have been introduced to encourage job creation for the youth. The youth wage subsidy is just one of the strategies proposed and this article unpacks what employers and unemployed youth say and think about this policy directive. Research purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of unemployed South African youth and employers on the proposed youth wage subsidy incentive scheme. Motivation for the study: Youth unemployment is a very important issue and the reality is that it is a concern of every government globally. South Africa is therefore not an exception as it is a country that has been experiencing high levels of youth unemployment for the last few decades. In an attempt to curb this pressing challenge of youth unemployment, a proposal to introduce a youth wage subsidy policy was made by government; (since its mention, this idea has been met with a lot of opposing opinions from those against it and applause from those who support it. This has motivated this study to probe the perceptions of the subsidy by those who will be affected by its provisions. Method: A triangulated research approach was adopted through the administration of survey questionnaires amongst the unemployed youth and semi-structured interviews with human resource managers and specialists. A sample of unemployed youth was drawn from selected communities within KwaZulu-Natal. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource managers and specialists at selected organisations to determine their perceptions of the proposed scheme and any benefits or limitations they believe it might have. Non-probability sampling was used to sample 100 respondents (N = 100, 90% of whom were unemployed

  2. The Employer Potential of MOOCs: A Mixed-Methods Study of Human Resource Professionals' Thinking on MOOCs

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Robles, Jessica; Cataylo, Stacey; Horn, Laura; Thornton, Jessica; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    While press coverage of MOOCs (massive open online courses) has been considerable and major MOOC providers are beginning to realize that employers may be a market for their courses, research on employers' receptivity to using MOOCs is scarce. To help fill this gap, the Finding and Developing Talent study surveyed 103 employers and interviewed a…

  3. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation and cessation among employed mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Schold, Jesse D; Randall, Xian J

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the industrialized world. Studies have shown that full-time employment and early return to work decreased breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the relationship between leave policies and breastfeeding initiation and cessation. This study aimed to identify workplace-related barriers and facilitators associated with breastfeeding initiation and cessation in the first 6 months postpartum. A prospective cohort study design was utilized to recruit 817 Minnesota women aged 18 and older while hospitalized for childbirth. Selection criteria included English-speaking, employed mothers with a healthy, singleton birth. These women were followed up using telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after childbirth. The main study outcomes were breastfeeding initiation, measured during hospital enrollment, and breastfeeding cessation by 6 months postpartum. Women were 30 years old; 86 % were White, and 73 % were married. Breastfeeding rates were 81 % at childbirth, 67 % at 6 weeks, 49 % at 12 weeks, and 33 % at 6 months postpartum. Logistic regression revealed the odds of breastfeeding initiation were higher for women who: held professional jobs, were primiparae, had graduate degree, did not smoke prenatally, had no breastfeeding problems, and had family or friends who breastfeed. Survival analyses showed the hazard for breastfeeding cessation by 6 months was: higher for women who returned to work at any time during the 6 months postpartum versus those who did not return, lower for professional workers, higher among single than married women, higher for every educational category compared to graduate school, and higher for those with no family or friends who breastfeed. While employer paid leave policy did not affect breastfeeding initiation or cessation, women who took shorter leaves were more likely to stop breastfeeding in the first 6 months postpartum. Future research should examine

  4. Trends in study design and the statistical methods employed in a leading general medicine journal.

    Gosho, M; Sato, Y; Nagashima, K; Takahashi, S

    2018-02-01

    Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature. This was an extension study of Sato et al. (N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1086-1087), which reviewed 238 articles published in 2015 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and briefly summarized the statistical methods employed in NEJM. Using the same database, we performed a new investigation of the detailed trends in study design and individual statistical methods that were not reported in the Sato study. Due to the CONSORT statement, prespecification and justification of sample size are obligatory in planning intervention studies. Although standard survival methods (eg Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression model) were most frequently applied, the Gray test and Fine-Gray proportional hazard model for considering competing risks were sometimes used for a more valid statistical inference. With respect to handling missing data, model-based methods, which are valid for missing-at-random data, were more frequently used than single imputation methods. These methods are not recommended as a primary analysis, but they have been applied in many clinical trials. Group sequential design with interim analyses was one of the standard designs, and novel design, such as adaptive dose selection and sample size re-estimation, was sometimes employed in NEJM. Model-based approaches for handling missing data should replace single imputation methods for primary analysis in the light of the information found in some publications. Use of adaptive design with interim analyses is increasing

  5. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post

  6. Investigation into the utility of an immunocytochemical assay in body cavity effusions for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis.

    Felten, Sandra; Matiasek, Kaspar; Gruendl, Stefanie; Sangl, Laura; Wess, Gerhard; Hartmann, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) exist as two biotypes, feline enteric coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus. Although feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a very common disease, the ante-mortem diagnosis of this disease still remains a challenge. Immunofluorescence staining of FCoV in macrophages in effusion has been considered as the reference standard for the diagnosis, but recently this method has been shown to have lower specificity than previously reported. In addition, this method is not widely available and requires the use of fluorescence microscopes. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to evaluate the diagnostic potential of an immunocytochemical (ICC) assay using body cavity effusion. Methods Effusion samples from 27 cats with immunohistochemically confirmed FIP and 29 cats with suspected FIP but a definitive diagnosis of another disease were examined. ICC specimens were evaluated with respect to positive immunostaining. In addition, effusion samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and evaluated cytologically. Results A diagnostic sensitivity of 85.2% was recorded for effusion specimens (95% confidence interval [CI] 66.3-95.8), while the diagnostic specificity was only 72.4% (95% CI 52.8-87.3). Conclusions and relevance Once the clinical disease of FIP develops in a cat, it always leads to death, and most of the cats are euthanased within a few days or weeks. As false-positive results might lead to euthanasia of cats suffering from potentially treatable diseases, the diagnostic specificity of a diagnostic tool is the most important factor in a fatal disease like FIP. Thus, the diagnostic utility of this test proved to be insufficient and positive ICC results should be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, full-body necropsy could not be performed in 13/29 control cats. It is possible that these cats actually suffered from early-stage FIP and that this fact might have influenced the diagnostic specificity of the ICC

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptors in the normal male and female canine urinary tract and prostate

    Schulze, H.; Barrack, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    We have used the monoclonal estrogen receptor (ER) antibody H222Sp gamma to localize ER by immunocytochemistry in frozen sections of the normal canine urinary tract of both sexes and of the normal prostate of the male. Striking regional heterogeneity of ER location was observed. In the urinary tract, specific ER staining was confined to nuclei of the transitional epithelium (mucosa) and subjacent stroma (submucosa) of the prostatic urethra in the male dog and of the proximal urethra in the female dog. In both sexes there was a gradient of ER staining intensity along these urethral segments. In the male, ER staining intensity was highest in the region of the verumontanum. The pattern and intensity of staining were similar in the male prostatic urethra and female proximal urethra, indicating a similar concentration of ER in these tissues, which have the same embryological origin. No specific staining was found in the kidney, ureter, bladder, or distal urethra of either sex. In the normal prostate, specific immunocytochemical ER staining was confined to nuclei of the prostatic stroma and prostatic ductal epithelium. Specific staining intensity appeared to be higher in the periurethral region of the prostate than in the periphery. No specific staining was found in the acinar epithelium of the prostate. Based on overall staining intensity there appeared to be a higher concentration of ER in the urethra than in the prostate. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]estradiol binding confirmed a similar ER content in the urethra of male and female dogs and a higher ER content in the prostatic urethra than in the prostate itself (P less than 0.001)

  8. Immunocytochemical expression of monocarboxylate transporters in the human visual cortex at midgestation.

    Fayol, Laurence; Baud, Olivier; Monier, Anne; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre; Evrard, Philippe; Verney, Catherine

    2004-01-31

    Lactate and the other monocarboxylates are a major energy source for the developing brain. We investigated the immunocytochemical expression of two monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and MCT2, in the human visual cortex between 13 and 26 post-ovulatory weeks. We used immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence techniques to determine whether these transporters co-localized with markers for blood vessels (CD34), neurons (microtubule-associated protein 2 [MAP2], SMI 311), radial glia (vimentin), or astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], S100beta protein). MCT1 immunoreactivity was visible in blood vessel walls as early as the 13th week of gestation mainly in the cortical plate and subplate. At this stage, less than 10% of vessels in the ventricular layer expressed MCT1, whereas all blood vessels walls showed this immunoreactivity at the 26th gestational week. Starting at the 19th week of gestation, sparse MCT1 positive cell bodies were detected, some of them co-localized with MAP2 immunoreactivity. MCT2 immunoreactivity was noted in astrocytic cell bodies from week 19 and spread subsequently to the astrocyte end-feet in contact with blood vessels. MCTs immunoreactivities were most marked in the subplate and deep cortical plate, where the most differentiated neurons were located. Our findings suggest that monocarboxylate trafficking between vessels (MCT1), astrocytes (MCT2) and some postmitotic neurons (MCT1) could develop gradually toward 20 gestational weeks (g.w.). These data suggest that lactate or other monocarboxylates could represent a significant energy source for the human visual cortex at this early stage.

  9. Type of employment relationship and mortality: prospective study among Finnish employees in 1984-2000.

    Nätti, Jouko; Kinnunen, Ulla; Mäkikangas, Anne; Mauno, Saija

    2009-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the type of employment (permanent/temporary) contract and mortality. Factors through which temporary employment was expected to be associated with increased mortality were the degree of satisfaction with the uncertainty related to temporary work situation (Study 1) and the voluntary/involuntary basis for temporary work (Study 2). In Study 1 the data consisted of representative survey on Finnish employees in 1984 (n = 4502), which was merged with register-based follow-up data in Statistics Finland covering years 1985-2000. In Study 2 the data consisted of representative survey on Finnish employees in 1990 (n = 3502) with register-based follow-up data covering years 1991-2000. The relative risk of death was examined by conducting Cox proportional hazards analyses for the permanent and the two temporary employment groups, respectively. In Study 1 temporary employees feeling the insecure situation unsatisfactory had a 1.95-fold higher risk of mortality than permanent employees (95% CI 1.13-3.35) after adjusted for background, health- and work-related factors. In Study 2 employees in the position of having a temporary job on the involuntarily basis had a 2.59-fold higher risk of mortality than permanent employees (95% CI 1.16-5.80). The present study confirmed that temporary employees are not a homogeneous group, which holds true even for mortality. Those temporary employees, who either felt the insecure situation unsatisfactory or who worked in temporary work involuntarily, had higher risk of mortality than permanent employees.

  10. Balancing dual roles in self-employed women: An exploratory study

    Kirsty-Lee McLellan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at exploring how self-employed women cope in balancing their dual roles as mothers and executives. Through the elicitation of constructs by making use of Kelly’s repertory grid technique, the personal construct system of five self-employed white women in Gauteng across varying industries was established. While being successful dual earners, they still bore the primary responsibility for nurturing their families and assuring their well-being. The successful balancing of their dual roles was attributed to the following central themes, which emerged from all the participants: quality time spent with children and family, structure and planning, coping with guilt, support structures and self-reliance, and balance between work and life.

  11. Trust-based or performance-based management: a study of employment contracting in hospitals.

    Pettersen, Inger Johanne

    2011-01-01

    Hospitals are frequently changing managerial practices due to numerous public sector reforms taking place. In general, these reforms include the making and monitoring of contracts that regulate relations between the hospitals and their professional staffs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some main characteristics of the contracts that regulate the perceived relations between physicians as employees and the public hospital as employer. The theoretical framework is based on a contract theory approach. The empirical data is based on survey data from full-time employed physicians in the medical and surgical divisions in one of the largest university hospitals in Norway. This study shows that perceived obligations and psychological contracts indicate high degree of relational contracts between the hospital and the physicians. These socio-cultural elements should be recognized as important mechanisms of coordination and communication when policy makers and hospital managers are designing hospital management control systems. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Job design, employment practices and well-being: a systematic review of intervention studies.

    Daniels, Kevin; Gedikli, Cigdem; Watson, David; Semkina, Antonina; Vaughn, Oluwafunmilayo

    2017-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that deliberate attempts to improve job design realise improvements in well-being. We investigated the role of other employment practices, either as instruments for job redesign or as instruments that augment job redesign. Our primary outcome was well-being. Where studies also assessed performance, we considered performance as an outcome. We reviewed 33 intervention studies. We found that well-being and performance may be improved by: training workers to improve their own jobs; training coupled with job redesign; and system wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design and a range of other employment practices. We found insufficient evidence to make any firm conclusions concerning the effects of training managers in job redesign and that participatory approaches to improving job design have mixed effects. Successful implementation of interventions was associated with worker involvement and engagement with interventions, managerial commitment to interventions and integration of interventions with other organisational systems. Practitioner Summary: Improvements in well-being and performance may be associated with system-wide approaches that simultaneously enhance job design, introduce a range of other employment practices and focus on worker welfare. Training may have a role in initiating job redesign or augmenting the effects of job design on well-being.

  13. Recession, employment and self-rated health: a study on the gender gap.

    Aguilar-Palacio, I; Carrera-Lasfuentes, P; Sánchez-Recio, R; Alonso, J P; Rabanaque, M J

    2018-01-01

    Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap. Repeated cross-sectional study using Spanish health surveys (2001-2014). Logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status and its evolution over time and gender. To test the impact of the economic recession, pooled data regression models were conducted. In this study, we considered 104,577 subjects. During the last 15 years, women have entered the labour market, leading to wide changes in the Spanish traditional family roles. Instead of an increasing proportion of women workers, gender employment differences persist. Therefore, in 2014, the prevalence of workers was 55.77% in men, whereas in women, it was 44.01%. Self-rated health trends during the economic recession differ by gender, with women improving slightly their self-rated health from a low self-rated health prevalence of 38.76% in 2001 to 33.78% in 2014. On the contrary, men seem more vulnerable to employment circumstances, which have led to substantial reduction in the gender gap. Although a gender gap persists, the change in socio-economic roles seems to increase women's self-rated health, reducing this gap. It is important to promote women's labour market inclusion, even in economic recession periods. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality and the gender gap in self-employment: a multi-nation study.

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    What role does personality play in the pervasive gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe? This two-study analysis focuses on self-employment in the working population and underlying gender differences in personality characteristics, thereby considering both single trait dimensions as well as a holistic, configural personality approach. Applying the five-factor model of personality, Study 1, our main study, investigates mediation models in the prediction of self-employment status utilizing self-reported personality data from large-scaled longitudinal datasets collected in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., and Australia (total N = 28,762). Study 2 analyzes (observer-rated) Big Five data collected in 51 cultures (total N = 12,156) to take a more global perspective and to explore the pancultural universality of gender differences in entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Across the four countries investigated in Study 1, none of the major five dimension of personality turned out as a consistent and robust mediator. In contrast, the holistic, configural approach yielded consistent and robust mediation results. Across the four countries, males scored higher on an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile, which in turn predicted self-employment status. These results suggest that gender differences in the intra-individual configuration of personality traits contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe. With the restriction of limited representativeness, the data from Study 2 suggest that the gender difference in the entrepreneurship-prone personality profile (males score higher) is widespread across many cultures, but may not exist in all. The results are discussed with an emphasis on implications for research and practice, which a particular focus on the need for more complex models that incorporate the role of personality.

  15. Personality and the Gender Gap in Self-Employment: A Multi-Nation Study

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Terracciano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    What role does personality play in the pervasive gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe? This two-study analysis focuses on self-employment in the working population and underlying gender differences in personality characteristics, thereby considering both single trait dimensions as well as a holistic, configural personality approach. Applying the five-factor model of personality, Study 1, our main study, investigates mediation models in the prediction of self-employment status utilizing self-reported personality data from large-scaled longitudinal datasets collected in the U.S., Germany, the U.K., and Australia (total N = 28,762). Study 2 analyzes (observer-rated) Big Five data collected in 51 cultures (total N = 12,156) to take a more global perspective and to explore the pancultural universality of gender differences in entrepreneurial personality characteristics. Across the four countries investigated in Study 1, none of the major five dimension of personality turned out as a consistent and robust mediator. In contrast, the holistic, configural approach yielded consistent and robust mediation results. Across the four countries, males scored higher on an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile, which in turn predicted self-employment status. These results suggest that gender differences in the intra-individual configuration of personality traits contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship across the globe. With the restriction of limited representativeness, the data from Study 2 suggest that the gender difference in the entrepreneurship-prone personality profile (males score higher) is widespread across many cultures, but may not exist in all. The results are discussed with an emphasis on implications for research and practice, which a particular focus on the need for more complex models that incorporate the role of personality. PMID:25089706

  16. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  17. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada.

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the number, demographic characteristics, work patterns, exit rates, and work perceptions of nurses in Ontario, Canada, in 4 specialty classifications: advanced practice nurse (APN)-clinical nurse specialist (CNS), APN-other, primary healthcare nurse practitioner [RN(extended class [EC])], and registered nurse (RN) with specialty certification. The objectives were to (1) describe how many qualified nurses are available by specialty class; (2) create a demographic profile of specialist nurses; (3) determine the proportions of specialist and nonspecialist nurses who leave (a) direct patient care and (b) nursing practice annually; (4) determine whether specialist and nonspecialist nurses differ in their self-ratings of work environment, job satisfaction, and intention to remain in nursing. Employment patterns refer to nurses' employment status (eg, full-time, part-time, casual), work duration (ie, length of employment in nurses and in current role), and work transitions (ie, movement in and out of the nursing workforce, and movement out of current role). A longitudinal analysis of the Ontario nurses' registration database from 2005 to 2010 and a survey of specialist nurses in Canada was conducted. The setting was Canada. The database sample consisted of 3 specialist groups, consisting of RN(EC), CNS, and APN-other, as well as 1 nonspecialist RN staff nurse group. The survey sample involved 359 nurses who were classified into groups based on self-reported job title and RN specialty-certification status. Data sources included College of Nurses of Ontario registration database and survey data. The study measures were the Nursing Work Index, a 4-item measure of job satisfaction, and 1-item measure of intent to leave current job. Nurses registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario were tracked over the study period to identify changes in their employment status with comparisons made between nurses employed in specialist roles and those

  18. Time-greedy employment relationships: four studies on the time claims of post-Fordist work

    van Echtelt, P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and over-employment, using a multi-firm survey in the Netherlands. We test a range of explanations of why people would agree to work overtime for no pay. We also examine how and under what conditions working o...

  19. The influence of coping styles on long-term employment in multiple sclerosis: A prospective study.

    Grytten, Nina; Skår, Anne Br; Aarseth, Jan Harald; Assmus, Jorg; Farbu, Elisabeth; Lode, Kirsten; Nyland, Harald I; Smedal, Tori; Myhr, Kjell Morten

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate predictive values of coping styles, clinical and demographic factors on time to unemployment in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) during 1998-2002 in Norway. All patients ( N = 108) diagnosed with MS 1998-2002 in Hordaland and Rogaland counties, Western Norway, were invited to participate in the long-term follow-up study in 2002. Baseline recordings included disability scoring (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)), depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)), and questionnaire assessing coping (the Dispositional Coping Styles Scale (COPE)). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with unemployed at baseline, and Cox regression analysis to identify factors at baseline associated with time to unemployment during follow-up. In all, 41 (44%) were employed at baseline. After 13 years follow-up in 2015, mean disease duration of 22 years, 16 (17%) were still employed. Median time from baseline to unemployment was 6 years (±5). Older age at diagnosis, female gender, and depression were associated with patients being unemployed at baseline. Female gender, long disease duration, and denial as avoidant coping strategy at baseline predicted shorter time to unemployment. Avoidant coping style, female gender, and longer disease duration were associated with shorter time to unemployment. These factors should be considered when advising patients on MS and future employment.

  20. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  1. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Mæland, John Gunnar; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1) a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2) can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946) aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12), somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351) had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156); group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439) were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the increasing focus on non

  2. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  3. An integrative model for measuring graduates’ employability skills—A study in China

    Wenping Su

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Employability is a key issue in graduates’ job-hunting, but little research has been done on that of the graduates in Chinese universities. These universities have been experiencing a decline in their graduate employment since the past decade. This paper attempts to tackle this issue. It reviews the relevant research on employability and develops a research-based theoretical framework to evaluate and analyze the graduates’ employability in China. It adopts multiple approaches to establish the skills that will enhance university students’ employability. Investigating around 100 employers and 200 undergraduates from the universities in Beijing, the paper explores the characteristics of and factors influencing the graduates’ employability. Subsequently, it proposes a qualitative model to measure graduates’ employability. Based on the findings, it discusses the theoretical and practical implications and provides advice for Chinese graduates to improve their employability.

  4. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed: a historic register study.

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Van der Klink, Jac J L; De Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-02

    Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated self-employed. In a historic register study based on insurance company files risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression analysis. Data collected at application for private disability insurance from 634 applicants were related to subsequent sickness absence periods of 30 days or more during a follow-up period of 7.95 years. Variables studied were self-reported lifestyle variables, variables concerning medical history and present health conditions and variables derived from the general medical examination including blood tests and urinary analysis. Results from analysis of data from 634 applicants for private disability insurance show that previous periods of sickness absence (OR 2.07), female gender (OR 2.04), health complaints listed in the health declaration (OR 1.88), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 4.05) and the nature of the profession were related to a higher risk of sickness absence. Sickness absence was found to be related to demographic variables (gender, profession), medical variables (health complaints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and to variables with both a medical and a behavioural component (previous sickness absence).

  5. The Relationship between Employer Endorsement of Continuing Education and Training and Work and Study Performance: A Hong Kong Case Study

    Hung, Humphry; Wong, Yiu Hing

    2007-01-01

    Based on psychological contract theory and expectancy disconfirmation theory, we posit that if employers support their staff by endorsing their continuing education and training, these employees will in turn be more satisfied and will perform better not only in their studies but also in their jobs. We also propose that such an endorsement will…

  6. Occupational health of self-employed women workers. Experiences from community based studies of the Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA).

    Chatterjee, M

    1993-02-01

    The Self-Employed Workers' Association (SEWA) has conducted 4 longitudinal, community-based studies to survey the occupational health of self-employed women in Ahmedabad and Indore, India. It included the workers in all stages of research. SEWA staff examined women in readymade garment, bidi, agarbatti, and masala fields. Since SEWA did not use control groups, they could not establish cause and effect relationships. Masala workers had the highest illiteracy rate (66%). At least 50% of all workers (89% of readymade garment workers) worked 8-12 hours/day. Daily wages of most workers did not exceed Rs.10, confirming their low poverty level. The most common occupational health problem while working was pain in the limbs for bidi (63%) and readymade garment workers (80%). They also experienced back pain and headaches. After work, back pain was common among agarbatti (73%) and masala (39%) workers. Masala workers also suffered from blisters and calluses (51%) and burning sensation (45%), particularly in their hands. Gynecological problems (e.g., early periods, white discharge, and burning sensation while urinating) and abdominal pain were common in all 4 groups. These results demonstrated a need for further research on occupational health and gynecological diseases; health facilities to adjust services to meet self-employed workers needs; provision of safe and subsidized tools, safety equipment, benefits (e.g., sick leave and child care), and health insurance; and health education. SEWA recommends that self-employed workers receive identity cards, the government enforce minimum wage laws and regulate working hours, and workers are provided basic amenities (e.g., potable water and sanitation).

  7. Do employers value international study and internships? A comparative analysis of 31 countries

    Van Mol, C.

    2017-01-01

    International student mobility is often promoted as enhancing graduates’ employability in globalised labour markets. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on this assumed causal link remains limited. Particularly the perspectives of employers remains understudied. Therefore, in this paper I analyse (1)

  8. OPINION OF YOUTH ON ISSUES AND CHALLENGES RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT: A STUDY IN MYSORE CITY

    Dr. Mohan A.K

    2017-01-01

    Employment status is one of the developmental indicators of nation. For this two things are vital, one is availability of employment opportunities and second is skillful workforce. Employment and skills are linked with many other social, economic and demographic factors. India is hoping to excel economically using its youth power. Hence many skill development programmes linked with employment options are being provided to youth by government and non-government agencies. However, the issue of ...

  9. Labour Markets and Employment Practices in the Age of Flexibility: A Case Study of Silicon Valley.

    Carnoy, Martin; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Flexible employment has accounted for more than half of Silicon Valley's total employment growth in the past 10 years. Flexible employment has become a permanent strategy that may create insecurity for low-skilled workers; it also leads to a high turnover rate among highly skilled workers. (JOW)

  10. Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne; Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of young children are increasingly combining paid work with childrearing. Empirical evidence on the effects of maternal employment on children is contradictory and little work has considered the impact of maternal employment within the context of the employment patterns of both parents. Data on parental employment across three sweeps (when children were in infancy, age 3 and age 5 y) of the Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative prospective birth cohort study, were used to investigate the relation between parental employment and child socio-emotional behaviour at age 5 years independent of maternal education, maternal depression or household income. The cumulative effect of maternal employment across the early years was investigated. The impact of maternal employment in the first year of life was separately examined as a potentially 'sensitive period'. There was no evidence of detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years on subsequent child socio-emotional behaviour. There were significant gender differences in the effects of parental employment on behavioural outcomes. The most beneficial working arrangement for both girls and boys was that in which both mothers and fathers were present in the household and in paid work independent of maternal educational attainment and household income. No detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years were seen. There were important gender differences in relationships between parental working arrangements and child socio-emotional outcomes.

  11. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  12. A STUDY ON EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS OF MBA STUDENTS FROM THE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTES IN THE STATE OF KERALA

    Bindhu Ann Thomas; Dr. K. V. Unninarayanan

    2018-01-01

    This study of employability skills among management students identifies various abilities of students including communication skills, problem solving skills , planning and organising skills , interpersonal skills, motivation skills, attitude skills , leadership skill, team work skills, decision making skills, computer skills, learning skills, and functional skills. This study identifies the mean score of each skill and overall employability skills possessed by managements students in the sta...

  13. Interviewing in Virtual Worlds: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Success Factors of Job Applicants Utilizing Second Life to Gain Employment

    Koufoudakis-Whittington, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of success factors of job applicants utilizing Second Life to gain employment. The study focused on identifying the perception of what qualified as a successful interview through the lived common experiences of 16 employment recruiters. The research problem was that a gap existed in scholarly research on…

  14. Parental employment, income, education and allergic disorders in children: a prebirth cohort study in Japan.

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Sasaki, S; Hirota, Y

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between socio-economic status and allergic disorders has been inconsistent. We examined the associations between maternal employment, maternal job type, household income, and paternal and maternal educational levels and the risk of allergic disorders in Japanese children aged 4.5 years. Subjects were 480 mother-child pairs. Definitions of wheeze and eczema symptoms were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were available. Compared with children whose mothers had received less than 13 years of education, those with mothers with ≥15 years of education had a significantly increased risk of wheeze and doctor-diagnosed asthma: the adjusted ORs were respectively 2.41 (95%CI 1.18-5.17) and 2.70 (95%CI 1.03-8.08). Fifteen years or more of paternal education was independently associated with an increased risk of eczema, but not of doctor-diagnosed atopic eczema (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.07-3.42). Mother's employment, mother's job type and household income were not related to any of the outcomes. Higher maternal educational level may increase the risk of wheeze and asthma, while higher paternal educational level may increase the risk of eczema.

  15. A transdiagnostic study of education, employment, and training outcomes in young people with mental illness.

    Lee, R S C; Hermens, D F; Scott, J; O'Dea, B; Glozier, N; Scott, E M; Hickie, I B

    2017-09-01

    Optimizing functional recovery in young individuals with severe mental illness constitutes a major healthcare priority. The current study sought to quantify the cognitive and clinical factors underpinning academic and vocational engagement in a transdiagnostic and prospective youth mental health cohort. The primary outcome measure was 'not in education, employment or training' ('NEET') status. A clinical sample of psychiatric out-patients aged 15-25 years (n = 163) was assessed at two time points, on average, 24 months apart. Functional status, and clinical and neuropsychological data were collected. Bayesian structural equation modelling was used to confirm the factor structure of predictors and cross-lagged effects at follow-up. Individually, NEET status, cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms at baseline were predictive of NEET status at follow-up (p education, employment or training (i.e. being NEET) was reported in about one in four members of this cohort. The initial level of cognitive functioning was the strongest determinant of future NEET status, whereas being academically or vocationally engaged had an impact on future negative symptomatology. If replicated, these findings support the need to develop early interventions that target cognitive phenotypes transdiagnostically.

  16. Employment as a Journey or a Destination? Interpreting Graduates' and Employers' Perceptions--A Malaysia Case Study

    Cheong, Kee-Cheok; Hill, Christopher; Leong, Yin-Ching; Zhang, Chen

    2018-01-01

    As human capital came to the fore in the discourse on economic growth, so too has the concepts of employment prospects and employability attributes as students transit to the labor market. This paper examines three issues in this transition in the context of Malaysia. These are, first, how important is employment prospects a consideration when…

  17. Effects of child long-term illness on maternal employment: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal employment has increased in European countries, but levels of employment are lower among mothers whose children have a limiting long-term illness or disability. However, we do not know whether having a child with a limiting illness prevents take-up or maintenance of paid employment or whether ‘common causes’, such as lack of qualifications or maternal disability lead to both maternal unemployment and childhood illness. Longitudinal data have the potential to distinguish between these. Methods: We analyzed four waves (3, 5, 7 and 11 years) of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine the relationship between childhood limiting illness and maternal employment, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. Multinomial regression models were used to test the association between child illness and trajectories of maternal employment. Fixed effects models assessed whether a new report of a child illness increased the odds of a mother exiting employment. Results: At every wave, maternal employment was more likely if the child did not have a limiting illness. After adjustment for covariates, childhood illness was associated with risks of continuous non-employment (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio = 1.46 [Confidence Interval: 1.21, 1.76]) or disrupted employment (aRRR = 1.26 [CI: 1.06, 1.49]), compared with entering or maintaining employment. If a child developed a limiting long-term illness, the likelihood of their mother exiting employment increased (adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.27 [CI: 1.05, 1.54]). Conclusions: ‘Common causes’ did not fully account for the association between child illness and maternal employment. Having a child with a limiting illness potentially reduces maternal employment opportunities. PMID:28177497

  18. A Multilevel Study of Students' Motivations of Studying Accounting: Implications for Employers

    Law, Philip; Yuen, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of factors affecting students' choice of accounting as a study major in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: Multinomial logistic regression and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) are used to analyze the survey data for the level one and level two data, which is the…

  19. Immunocytochemical Characterization of Alzheimer Disease Hallmarks in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Treated with a New Anti-Amyloid-β Vaccine

    Iván Carrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available APP/PS1 double-transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which overexpress mutated forms of the gene for human amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin 1 (PS1, have provided robust neuropathological hallmarks of AD-like pattern at early ages. This study characterizes immunocytochemical patterns of AD mouse brain as a model for human AD treated with the EB101 vaccine. In this novel vaccine, a new approach has been taken to circumvent past failures by judiciously selecting an adjuvant consisting of a physiological matrix embedded in liposomes, composed of naturally occurring phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cholesterol. Our findings showed that administration of amyloid-β1−42 (Aβ and sphingosine-1-phosphate emulsified in liposome complex (EB101 to APP/PS1 mice before onset of Aβ deposition (7 weeks of age and/or at an older age (35 weeks of age is effective in halting the progression and clearing the AD-like neuropathological hallmarks. Passive immunization with EB101 did not activate inflammatory responses from the immune system and astrocytes. Consistent with a decreased inflammatory background, the basal immunological interaction between the T cells and the affected areas (hippocampus in the brain of treated mice was notably reduced. These results demonstrate that immunization with EB101 vaccine prevents and attenuates AD neuropathology in this type of double-transgenic mice.

  20. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  1. The Employers' View of "Work-Ready" Graduates: A Study of Advertisements for Marketing Jobs in Australia

    McArthur, Ellen; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Pang, Bo; Alcaraz, Celeste

    2017-01-01

    This study of job advertisements extends our understanding of how employers, rather than researchers, describe the specific skills and attributes sought in candidates for employment in graduate marketing roles in Australia. The article presents the findings of a content analysis of 359 marketing job advertisements downloaded in 2016, in two…

  2. A simple method employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies

    Prendez B, M.M.; Ortiz C, J.L.; Garrido, J.I.; Huerta P, R.; Alvarez B, C.; Zolezzi C, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the multielement routine analysis of atmospheric particulate matter is described. The samples collected on four different types of filters were treated with HNO 3 and HCl at 110-120 deg C in pyrex glassware. Time required for the different stages of the treatment was determined by using 60 Co, 65 Zn and 137 Cs as radioactive tracers. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of the elements. The efficiency for 11 elements (Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was determined. The method was succesfully employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies in both urban and rural areas. (author)

  3. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contemporary employment arrangements and mental well-being in men and women across Europe: a cross-sectional study.

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-10-28

    There is the tendency in occupational health research of approximating the 'changed world of work' with a sole focus on the intrinsic characteristics of the work task, encompassing the job content and working conditions. This is insufficient to explain the mental health risks associated with contemporary paid work as not only the nature of work tasks have changed but also the terms and conditions of employment. The main aim of the present study is to investigate whether a set of indicators referring to quality of the employment arrangement is associated with the well-being of people in salaried employment. Associations between the quality of contemporary employment arrangements and mental well-being in salaried workers are investigated through a multidimensional set of indicators for employment quality (contract type; income; irregular and/or unsocial working hours; employment status; training; participation; and representation). The second and third aim are to investigate whether the relation between employment quality and mental well-being is different for employed men and women and across different welfare regimes. Cross-sectional data of salaried workers aged 15-65 from 21 EU-member states (n =11,940) were obtained from the 2010 European Social Survey. Linear regression analyses were performed. For both men and women, and irrespective of welfare regime, several sub-dimensions of low employment quality are significantly related with poor mental well-being. Most of the significant relations persist after controlling for intrinsic job characteristics. An insufficient household income and irregular and/or unsocial working hours are the strongest predictors of poor mental well-being. A differential vulnerability of employed men and women to the sub-dimensions of employment quality is found in Traditional family and Southern European welfare regimes. There are significant relations between indicators of low employment quality and poor mental well-being, also when

  5. Study of osteoporosis through the measurement of bone mineral density, trace elements and immunocytochemicals

    Aras, N.K; Alkan, S.; Yilmaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary purposes of the coordinated research program was to measure BMD of the healthy population of the ages between 15 and 49 based on the protocol discussed during the first research coordination meeting, RCM, in Vienna, December 12-15, 1994. The work carried out since then can be divided into several topics. Each of these subjects will be summarized in the following sections. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was used for determination of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn and Cu in bone samples. Sample preparation is a critical step prior to AAS. It requires the oxidation of organic matter of biological samples to prepare a solution ready for analysis of mineral elements. For bone samples, for dissolution purposes several acid or acid mixtures can be used. For the preparation of bone samples for AAS, cleaned, separated from blood, muscle and fat, powdered and homogenized bone samples were dissolved in nitric acid. Different dissolution procedures such as hot plate dissolution, dissolution at room temperature and microwave dissolution were tried. After these experiments, microwave dissolution procedure was chosen as the main digestion method for its following advantages: Rapid dissolution (only 8 minutes), complete digestion, minimal reagent consumption, sample integrity which allows volatile element determination, lower reagent blank and potential automation. Bone samples weighing approximately 300 mg will be irradiated with thermal neutrons at Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, TR-2 Reactor in Istanbul. Gamma rays of the radioactive isotopes of the samples will be measured with the nuclear spectroscopy system at the Department of Chemistry, METU. We have already analyzed five bone samples (cortical and trabecular parts separately) weighing approximately 200 mg, both short and long irradiation at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NUT), USA

  6. Immunocytochemical studies on the naupliar nervous system of Balanus improvisus (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thecostraca)

    Semmler, Henrike; Wanninger, Andreas; Høeg, Jens T

    2008-01-01

    of the branchiopod, Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 in our analysis. We describe several characteristic neurons in the brains of the nauplius larvae of both species which are also found in decapod larvae and in adult brains of other crustaceans. Furthermore, our data reveal that the naupliar brain of cirripedes...

  7. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide

  8. Actinomyces israelii in osteoradionecrosis of the jaws. Histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of five cases

    Happonen, R.P.; Viander, M.; Pelliniemi, L.; Aitasalo, K.

    1983-01-01

    Five surgically treated patients with osteoradionecrosis of the jaws are presented. The clinical history of the disease varied from 3 to 17 years. In three cases the progression of the disease was enhanced by surgical procedures performed in the irradiated area causing exfoliation of the premaxillary area in one case and spontaneous mandibular fracture in two cases. Actinomyces israelii was demonstrated in tissue sections of all five cases by using FITC-labeled specific antiserum and additionally with peroxidase-antiperoxidase method in one case. Candida was found in histologic sections of three cases. Radiation damage in the oral soft tissues and jawbones makes the atmosphere favorable for anaerobic microorganisms. The present results indicate that the role of A. israelii in the pathogenesis of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws has not been fully appreciated

  9. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  10. Influences of Women's Employment on the Gendered Division of Household Labor over the Life Course: Evidence from a 31-Year Panel Study

    Cunningham, Mick

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on data from a panel study of White women spanning 31 years, the analyses examine the influence of women's employment on the gendered division of household labor. Multiple dimensions of women's employment are investigated, including accumulated employment histories, current employment status, current employment hours, and relative income.…

  11. Maternal employment and atopic dermatitis in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Wang, I J; Wen, H J; Chiang, T L; Lin, S J; Chen, P C; Guo, Y L

    2013-04-01

    Considering the early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD), which most often arises in the first year of life, risk factors occurring very early in life must be considered. Little is known about the effects of maternal occupational exposure on the development of atopic disorders in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between maternal employment and childhood AD. We used multistage stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 mother-newborn pairs from the Taiwan national birth register. Information on maternal occupation categories, work stress, working time, shift work and potential confounders during pregnancy was gathered by questionnaires after birth. At 3 years of age, information on the development of AD was assessed by home interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the association of maternal employment and AD. Overall, 11,962 out of 19,381 mothers (61·7%) worked during pregnancy. The children of mothers who worked during pregnancy had an increased risk of AD compared with those whose mothers did not work [odds ratio (OR) 1·38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·25-1·53]. The children of mothers with a professional or technical occupation had a higher risk of AD (OR 1·64, 95% CI 1·44-1·87). The risk of AD was found to increase with maternal work stress during pregnancy in a dose-response manner (P(trend)maternal shift work was found. Working in professional or technical occupations increased the risk of childhood AD in addition to work stress during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors. BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands

    van Solinge, H.

    2014-01-01

    Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the

  13. Information Management Graduates' Accounts of Their Employability: A Case Study from the University of Sheffield

    Cox, Andrew M.; Al Daoud, Mohammad; Rudd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring that graduates are employable is an important priority for universities. It is challenging for fields such as Information Management (IM), that are not fully understood by employers and where there is no very clearly defined entry level job market. This paper takes a graduate identity perspective to explore how IM graduates from the…

  14. A Study on Relationship between Personality Traits and Employment Factors of College Students

    Kai-Wen, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The goal of vocational education is to enhance students' professional knowledge, technical skills, and professional ethics to make them readily available for employment and capable of satisfying the needs of economic constructions. Vocational education plays an important role in guiding and assisting students in seeking employment. However, in…

  15. "Employment and arthritis: making it work" a randomized controlled trial evaluating an online program to help people with inflammatory arthritis maintain employment (study protocol).

    Carruthers, Erin C; Rogers, Pamela; Backman, Catherine L; Goldsmith, Charles H; Gignac, Monique A; Marra, Carlo; Village, Judy; Li, Linda C; Esdaile, John M; Lacaille, Diane

    2014-07-21

    Arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions are the leading cause of long-term work disability (WD), an outcome with a major impact on quality of life and a high cost to society. The importance of decreased at-work productivity has also recently been recognized. Despite the importance of these problems, few interventions have been developed to reduce the impact of arthritis on employment. We have developed a novel intervention called "Making It Work", a program to help people with inflammatory arthritis (IA) deal with employment issues, prevent WD and improve at-work productivity. After favorable results in a proof-of-concept study, we converted the program to a web-based format for broader dissemination and improved accessibility. The objectives of this study are: 1) to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the effectiveness of the program at preventing work cessation and improving at-work productivity; 2) to perform a cost-utility analysis of the intervention. 526 participants with IA will be recruited from British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario in Canada. The intervention consists of a) 5 online group sessions; b) 5 web-based e-learning modules; c) consultations with an occupational therapist for an ergonomic work assessment and a vocational rehabilitation counselor. Questionnaires will be administered online at baseline and every 6 months to collect information about demographics, disease measures, costs, work-related risk factors for WD, quality of life, and work outcomes. Primary outcomes include at-work productivity and time to work cessation of > 6 months for any reason. Secondary outcomes include temporary work cessation, number of days missed from work per year, reduction in hours worked per week, quality adjusted life year for the cost utility analysis, and changes from baseline in employment risk factors. Analysis of Variance will evaluate the intervention's effect on at-work productivity, and multivariable Cox regression models will

  16. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...

  17. The cost and benefits of employment: a qualitative study of experiences of persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Johnson, Kurt L; Yorkston, Kathryn M; Klasner, Estelle R; Kuehn, Carrie M; Johnson, Erica; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2004-02-01

    To attain a better understanding of the benefits and barriers faced by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the workplace. Qualitative research methodology comprising a series of semistructured interviews. Community-based setting. Fourteen women and 2 men with MS living in the community who were employed or recently employed at the time of interviews. Not applicable. Accounts of personal experiences related to employment. Four themes emerged: the cost-benefit economy of working; fatigue and cognitive changes; stress in the workplace; and accommodations made to address barriers. Although participants valued work highly, they were also aware of the cost of being employed. The consequences of unemployment or changing jobs were considered negative and appeared stressful. For persons with MS, employment had both costs and significant benefits. Accommodations in the workplace and modifications of roles and responsibilities at home made it possible for individuals to continue working. Health care providers must consider the complexity and timing of decisions by people with MS to continue or leave employment before recommending either action. Identifying critical periods of intervention to stabilize this cost-benefit balance is a critical next step for understanding issues of employment and MS.

  18. Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Evanoff, Bradley; Kymes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with pre-employment nerve conduction testing as a screening tool for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the workplace. We used a Markov decision analysis model to compare the costs associated with a strategy of screening all prospective employees for CTS and not hiring those with abnormal nerve conduction, versus a strategy of not screening for CTS. The variables included in our model included employee turnover rate, the incidence of CTS, the prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities, the relative risk of developing CTS conferred by abnormal nerve conduction screening, the costs of pre-employment screening, and the worker's compensation costs to the employer for each case of CTS. In our base case, total employer costs for CTS from the perspective of the employer (cost of screening plus costs for workers' compensation associated with CTS) were higher when screening was used. Median costs per employee position over five years were US$503 for the screening strategy versus US$200 for a no-screening strategy. A sensitivity analysis showed that a strategy of screening was cost-beneficial from the perspective of the employer only under a few circumstances. Using Monte Carlo simulation varying all parameters, we found a 30% probability that screening would be cost-beneficial. A strategy of pre-employment screening for CTS should be carefully evaluated for yield and social consequences before being implemented. Our model suggests such screening is not appropriate for most employers.

  19. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  20. Neighbourhood effects as indirect effects: evidence from a Dutch case study on the significance of neighbourhood for employment trajectories

    Pinkster, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in the study of neighbourhood effects on work is to understand the pathways through which disadvantaged neighbourhoods impact the employment opportunities of residents. Endogenous explanations for neighbourhood effects focus on social life in these neighbourhoods,

  1. Employment Trajectories After Spinal Cord Injury : Results From a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Ferdiana, Astri; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Luccas H.; van der Klink, Jac J.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objectives: To identify different employment trajectories in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from initial rehabilitation and to determine predictors of different trajectories from demographic, injury, functional, and psychological characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort

  2. Lost in transition? A study of newly graduated teachers' experiences during the initial period of employment

    Hultell, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The most crucial factors affecting burnout and work engagement when entering employment were feelings of competence to satisfactorily perform one’s work, the discrepancy between previous expectations and the actual conditions of employment, and the balance between work and private life. Beginning teachers who felt competent, had their expectations met, and had a sound balance between their work and private life experienced less burnout and were more engaged in their work. Over...

  3. A Study of Employment Discrimination against Women in China from a Comparative Perspective

    Wei, Nana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is intended to focus on the employment discrimination against women in China. Firstly, the thesis will set forth the research background, including the research questions, literature review, theoretical orientations and methodology. Secondly, it will describe the current situation of employment discrimination against women in China, and analyze the reasons from the economic, social, cultural and legal aspects. Thirdly, it will analyze current anti-discrimination legislation and en...

  4. Returns to Qualification in Informal Employment: A Study of Urban Youth in Egypt

    Frost, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Informal employment is a reality for roughly two-thirds of economically active youth in urban Egypt, and it has been argued to be correlated with poverty, poor working conditions, and few opportunities for advancement. This essay analyzes whether informal employment rewards job qualification measures, using survey data from 2006 and a Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition. After creating a taxonomy of formal, para-formal, and informal modes of qualification, it is shown that formal public and for...

  5. Seeking the balance between caregiving in dementia, family and employment: study protocol for a mixed methods study in Northern Germany.

    Neubert, Lydia; König, Hans-Helmut; Brettschneider, Christian

    2018-02-27

    The debate on reconciliation between childcare and working has to be expanded to caregiving for the elderly, since the importance of informal caregiving will increase in the future due to populations' ageing and women's increasing labour force participation. Informal caregivers who are caring for the rising number of persons with dementia (PwD) are often female and subjected to high caregiving requirements. These are added to further demands emerging from their family and work life. How affected caregivers seek to balance those requirements depends on, inter alia, their own characteristics and the informal caregiving network to whom they relate. Both aspects were not yet considered in previous studies. This mixed methods study thus aims to explore the reconciliation between caregiving in dementia, family and employment by including different members of caregiving networks of home-dwelling PwD and by considering their personal characteristics. By purposive sampling, we include at least five caregiving networks of home-dwelling PwD; each of them consisting of at least three informal caregivers living in Northern Germany. Narrative interviews of participants will be recorded, transcribed verbatim and interpreted according to the Documentary Method (QUAL). By completing standardised questionnaires, participants will provide sociodemographic and psychographic data concerning themselves and the networks from whom they arise (quan). This supplemental, descriptive information will give further background to the themes and types emerging from the interviews. Hence, the quan-data enrich the QUAL-data by exploring the narratives of participants in the light of their personal and network-related characteristics. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the German Society of Nursing Sciences. Study results will be disseminated through conference presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals. DRKS00012929. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s

  6. Employers' paradoxical views about temporary foreign migrant workers' health: a qualitative study in rural farms in southern Ontario.

    Narushima, Miya; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-09-10

    The province of Ontario hosts nearly a half of Canada's temporary foreign migrant farm workers (MFWs). Despite the essential role played by MFWs in the economic prosperity of the region, a growing body of research suggests that the workers' occupational safety and health are substandard, and often neglected by employers. This study thus explores farm owners' perceptions about MFWs occupational safety and general health, and their attitudes towards health promotion for their employees. Using modified grounded theory approach, we collected data through in-depth individual interviews with farm owners employing MFWs in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed following three steps (open, axial, and selective coding) to identify thematic patterns and relationships. Nine employers or their representatives were interviewed. Four major overarching categories were identified: employers' dependence on MFWs; their fragmented view of occupational safety and health; their blurring of the boundaries between the work and personal lives of the MFWs on their farms; and their reluctance to implement health promotion programs. The interaction of these categories suggests the complex social processes through which employers come to hold these paradoxical attitudes towards workers' safety and health. There is a fundamental contradiction between what employers considered public versus personal. Despite employers' preference to separate MFWs' workplace safety from personal health issues, due to the fact that workers live within their employers' property, workers' private life becomes public making their personal health a business-related concern. Farmers' conflicting views, combined with a lack of support from governing bodies, hold back timely implementation of health promotion activities in the workplace. In order to address the needs of MFWs in a more integrated manner, an ecological view of health, which includes the social and psychological determinants of health, by employers

  7. Bioreactor Study Employing Bacteria with Enhanced Activity toward Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystins

    Dariusz Dziga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An important aim of white (grey biotechnology is bioremediation, where microbes are employed to remove unwanted chemicals. Microcystins (MCs and other cyanobacterial toxins are not industrial or agricultural pollutants; however, their occurrence as a consequence of human activity and water reservoir eutrophication is regarded as anthropogenic. Microbial degradation of microcystins is suggested as an alternative to chemical and physical methods of their elimination. This paper describes a possible technique of the practical application of the biodegradation process. The idea relies on the utilization of bacteria with a significantly enhanced MC-degradation ability (in comparison with wild strains. The cells of an Escherichia coli laboratory strain expressing microcystinase (MlrA responsible for the detoxification of MCs were immobilized in alginate beads. The degradation potency of the tested bioreactors was monitored by HPLC detection of linear microcystin LR (MC-LR as the MlrA degradation product. An open system based on a column filled with alginate-entrapped cells was shown to operate more efficiently than a closed system (alginate beads shaken in a glass container. The maximal degradation rate calculated per one liter of carrier was 219.9 µg h−1 of degraded MC-LR. A comparison of the efficiency of the described system with other biological and chemo-physical proposals suggests that this new idea presents several advantages and is worth investigating in future studies.

  8. A study of effluent control technologies employed by radiopharmaceutical users and suppliers

    Leventhal, L.; Slider, J.; Chakoff, E.; Chen, J.I.; Savage, E.

    1980-01-01

    The quantities of radiopharmaceuticals produced for in-vivo diagnostic and therapy procedures has been estimated to be growing at the rate of 16% per year, based on 1978 sales figures. Nuclear medicine facilities are experiencing an average annual growth rate of 5% per year. The principle radionuclides produced and used for nuclear medicine are 131 I, 131 Xe, and sup(9m)Tc. Of particular concern is that amount of these radionuclides which might become airborne and escape into the environment during the process of manufacture or during aliquotting or administration by hospital personnel. Therefore, a study was made of the effluent control technology employed by radiopharmaceutical suppliers and users. Generally, the means used to control airborne radioactive effluents fall into two classes according to function. The controls either dilute and direct the effluent to a specific point of release or hold up the effluent to reduce by decay the amount of radioactivity released. Radiopharmaceutical suppliers and hospitals were contacted, and a survey made of the control technology used. The classes and types of effluent control equipment and their general characteristics, cost and effectiveness were determined. It was concluded that control equipment was readily available, reliable, and effective in reducing radioactive releases from radiopharmaceutical facilities. (author)

  9. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P coffee was significantly (P market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  10. Stress in nonregular work arrangements: A longitudinal study of task- and employment-related aspects of stress.

    Vahle-Hinz, Tim

    2016-10-01

    In nonregular forms of employment, such as fixed-term or temporary agency work, 2 sources of stress must be distinguished: task-related stress components (e.g., time pressure) and employment-related stress components (e.g., effort to maintain employment). The present study investigated the relationship between task- and employment-related demands and resources and indicators of strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance in a sample of nonregular employed workers. Using a 2-wave longitudinal design, the results of autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that time pressure, as a task-related demand, is positively related to strain and negatively related to well-being and self-rated performance. Autonomy, as a task-related resource, exhibited no significant relationships in the current study. Employment-related demands exhibited negative relationships with well-being and work engagement as well as negative and positive relationships with self-rated performance over time. Employment-related resources were primarily positive predictors of well-being and self-rated performance. Fit indices of comparative models indicated that reciprocal effect models (which enable causal and reverse effects) best fit the data. Accordingly, demands and resources predicted strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance over time and vice versa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Supporting the Transition into Employment: A Study of Canadian Young Adults Living with Disabilities.

    Jetha, Arif; Bowring, Julie; Furrie, Adele; Smith, Frank; Breslin, Curtis

    2018-04-25

    Objective To examine the job accommodation and benefit needs of young adults with disabilities as they transition into employment, and their perceived barriers to meeting support needs. Methods An online survey was conducted of 155 Canadian young adults with disabilities (mean age = 25.8 years). Respondents were either employed or seeking employment, and were asked about their need for health benefits, and soft (e.g., flexible scheduling) and hard accommodations (e.g., ergonomic interventions), and perceived accommodation barriers. Disability characteristics (e.g., disability type), demographic details and work context information were collected. Multivariable logistic analyses were conducted to examine the factors associated with a greater need for health benefits and hard and soft accommodations. Result Participants reported having a physical (79%), psychological (79%) or cognitive/learning disability (77%); 68% had > 1 disability. Over half (55%) were employed. Health benefits and soft accommodations were most needed by participants. Also, an average of six perceived accommodation barriers were indicated; difficulty with disability disclosure was most frequently reported. More perceived accommodation barriers were associated with a greater need for health benefits (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31) and soft accommodations (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). A psychological disability was a associated with a greater need for health benefits (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.09-7.43) and soft accommodations (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.41-10.42). Discussion Employers can support the employment of young adults with disabilities through provision of extended health benefits and soft accommodations. Addressing accommodation barriers could minimize unmet workplace need, and improve employment outcomes for young adults with disabilities as they begin their career and across the life course.

  12. Employment and sociodemographic characteristics: a study of increasing precarity in the health districts of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    de Vasconcellos Coelho, Maria Cristina Ramos; Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida

    2009-07-13

    The fundamental importance of human resources for the development of health care systems is recognized the world over. Health districts, which constitute the middle level of the municipal health care system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, deal with demands from all parts of the system. This research seeks to provide the essential features required in order to understand the phenomenon of increase in precarity of employment in these health districts. The legal and human resource management documents used by the Municipal Health Secretariat of the City of Belo Horizonte were adopted as the corpus for this research. In order to analyse the changes in employment (2002-2006), the data were collected from ArteRH, a computerized database dealing specifically with data related to human resources, which began operating in 2001. The workers were classified into permanent and non-permanent groups, and their contractual rights were described. Employment dynamics and changes were examined, concentrating on the incorporation of workers and on their social and employment rights during the period under study. The comparative data for the two groups obtained were presented in frequency distribution tables according to type of employment, sex, age group, level of education and wages from 2002 to 2006. There was a clear difference between the permanent worker and non-permanent worker groups as regards existing guaranteed employment rights and social security. The increase in the number of non-permanent workers in the workforce, the growing proportion of older workers among the permanently employed and the real wage reductions during the period from 2002 to 2006 are indicative of the process of growing precarity of employment in the group studied. It is a plausible supposition that the demand for health reforms, along with the legal limits imposed on financial expenditure, gave rise to the new types of contract and the present employment situation in the health districts in

  13. Employment and sociodemographic characteristics: a study of increasing precarity in the health districts of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Assunção Ada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fundamental importance of human resources for the development of health care systems is recognized the world over. Health districts, which constitute the middle level of the municipal health care system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, deal with demands from all parts of the system. This research seeks to provide the essential features required in order to understand the phenomenon of increase in precarity of employment in these health districts. Methods The legal and human resource management documents used by the Municipal Health Secretariat of the City of Belo Horizonte were adopted as the corpus for this research. In order to analyse the changes in employment (2002–2006, the data were collected from ArteRH, a computerized database dealing specifically with data related to human resources, which began operating in 2001. The workers were classified into permanent and non-permanent groups, and their contractual rights were described. Employment dynamics and changes were examined, concentrating on the incorporation of workers and on their social and employment rights during the period under study. The comparative data for the two groups obtained were presented in frequency distribution tables according to type of employment, sex, age group, level of education and wages from 2002 to 2006. Results There was a clear difference between the permanent worker and non-permanent worker groups as regards existing guaranteed employment rights and social security. The increase in the number of non-permanent workers in the workforce, the growing proportion of older workers among the permanently employed and the real wage reductions during the period from 2002 to 2006 are indicative of the process of growing precarity of employment in the group studied. Conclusion It is a plausible supposition that the demand for health reforms, along with the legal limits imposed on financial expenditure, gave rise to the new types of contract

  14. Employers' readiness for the mother-friendly workplace: an elicitation study.

    Bai, Yeon K; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Weinstock, Marni

    2012-10-01

    Currently over half of mothers of infants under 1-year-old are in the workforce in the United States. These women face challenges to continue breastfeeding when they return to work 3 to 6 months post-partum. This study explored the perspectives of employers on mother-friendly environments to assess their readiness to provide breastfeeding accommodation using the elicitation under the theory of planned behaviour. Researchers conducted phone/in-person interviews with a convenient sample of 20 human resource managers from companies that had 500 or more employees in the New York metropolitan area in 2009. Content analyses identified the common concepts that represent underlying beliefs of the constructs of the theory. The demography of the participants is 40% male and 80% White, with mean ages of 34.3±8.5 years. 'Happy employees' and 'high retention rate and improved loyalty' were the most frequently mentioned (95%) benefits to the company (behavioural beliefs). Supporters of a mother-friendly environment (normative beliefs) in the workplace included 'mothers and expectant mothers (70%)', and 'managers supervising women and new mothers (55%)'. Most frequently mentioned company drawbacks (control beliefs) were 'not cost effective (65%)' and 'time consuming (65%)', followed by 'perception of special favours for some (50%)'. Workplace breastfeeding promotion efforts can be successful by reinforcing positive beliefs and addressing the challenges associated with implementation of breastfeeding accommodation through education and other incentives such as recognition of model companies and tax breaks. The identified beliefs provide a basis for the development of a quantitative instrument to study workplace breastfeeding support further. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force.

    Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-08-01

    In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.

  16. The experiences of urban, professional women when combining breastfeeding with paid employment in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-06-01

    Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences of employed women with attention deficit hyperactive disorder: A phenomenological study.

    Schreuer, N; Dorot, R

    2017-01-01

    Employees with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face various risks in the workplace. Little is known of the specific challenges women with ADHD experience. To explore the experiences of working women with ADHD and learn the strategies and accommodations that facilitate their maintaining employment. Qualitative phenomenological approach was used to echo women's subjective perceptions and experiences representing their daily interactions in their workplace. In-depth interviews were conducted with eleven tertiary-educated employed women (M = 33.5; SD = 6.61 years), diagnosed with ADHD and the transcripts were analyzed by three researchers, using the qualitative phenomenological approach. Most interviewed women with ADHD described interactions with their workplace as confusing, overwhelming, and chaotic. They perceived their ADHD as a significant obstacle to success in employment that also conferred some advantages. Three interview themes are explored here (1) challenges in coping with job demands and the workplace, including the disclosure dilemma; (2) personal coping strategies; (3) useful accommodations. For the women interviewed, employment was important for their self-identity, beyond simply making a living. Their experiences indicate impaired executive functioning and inhibition and sensory sensitivity, consistently with theoretical models for ADHD. They identified gender-specific issues, such as using medication during pregnancy, which led them to seek for non-pharmacological coping mechanisms. They contributed practical knowledge regarding employee-led adaptations and employer-provided workplace accommodations.

  18. The Process of Adapting the Employer Brand to Attract the Right Employees : A Case Study of How SEB Uses Employer Branding to Go Digital

    Simon, Tabea; Ferhatovic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Companies within the banking industry are facing the challenge to attract new competences in order to react to the forces of digitization. This paper examines how employer branding is used as a tool to achieve this through appealing to a broader target group. It also identifies problems that can arise in this process. We extend the theoretical knowledge on this topic by developing a theoretical framework, which combines corporate brand, employer branding, industry image and P-O fit literature...

  19. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    Radzi Rozhan SM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of employment status among patients with Schizophrenia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All participants who fulfilled the requirements of the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Study instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, Trail Making Tests, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Digit Span. Bivariate analyses were done using chi-square for categorical data and t-test for continuous data and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of employment status. Results A total of 95 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Among the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables studied marital status, educational level, mean scores of negative symptoms, Digit Span and RAVLT and Trail Making Tests were found to show significant association with employment status on bivariate analyses. However, when entered into a logistic regression model, only cognitive variables ie. Trail A and B, Digit Span and RAVLT were significant predictors of employment status. Conclusions The results from this study support the role of cognitive function, particularly, attention, working memory and executive functioning on attaining and maintaining employment in persons with schizophrenia as measured by the RAVLT, Digit Span and Trail Making Tests. These findings may act as preliminary evidence suggesting the

  20. Employer branding

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  1. An Empirical Study on the Nexus of Poverty, GDP Growth, Dependency Ratio and Employment in Developing Countries

    Sinnathurai Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has scrutinized the nexus among poverty, economic growth, employment and dependency ratio in developing countries. The primary intension behind this study is to find out the association between variables such as poverty, economic growth, agricultural and industrial employment and dependency ratio due to the gap in the existing literature. This study fully relies on cross country data and involves forty one countries which have been selected from Asia,Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For this study, OLS method, correlation and econometric tools have been employed. Two models employed in the analysis are goodness of fit because both p-value and F-statistics in the models are less than 5%. The results bring to light the fact that age dependency ratio has had a tremendous impact on poverty and poverty has had a relatively very high impact on the age dependency ratio. Even though Industrial employment has anegative association with poverty incidence, it does not have a significant impact on poverty. The finding that economic growth, poverty and industrial employment significantly affect the agedependency ratio in model two is practicable and consistent with economic theories. Thus stable economic growth with an increase in labour productivity and labour intensive technology is anactive remedy for solving this problem.

  2. Unstable employment and health in middle age in the longitudinal 1970 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Waynforth, David

    2018-01-01

    Jobs for life have become increasingly rare in industrialized economies, and have been replaced by shorter-term employment contracts and freelancing. This labour market change is likely to be accompanied by physiological changes in individuals who have experienced little job stability. Evolved responses to increased environmental instability or stochasticity include increased fat deposition and fight-or-flight responses, such as glucose mobilization and increased blood pressure. These responses may have evolved by natural selection as beneficial to individuals in the short-term, but are damaging in the longer term. This study tested whether job losses experienced between ages 30 and 42 are associated with increased body weight, hypertension and diabetes diagnosis in the 1970 British Birth Cohort, which consists of all registered births in a one-week period in April 1970. Each job loss experienced increased the odds of developing diabetes by 1.39 times (CI 1.08-1.80), and of hypertension by 1.28 times (CI 1.07-1.53). Another economic variable, higher personal debt, was associated with all three of these health outcomes: every £100 000 of debt roughly doubled the odds of gaining at least 5 kg between ages 30 and 42. These associations between job loss and health-risk factors suggest that our changing economy results in increases in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. At a broader level, they are consistent with evolutionary understandings of environmental stochasticity, and are a reminder that economic policy is also health policy.

  3. Effectiveness of Facebook Based Learning to Enhance Creativity among Islamic Studies Students by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; Daud, Mohd Khairul Azman Md; Hussin, Zaharah

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of Facebook based learning to enhance creativity among Islamic Studies students in the secondary educational setting in Malaysia. It describes the design process by employing the Isman Instructional Design Model. A quantitative study was carried out using experimental method and background survey. The…

  4. Employees’ motivation to invest in their sustainable employment : A case study of an industrial service provider.

    Jol Stoffers; Hans Leppink; Anne Kleefstra; Anita van Dormalen

    Demographic changes, such as the ageing of society and the decline of the birth rate, are gradually leading to the loss of valuable knowledge and experience in the Dutch Labour market. This necessitates an explicit focus on workers' sustainable employment so that they can add value to the

  5. Do Stereotypes about Older Workers Change? : Evidence from a Panel Study among Employers

    van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stereotypies of older workers and their productive value are believed to contrast with their actual potential. Still, these stereotypes among employers persist. Objective: This article examines whether managers have changed their views on older workers and if so what the driving forces

  6. Do Stereotypes about Older Workers Change? Evidence from a Panel Study among Employers

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stereotypies of older workers and their productive value are believed to contrast with their actual potential. Still, these stereotypes among employers persist. Objective: This article examines whether managers have changed their views on older workers and if so what the driving forces

  7. Impact of rheumatoid arthritis on career progression, productivity, and employability: The PRET Study.

    Bertin, Philippe; Fagnani, Francis; Duburcq, Anne; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Chauvin, Pierre; Cukierman, Gabrielle; Tropé-Chirol, Sonia; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Kobelt, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on career, productivity, and employability. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012-2013 in France among patients with RA who were younger than 60 years of age and employed or unemployed. Patients were either recruited during a rheumatologist visit or among members of a nationwide patient-support organization (ANDAR). They completed a questionnaire on the functional impact of RA evaluated by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and on the impact of their disease on work ability. Of 488 surveyed patients, 364 (74.6%) were actively employed, 31 (6.4%) were job seekers, and 93 (19.1%) had left the workforce. In the employed group, mean age was 48.9 years; 82.1% of patients were women; mean RA duration was 11.6 years; and the HAQ score correlated strongly with various markers for decreased productivity including sick leaves, temporary or permanent work discontinuation, and having unwillingly downgraded from a full-time to a part-time work schedule or changed to a different job. Among job seekers, 54% had lost their previous job because of their RA. RA is associated with various forms of work disability, which are directly related to the severity of disease-related functional impairments. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Employer Toolkit.

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  9. Contribution of immunocytochemical stainings for galectin-3, CD44, and HBME1 to fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Das, Dilip K; Al-Waheeb, Salah K M; George, Sara S; Haji, Bahiyah I; Mallik, Mrinmay K

    2014-06-01

    In cytology practice some papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cases have indeterminate diagnoses and overlapping cytological features with benign lesions. This study was undertaken to find out if immunocytochemistry using Galectin-3, CD-44 and HBME-1 could be of help in such situations. Forty-six cases consisting of 22 malignancy (PTC) cases, 7 suspicious of (S/O) PTC, 1 follicular neoplasm, 5 follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), and 11 benign (colloid goiter) cases diagnosed by FNA were included in this study. Staining reactions were graded in a sliding scale of -, 1+, 2+, 3+, and 4+. In an assessment of 100 cells, each cell with weak, and moderate to strong positive reaction were assigned a score of 1 and 4, respectively. Staining reaction of ≥+2 and scores >100 were considered positive. Frequency of cases with ≥+2 reaction, and scores >100 for each of Galectin-3, CD-44, and HBME-1 were significantly higher in PTC or combined PTC and S/O PTC cases as compared with FLUS and benign cases taken together (P = 0.01744 to 0.00000). When the cases were compared according to histological malignant and benign diagnoses, the difference was also significant in respect of ≥+2 reaction, and scores >100 for Galectin-3 and CD44 (P = 0.04923 to 0.00947); however, there was no significant difference, when these parameters for HBME1 were compared. Galectin 3, CD 44, and to some extent HBME 1 are useful immunocytochemical parameters with potential to support FNAC diagnosis of PTC, especially in situations with difficult differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural isoforms of the circadian neuropeptide PDF expressed in the optic lobes of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus: immunocytochemical evidence from specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Honda, Takeshi; Matsushima, Ayami; Sumida, Kazunori; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Onoue, Hitoshi; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2006-11-20

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is an 18-mer peptide that acts as a principal neurotransmitter of the insect circadian clock. Our previous study, utilizing anti-Uca beta-PDH polyclonal antibody (pAb) to immunolabel the optic lobe of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, suggested the existence of an alternative PDF-like peptide in the outer cells of the first neuropile, or lamina (La), which were much less immunoreactive than the inner cells of the second neuropile, the medulla (Me). To obtain structural information about such a PDF-like peptide, we prepared 10 anti-Gryllus PDF monoclonal (mAb) and pAb antibodies and analyzed their detailed epitope specificities. The PDFMe and PDFLa inner cells and their axonal projections were clearly immunoreactive to all these antibodies, revealing the widespread immunocytochemical organization of the PDF system in the optic lobe, as seen previously with anti-Uca beta-PDH pAb and anti-Gryllus PDF mAb, the epitope structures of which were also clarified in this study. The lamina outer cells, which we found lacked a target pdf mRNA, displayed specific immunoreactivities, indicating that the cells contain a distinct PDF-like peptide possessing both N- and C-terminal structures. These cells were not immunolabeled by some other monoclonal antibodies, however, implying that the PDFLa outer cells have a PDF isoform peptide devoid of Asn at positions 6 and 16. This isoform was also identified in a varicose arborization in the lamina. These results suggest not only the structure of the peptide, but also the possibility of additional functions of this novel PDF isoform.

  11. A comparative study on women's employment in Beijing, Guangzhou and Hong Kong.

    Liu, X

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the female population in different social systems and different socioeconomic levels was conducted for Beijing, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong between September 1988 and October 1990. The women's federations in Beijing and Guangzhou and the University of Hong Kong performed the sample survey of 12 occupations in China and Hong Kong. The assumption was that the process of women's emancipation was accelerated when material conditions and culture were well-developed. The differences in employment patterns in the three cities are presented followed by a discussion of the motives for employment. Differences in their attachment to the traditional role of women were evident; most expressed the importance of work and family and the desire to be successful in life and career. Differences were also evident in women's expectation of the role of government in having responsibility for women's employment and priorities. The reports from women in Beijing and Guangzhou expressed difficulty in locating a job and lack of information on job availabilities. Hong Kong is different from the other cities in that the supply of workers is less than the demand. Only through productivity increases can women have a brighter prospect for employment. There was a high level of agreement that the reasons for employment are increased income and economic independence. The third factor of importance was "self-realization", and over 90% in all three cities reported that employment would continue if other family members could support the family. Women strongly agreed that success was achieved through extra effort, and wished for the same opportunity for promotion which the men enjoyed. The traditional role of women giving priority to their families was strongest in Hong Kong. 45% of women in Hong Kong agreed that women should avoid being more successful in work than their husbands, while only 13.4% in Beijing agreed. Women in Beijing and Guangzhou expected government to other relevant

  12. Explaining the relation between precarious employment and mental well-being. A qualitative study among temporary agency workers.

    Bosmans, Kim; Hardonk, Stefan; De Cuyper, Nele; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    From an employee-perspective, temporary agency employment can be considered in two ways. According to the first perspective, agency jobs are associated with job characteristics that adversely affect mental well-being: job insecurity, low wages, a lack of benefits, little training, poorer prospects for the future, high working time flexibility, minimal trade union representation and problematic triadic employment relations. The other perspective underlines that flexibility, learning opportunities and freedom in agency employment enable workers to build the career of their choice, which may positively affect mental well-being. This article aims at interpreting and explaining these conflicting perspectives. In particular, we discuss the role of coping resources (control, support, trust and equity) in the stress pathway between characteristics of temporary agency employment and mental well-being. Semi-structured interviews with 12 Belgian temporary agency workers were conducted and analysed from a phenomenological perspective. The results reveal mainly how a lack of coping resources plays a key role in how (precarious) characteristics of temporary agency employment affect employees' mental well-being. This study illustrates the earlier assumed stress pathway between precarious employment and mental well-being, in which coping resources play an intermediary as well as a moderating role.

  13. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  14. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  15. Somatostatin-14-like antigenic sites in fixed islet D-cells are unaltered by cysteamine: a quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemical evaluation

    Patel, Y.C.; Ravazzola, M.; Amherdt, M.; Orci, L.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure of somatostatin cells to cysteamine (CSH) produces a marked reduction in somatostatin-14-like immunoreactivity (S-14 LI) in cell extracts. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of CSH on S-14-like sites in fixed islet D-cells using immunofluorescence and quantitative electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Monolayer cultures of rat islet cells exposed to CSH (10 mM) for 1 h and subsequently extracted in 1 M acetic acid exhibited a severe reduction in S-14 LI from 6.6 +/- 0.48 to 0.7 +/- 0.06 ng/dish. CSH-induced reduction in S-14 LI persisted when cells were fixed in Zamboni's solution for 16 h and subsequently extracted and assayed. By immunofluorescence, however, the relative numbers of somatostatin-positive cells as well as the fluorescent intensity were identical in control and CSH-treated cells. CSH did not produce any identifiable abnormality in the ultrastructural appearance of D-cells. Protein A-gold labeling of the islet cells showed a uniform distribution of gold particles in both control and CSH-treated cultures. The density of gold particles over D-cell secretory granules from CSH-exposed cultures (36.6 +/- 3.5 particles/micron2) was not different from that in control D-cell granules (42.2 +/- 5.9 particles/micron2). These data clearly indicate that despite a profound reduction by CSH of S-14 LI in tissue extracts, there is no detectable decrease in the same antigenic sites in tissue sections when assessed immunocytochemically

  16. Perspectives of employability skills

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  17. Impact of end-stage kidney disease on academic achievement and employment in young adults: a mixed methods study.

    Murray, Peter D; Dobbels, Fabienne; Lonsdale, Daniel C; Harden, Paul N

    2014-10-01

    Young adult kidney patients are at an important stage of development when end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) may adversely influence progress in education and employment. This study is designed to assess the impact of ESKD on education and employment outcomes in young adults. This cross-sectional study was a mixed methods design. Education and career achievements in young adults with ESKD were recorded quantitatively using a questionnaire survey (n = 57): 14 of 57 representative participants were subsequently selected for semistructured interview. Questionnaire survey was conducted in 57 young adults (median age 25): 8.8% (n = 5) were predialysis; 14.0% (n = 8) dialysis; and 78.9% (n = 45) were kidney transplant recipients. Median school-leaving age was 16 (interquartile range = 15-19). Of 57 young adults, 10 (17.5%) were still studying, 43 (75.4%) had completed education, 34 (59.7%) were employed (23 full time and 11 part time), and 19 (33.3%) were unemployed. Twenty-seven of 45 transplanted patients were employed (60.0%). Of these 27, 21 were full time (77.8%). Five of eight dialysis patients were employed: only one of eight was full-time employed (12.5%). Themes impacting on education and employment included low energy levels, time missed, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of loneliness and isolation, which may progress to depression and recreational drug use. Lack of understanding from educators and employers resulting in lost work, and career ambitions changed or limited because of dialysis. Dialysis has a major negative impact on education and reduced employment rates of young adults. There is a general lack of understanding among educators and employers of the impact of ESKD. Low energy levels, lack of self-esteem, and depression are key factors. There is a need for health care providers to recognize this issue and invest in supporting young adults with ESKD. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. VIA Employability

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  19. Job dissatisfaction and the older worker: baseline findings from the Health and Employment After Fifty study.

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Coggon, David; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T

    2016-08-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. Labour force participation might be promoted by tackling sources of job dissatisfaction. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of job dissatisfaction in older British workers, to explore which perceptions of work contribute most importantly, and to assess possible impacts on health. Participants aged 50-64 years were recruited from 24 English general practices. At baseline, those currently in work (N=5437) reported on their demographic and employment circumstances, overall job satisfaction, perceptions of their work that might contribute to dissatisfaction, and their general health, mood and well-being. Associations of job dissatisfaction with risk factors and potential health outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally by logistic regression, and the potential contributions of different negative perceptions to overall dissatisfaction were summarised by population attributable fractions (PAFs). Job dissatisfaction was more common among men, below age 60 years, those living in London and the South East, in the more educated and in those working for larger employers. The main contributors to job dissatisfaction among employees were feeling unappreciated and/or lacking a sense of achievement (PAF 55-56%), while in the self-employed, job insecurity was the leading contributor (PAF 79%). Job dissatisfaction was associated with all of the adverse health outcomes examined (ORs of 3-5), as were most of the negative perceptions of work that contributed to overall dissatisfaction. Employment policies aimed at improving job satisfaction in older workers may benefit from focussing particularly on relationships in the workplace, fairness, job security and instilling a sense of achievement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Growth, employment patterns and inequality in Asia a case study of India

    Chandrasekhar, C. P; Ghosh, Jayati

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that economic inequalities in India have been driven by employment patterns and changes in labour markets, which in turn have been affected by macroeconomic policies and processes as well as forms of social discrimination and exclusion. While many Asian economies have shown indications of rising inequality in recent decades, the Indian experience is particularly remarkable in the way inequalities have intertwined with the economic growth process. Structural change (or the re...

  1. Employment participation and work experience of male cancer survivors: a NOCWO study.

    Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur K; Vidarsdottir, Halldora; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether employment status and work experiences, assessed in terms of job resources (organizational culture and superiors' and co-workers' support), commitment to organization, work motives, and experiences of discrimination, differ between survivors of prostate or testicular cancer or lymphoma and cancer-free reference subjects. Questionnaires were sent to 1349 male cancer survivors and 2666 referents in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway. Valid responses were 59% and 45%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression models. Compared to the referents, survivors of lymphoma and prostate cancer were less likely to be employed (OR=0.53; CI: 0.30-0.95 and OR=0.50; CI: 0.35-0.73, respectively), but decreased employment was not evident among testicular cancer survivors. Testicular cancer survivors experienced less discrimination at work than did the referents, for example, testicular cancer survivors were less likely to report that their colleagues doubted their ability to carry out their work tasks (OR=0.38; CI: 0.17-0.83). Lymphoma survivors were less likely than the referents to praise their workplace as an enjoyable place to work (OR=0.48; CI: 0.26-0.88). The prostate cancer survivors were more likely than the referents to find the organizational climate competitive, distrustful, and suspicious. Employment participation and work experiences of male cancer survivors varied substantially according to type of cancer. Occupational therapists and other health care personnel should keep this in mind when assisting cancer survivors in identifying their strengths and limitations at work.

  2. Gulf migration study: Employment, wages and working conditions of Kerala emigrants in the United Arab Emirates

    K.C. Zachariah; B.A. Prakash; S. Irudaya Rajan

    2002-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of Working Papers published by the CDS on Kerala migration. Unlike the other three, this one is financed by the Kerala Government and the data were collected in UAE. The objectives of this Working Paper are to: document changes in the labour demand for different categories of emigrant workers, enumerate the emigration policies, examine employment and working conditions, wage levels and related problems of the Kerala emigrants, understand the education and traini...

  3. Employment creation, technological efficiency, and distributional judgements : a case study in road construction / [by] G.W. Irvin

    G.W. Irvin (George)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThe present article is concerned with the relationship between distributional and efficiency criteria and the objective of employment creation in a single sector, that of road construction. The work is based on a series of case studies carried out in Iran, one such study being presented

  4. Toward a Mediation Model of Employability Enhancement: A Study of Employee-Supervisor Pairs in the Building Sector

    van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bakker, Arnold B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether jobs that enable competence development and a constructive leadership style enhance workers' employability or career potential through their assumed positive relationship with work-related flow (absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation). The authors conducted an explorative study with 303 pairs of…

  5. Maternity Leave in Australia: Employee and Employer Experiences. Report of a Survey. Australian Institute of Family Studies Monograph No. 7.

    Glezer, Helen

    A study was made to obtain a broad overview of the operation of maternity leave in Australia from the perspectives of employees and employers. The study included: (1) an employee survey exploring the use and non-use of maternity leave and identifying determinants of taking maternity leave and of retaining women in the labor force after childbirth;…

  6. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  7. Comparing health-related quality of life of employed women and housewives: a cross sectional study from southeast Iran

    Saravi Fatihe Kerman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural characteristics of our province, we aimed to compare the quality of life of employed women with housewives in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009–2010 in Zahedan, Iran. The sample consisted of 110 housewives and 110 employed women selected randomly from ten health care centers. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare quality of life in housewives and employed women while controlling for age, education and income. Results The mean (±SD age of participants was 33.87± 8.95 years. Eighty-eight women (40% had a university degree with a mean (±SD official education of 10.8 (±4.9 years. The results indicated that employed women scored higher than housewives in all measures except for physical functioning. The differences were found to be remarkable for vitality, mental health and role emotional. However, after controlling for age, education and family income, none of differences reached significant level. Conclusion After controlling for potential confounders, the findings from this study indicated that there were no significant differences in quality of life between employed women and housewives. However, employed women scored higher on the SF-36, especially on the role emotional, vitality, and mental health. The findings suggest that associations exist between some aspects of health-related quality of life and employment. Indeed improving health-related quality of life among housewives seems essential.

  8. Employment protection

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  9. Social innovation in employment

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  10. Association between midlife health behaviours and transitions out of employment from midlife to early old age: Whitehall II cohort study

    Gareth Hagger-Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to determine whether unhealthy behaviours might influence transitions out of employment from midlife to old age, given the anticipated need for adults to work for longer. Our aim was to determine the association between repeated assessments of cigarette smoking, heavy/problem alcohol drinking, low physical activity and poor diet at midlife, in relation to work exit from midlife to old age. Methods Data from 7704 participants (5392 men from the Whitehall II cohort study in employment at midlife were used to evaluate the association between unhealthy behaviours and a subsequent transition out of work during 22 years follow-up, using logistic regression models. Results Men who smoked cigarettes, consistently drank alcohol heavily, or reported problem drinking, were more likely to leave employment over follow-up. Women with a consistently poor diet were more likely to leave employment. Associations were stronger when the reason for leaving was health grounds, and stronger among those with persistently unhealthy behaviours over follow-up. The size of the effects were broadly equivalent to one advancing year of age on employment. Physical health functioning over follow-up only partly accounted for the associations with work exit, whereas physical and mental functioning accounted for most of the associations with work exit on health grounds. Conclusions Unhealthy behaviours in midlife are associated with transitions out of employment into old age. Promoting healthy behaviours at midlife might support current policy initiatives aimed at extending working life. Future research should consider possible mechanisms that link behaviours to transitions out of employment, and consider sex differences in larger cohorts.

  11. Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Potential Employment Effects: Analysis of Studies

    2011-04-11

    Employment (%) Other grains 7,446 1.6 Vegetables and fruits 1,064 0.2 Oil seeds 7,151 1.7 Sugar 67 0.1 Plant-based fibers 63 0.0 Other crops 3,390 0.3...Livestock 1,092 0.1 Mining -363 -0.0 Food, beverages, and tobacco 1,880 0.1 Textiles -4,426 -0.5 Wearing Apparel -3,482 -0.6 Leather products and

  12. TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT: A CASE STUDY OF TURKISH LABOUR LAW TO COMPARE ILO CONVENTION NO. 158

    PİR ALİ KAYA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, employment security is a most important need for wage-earners, especially in developing countries which have a high rate of unemployment, where firing workers is a way to lower wages. Because of that there are some provisions of international regulations that need to be addressed. Job security and restrictions on firing figure prominently in much national labour legislation. These provisions and principles are underlined in ILO Recommendation No. 119 and Convention No. 158. In this paper, attention is focused on ILO Convention No. 158 and its repercussions on Turkish labour law.

  13. To work despite chronic health conditions: a qualitative study of workers at the Swedish Public Employment Service.

    Hjärtström, Carina; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Johansson, Gun; Bodin, Theo

    2018-04-20

    Achieving a sustainable, healthy and long working life is key prerequisite for meeting the demographic challenge posed by an ageing population so that more people can work on into their later years. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between work and chronic health conditions in a group of employees aged 50-64 years with a focus on factors that enable them to continue to work. Ten white-collar workers with one or more chronic health conditions at the Swedish Public Employment Service participated in the study. A qualitative method with semistructured in-depth interviews was used to collect data. This study shows that factors enabling people with chronic health conditions to work include adaptation of the work situation by task-shifting as well as provision of physical aids. Our study suggest that the changes often come at the employee's initiative; hence, there is potential for greater involvement from the employer, healthcare agencies and the social insurance fund in making it easier for employees to adapt their work situation and in providing information regarding available support. It confirms findings in earlier studies that health plays an important part and also that self-confidence and motivation are significant factors contributing to workers being able and wanting to continue working. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Job Stressors and Employment Precarity as Risks for Thoughts About Suicide: An Australian Study Using the Ten to Men Cohort.

    Milner, Allison; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane; Currier, Dianne

    2018-04-04

    Past research suggests that adverse experiences at work (such as job stressors and precarious employment) are associated with thoughts about suicide, especially among males. A limitation of this research is that it is largely cross-sectional. Thus, it is unknown whether job stressors are a prior cause of thoughts about suicide. This study examined the baseline association between adverse experiences at work and thoughts about suicide at follow-up in a large nationally representative cohort of employed men. We used data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). The outcome was thoughts about suicide in the prior 12 months (reported in wave 2) and the key exposure variables were: high job demands, low job control, job insecurity, perceived unfairness of pay, occupational skill level, and employment arrangement (all reported in wave 1). We adjusted for possible confounders, including mental health and suicidal thoughts (wave 1). In a sample of 8379 and after adjustment, job insecurity (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.61, P = 0.001), low job control (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.33, P = 0.004), and employment on a casual or on a fixed term basis (OR 1.30, 95% 1.01-1.67, P = 0.041) were associated with a greater odds of thoughts about suicide at follow up. Results for all by job control were maintained after removing those who reported thoughts of suicide at baseline. This study suggests that experiences at work may be risk factors for thoughts about suicide among employed men. More research is needed to unpack the complex associations between, employment, and experiences of suicide.

  15. Improving Work Outcome in Supported Employment for Serious Mental Illness: Results From 2 Independent Studies of Errorless Learning.

    Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F

    2018-01-13

    Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  16. Employer Branding

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  17. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: A case-control study

    Hartman, E.; Vrielink, H.H.E.O.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and

  18. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers : A case-control study

    Hartman, E; Vrielink, HHEO; Huirne, RBM; Metz, JHM

    Background In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and

  19. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: a case-control study

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder, upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and

  20. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design.

    Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. There were no statistical differences (p = 0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months) in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  1. The Employment Effects of High-Technology: A Case Study of Machine Vision. Research Report No. 86-19.

    Chen, Kan; Stafford, Frank P.

    A case study of machine vision was conducted to identify and analyze the employment effects of high technology in general. (Machine vision is the automatic acquisition and analysis of an image to obtain desired information for use in controlling an industrial activity, such as the visual sensor system that gives eyes to a robot.) Machine vision as…

  2. Why does education matter to employers in different institutional contexts? A vignette study in England and the Netherlands

    Di Stasio, V.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    We study the process by which employers evaluate and interpret information related to the educational background of job applicants in simulated hiring contexts. We focus on England and the Netherlands, countries with very different education systems and labor-market institutions. Using a vignette

  3. Employment, income, and education and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2012-08-19

    Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 - 0.86), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 - 0.95), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 - 0.90), respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 - 0.96) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 - 0.90), respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  4. Employment, income, and education and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence for the association of socioeconomic status with prenatal depression has been inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between employment, job type, household income, and educational level and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Methods Subjects were 1741 Japanese women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, family structure, personal and family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, employment, household income, and education. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Compared with unemployment, employment, part-time employment, and full-time employment were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 − 0.86, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46 − 0.95, and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48 − 0.90, respectively. Regarding the job type held, women with a professional or technical job and those with a clerical or related occupation had a significantly lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47 − 0.96 and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43 − 0.90, respectively. Sales, service, production, and other occupations were not significantly related to the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. There were no relationships between household income or education and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Conclusions Employment, whether full-time or part-time, and holding a professional or technical job or a clerical or related occupation may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  5. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study.

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-06-15

    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  6. Study of relaxation times of nanocomposites of starch/montmorillonite employing low field NMR

    Brito, Luciana M.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its various applications and features, especially in therapies for controlled release of pharmaceuticals, polymers are among the most widely used excipients in pharmaceutical technology. One of the most promising nanocomposites is formed from organic polymer and inorganic clay minerals. Nanocomposites of starch/montmorillonite were prepared employing solution intercalation and characterized by proton spin-lattice relaxation time, through NMR relaxometry. The characterization of nanocomposites was done by X-ray diffraction and by nuclear magnetic resonance. The results showed that nanostructured films were obtained by intercalation from solution. Furthermore, the use of low field NMR, T1H, provided more precise information about the movement of materials, being complementary to the results obtained by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  7. A study of effluent control technologies employed by radiopharmaceutical users and suppliers

    Leventhal, L.; Slider, J.; Chakoff, E.; Cehn, J.I.; Savage, E.

    1980-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical industry facilities in the U.S.A. have been reviewed to identify factors that could lead to the airborne release of radioactive isotopes, and to assess the control technology employed. The subject is dealt with in brief outline under the following headings: 1) Hospital usage, the radionuclides being grouped according to use. The main potential airborne effluents were 131 I, 133 Xe, and sup(99m)Tc. 2) Monitoring of facilities for airborne effluents. 3) Control technology, either by dilution or by storage to reduce radioactivity; suppliers and users effluent controls. It was found that the control equipment is readily available, reliable, and effective. Cost appears to increase proportionately with the dose reduction provided. NRC requirements and cost-benefit ratios determine choice. It was concluded that current practices in the industry are adequate. (U.K.)

  8. Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels.

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Musio, Stefano; Casciaro, Ernesto; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tissue mimicking phantoms have been widely reported to be an important tool for development, optimisation and performance testing of ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques. In particular, modern applications of tissue mimicking phantoms often include characterisation of the nonlinear behaviour of experimental ultrasound contrast agents. In such cases, the tissue-mimicking materials should be chosen not only based on the values of their density, speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, but also considering their effect on the appearance of "native harmonics" due to nonlinear distortion of ultrasound signal during propagation. In a previous paper it was demonstrated that a cellulose-based hydrogel is suitable to simulate nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue for thicknesses up to 8 cm. In this paper we present the experimental characterisation of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a different polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel, in order to assess whether and how it can improve the performances and overcome some limitations of the cellulose-based hydrogel as liver tissue-mimicking material. Samples of pig liver tissue, cellulose-based hydrogel and PEGDA-based hydrogel were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values. Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from the spectra of received signals and their difference was then used to compare sample behaviours. Obtained results show how a new more accurate and combined experimental model of linear and nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue is feasible. In fact, a further confirmation of the cellulose-based hydrogel effectiveness to precisely simulate the liver tissue for penetration depths up to 8 cm was provided, and it was also shown that the employment of the PEGDA-based hydrogel can extend the range of useful tissue-mimicking material thicknesses up to 11 cm, moreover allowing a

  9. Return to work after organ transplantation: a cross-sectional study on working ability evaluation and employment status.

    Ferrario, A; Verga, F C; Piolatto, P G; Pira, E

    2014-12-01

    Organ transplantation has increased in Italy over the last decade. Thus, an increasing number of workers may face the problem of returning to work. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of working ability of transplant recipients in comparison with their actual employment status. This study was based on 150 patients who underwent transplantation since 1994 and who underwent periodic post-transplantation examination during 2012. Fifty patients who had undergone heart transplantation (HT), 50 liver transplantation (LT), and 50 kidney transplantation (KT) and survived at least 12 months after surgery were eligible for this study. All patients underwent the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health (ICF) questionnaire; ten questions were further applied to those who were employed at the time of the study. X(2) statistics were used to compare working ability evaluation and employment status and for internal comparison among different organ recipients. The employment status was as follows: 92 (61%) patients were in paid employment, 6 (4%) were students or housewives, 36 (24%) were unemployed, and 17 (11%) were retired because of invalidity benefits. According to our fitness evaluation only 4% to 10% of the patients were unfit for any job. When we excluded retired subjects, the X(2) statistics for correlated observations showed a highly significant statistical difference (P working ability evaluation by ICF questionnaire and other questions. This may be due to several factors including health status and the possibility of gaining an adequate job. The ICF questionnaire proved to be a useful framework that can be used for research but also by occupational physicians in their usual practice after specific training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study

    Taeko Oka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV, many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims’ daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. Methods The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan’s District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013 using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants’ current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems. In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%. Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question “What do you think about your everyday life situation?” We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Results Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds

  11. The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education

    Anne Vicary

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue leadership, usually one must first gain permanency in an organization, in contractual terms. Based on an autoethnographic study by a female academic in a UK higher education institution, the article illustrates that temporary forms of employment, should they be protracted, can stifle leadership aspirations due to lack of career progression opportunities and lead to a sense of alienation from the target community of practice, and even to personal difficulties, such as feelings of isolation and poor self-esteem. The article discusses theoretical and practical implications for women’s leadership arising from the findings and makes recommendations for improvements in practice in the higher education sector. The findings and recommendations from this study will also be relevant to other organizational contexts where casual or temporary, fixed term, zero-hours non-permanent forms of employment are common.

  12. “I WILL SURVIVE” A Construct Validation Study on the Measurement of Sustainable Employability Using Different Age Conceptualizations

    Pascale M. Le Blanc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the importance of sustainable employability throughout people's working life is undisputed, up till now only one attempt for a conceptual definition has been made (van der Klink et al., 2016. Following the suggestions to further refine and improve this definition recently put forward by Fleuren et al. (2016, we propose an approach to sustainable employability that is based on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO framework, and incorporates three indicators: the ability, the motivation, and the opportunity to continue working, respectively. As sustainable employability is considered to be an important aspect of successful aging at work, this study used four different conceptualizations of aging at work to set up convergent and divergent validity of our operationalization of sustainable employability: calendar age, organizational age (job and organizational tenure, functional age (work ability, and life-span age (partner and children. We formulated several hypotheses that were tested by analyzing data from an online survey among 180 employees from Dutch public service organizations who filled out a questionnaire on different age concepts, and their ability, motivation, and opportunity to continue working. Multiple regression analyses were performed, and results showed that the four conceptualizations of aging were differently related to the three indicators of sustainable employability. Life-span age, in terms of having children, had the strongest negative relationship with the ability to continue working, organizational age (i.e., organizational tenure had the strongest negative relationship with the motivation to continue working, and functional age had the strongest negative relationship with the opportunity to continue working. Moreover, functional age was significantly negatively related to the other two indicators of sustainable employability too, while life-span age appeared to enhance the ability and motivation to continue

  13. Cancer and heart attack survivors’ expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Saskia F. A. Duijts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. Results In cancer survivors at work (N = 159, alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.76; p = 0.010. In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78, gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00–0.57; p = 0.018 and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23–93.92; p = 0.033 remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066 and general health (p = 0.020 regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. Conclusions When predicting future employment status in cancer

  14. Cancer and heart attack survivors' expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Smith, Lee; Wardle, Jane

    2017-08-07

    Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. In cancer survivors at work (N = 159), alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health) remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.76; p = 0.010). In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78), gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00-0.57; p = 0.018) and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23-93.92; p = 0.033) remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066) and general health (p = 0.020) regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. When predicting future employment status in cancer survivors in the UK, general health is the most relevant factor

  15. Effect of working hours and precarious employment on depressive symptoms in South Korean employees: a longitudinal study.

    Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Long working hours and precarious employment are relatively common in South Korea. Since both can impact on mental health, this study examined their independent and combined effects on depressive symptoms of employees. Data were from the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS), 2010-2013. A total of 2733 full-time employees without depressive symptoms were analysed. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of the number of working hours per week (eg, 35-40 hours, 41-52 hours, 53-68 hours, and >68 hours) and employment status (permanent vs precarious employment) on depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) 11 scale. Compared with individuals working 35-40 hours/week, employees working above 68 hours (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.34) had higher odds of depressive symptoms after full adjustment. Similarly, precarious employees (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.75) showed worse mental health than permanent employees. In the combined effect model, employees in precarious employment who worked above 68 hours/week (OR, 2.03 95% CI 1.08 to 3.83) exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms compared with permanent employees working 35 to 40 hours/week. Long work hours and precarious employment status were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and addressing the vulnerable groups of employees to reduce the mental health burden of economically active individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    Shahram Basity; Mohammad Reza Iravani; Zahra Ghassabi; Faezeh Taghipour; Hajar Jannesari

    2013-01-01

    Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measur...

  17. Physical activity initiated by employer and its health effects; an eight week follow-up study

    Marit Skogstad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the health benefits of physical activity are well established, little is known about health effects of physical activity programs initiated by employer. Methods Background data and level of physical activity were collected by questionnaire among 78 men and 43 women working in road maintenance pre and post an 8-week physical activity motivational program. As a part of the program steps measured by accelerometer were registered online where team and individual performances could be continuously monitored. The physical activity levels were registered as 1 those physical active ≤1 time per week, 2 2–3 times per week and 3 ≥4 times a week. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, blood pressure, resting heart rate (RHR and blood samples (glycosylated hemoglobin, lipids and C-reactive protein were obtained at baseline and after eight weeks. Mixed models were applied to evaluate associations between physical activity and health parameters. Results With ≤1 time per week as reference, exercising 2–3 times per week at baseline was associated with higher levels of VO2max. During follow-up, VO2max increased with 2.8 mL ∙ kg−1∙ min−1 (95 % CI = 1.4, 4.3. Women had more favorable body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, RHR and lipid profile than men. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, RHR and diastolic blood pressure (dBP were lower among participants who exercised 2–3 times per week or ≥4 times a week, compared with those with ≤1 time per week. Half of the participants reported increased daily PA during follow-up, with high intensity PA such as jogging by 8.6 min (SD 14.6 and 8.3 min (SD 18.2, among women and men, respectively. During follow-up dBP increased among men. Further, total cholesterol and LDL were reduced by 0.12 mmol/L and 0.13 mmol/L, respectively (95 % CI = −022, –0.01 and −0.22,–0.04. Conclusions Exercise several times a week was associated with lower blood pressure and a

  18. Employment status and psychological distress in a population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden: the impact of migration.

    Sidorchuk, Anna; Engström, Karin; Johnson, Charisse M; Kayser Leeoza, Naima; Möller, Jette

    2017-04-07

    Unemployment and temporary employment are known to impact psychological health. However, the extent to which the effect is altered by migration-related and sociodemographic determinants is less clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between employment status and psychological distress differs between immigrants and Swedish-born and to what extent, the association is modified by gender and reason for immigration. Cross-sectional survey study. Data from public health surveys undertaken in 2002, 2006 and 2010 from random samples of Stockholm County residents, Sweden, were used to analyse a weighted sample of 51 118 individuals aged 18-64 (43 444 Swedish-born, 4055 non-refugees, 3619 refugees). According to their activity in the labour market, the participants were categorised into permanently/self-employed, temporarily employed and unemployed. Associations between self-reported employment and psychological distress measured by a 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire were explored across individuals with different migration status and reasons for immigration using logistic regression and pairwise comparisons. The analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, socioeconomic characteristics and survey year. Unemployment was associated with elevated likelihood of psychological distress across the study population, regardless of migration status and gender. Fully adjusted models revealed nearly a 3-fold higher odds of distress in unemployed Swedish-born (OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.51), non-refugees (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.05) and refugees (OR 2.91, 95% CI 2.20 to 3.85) when compared with permanently/self-employed. Temporary employment also increased the likelihood of distress, particularly among refugees and Swedish-born. The effect of unemployment on increased likelihood of poor psychological well-being overcomes gender-specific and migration-specific differences and is equally pronounced for Swedish

  19. [Determinants of the choice of part time employment and nurses' satisfaction: a multicentre descriptive study].

    Ferrazzo, Martino; Filippi, Mauro; Meneghetti, Giulia; Palese, Alvisa

    2012-01-01

    To describe the main determinants for the choice of part time employment in Italian nurses and its' impact on work satisfaction. The main factors were identified with a focus-group. A questionnaire with 26 items for the choice of part time and 24 for work satisfaction was then devised and administered to part time nurses (503) of 5 North Italian hospitals. Two-hundred fifty-five nurses/471 answered the questionnaire. The choice of part time was voluntary for the large majority of nurses (251, 98.4%) except for 4 (1.6%) that asked for it for health problems (personal or of the spouse). Part time nurses are more satisfied for the relationships with colleagues (average 3; SD 0.6), the opportunity to deal with responsibilities (2.9; SD 0.6) and to have free time (2.9; SD 0.6). CONCLUSIONS; Part time is a need for mothers. Part time nurses complain for lack of access to information on patients and lack of involvement in ward projects and planned changes, possibly to be considered signals of isolation.

  20. Health effects of low-dose radiation on atomic workers: a case study of employer-directed research

    Sterling, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    The 15-year history of a study on the health effects of low-dose radiation on workers at the Hanford Atomic Plant in Washington State demonstrates different facets of political control by employers over investigations of employee working conditions. Evidence obtained through the Freedom of Information Act shows that the original study, under the guidance of Dr. Thomas Mancuso, an experienced and respected occupational health epidemiologist, was proof to employees that their exposure levels were safe. When it turned out that the study might show an increase in cancer rates among plant employees, its control was transferred to the employer. Lessons from these events are that it may be necessary for organized labor to negotiate the conduct of occupational health investigations as part of negotiated settlements

  1. Employment type, workplace interpersonal conflict, and insomnia: a cross-sectional study of 37,646 employees in Japan.

    Sakurai, Kenji; Nakata, Aknori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Kawahito, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether workplace interpersonal conflict (WIC) is associated with insomnia, and whether the relationship between WIC and insomnia differs across different employment groups. A total of 37,646 Japanese full-time employees participated in a cross-sectional survey. Employment types included permanent employment and 2 forms of temporary employment: direct-hire and temporary work agent (TWA). Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening were measured. Insomnia was defined as having experienced 1 or more of these symptoms on ≥3 nights per week over the past 12 months. Results showed that WIC was significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia (odds ratio OR = 1.63; 95% confidence interval CI = 1.55-1.71), controlling for confounders. However, the relationship between WIC and the risk of insomnia was significantly stronger for TWAs than for permanent employees (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.13-3.45). A frequent exposure to WIC may increase the risk of insomnia, particularly for TWAs.

  2. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  3. How unemployment and precarious employment affect the health of young people: A scoping study on social determinants.

    Vancea, Mihaela; Utzet, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    The impact of unemployment and precarious employment on the health of young people is not well understood. However, according to social causation, higher socio-economic positions and thus better working conditions are beneficial to health in general. We tried to synthesize the results of studies that test this hypothesis in the case of young people. We conducted a scoping study mapping all the academic articles published in the period 2006-2016 in Europe. The literature was searched in PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus. We identified 1770 studies, of which only 46 met the inclusion criteria. There are more studies that focus on the relationship between unemployment and health than between precarious employment and health (28 and 16, respectively). The vast majority of the studies (44) found support for the social causation hypothesis, the most common health outcomes being mental health disorders, health risk behaviour, poor quality of life and occupational injuries. The causal mechanisms behind this association relied mainly on the life-course perspective, the breadwinner model, and the lack of social and economic benefits provided by standard employment. There is evidence that young people are especially vulnerable to health problems when unemployed or working in precarious conditions. Active labour market and training programmes, inclusive social security measures, improved working conditions and targeted health programmes are important for addressing this vulnerability. Further research should strive to enhance the causal model by including a gender perspective, longitudinal data, more indicators on precariousness and third factor explanations.

  4. Northern employment

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  5. A case study of population health improvement at a Midwest regional hospital employer.

    Long, D Adam; Sheehan, Paula

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews the population health improvement initiative of a Midwest regional hospital employer. Services included health risk assessments, health education, and motivational health coaching conducted telephonically. Outcomes categories for this program evaluation comprised participation rates, participant satisfaction, health status and behavior change, productivity change, health care claims savings, and return on investment. Participation rates varied widely with incentive structure, although retention of participants in coaching programs averaged 89%. The participant satisfaction rate for the last 14 months of interventions was 96%. Four years of population health status and behavior trending showed significant improvements in smoking status, dietary fat and fiber intake, exercise, mental health (ie, stress, effects depressive symptoms in the past year, life satisfaction), readiness to change (ie, diet, exercise, stress, smoking, body weight), perceptions of overall health, an index of good health habits, sum of lifestyle health risks, and sum of risks and chronic conditions. Body mass index showed nonsignificant improvements during the years of greatest participation (years 2 to 4). Indicators of productivity demonstrated improvements as well. These gains were noted for employees across all health risk statuses, which suggests population health improvement strategies can influence productivity even for healthy employees. Program year 3 was evaluated for health care claims savings using a 2-stage multivariate regression approach. Stage 1 was a computation of propensity-to-participate scores. Stage 2 was an estimation of per member per month (PMPM) claims savings for participant cohorts using a propensity score-weighted linear regression analysis. Participants averaged $40.65 PMPM savings over the control population. Program return on investment, including incentive costs and vendor fees, was 2.87:1.

  6. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  7. Employment-related difficulties and distressed living condition in patients with hepatitis B virus: A qualitative and quantitative study.

    Oka, Taeko; Enoki, Hiroaki; Tokimoto, Yukari; Kawanishi, Teruaki; Minami, Meguru; Okuizumi, Takahiro; Katahira, Kiyohiko

    2017-06-12

    In Japan, an estimated 400,000 people have the hepatitis B virus (HBV), many of whom were infected as a result of group vaccinations. People with HBV face many challenges, including disease progression, employment-related difficulties, and increased medical expenses. The relationship between HBV victims' daily life suffering and poverty associated with HBV-related employment changes has not been examined. We aimed to clarify the employment-related hardships experienced by Japanese HBV victims, and the relationships between these hardships and daily life suffering, including poverty, through qualitative and quantitative analyses. The study population comprised 11,046 people infected with HBV via group vaccination who filed lawsuits in Japan's District Courts by 2014. First, we conducted a qualitative study (2013) using the KJ method, with 107 participants (68 men, mean age 58.9 years; 39 women, mean age 55.3 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted covering participants' current condition, treatment, medical expenses, and life difficulties (employment- and family-related problems). In 2014, we conducted a quantitative study. We mailed questionnaires to the entire study population, investigating the topics covered in the interviews (response rate 60.1%). Daily life suffering was determined by responses to the question "What do you think about your everyday life situation?" We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to verify the relationships between daily life suffering and disease, employment, and income status. Interview data were integrated into seven islands: intention to work, lack of understanding of HBV in the workplace, inability to buy life insurance, burden due to medical expenses, life failure, dissatisfaction with the system, and wishing for life balance. The quantitative analyses showed significant positive correlations between daily life suffering and liver cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-2.17, p

  8. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  9. Pu-Th separation studies employing di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) as extractant from nitric acid medium

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Rizvi, G.H.; Ruikar, P.B.; Kumbhare, L.B.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to explore the use of di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) as an extractant for the recovery of Pu from the (proposed) AHWR fuel fabrication scrap solution. The extraction of Pu in the hexavalent state has been found to be distinctly more efficient than that in the tetravalent state. Distribution studies have been carried out by maintaining Pu as Pu(VI) employing AgO as the oxidant. Scrubbing at 5 M HNO 3 has been proposed to reduce the interference due to the co-extracted Th(IV). Quantitative stripping of the extracted Pu was achieved using hydroxyl ammonium-nitrate (HAN) as reductant. Ion exchange studies have been carried out for the final purification of Pu. It is proposed to employ the cation exchanger, Biorad AG 50X8 for the final purification of Pu from the stripped solution, keeping Pu as Pu(III). (orig.)

  10. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design

    Adriana eMihai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design.Method: The cross sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level and profession were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ – 9.Results: There were no statistical differences (p=0.054 between the depression rates in the employed (17.98% and unemployed (23.80% samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55, marital status (divorced, living in the rural area, with a low level of education, poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education.Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  11. Contemporary employment arrangements and mental well-being in men and women across Europe: a cross-sectional study

    De Moortel, Deborah; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is the tendency in occupational health research of approximating the 'changed world of work' with a sole focus on the intrinsic characteristics of the work task, encompassing the job content and working conditions. This is insufficient to explain the mental health risks associated with contemporary paid work as not only the nature of work tasks have changed but also the terms and conditions of employment. The main aim of the present study is to investigate whether a set of...

  12. A social work study to investigate the relationships between women’s personal characteristics and employment status

    Shahram Basity

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women play important role on building a sustainable family oriented society; they could also contribute to society by contributing to labor market. However, women’s personal characteristics such as educational background, years of experience, etc. could impact their future occupations. In this paper, we study the impact of various factors on women’s job status. The measurement tools for social factors of employment in this research is a questionnaire consists of 32 questions. The study measures the reflection of repliers to different social factors including social position, popularity, socialize, social manners, self-reliance, speech abilities, responsibility, etc. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 people using random sampling and analyzed using descriptive mono factor statistics, Spearman correlation, Kramer correlation coefficient, Chi-square, regression and path analysis. The validity of questionnaire is tested by using Cronbach alpha (%75. The results indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between woman’s educational level, age, residency status, socialization capability, urbanity, skill & ability and their employment. The study, however, does not find any relationship between marital status and number of children and outcome of woman’s employment.

  13. The type of employment contract and employees’ health and occupational functioning – The review of studies

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2015-01-01

    From over 2 decades intensive research concerning temporary workers has been carried out in Europe and outside Europe. Despite having the highest rate of temporary workers in Europe, the studies on this topic are very rare in Poland. The aim of the study was to review the existing research on the relations between temporary work and employees’ health and occupational functioning. The main conclusion from this review is that there is a significant inconsistency between the results of the studi...

  14. Time-greedy employment relationships: four studies on the time claims of post-Fordist work

    van Echtelt, P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and

  15. The type of employment contract and employees’ health and occupational functioning – The review of studies

    Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From over 2 decades intensive research concerning temporary workers has been carried out in Europe and outside Europe. Despite having the highest rate of temporary workers in Europe, the studies on this topic are very rare in Poland. The aim of the study was to review the existing research on the relations between temporary work and employees’ health and occupational functioning. The main conclusion from this review is that there is a significant inconsistency between the results of the studies included in this review due to such factors as heterogeneity of the group “temporary workers,” cultural and generational differences between temporary workers, as well as different economic context in which those studies had been carried out. The main recommendations for the future research is thus to take into account the personal preferences for performing temporary work and to use more complex study design. Med Pr 2015;66(4:565–573

  16. International Experience, Universities Support and Graduate Employability--Perceptions of Chinese International Students Studying in UK Universities

    Huang, Rong; Turner, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Recent policy developments in English Higher Education have resulted in employability placed in the spotlight, whereby the success of universities will be measured based on graduate employment. This represents the latest focus placed on employability in the sector, as universities are increasingly expected to provide employment-ready graduates to…

  17. Reliability of instruments in a cooperative, multisite study: employment intervention demonstration program.

    Salyers, M P; McHugo, G J; Cook, J A; Razzano, L A; Drake, R E; Mueser, K T

    2001-09-01

    Reliability of well-known instruments was examined in 202 people with severe mental illness participating in a multisite vocational study. We examined interrater reliability of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the PANSS, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Quality of Life Interview. Most scales had good levels of reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient alphas above .70. However, the SF-36 scales were generally less stable over time, particularly Social Functioning (ICC = .55). Test-retest reliability was lower among less educated respondents and among ethnic minorities. We recommend close monitoring of psychometric issues in future multisite studies.

  18. Self-Employment of Immigrants : A Cross-National Study of 17 Western Societies

    Tubergen, Frank van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role of immigrants’ country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being selfemployed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and

  19. A Preliminary Study of Mother's Socialization Practices as Related to Type of Maternal Employment.

    Reis, Janet

    An exploratory study of working and nonworking mothers' teaching styles, attitudes toward child rearing, and attitudes toward work was conducted with 100 mothers of 7- and 10-year-old girls and boys. Forty-four of the mothers worked outside the home and 56 did not. Comparisons of self-reported attitudes toward child rearing showed working mothers…

  20. A Study of Labour Market Information Needs through Employers' Seeking Behaviour

    Sanchez-Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato, Jorge; Andreadakis, Yorgos; Moreiro, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is understand the information needs that businesses have while seeking Library and Information Science professionals and analyse how they formulate those needs. Method: The analysis is performed by examining the professional skills and capabilities demanded in job offers published. A total of 1,020 job…

  1. The Impact of Technological Change; The American Experience. Studies in Employment and Unemployment.

    Haber, William; And Others

    Technological change is a complex term involving many more factors than "changes in machinery or automation." Six changes which affect jobs and influence skills in our industrial systems that could logically be called technological change have been identified: (1) scientific management, or time and motion studies, (2) mergers and consolidations,…

  2. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES): psychometric properties of a new tool for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers.

    Vives, Alejandra; Amable, Marcelo; Ferrer, Montserrat; Moncada, Salvador; Llorens, Clara; Muntaner, Carles; Benavides, Fernando G; Benach, Joan

    2010-08-01

    Despite the fact that labour market flexibility has resulted in an expansion of precarious employment in industrialised countries, to date there is limited empirical evidence concerning its health consequences. The Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) is a newly developed, theory-based, multidimensional questionnaire specifically devised for epidemiological studies among waged and salaried workers. To assess the acceptability, reliability and construct validity of EPRES in a sample of waged and salaried workers in Spain. A sample of 6968 temporary and permanent workers from a population-based survey carried out in 2004-2005 was analysed. The survey questionnaire was interviewer administered and included the six EPRES subscales, and measures of the psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ ISTAS21) and perceived general and mental health (SF-36). A high response rate to all EPRES items indicated good acceptability; Cronbach's alpha coefficients, over 0.70 for all subscales and the global score, demonstrated good internal consistency reliability; exploratory factor analysis using principal axis analysis and varimax rotation confirmed the six-subscale structure and the theoretical allocation of all items. Patterns across known groups and correlation coefficients with psychosocial work environment measures and perceived health demonstrated the expected relations, providing evidence of construct validity. Our results provide evidence in support of the psychometric properties of EPRES, which appears to be a promising tool for the measurement of employment precariousness in public health research.

  3. Employment, work disability and quality of life in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides. The EXPOVAS study.

    Benarous, Lucas; Terrier, Benjamin; Laborde-Casterot, Hervé; Bérezné, Alice; Dunogué, Bertrand; Cohen, Pascal; Puéchal, Xavier; Mouthon, Luc; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Guillevin, Loic

    2017-01-01

    Improved therapeutic strategies for ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have transformed acute and life-threatening diseases into chronic ones responsible for marked morbidity that could impact employment, work disability and quality of life (QoL). We aimed to analyse work, handicaps and QoL of AAV patients and identify their determinants. Patients with AAV were included in a cross-sectional study assessing employment, work disability and QoL. Specific and non-specific questionnaires, including SF-36, were sent to patients, and clinical-biological data that could affect QoL and their determinants were analysed. Questionnaires were completed by 189 patients. Among 94 working-age (employed; 23% of workers felt that their disease qualitatively limited the nature of their work, while 43% felt it limited the quantity of work they could do; 50% thought their disease had hindered their careers and 43% that it had led to a salary reduction. These results were comparable for the different vasculitides. QoL was significantly impaired for AAV patients compared to the general population (pemployment seemed to be preserved for the majority of the patients.

  4. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...

  5. The Psychological Effects of Unemployment and Unsatisfactory Employment on Young Adults: Findings from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Winefield, Anthony H; Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Helen R; Duong, David; Malvaso, Catia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last compulsory year of high school aged around 15 years and at Time 10 they were aged around 25 years. Results confirmed those from an earlier longitudinal study showing that the transition from school to satisfactory employment was associated with significant improvements in psychological well-being, whereas transition from school to unemployment or unsatisfactory employment showed no change in psychological well-being. The current findings extended the external validity of the earlier study because whereas participants in the earlier study were sampled from co-educational metropolitan public high schools, the current study included participants from every kind of high school: single sex as well as co-educational, rural as well as metropolitan, and private as well as public.

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of APS reductase and bisulfite reductase in three Desulfovibrio species

    Kremer, D.R.; Veenhuis, M.; Fauque, G.; Peck Jr., H.D.; LeGall, J.; Lampreia, J.; Moura, J.J.G.; Hansen, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    The localization of APS reductase and bisulfite reductase in Desulfovibrio gigas, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and D. thermophilus was studied by immunoelectron microscopy. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified enzymes from each strain. Cells fixed with formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde were

  7. Study of uranium in soil employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Srivastava, A.; Sharma, P.K.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Avhad, D.K.; Singhal, R.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from different locations in Punjab and Jharkhand States of India. Their Uranium content was measured using ICP-OES with and without chemical separation. It was observed that 98 percent of the uranium could be adsorbed using chitosan based micro-extractant at pH 5. The concentration of uranium in the studied soil samples was found to be higher than its normal natural abundance. (author)

  8. Creating at university the environment friendly for studies, students' employment, and family : approach of students

    Sidlauskienė, Virginija

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of EQUAL project "FAMILY UNIVERSE: Family-Friendly Organization" was to create and to test innovative methodology and means for educational institutions and organizations, starting to reconcile family and professional life and trying to change stereotypical gender roles in the family and in the work, by forming family-friendly study and work environment in Siauliai University. Conditions for the establishment of family oriented organization at University of Šiauliai are analysed ...

  9. Bodies in Contempt: A Mixed Methods Study of Federal ADA Employment Cases

    Dick-Mosher, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on theories of gendered organizations to examine discrimination against people with disabilities in the workplace. A sample of 200 cases which document disability discrimination lawsuits was drawn from the Westlaw legal database. Each case was coded for gender, job, disability and discrimination type and analyzed using multinomial logistic models. Of those 200 cases, 34 were selected for in depth qualitative analysis. This study finds that disability type and gender do have a...

  10. Validación del ultramicrométodo inmunocitoquímico (UMICIQ para el inmunofenotipaje de la leucemia linfoide aguda pediátrica Validation of immunocytochemical ultramicromethod (UMICIQ for immunophenotyping of pediatric acute lymphoid leukemia

    Vianed Marsán-Suárez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el ultramicrométodo inmunocitoquímico (UMICIQ con la citometría de flujo (CMF, para el diagnóstico inmunológico de la leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA pediátrica. Se procesó la médula ósea de 30 pacientes con LLA y se utilizó un panel mínimo de anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra los antígenos expresados por las células B (CD10, CD19 y CD20, las células T (CD2, CD3 y CD7 y las mieloides (CD13. Los resultados de este estudio demostraron que ambos métodos permiten identificar la línea de origen de las células leucémicas, el nivel de maduración y su clasificación en diferentes subtipos inmunológicos. Tanto el UMICIQ como la CMF mostraron una alta sensibilidad y especificidad. Este estudio permitió validar el diagnóstico inmunológico de la LLA pediátrica por el UMICIQ mediante la CMF, tecnología de avanzada, altamente automatizada y utilizada internacionalmente para el inmunofenotipaje (IFC celular de hemopatías malignas y de esta forma, demostró que las técnicas inmunocitoquímicas continúan siendo muy útiles para el IFC de neoplasias hematológicas y en particular, de la LLA.The aim of this study was to compare the immunocytochemical ultramicromethod (UMICIQ with flow cytometry (CMF for the immunological diagnosis of pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL. Bone marrow from 30 patients with ALL was processed and a minimal panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against antigens expressed on B cells (CD10, CD19 and CD20, T cells (CD2, CD3 and CD7, and myeloid (CD13 was used. The results of this study showed that both methods can identify the origin line of leukemia cells, the level of maturity and their classification in different immunological subtypes. Both UMICIQ and CMF showed high sensitivity and specificity. This study validated the immunological diagnosis of pediatric ALL by UMICIQ using CMF, which is an advanced, highly automated technology internationally used for

  11. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  12. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  13. Transient Studies in Large Offshore Wind Farms, Employing Detailed Circuit Breaker Representation

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    in order to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory. A user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) is included in both tools, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during...... greatly improves the simulation results, whereas little improvement is found in DigSILENT. Based on the transient study it is found that the simulated SOV can be up to 60% higher at the sending end when using the detailed VCB representation compared to the built-in switch, which emphasises the need...

  14. A phenomenological study of business graduates' employment experiences in the changing economy.

    Campbell, Throy Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the perspectives of business college graduates, how technology has shaped the structures of their jobs, and the role of non-technical skills as they navigate the changing career path. Three overlapping themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) influence of increased technology capabilities on job structures and careers; (2) participation in job-related training and formal education as means of adapting to the new work environment; and (3) the role of non-technical skills in the workplace amidst the intensification of technology change. This research provides higher education practitioners and labor market researchers qualitative perspectives on work structure changes.

  15. Career adaptability and employee engagement of adults employed in an insurance company: An exploratory study

    Rebecca Tladinyane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As a resiliency resource, career adaptability relates to an individual’s ability to adapt to new work demands and is seen to impact various occupational outcomes such as engagement. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship dynamics between career adaptability (measured by Career Adapt-Abilities Scale and employee engagement (measured by Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Motivation for the study: As a personal resource, career adaptability enables employees to deal with job demands, facilitating employee engagement. Limited research exists on the impact of career adaptability variables on employee engagement, bearing significant relevance in the current workforce. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted with a convenience sample (N = 131 of employees in an insurance company within South Africa. Main findings/results: Significant positive relationships were found between career adaptability and employee engagement. The results suggest that participants who have experienced higher employee engagement have better developed career adaptability skills. Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career adaptability influences their level of engagement in the organisation. Contribution: This research is the first to investigate the construct of career adaptability in an insurance company and the findings add to the existing career literature and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career development and engagement strategies. Keywords: career adaptability; career development; employee engagement; vocational guidance.

  16. Transient Studies in Large Offshore Wind Farms Employing Detailed Circuit Breaker Representation

    Jesper Hjerrild

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Switching overvoltages (SOV are considered a possible source of component failures experienced in existing offshore wind farms (OWFs. The inclusion of sufficiently accurate and validated models of the main electrical components in the OWF in the simulation tool is therefore an important issue in order to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory. A user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB is included in both tools, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during the closing operation. An analysis of the switching transients that might occur in OWFs will be made on the basis of the validated model, and the importance of the inclusion of a sufficiently accurate representation of the VCB in the simulation tool will be described. The inclusion of the VCB model in PSCAD greatly improves the simulation results, whereas little improvement is found in DigSILENT. Based on the transient study it is found that the simulated SOV can be up to 60% higher at the sending end when using the detailed VCB representation compared to the built-in switch, which emphasises the need for accurate representation of the VCB for energisation studies.

  17. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  18. Returning to paid employment after stroke: the Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE cohort study.

    Maree L Hackett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. PARTICIPANTS: Were aged >17 and <65 years, recent (within 28 days stroke, able to speak English sufficiently to respond to study questions, and able to provide written informed consent. Participants with language or cognitive impairment were eligible to participate if their proxy provided consent and completed assessments on the participants' behalf. The main outcome measure was return to paid work during the 12 months following stroke. RESULTS: Of 441 consented participants (average age 52 years, 68% male, 83% with ischemic stroke, 218 were in paid full-time and 53 in paid part-time work immediately before their stroke, of whom 202 (75% returned to paid part- or full-time work within 12 months. Being male, female without a prior activity restricting illness, younger, independent in activities of daily living (ADL at 28 days after stroke, and having private health insurance was associated with return to paid work, following adjustment for other illnesses and a history of depression before stroke (C statistic 0·81. Work stress and post stroke depression showed no such independent association. CONCLUSIONS: Given that independence in ADL is the strongest predictor of return to paid work within 12 months of stroke, these data reinforce the importance of reducing stroke-related disability and increasing independence for younger stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12608000459325.

  19. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  20. The relationship between changes in employment status and mortality risk based on the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (2003-2008).

    Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economic status from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. © 2013 APJPH.

  1. Outcomes of home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities and their related factors--a preliminary study in Taiwan.

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, I-Chun; Wang, Yun-Tung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to gain an understanding of the outcomes of home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities and their related factors in Taiwan. This study used survey method to collect 132 questionnaires. Descriptive and two-variable statistics including chi-square (χ(2)), independent sample t-test and analysis of variance were employed. The results found that 36.5% of the subjects improved their employment status and 75.8% of them improved in employability. Educational level and and vocational categories including "web page production", "e-commerce", "internet marketing", "on-line store" and "website set-up and management" were significantly "positively" associated with either of the two outcome indicators - change of employment status and employability. This study is the first evidence-based study about the outcomes of home-based employment service programs and their related factors for people with disabilities in Taiwan. The outcomes of the home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities were presented. Implications for Rehabilitation Home-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities can be effective. A programme of this kind supports participants in improving or gaining employment status as well as developing employability skills. Further consideration should be given to developing cost-effective home-based programmes and evaluating their effectiveness.

  2. Bioengineering methods employed in the study of wound healing of sulphur mustard burns.

    Graham, John S; Schomacker, Kevin T; Glatter, Robert D; Briscoe, Crystal M; Braue, Ernest H; Squibb, Katherine S

    2002-02-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a potent incapacitating chemical warfare agent that remains a threat to war fighters and civilians worldwide. SM lesions may require weeks or months to heal, depending upon their severity. This study was undertaken to find a treatment regimen that promotes speedier healing of deep cutaneous SM burns in a weanling pig model. The principal objective of the study was to compare four treatment regimens and establish which achieved the shortest healing time. Twelve Yorkshire Cross weanling pigs were exposed to SM liquid for 2h, generating six large deep dermal/full thickness burns on the ventrum of each animal. Three additional animals served as sham-exposed controls. Surgical intervention occurred at 48 h postexposure. Treatments included: (i) full-thickness debridement of the burns with a computer controlled, raster scanned continuous wave CO2 laser followed by autologous split-thickness skin grafting; (ii) full-thickness sharp surgical tangential excision followed by skin grafting, the 'Gold Standard' used in human deep dermal/full-thickness thermal burns management; (iii) partial-thickness laser ablation with no grafting; and (iv) partial-thickness sharp surgical excision with no grafting. Several non-invasive bioengineering methods were used to monitor the progress of wound healing throughout a 36-day healing period: reflectance colourimetry, evaporimetry, laser Doppler perfusion imaging and ballistometry. Bioengineering methods indicated that laser debridement followed by autologous split-thickness skin grafting was as efficacious in improving the wound healing of deep SM burns in weanling swine as the 'Gold Standard.' Regardless of the method of debridement, barrier function, skin colour and mechanical properties returned to near-normal levels within 15 days of treatment in the grafted sites. Regardless of surgical approach, blood flux levels remained approximately 50-60% of normal tissue throughout the 36-day postsurgical observation

  3. The nervus terminalis ganglion in Anguilla rostrata: an immunocytochemical and HRP histochemical analysis.

    Grober, M S; Bass, A H; Burd, G; Marchaterre, M A; Segil, N; Scholz, K; Hodgson, T

    1987-12-08

    Immunocytochemistry and retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport were used to study the ganglion of the nervus terminalis in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) like immunoreactivity was found in large, ganglion-like cells located ventromedially at the junction of the telencephalon and olfactory bulb and in fibers within the retina and olfactory epithelium. HRP transport from the retina demonstrated direct connections with both the ipsi- and contralateral populations of these ganglion-like cells. Given the well-documented role of both olfaction and vision during migratory and reproductive phases of the life cycle of eels, the robust nature of a nervus terminalis system in these fish may present a unique opportunity to study the behavioral correlates of structure-function organization in a discrete population of ganglion-like cells.

  4. Microwave process employed to study the immobilization feasibility of spent ion exchange resins in polymeric matrices

    Caratin, Reinaldo L.; Araujo, Sumair G. de; Landini, Liliane; Neves, Sabrina C.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rcaratin@ipen.br, E-mail: sgaraujo@ipen.br, E-mail: llandini@ipen.br, E-mail: scneves@ipen.br, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear activities generate radioactive wastes in several physical states, radioactive levels and kinds of radioactive emission. Hence, a lot of techniques have been developed and optimized to do the immobilization of these materials, according to local and international regulations to protect human being and environment. Another great concern is the indiscriminate disposal of used polymeric materials (such as plastic and rubber) or production leftovers in landfills, which remain for many years before they are naturally decomposed. In this work, it was studied the possibility of carrying out the immobilization of spent ion exchange resins (contaminated with ionising radiation), by using polymeric matrices of bitumen and rubber (as solidification materials for the storage of low level radioactive waste). The samples were mixed at different percentages and were heated in a microwave device (2,450 MHz) at IPEN/CNEN-SP, varying the irradiation time and power. The objective of the immobilization is converting the wastes into forms that are leach resistant and physically and chemically stable for disposal. Characterizations of these materials have been performed according to ABNT-NBR standards. The results indicated the previous idea of the necessary minimum temperature to keep the matrix for future embedding of radioactive waste, in solid state. (author)

  5. The Gini coefficient: a methodological pilot study to assess fetal brain development employing postmortem diffusion MRI

    Viehweger, Adrian; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Riffert, Till; Dhital, Bibek; Knoesche, Thomas R.; Anwander, Alfred [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Stepan, Holger [University Leipzig, Department of Obstetrics, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is important in the assessment of fetal brain development. However, it is clinically challenging and time-consuming to prepare neuromorphological examinations to assess real brain age and to detect abnormalities. To demonstrate that the Gini coefficient can be a simple, intuitive parameter for modelling fetal brain development. Postmortem fetal specimens(n = 28) were evaluated by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3-T MRI scanner using 60 directions, 0.7-mm isotropic voxels and b-values of 0, 150, 1,600 s/mm{sup 2}. Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) was used as the local diffusion model. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and complexity (CX) maps were generated. CX was defined as a novel diffusion metric. On the basis of those three parameters, the Gini coefficient was calculated. Study of fetal brain development in postmortem specimens was feasible using DWI. The Gini coefficient could be calculated for the combination of the three diffusion parameters. This multidimensional Gini coefficient correlated well with age (Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.59) between the ages of 17 and 26 gestational weeks. We propose a new method that uses an economics concept, the Gini coefficient, to describe the whole brain with one simple and intuitive measure, which can be used to assess the brain's developmental state. (orig.)

  6. The Gini coefficient: a methodological pilot study to assess fetal brain development employing postmortem diffusion MRI

    Viehweger, Adrian; Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Riffert, Till; Dhital, Bibek; Knoesche, Thomas R.; Anwander, Alfred; Stepan, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is important in the assessment of fetal brain development. However, it is clinically challenging and time-consuming to prepare neuromorphological examinations to assess real brain age and to detect abnormalities. To demonstrate that the Gini coefficient can be a simple, intuitive parameter for modelling fetal brain development. Postmortem fetal specimens(n = 28) were evaluated by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3-T MRI scanner using 60 directions, 0.7-mm isotropic voxels and b-values of 0, 150, 1,600 s/mm 2 . Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) was used as the local diffusion model. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and complexity (CX) maps were generated. CX was defined as a novel diffusion metric. On the basis of those three parameters, the Gini coefficient was calculated. Study of fetal brain development in postmortem specimens was feasible using DWI. The Gini coefficient could be calculated for the combination of the three diffusion parameters. This multidimensional Gini coefficient correlated well with age (Adjusted R 2 = 0.59) between the ages of 17 and 26 gestational weeks. We propose a new method that uses an economics concept, the Gini coefficient, to describe the whole brain with one simple and intuitive measure, which can be used to assess the brain's developmental state. (orig.)

  7. Construction firm practices and manager beliefs regarding the employment and safety of teenaged employees: a North Carolina based study.

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Schulman, Michael; Runyan, Carol W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reported practices of construction firms and the beliefs of firm managers/supervisors with respect to employing youth under age 18 and ensuring their safety. The participants in this study were firm representatives from 54, mostly small to medium sized, construction firms in North Carolina. Survey responses were analyzed for the entire sample and within strata of firm size (1-10, 11+ employees) using descriptive statistics. Percentages and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Chi-square tests were used to test for statistical significance in differences between firm sizes. The findings suggest limits in the adequacy of safety training given to youth in construction, particularly in light of the minimal experience firms require of young hires, that managers' beliefs about the causes of young worker injury are largely focused on worker behaviors rather than on the presence of hazards, and that managers' compliance with child labor laws may be hampered by their lack of knowledge of these laws and an ambivalence toward their usefulness and enforcement. While larger studies are needed to confirm and advance these findings, when considered along with prior studies, they demonstrate the need to improve the safety of the construction environment for youth. The development of new educational interventions by health and safety professionals targeted at construction firms are supported, as are efforts by government regulators to increase enforcement and employer knowledge of the child labor laws.

  8. The experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment: A phenomenological study

    White, Susan M.

    Women engineers remain underrepresented in employment in engineering fields in the United States. Feminist theory views this gender disparity beyond equity in numbers for women engineers and looks at structural issues of women's access, opportunities, and quality of experience in the workplace. Research on women's success and persistence in engineering education is diverse; however, there are few studies that focus on the early years of women's careers in engineering and less using a phenomenological research design. Experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment are presented using a phenomenological research design. Research questions explored the individual and composite experiences for the co-researchers of the study as well as challenges and advantages of the phenomenon of having completed one to five years of professional engineering employment. Themes that emanated from the data were a feeling that engineering is a positive profession, liking math and science from an early age, having experiences of attending math and science camps or learning and practicing engineering interests with their fathers for some co-researchers. Other themes included a feeling of being different as a woman in the engineering workplace, taking advantage of opportunities for training, education, and advancement to further their careers, and the role of informal and formal mentoring in developing workplace networks and engineering expertise. Co-researchers negotiated issues of management quality and support, experiences of gender discrimination in the workplace, and having to make decisions balancing their careers and family responsibilities. Finally, the women engineers for this research study expressed intentions to persist in their careers while pursuing expertise and experience in their individual engineering fields.

  9. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  10. Midbrain and forebrain patterning delivers immunocytochemically and functionally similar populations of neuropeptide Y containing GABAergic neurons.

    Khaira, S K; Nefzger, C M; Beh, S J; Pouton, C W; Haynes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Neurons differentiated in vitro from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to serve both as models of disease states and in drug discovery programs. In this study, we use sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8) to enrich for forebrain and midbrain phenotypes from mouse ESCs. We then investigate, using Ca(2+) imaging and [(3)H]-GABA release studies, whether the GABAergic neurons produced exhibit distinct functional phenotypes. At day 24 of differentiation, reverse transcriptase-PCR showed the presence of both forebrain (Bf-1, Hesx1, Pgc-1α, Six3) and midbrain (GATA2, GATA3) selective mRNA markers in developing forebrain-enriched cultures. All markers were present in midbrain cultures except for Bf-1 and Pgc-1α. Irrespective of culture conditions all GABA immunoreactive neurons were also immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y (NPY) antibodies. Forebrain and midbrain GABAergic neurons responded to ATP (1 mM), L-glutamate (30 μM), noradrenaline (30 μM), acetylcholine (30 μM) and dopamine (30 μM), with similar elevations of intracellular Ca(2+)([Ca(2+)](i)). The presence of GABA(A) and GABA(B) antagonists, bicuculline (30 μM) and CGP55845 (1 μM), increased the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in response to dopamine (30 μM) in midbrain, but not forebrain GABAergic neurons. All agonists, except dopamine, elicited similar [(3)H]-GABA release from forebrain and midbrain cultures. Dopamine (30 μM) did not stimulate significant [(3)H]-GABA release in midbrain cultures, although it was effective in forebrain cultures. This study shows that differentiating neurons toward a midbrain fate restricts the expression of forebrain markers. Forebrain differentiation results in the expression of forebrain and midbrain markers. All GABA(+) neurons contain NPY, and show similar agonist-induced elevations of [Ca(2+)](i) and [(3)H]-GABA release. This study indicates that the pharmacological phenotype of these particular neurons may be independent of the addition of

  11. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  12. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Yang, Ruibiao; Montoya, Alana; Bond, Amanda; Walton, Jenna; Kinnamon, John C

    2012-05-23

    Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3). P2X2/P2X3(Dbl-/-) mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP(3)R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, "atypical" mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis that ATP may be a key neurotransmitter in taste transduction

  13. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds

    Yang Ruibiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3. P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. Results P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP3R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, “atypical” mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Conclusions Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis

  14. Immunocytochemical detection of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase in human brain astrocytes.

    Bell, J E; Hume, R; Busuttil, A; Burchell, A

    1993-10-01

    Using an antibody raised against the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase, this enzyme was immunolocalized in many astrocytes in 20 normal human brains. Double immunofluorescence studies showed co-localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with glucose-6-phosphatase in astrocytes. However, not all GFAP-positive cells were also glucose-6-phosphatase positive, indicating that some astrocytes do not contain demonstrable expression of this enzyme. Reactive astrocytes in a variety of abnormal brains were strongly glucose-6-phosphatase positive, but neoplastic astrocytes were often only weakly positive. Expression of the enzyme could not be demonstrated in radial glia, neurons or oligodendroglia. Astrocytes normally contain glycogen and the demonstration that some astrocytes also contain glucose-6-phosphatase indicates that they are competent for both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, which may be critical for neuronal welfare.

  15. A Qualitative Study to Assess Barber Perceptions of the Feasibility of the Employer as a Health Advisor for Obesity Prevention.

    Roy, Siddhartha; Hansen, Andrew R; Ross, Levi; Larson, Rebecca

    2018-04-01

    Obesity has become a serious issue affecting millions of Americans, especially in the southern United States. One avenue for addressing obesity is the workplace setting. This formative research study examined the feasibility of an obesity prevention worksite intervention in the barbershop for African American barbershop owners (employers) and barbers (employees). The study proposes an intervention where the owner of the barbershop would be trained to educate his barbers about obesity prevention. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with the owners ( n = 5) and barbers ( n = 15) of five barbershops in Statesboro, Georgia, to determine the feasibility of the intervention. The results of this study indicated that the owners and barbers all felt that the intervention was feasible and could be implemented in the barbershop. The owners and barbers felt that obesity was an important issue in their community. Additional themes identified include program benefits, empowerment of owners and barbers, and motivational components to help produce healthy habits. The owners felt comfortable educating their barbers about obesity prevention, and the barbers were receptive toward the idea of being educated by their employer. In order for this intervention to be implemented and effective, it must be tailored to fit within the barbershop environment. This intervention addresses known health disparities that exist in the African American community and underscores the need for additional worksite health promotion programs in medically underserved communities.

  16. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Apology Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers

    Elham Abedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech-act theory has provided the hearers with a better understanding of what speakers intend to perform in the act of communication. One type of speech act is apologizing. When an action or utterance has resulted in an offense, the offender needs to apologize. In the present study, an attempt was made to compare the apology strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners and those of English native speakers in order to find out the possible differences and similarities. To this end, a discourse completion test (DCT was given to 100 male and female Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The respondents were supposed to complete the DCTs based on nine situations, which varied in terms of power between the interlocutors and level of imposition. This study employed Cohen and Olshtain's (1981 model to classify various types of apology strategies. The obtained results revealed some similarities along with some (statistically insignificant differences between EFL learners and American English speakers in terms of their use of apology strategies. Furthermore, it was found that the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs, such as request for forgiveness and an offer of apology were the strategies mostly employed by the Iranian EFL learners while taking on responsibility such as explicit self-blame, and expression of self-deficiency were found to be the strategies mostly used by English native speakers. In terms of gender, the male and female respondents more or less used the same apology strategies in response to the situations. The findings of the present research can be used by language teachers as well as sociolinguists. Keywords: Speech act theory, Speech act of apology, Apology strategies, Iranian EFL learners, English Native speakers, Gender

  17. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina. Immunocytochemical and cytofluorometric analysis of prognostic factors

    Blecharz, P. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Gynecological Oncology; Reinfuss, M.; Jakubowicz, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rys, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Tumor Pathology Oncology; Skotnicki, P.; Wysocki, W. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Oncological Surgery

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the potential prognostic factors in patients with primary invasive vaginal carcinoma (PIVC) treated with radical irradiation. Patients and methods: The analysis was performed on 77 patients with PIVC treated between 1985 and 2005 in the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute of Oncology, Cancer Center in Krakow. A total of 36 patients (46.8 %) survived 5 years with no evidence of disease (NED). The following groups of factors were assessed for potential prognostic value: population-based (age), clinical (Karnofsky Performance Score [KPS], hemoglobin level, primary location of the vaginal lesion, macroscopic type, length of the involved vaginal wall, FIGO stage), microscopic (microscopic type, grade, mitotic index, presence of atypical mitoses, lymphatic vessels invasion, lymphocytes/plasmocytes infiltration, focal necrosis, VAIN-3), immunohistochemical (protein p53 expression, MIB-1 index), cytofluorometric (ploidity, index DI, S-phase fraction, proliferation index SG2M) factors. Results: Significantly better 5-year NED was observed in patients: < 60 years, KPS {<=} 80, FIGO stage I and II, grade G1-2, MIB-1 index < 70, S-phase fraction < 10, and proliferation index < 25. Independent factors for better prognosis in the multivariate Cox analysis were age < 60 years, FIGO stage I or II, and MIB-1 index < 70. Conclusion: Independent prognostic factors in the radically irradiated PIVC patients were as follows: age, FIGO stage, MIB-1 index. (orig.)

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  19. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  20. Immunocytochemical Localization of Calbindin D28K, Calretinin, and Parvalbumin in Bat Superior Colliculus

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Won-Sig; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the localization of cells containing the calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) calbindin D28K (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV) in the superior colliculus (SC) of the bat using immunocytochemistry. CB-immunoreactive (IR) cells formed a laminar tier within the upper superficial gray layer (SGL), while CR-IR cells were widely distributed within the optic layer (OL). Scattered CR-IR cells were also found within the intermediate gray, white, and deep gray layers. By contrast, PV-IR cells formed a laminar tier within the lower SGL and upper OL. Scattered PV-IR cells were also found throughout the intermediate layers, but without a specific laminar pattern. The CBP-IR cells varied in size and morphology: While most of the CB-IR cells in the superficial layers were small round or oval cells, most CR-IR cells in the intermediate and deep layers were large stellate cells. By contrast, PV-IR cells were small to large in size and included round or oval, stellate, vertical fusiform, and horizontal cells. The average diameters of the CB-, CR-, and PV-IR cells were 11.59, 17.17, and 12.60 μm, respectively. Double-immunofluorescence revealed that the percentage of co-localization with GABA-IR cells was 0.0, 0.0, and 10.27% of CB-, CR-, and PV-IR cells, respectively. These results indicate that CBP distribution patterns in the bat SC are unique compared with other mammalian SCs, which suggest functional diversity of these proteins in visually guided behaviors

  1. “WORKPLACES FOR ALL” A PILOT STUDY ON EMPLOYMENT AND WORKING CONDITIONS FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN MACEDONIA

    Zora JACHOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the pilot study "Workplaces for All" conducted in Macedonia in 2006. Another article by Prof. Risto Petrov, based on a part of the same study was published in Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation January-June No. 1-2, Skopje, 2006; 1-123.The study was a qualitative research project con­ducted in co-operation between Macedonian and Norwegian scientists and representatives from a Macedonian disabled people's organisation (DPO. The main objective was to get research based knowledge about working conditions among people with disabilities in Macedonia in order to prepare for further research, and to raise awareness about the importance of joining forces to improve the rights and working conditions for people with dis­abilities.The pilot study included qualitative interviews of employers and employees at seven protective com­panies. The study has shown the advantage of hav­ing partners from different organisations working together in a research project. The findings do not unveil any irregularities or mistreatment of this quite vulnerable group of employees.The pilot study has produced research based docu­mentation about employment and working condi­tions among people with disabilities in Macedonia. Even though the study found the conditions quite positive, it unveiled several challenges that should be looked deeper into. Among these are the use of assistive technology and adaptations, the social in­clusion both in the company and in the local society and the regulations and process of receiving bene­fits by the protective companies.

  2. Organizational factors affecting successful adoption of innovative eHealth services: a case study employing the FITT framework.

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Kouroubali, Angelina

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an application of the "Fit between Individuals, Task and Technology" (FITT) framework to analyze the socio-organizational-technical factors that influence IT adoption in the healthcare domain. The FITT framework was employed as the theoretical instrument for a retrospective analysis of a 15-year effort in implementing IT systems and eHealth services in the context of a Regional Health Information Network in Crete. Quantitative and qualitative research methods, interviews and participant observations were employed to gather data from a case study that involved the entire region of Crete. The detailed analysis of the case study based on the FITT framework, showed common features, but also differences of IT adoption within the various health organizations. The emerging picture is a complex nexus of factors contributing to IT adoption, and multi-level interventional strategies to promote IT use. The work presented in this paper shows the applicability of the FITT framework in explaining the complexity of aspects observed in the implementation of healthcare information systems. The reported experiences reveal that fit management can be viewed as a system with a feedback loop that is never really stable, but ever changing based on external factors or deliberate interventions. Management of fit, therefore, becomes a constant and complex task for the whole life cycle of IT systems.

  3. Employability and career experiences of international graduates of MSc Public Health: a mixed methods study.

    Buunaaisie, C; Manyara, A M; Annett, H; Bird, E L; Bray, I; Ige, J; Jones, M; Orme, J; Pilkington, P; Evans, D

    2018-05-08

    This article aims to describe the public health career experiences of international graduates of a Master of Science in Public Health (MSc PH) programme and to contribute to developing the evidence base on international public health workforce capacity development. A sequential mixed methods study was conducted between January 2017 and April 2017. Ninety-seven international graduates of one UK university's MSc PH programme were invited to take part in an online survey followed by semistructured interviews, for respondents who consented to be interviewed. We computed the descriptive statistics of the quantitative data obtained, and qualitative data were thematically analysed. The response rate was 48.5%. Most respondents (63%) were employed by various agencies within 1 year after graduation. Others (15%) were at different stages of doctor of philosophy studies. Respondents reported enhanced roles after graduation in areas such as public health policy analysis (74%); planning, implementation and evaluation of public health interventions (74%); leadership roles (72%); and research (70%). The common perceived skills that were relevant to the respondents' present jobs were critical analysis (87%), multidisciplinary thinking (86%), demonstrating public health leadership skills (84%) and research (77%). Almost all respondents (90%) were confident in conducting research. Respondents recommended the provision of longer public health placement opportunities, elective courses on project management and advanced statistics, and 'internationalisation' of the programme's curriculum. The study has revealed the relevance of higher education in public health in developing the career prospects and skills of graduates. International graduates of this MSc PH programme were satisfied with the relevance and impact of the skills they acquired during their studies. The outcomes of this study can be used for curriculum reformation. Employers' perspectives of the capabilities of these

  4. Stakeholder perspectives on workplace health promotion: a qualitative study of midsized employers in low-wage industries.

    Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Garson, Gayle; Harris, Jeffrey R; Sopher, Carrie J

    2012-01-01

    Study goals were to (1) describe stakeholder perceptions of workplace health promotion (WHP) appropriateness, (2) describe barriers and facilitators to implementing WHP, (3) learn the extent to which WHP programs are offered to workers' spouses and partners and assess attitudes toward including partners in WHP programs, and (4) describe willingness to collaborate with nonprofit agencies to offer WHP. Five 1.5-hour focus groups. The focus groups were conducted with representatives of midsized (100-999 workers) workplaces in the Seattle metropolitan area, Washington state. Thirty-four human resources professionals in charge of WHP programs and policies from five low-wage industries: accommodation/food services, manufacturing, health care/social assistance, education, and retail trade. A semistructured discussion guide. Qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts using grounded theory to identify themes. Most participants viewed WHP as appropriate, but many expressed reservations about intruding in workers' personal lives. Barriers to implementing WHP included cost, time, logistical challenges, and unsupportive culture. Participants saw value in extending WHP programs to workers' partners, but were unsure how to do so. Most were willing to work with nonprofit agencies to offer WHP. Midsized, low-wage employers face significant barriers to implementing WHP; to reach these employers and their workers, nonprofit agencies and WHP vendors need to offer WHP programs that are inexpensive, turnkey, and easy to adapt.

  5. "Should we talk about it?": A study of the experiences business leaders have of employing people with mental health problems.

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny; Fugletveit, Ragnhild

    2015-01-01

    Job seekers with mental health problems are more at risk of being excluded from the labour market than those without such problems. Our aim has been to explore the experiences business leaders have of employing people with mental health problems and to investigate whether they can suggest what might be done in order to include more job seekers with mental health problems in their companies. Our empirical sample consisted of in-depth interviews with ten business leaders who were recruited from five public and five private companies. On the one hand business leaders want more openness in the hiring process in relation to any psychological problems job seekers have. On the other hand, employers were unsure whether job seekers would state that they have or have had mental health problems. The study concludes that more attention must be focused on changing business leaders' attitudes and changing unhealthy corporate cultures that create and sustain the idea that people with mental health problems are disabled. In order to reverse the trend of increasing numbers of people with mental health problems being excluded from the labour market, it seems imperative that business leaders develop their understanding of how the workplace can accommodate employees who have a history of mental health problems.

  6. A model compound study: the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays.

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone.

  7. Protocol for X-ray dosimetry and exposure arrangements employed in studies of late somatic effects in mammals

    Zoetelief, J.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Broerse, J.J.; Scarpa, G.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    A number of European laboratories studying the late effects of ionizing radiation in animals have established an effective cooperation within the European Late Effects Project Group (EULEP) since 1970. To facilitate the exchange of biological results several techniques, including quality control of the experimental animals, pathology and dosimetry, have to be standardized. The most important aspects of the procedures for X-irradiation and dosimetry of small animals are summarized. These include recommendations on irradiation conditions, dosimetry methods, characteristics of phantoms and factors affecting X-ray dosimetry. X-irradiation procedures employed by the participating institutes are described and the results of five X-ray dosimetry intercomparisons are reported. The introduction of a common dosimetry protocol has resulted in improvements in exposure arrangements and absolute dosimetry. (author)

  8. Associations between strain in domestic work and self-rated health: a study of employed women in Sweden.

    Staland-Nyman, Carin; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n=1,417), aged 17-64 years. "Domestic job strain'' was an application of the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell, and "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' was measured by questions on the division of and responsibility for domestic work and relationship with spouse/cohabiter. Self-rated health was measured using the SF-36 Health Survey. Associations were analysed by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, and reported as standardized regression coefficients. Higher strain in domestic work was associated with lower self-rated health, also after controlling for potential confounders and according to both strain measures. "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' showed for example negative associations with mental health beta -0.211 (p<0.001), vitality beta -0.195 (p<0.001), social function -0.132 (p<0.01) and physical role beta -0.115 (p<0.01). The highest associations between "Domestic job strain'' and SF-36 were found for vitality beta -0.156 (p<0.001), mental health beta -0.123 (p<0.001). Strain in domestic work, including perceived inequity in the relationship and lack of a satisfactory relationship with a spouse/cohabiter, was associated with lower self-rated health in this cross-sectional study. Future research needs to address the specific importance of strain in domestic work as a contributory factor to women's ill-health.

  9. Experiment K-6-18. Study of muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex, hippcampus and spinal code

    Daunton, N.; Damelio, F.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Frontal lobe samples of rat brains flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were processed for the study of muscarinic (cholinergic) and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors and for immunocytochemical localization of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although radioactive labeling of both muscarinic cholinergic and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors proved to be successful with the techniques employed, distinct receptor localization of individual laminae of the frontal neocortex was not possible since the sampling of the area was different in the various groups of animals. In spite of efforts made for proper orientation and regional identification of laminae, it was found that a densitometric (quantitation of autoradiograms) analysis of the tissue did not contribute to the final interpretation of the effects of weightlessness on these receptors. As to the immunocytochemical studies the use of both markers, GFAP and GABA antiserum, confirmed the suitability of the techniques for use in frozen material. However, similar problems to those encountered in the receptor studies prevented an adequate interpretation of the effects of micro-G exposure on the localization and distribution of GABA and GFAP. This study did, however, confirm the feasibility of investigating neurotransmitters and their receptors in future space flight experiments.

  10. Cancer-related health behaviours of young people not in education, employment or training ('NEET'): a cross-sectional study.

    Stewart, Catherine H; Berry, Philip; Przulj, Dunja; Treanor, Charlene

    2017-03-02

    Links between participating in unhealthy behaviours, e.g. smoking, and an increased risk of developing some cancers are well established. Unemployed adults are more likely to participate in cancer-related health behaviours than their employed counterparts. However, evidence of whether this is true in young adults not in education, employment or training (NEET) compared to their 'non-NEET' peers is either limited or inconclusive. Using cross-sectional health data from across the UK, this study aims to investigate whether participation in cancer-related health behaviours varies by NEET status. Data for 16-24 year olds were extracted from the 2010-12 Health Surveys for England (HSE) and Scottish Health Surveys (SHeS). Information on economic activity in the last week was used to determine NEET status. Data on whether respondents had been seeking employment within the last four weeks and availability to start within the next two weeks allowed NEETs to be further identified as unemployed (UE) or economically inactive (EI). Logistic regression modelled the effect of being NEET on odds of being a current smoker; heavy drinker; not participating in sport; having eaten less than five portions of fruit or vegetables the day before survey interview and having an unhealthy body mass index (BMI). Analyses were performed before and after exclusion of EI NEETs. Data were extracted for 4272 individuals, of which 715 (17%) were defined as NEET with 371 (52%) and 342 (48%) further classified as UE and EI respectively. Two NEETs could not be further defined as UE or EI due to missing information. Relative to non-NEETs, NEETs were significantly more likely to be current smokers, not participate in sport and have an 'unhealthy' BMI. These results held after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics both before and after exclusion of EI NEETs. Before exclusion of EI NEETs, NEETs were significantly less likely to be heavy drinkers than non-NEETs. There was no significant

  11. Association between employer's knowledge and attitude towards smoking cessation and voluntary promotion in workplace: a survey study.

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Suen, Yi Nam; Cheung, Ka Ching; Lau, Oi Sze; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-01-01

    Workplace smoking cessation (SC) intervention is effective in increasing quit rate but little was known about the factors associated with voluntary SC promotion. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation, including banning smoking in all indoor area of workplaces, has been enforced in Hong Kong. This survey investigated the prevalence of company's compliance with smoke-free legislation and examined the relation between voluntary SC promotion in workplace and employer's knowledge of and attitude towards smoking and SC. Half (50.3%, n  = 292) of a convenience sample of companies completed a self-administered questionnaire on company's voluntary SC promotion in the workplace. Factors investigated included company's characteristics (size, type, and number of smoking employees); employers' knowledge of smoking, second-hand smoke and SC effects on health; perceived responsibility in assisting employees to quit smoking and smoking prohibition in workplace (smoke free policy). Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for voluntary SC promotion. A notable proportion of companies (14.7%) showed non-compliance with the smoke free workplace ordinance and only 10% voluntarily promoted SC. Perceived greater negative impact of smoking on the company (adjusted odds ratio[aOR] 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.20) and better knowledge of smoking (aOR 1.40, 95%CI 1.00-1.94) were associated with voluntary SC promotion. Positive but non-significant associations were observed between perceived responsibility of assisting employees to quit, workplace smoke free policy and voluntary SC promotion. Company characteristics were generally not associated with voluntary SC promotion except white collar companies were less likely to promote SC (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.85). This is the first survey on company's SC promotion in the Chinese population. A notable proportion of companies was not compliant with the smoke-free workplace ordinance. Employers with a higher level of

  12. The impact of age on the reservation wage: the role of employment efficacy and work intention: a study in the Belgian context.

    De Coen, An; Forrier, Anneleen; Sels, Luc

    2015-04-01

    This study explores the relationship between age and reservation wage. The authors investigate whether individuals' attitudes toward employment, that is, their "employment efficacy" and "work intention," mediate this relationship. The authors examine this in the Belgian labor market, where substantial differences exist between blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, and civil servants regarding payment systems, employment protection, and pension benefits. Path analysis on a sample of 22,796 Belgian workers aged 18 to 60 years reveals a reverse U-shaped relationship between age and the reservation wage via employment efficacy and a U-shaped relationship via work intention. In addition, study analyses also show a direct relationship between age and the reservation wage. The effects vary with employment status. The authors discuss implications for theory, practice, and future research. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Employment hardships and single mothers' self-rated health: evidence from the panel study of income dynamics.

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2014-01-01

    Using a national sample of single mothers from the 2007 and 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined the effects of multiple employment statuses on the selfrated health of single mothers during the recent economic recession. Unlike other studies, the current study minimized selection bias by controlling for prior self-rated health, in addition to other predisposing factors, enabling factors, and need factors. We found that underemployment, but not unemployment, is associated with lower levels of self-rated health of single mothers. Results further indicate that the 25-39 age range (compared to the 18-24 age range), lower family income, prior lower self-rated health, more chronic diseases, and binge drinking place single mothers at an increased risk of lower levels of self-rated health. In contrast, strength-building physical activity is significantly associated with higher levels of self-rated health. Implications for health care policy and social work practice are drawn from the results.

  14. Employment status and work-related problems of gastrointestinal cancer patients at diagnosis: a cross-sectional study

    de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Bruinvels, D. J.; Tytgat, K. M. A. J.; Schoorlemmer, A.; Klinkenbijl, J. H. G.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the employment status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer at diagnosis and to examine work-related problems of employed patients. Design New, consecutive patients were included at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Center Amsterdam, a one-stop, rapid access diagnostic assessment

  15. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  16. Employment of Former Foster Youth as Young Adults: Evidence from the Midwest Study. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Hook, Jennifer L.; Courtney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this issue brief, the authors explore how former foster youth in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa are faring in the labor market and what explains the variability in employment outcomes for these youth. First, they describe trends in former foster youths' employment from age 17 to 24. Then, they consider how former foster youths' characteristics…

  17. Should Student Employment Be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Minaya, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of federal employment subsidies, and one of the oldest forms of student aid. Yet it is unclear whether they help or harm students' long term outcomes. We present a framework that decomposes overall effects into a weighted average of effects for marginal and inframarginal workers. We then…

  18. Youth Employment, Psychosocial Health and the Importance of Person/Environment Fit: A Case Study of Two Scottish Rural Towns.

    Pavis, Stephen; Platt, Stephen; Hubbard, Gill

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the employment experiences of young people from two small rural Scottish towns. The majority of available employment was repetitive, and involved poor working conditions and limited opportunity for skill development or promotion. Most respondents recognized that in the longer term such work was detrimental to their quality of life and…

  19. Curriculum Evaluation and Employers Opinions: the case study of Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program

    Nakhon Lalognam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: 1 to evaluate the Educational Technology Program (Continuing Program in Bachelor Degree curriculum which is revised in 2007 by applying CIPP model for evaluation. 2 to study the opinions of the employers about the ideal characteristics and actual characteristics of graduates. 3 to study the opinions for the requirements of the Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program and knowledge implementation in work of graduates. 4 to make the suggestions and guidelines to improve the Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program to achieve potentiality and responsive for the requirements of learners and employers. The sample of this research were 310 persons ; consisted of graduates in the Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program in academic year 2006 - 2010, the committee of the Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program , instructors and employers by using Multi-stage Random Sampling and Simple Random Sampling. The instruments of this research were the 5 levels rating scale questionnaire and the structured interview type. They consisted of 3 sets: 1 for graduates, 2 for the committee of the Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program and 3 for instructors and employers. The research found that: 1. The results of evaluation on the Educational Technology Program in Bachelor Degree (Continuing Program which is revised in 2007 were: 1.1 The opinions of graduates to curriculum in all of aspects were average at the uncertain level which the context aspect was at the high level, input aspect was at the uncertain level, process aspect was at the uncertain level and product aspect was at the high level. 1.2 The opinions of the curriculum committee and instructors to curriculum in all of aspects were average at the high level which the context aspect was at the high level, input aspect was at the

  20. An evidence-based analysis of learning practices: the need for pharmacy students to employ more effective study strategies.

    Brown, Daniel

    Learning is a process of constructing neural connections between what is being learned and what has already been learned. Superficial thought processes associated with memorization produce shallow, short-term learning. Higher-order thought processing (critical thinking) produces deep, long-term learning. Pharmacy students should study in ways that enable them to retain and apply what they learn. Investigators who surveyed the learning practices of pharmacy students have reported that most students resort to cramming in preparation for an upcoming exam. The practice of routinely keeping up with course material through regular study is much less common. Most students highlight or re-read material when studying rather than quizzing themselves, and many multitask or study with distractions such as texting, checking e-mails or using social media. Studies in cognitive psychology and education provide evidence to confirm the efficacy of the following learning practices: plan and manage study time, space out and repeat study, interleave (mix up) topics or methods, incorporate retrieval practice (self-quizzing, deliberative reading, or written paraphrasing), minimize distractions, leverage mistakes, and sleep at least seven hours a night. Pharmacy students need to become proficient, lifelong learners. A superficial, memorization-oriented approach to learning is detrimental to professional growth. Faculty members should guide students to employ more effective evidence-based study strategies, while also exploring how curricular design, course content, academic policy or pedagogy might be predisposing students to pursue suboptimal learning practices. The issue calls for the academy to focus greater attention on how students learn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time. From May to September 2009, 330 physicians employed at six oncology centres and seven community based oncology departments were invited to participate in a survey based on the short version of the COPSOQ II questionnaire. The results were compared with data from a representative section of Danish employees and with data from the 2006 survey. Two hundred and twenty of the 330 invited physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 67%). Concerning the aspects quantitative demands, work pace, emotional demands, influence, burnout and stress, the oncologists reported worse work conditions than the average Danish employee. However, with regard to possibilities for development, meaning of work and commitment to workplace, the oncologists reported better work conditions. Between 2006 and 2009, substantial improvement was seen concerning several of the assessed work environment aspects within the group of young physicians at the oncology centres. Though substantial improvement of the work conditions has been achieved between 2006 and 2009, certain aspects of the psychosocial work environment at Danish oncology departments still require attention.

  2. Histopathology and immunocytochemical study of type 3 and type 4 complement receptors in the liver and spleen of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi Histopatologia e estudo imunocitoquímico dos receptores do tipo 3 e 4 do complemento no fígado e baço de cães natural e experimentalmente infectados com Leishmaniose Visceral

    Wagner Luiz Tafuri

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the histopathological changes and expression of CR3 and CR4 in the liver and spleen of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with L. chagasi. The basic histopathological lesions observed mainly in naturally infected dogs were: epithelioid hepatic granulomas, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of Kupffer cells, Malpigui follicles and mononucleated cells of the red pulp of the spleen. Sections from the liver and spleen by immunocytochemistry technique showed the presence of CD11b,cCD 18 antigens in the control and infected animals and no qualitative or quantitative differences in the liver. Nevertheless, CD18 was always increased in the spleen of naturally and experimentally infected dogs. These results indicate that there is a difference in the activaton of CD 18 in both experimental and natural cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis that should play an important role in the immunological response to Leishmania chagasi infection.Os objetivos deste trabalho visaram uma análise comparativa das alterações histopatológicas e da expressão de CR3 e CR4 no fígado e baço de cães natural e experimentalmente infectados com L. chagasi. As lesões histopatológicas fundamentais observadas principalmente nos cães naturalmente infectados foram: os granulomas epitelióides hepáticos, a hiperplasia e a hipertrofia das células de Kupffer, dos folículos de Malpighi e das células mononucleadas da polpa vermelha do baço. Os cortes de fígado e baço corados pela técnica de imunocitoquímica mostraram a presença dos antígenos CD11b,cCD18 nos animais controles e infectados, sem diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas no fígado. Entretanto, no baço dos cães natural e experimentalmente infectados a expressão de CD 18 (subunidade beta2 da molécula comum aos leucócitos foi sempre aumentada. Em leishmaniose a resposta imune celular é considerada a mais importante na resolução da doença. A expressão de CD

  3. Climate change and employment. A case study of Finland; Changement climatique et emploi. Cas de la Finlande

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The study has been carried out by a consortium led by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the Social Development Agency (SDA), which includes Syndex, the Wuppertal Institute and ISTAS. It was commissioned by the European Commission, DG environment, as a contribution to improve current understanding of the relationship between climate change and employment. The study was also supported financially by seven public bodies: Ministries of Environment of Belgium, Spain, Finland, Italy, United-Kingdom; ADEME and DIAC in France. The first part of the study examines the potential consequences for employment of global warming in Europe - which has already begun and will continue. The main finding is that even moderate climate change will affect economic activity and employment in Europe, with some regions and economic sectors being particularly vulnerable. Increased warming will be likely to have very damaging consequences. The second half of the report considers the challenge for employment of the transition towards a lower CO2 European economy at the horizon 2030, in four key economic sectors: energy production, transport, steel and cement industries, construction/housing. The study considers a number of scenario for a reduction of 40% in CO2 emissions by the year 2030 and what the effects can be on European employment and skills. Case studies of eleven European countries are also analysed. This report is about Finland. [French] La Finlande est le 5e pays europeen en superficie, avec un total de 338.145 km{sup 2}, pour une population de 5,2 millions d'habitants. Le climat finlandais est le plus froid d'Europe, avec des besoins en chauffage pratiquement toute l'annee et des besoins en eclairage tres importants les mois d'hiver, en raison de la duree tres courte du jour. L'industrie est dominee par l'exploitation forestiere et le papier, ainsi que la metallurgie et la chimie, ces industries etant hautement energie-intensives. Ces

  4. A model compound study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays

    Macken, Ailbhe [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: ailbhe.macken@dit.ie; Giltrap, Michelle [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: michelle.giltrap@marine.ie; Foley, Barry [School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: barry.foley@dit.ie; McGovern, Evin [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: evin.mcgovern@marine.ie; McHugh, Brendan [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: brendan.mchugh@marine.ie; Davoren, Maria [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: maria.davoren@dit.ie

    2008-06-15

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C{sub 18} resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. - Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed.

  5. Creative and Stylistic Devices Employed by Children During a Storybook Narrative Task: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Gorman, Brenda K.; Fiestas, Christine E.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Clark, Maya Reynolds

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of culture on the creative and stylistic features children employ when producing narratives based on wordless picture books. Method Participants included 60 first- and second-grade African American, Latino American, and Caucasian children. A subset of narratives based on wordless picture books collected as part of a larger study was coded and analyzed for the following creative and stylistic conventions: organizational style (topic centered, linear, cyclical), dialogue (direct, indirect), reference to character relationships (nature, naming, conduct), embellishment (fantasy, suspense, conflict), and paralinguistic devices (expressive sounds, exclamatory utterances). Results Many similarities and differences between ethnic groups were found. No significant differences were found between ethnic groups in organizational style or use of paralinguistic devices. African American children included more fantasy in their stories, Latino children named their characters more often, and Caucasian children made more references to the nature of character relationships. Conclusion Even within the context of a highly structured narrative task based on wordless picture books, culture influences children’s production of narratives. Enhanced understanding of narrative structure, creativity, and style is necessary to provide ecologically valid narrative assessment and intervention for children from diverse cultural backgrounds. PMID:21278258

  6. A model compound study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C 18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. - Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed

  7. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  8. Lymphocyte interactions with the extracellular matrix of malignant cells in vítro: A morphological and immunocytochemical study

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1993-01-01

    The interactions of lymphocytes with the glycosaminoglycans-protease-membrane extracellular matrix, produced by mixed cell cultures of normal with malignant cell clones, were examined. Pre-activated and activated heterologous peripheral lymphocytes were used. Co-cultures of activated lymphocytes with al1 cell types used, formed identical cell nodules. Histology of cell nodules showed that activated lymphocytes were cytolytic to pure normal or malignant cell clo...

  9. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  10. Risk of latent TB infection in individuals employed in the healthcare sector in Germany: a multicentre prevalence study

    Harling Melanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare workers are still recognised as a high-risk group for latent TB infection (LTBI. Therefore, the screening of people employed in the healthcare sector for active and LTBI is fundamental to infection control programmes in German hospitals. It was the aim of the study to determine the prevalence and putative risk factors of LTBI. Methods We tested 2028 employees in the healthcare sector with the QuantiFERON-Gold In-tube (QFT-IT test between December 2005 and May 2009, either in the course of contact tracing or in serial testing of TB high-risk groups following German OSH legislation. Results A positive IGRA was found in 9.9% of the healthcare workers (HCWs. Nurses and physicians showed similar prevalence rates (9.7% to 9.6%. Analysed by occupational group, the highest prevalence was found in administration staff and ancillary nursing staff (17.4% and 16.7%. None of the individuals in the trainee group showed a positive IGRA result. In the different workplaces the observed prevalence was 14.7% in administration, 12.0% in geriatric care, 14.2% in technicians (radiology, laboratory and pathology, 6.5% in admission ward staff and 8.3% in the staff of pulmonary/infectious disease wards. Putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>55 years: OR14.7, 95% CI 5.1-42.1, being foreign-born (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.4-2.8, TB in the individual's own history (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.99-12.3 and previous positive TST results (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.4-4.98. We observed no statistically significant association with gender, BCG vaccination, workplace or profession. Conclusion The prevalence of LTBI in low-incidence countries depends on age. We found no positive IGRA results among trainees in the healthcare sector. Incidence studies are needed to assess the infection risk. Pre-employment screening might be helpful in this endeavour.

  11. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  12. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  13. Development of the Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills program for adults on the autism spectrum: Results of initial study.

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Fitch, Meghan A; Kinnear, Mikaela; Jenkins, Melissa M; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Linda; Montano, Gabriel; Feder, Joshua; Crooke, Pamela J; Winner, Michelle G; Leon, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The population of adults on the autism spectrum continues to increase, and vocational outcomes are particularly poor. Longitudinal studies of adults with autism spectrum and without intellectual disability have shown consistent and persistent deficits across cognitive, social, and vocational domains, indicating a need for effective treatments of functional disabilities as each impact employment. This initial pilot study is an open trial investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and initial estimates of outcomes for the newly developed Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills intervention, a manualized "soft skills" curriculum, to enhance both cognitive and social development in adults with autism spectrum. A total of eight adults with autism spectrum, without intellectual disability (78% males), participated in the study. Results support the original hypothesis that adults with autism spectrum can improve both cognitive (i.e. executive functioning) and social cognitive (i.e. social thinking and social communication) abilities. Further Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills was found to be feasible, acceptable, and highly satisfactory for participants and parents. Employment rates more than doubled post-intervention, with an increase from 22% to 56% of participants employed. Conclusion is that Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills has promise as an intervention that can be easily embedded into exiting supported employment vocational training programs to improve cognitive, social, and vocational outcomes.

  14. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  15. The influence of re-employment on quality of life and self-rated health, a longitudinal study among unemployed persons in the Netherlands.

    Carlier, Bouwine E; Schuring, Merel; Lötters, Freek J B; Bakker, Bernhard; Borgers, Natacha; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-05-24

    Unemployed persons have a poorer health compared with employed persons and unemployment may cause ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of re-employment on quality of life and health among unemployed persons on social benefits. A prospective study with 18 months follow-up was conducted among unemployed persons (n=4,308) in the Netherlands, receiving either unemployment benefits or social security benefits. Quality of life, self-rated health, and employment status were measured at baseline and every 6 months of follow up with questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling was performed to study the influence of re-employment on change in self-rated health and quality of life over time. In the study population 29% had a less than good quality of life and 17% had a poor self-rated health. Persons who started with paid employment during the follow-up period were more likely to improve towards a good quality of life (OR 1.76) and a good self-rated health (OR 2.88) compared with those persons who remained unemployed. Up to 6 months after re-employment, every month with paid employment, the likelihood of a good quality of life increased (OR 1.12). Starting with paid employment improves quality of life and self-rated health. This suggests that labour force participation should be considered as an important measure to improve health of unemployed persons. Improving possibilities for unemployed persons to find paid employment will reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health.

  16. Are They Fit For Purpose? Exploring Managers' Experiences of UK HR Graduates & Employability Implications: A Pilot Study

    Mullen, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to expand on existing understandings of graduate employability through exploring the lived experiences and perceptions of key informants, in this case, those with direct line management responsibilities for graduates. The context of this research is focused on Human Resources (HR) graduates, a discipline that has seen little qualitative inquiry across the Higher Education (HE), employability and HR literature, and which is currently dominated by skills-led appr...

  17. Healthy brooders employ more attentional resources when disengaging from the negative: an event-related fMRI study.

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Kühn, Simone; De Raedt, Rudi

    2011-06-01

    Depressive brooding is considered a maladaptive ruminative-thinking style that has been shown to be highly correlated with major depression. The present study in healthy participants employed event-related fMRI to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotional disengagement as it relates to depressive brooding. Thirty-four healthy, never depressed individuals performed an emotional go/no-go task with a rapid presentation of emotional faces. We focused on the contrast of inhibiting sad (happy/no-go) versus inhibiting happy (sad/no-go) information. This contrast allowed us to assess possible difficulties in disengaging from emotionally negative, as compared with emotionally positive, faces. At the behavioral level, only in high brooders were higher self-reported brooding scores correlated with more errors when sad information was inhibited, relative to happy information. At the neural level, across all participants, brooding scores were positively correlated with activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 46), implying that high brooders show higher DLPFC involvement when successfully disengaging from a series of negative stimuli. These results may suggest that healthy individuals who report a high brooding thinking style need to recruit more attentional control in order to disengage successfully from negative information, in a way that may be related to emotion regulation strategies. These mechanisms might protect them from developing depressive symptoms.

  18. Cluster Sampling Bias in Government-Sponsored Evaluations: A Correlational Study of Employment and Welfare Pilots in England.

    Vaganay, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    For pilot or experimental employment programme results to apply beyond their test bed, researchers must select 'clusters' (i.e. the job centres delivering the new intervention) that are reasonably representative of the whole territory. More specifically, this requirement must account for conditions that could artificially inflate the effect of a programme, such as the fluidity of the local labour market or the performance of the local job centre. Failure to achieve representativeness results in Cluster Sampling Bias (CSB). This paper makes three contributions to the literature. Theoretically, it approaches the notion of CSB as a human behaviour. It offers a comprehensive theory, whereby researchers with limited resources and conflicting priorities tend to oversample 'effect-enhancing' clusters when piloting a new intervention. Methodologically, it advocates for a 'narrow and deep' scope, as opposed to the 'wide and shallow' scope, which has prevailed so far. The PILOT-2 dataset was developed to test this idea. Empirically, it provides evidence on the prevalence of CSB. In conditions similar to the PILOT-2 case study, investigators (1) do not sample clusters with a view to maximise generalisability; (2) do not oversample 'effect-enhancing' clusters; (3) consistently oversample some clusters, including those with higher-than-average client caseloads; and (4) report their sampling decisions in an inconsistent and generally poor manner. In conclusion, although CSB is prevalent, it is still unclear whether it is intentional and meant to mislead stakeholders about the expected effect of the intervention or due to higher-level constraints or other considerations.

  19. Employers' perceptions and attitudes toward the Canadian national standard on psychological health and safety in the workplace: A qualitative study.

    Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi

    2016-01-01

    The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYED AND UNEMPLOYED HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM – THE CITY OF UŽICE CASE STUDY

    Slobodanka Marković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism development cannot be imagined without the function of travel agencies and tourism organizations related to providing the information and advices. This function should be managed carefully, because providing the tourism information and advices is realized in direct contact with the client, which means that employees’ education should be correspondent to required tasks of each workplace. This paper indicates the structure of employees throughout the travel agencies and tourism organizations within the City of Užice (Western Serbia, but also the structure of unemployed human resources with tourism education in order to determine the socio-demographic structure and the share of young people in employed/unemployed category. Methods used in this paper are: survey, analysis and synthesis, statistics and comparison. Collected data were processed by using the mathematical-statistical software SPSS 17.0. Results of the study showed that females under the age of 40 are prevailing within the employees’ category, while females under the age of 30 are prevailing within the unemployed human resources.

  1. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  3. The effect of employment transitions on physical health among the elderly in South Korea: A longitudinal analysis of the Korean Retirement and Income Study.

    Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to answer three research questions: First, is the positive effect of retirement on physical health replicated in Korea? Second, is there any difference in health effects of employment transition according to employment status? Third, to what extent do monetary, non-monetary and work-related factors explain the effects of employment transitions on changes in physical health? The longitudinal panel data from five waves of the Korea Retirement and Income Study was used. We conducted (a) the pooled cross-sectional analysis, which used five-wave pooled data; and (b) the fixed-effects analyses to investigate how within-individual changes in employment status correspond to changes in subjective physical health among older adults aged 55 to 84. Results show that transition into retirement leads to poor physical health in Korea, and such effect was moderately mediated by both monetary and non-monetary factors. Compared to respondents who moved to non-precarious employment, those who became employers, self-employers, precarious workers, and unpaid family workers experienced significantly greater odds of reporting subjective poor physical health. Job dissatisfaction seems to be the most important mechanism through which employment transitions were translated into increasing likelihood of poor physical health. In conclusion, the social cost of retirement should consider the negative effects of retirement on the well-being and psychological health of retired individuals and their relationships with family, friends and neighbors, as well as income loss and economic uncertainty. Improving employment quality and working conditions for older working adults may be crucial in accomplishing longer and healthier working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is any job better than no job at all? Studying the relations between employment types, unemployment and subjective health in Belgium.

    Van Aerden, Karen; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the health impact of the labour market position, since recent research indicates that exposure to both unemployment and precarious employment causes serious harm to people's health and well-being. An overview of general and mental health associations of different labour market positions in Belgium is provided. A distinction is made between employment and unemployment and in addition between different types of jobs among the employed, taking into account the quality of employment. Given the fact that precarious labour market positions tend to coincide with a precarious social environment, the latter is taken into consideration by including the composition and material living conditions of the household and the presence of social support. Belgian data from the 1st Generations and Gender Survey are used. A Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed to construct a typology of labour market positions that includes four different types of waged employment: standard jobs, instrumental jobs, precarious jobs and portfolio jobs, as well as self-employment and unemployment. Then, binary logistic regression analyses are performed in order to relate this typology to health, controlling for household situation and social support. Two health outcomes are included: self-perceived general health (good versus fair/bad) and self-rated mental health (good versus bad, based on 7 items from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Two labour market positions are consistently related to poor general and mental health in Belgium: unemployment and the precarious job type. The rather small gap in general and mental health between both labour market positions emphasises the importance of employment quality for the health and well-being of individuals in waged employment. Controlling for the household level context and social support illustrates that part of the reported health associations can be explained by the precarious social environment of

  5. Enantioselective analysis of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by CE with application to biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2009-11-01

    A CE method is described for the enantioselective analysis of propranolol (Prop) and 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-Prop) in liquid Czapek medium with application in the study of the enantioselective biotransformation of Prop by endophytic fungi. The electrophoretic conditions previously optimized were as follows: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 4% w/v carboxymethyl-beta-CD in 25 mmol/L triethylamine/phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) buffer at pH 9 as running electrolyte and 17 kV of voltage. UV detection was carried out at 208 nm. Liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether: ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) as extractor solvent was employed for sample preparation. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.25-10.0 microg/mL for each 4-OH-Prop enantiomer and 0.10-10.0 microg/mL for each Prop enantiomer (r>or=0.995). Within-day and between-day relative standard deviations and relative errors for precision and accuracy were lower than 15% for all the enantiomers. Finally, the validated method was used to evaluate Prop biotransformation in its mammalian metabolite 4-OH-Prop by some selected endophytic fungi. The screening of five strains of endophytic fungi was performed and all of them could biotransform Prop to some extent. Specifically, Glomerella cingulata (VA1) biotransformed 47.8% of (-)-(S)-Prop to (-)-(S)-4-OH-Prop with no formation of (+)-(R)-4-OH-Prop in 72 h of incubation.

  6. Attitudes of Fortune 500 corporate executives toward the employability of persons with severe disabilities: a national study.

    Levy, J M; Jessop, D J; Rimmerman, A; Levy, P H

    1992-04-01

    Executives (N = 341) responsible for hiring decisions in Fortune 500 industrial and service corporations returned a mail questionnaire measuring their attitudes toward persons with severe disabilities and their employability. Responses indicated that attitudes were favorable to persons with disabilities and to their employability, both in terms of advantages for the individual and lack of disadvantages for others in the work setting. Significant differences in attitudes existed among subgroups of executives. Executives who had contact with persons with disabilities in the corporate work world had more positive attitudes than did executives who did not have such experiences.

  7. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients.

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-03-15

    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  9. Study of the influence of class construction on the 90s undergraduate’s employability – Taking one university in Wuhan as an example

    Mujia Chang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate’s employability is an important factor that leads to difficult employment situation for undergraduates. However, there’s close connection between the cultivation of undergraduate’s employability and class construction. This thesis takes 500 90s undergraduates from one university in Wuhan as examples. It reveals the relations of class teacher’s function, class leader’s function, and class atmosphere in class construction with the 90s undergraduate’s employability. The study shows that effective play of class teacher’s function can leave positive influence on the 90s undergraduate’s basic inherent quality, basic working ability, emotion control ability, planning and self-examination. Good class atmosphere can also leave positive influence on the 90s undergraduate’s basic internal quality, basic working ability, emotion control ability, planning and self-examination.

  10. Representations of the Americans with Disabilities Act Employment-Related Issues in the Wall Street Journal (1990-2008): A Feasibility Study

    Soffer, Michal; Rimmerman, Arie

    2012-01-01

    This feasibility study examines the coverage of employment-related issues related to people with disabilities in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The study is a first in a series of future studies focusing on disability issues in the international economic media. A survey of 39 newspaper articles published in the "Wall Street…

  11. Work, work environments and other factors influencing nurse faculty intention to remain employed: a cross-sectional study.

    Tourangeau, Ann; Saari, Margaret; Patterson, Erin; Ferron, Era Mae; Thomson, Heather; Widger, Kimberley; MacMillan, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Given the role nurse faculty have in educating nurses, little is known about what influences their intention to remain employed (ITR) in academic settings. Findings from a nurse faculty survey administered to test a conceptual model of factors hypothesized as influencing nurse faculty ITR are reported. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. We included colleges and universities in Ontario, Canada. The population of Ontario nurse faculty who reported being employed as nurse faculty with the College of Nurses of Ontario (Canada) was included. Of the 1328 nurse faculty who were surveyed, 650 participated. Participants completed a questionnaire with measures of work, work environment, job satisfaction, burnout and ITR. Regression analyses were conducted to test the model. Ten of 26 independent variables explained 25.4% of variance in nurse faculty ITR for five years. These variables included: proximity to retirement, quality of relationships with colleagues, being employed full time, having dependents, satisfaction with work-life balance, quality of education, satisfaction with job status, access to financial support for education from organization, access to required human resources and being unionized. Although not all influencing factors are modifiable, academic leadership should develop strategies that encourage nurse faculty ITR. Strategies that support collegial relationships among faculty, increase the number of full time positions, promote work-life balance, engage faculty in assessing and strengthening education quality, support faculty choice between full-time and part-time work, and ensure adequate human resources required to teach effectively will lead to heightened nurse faculty ITR. © 2013.

  12. “I WILL SURVIVE” A Construct Validation Study on the Measurement of Sustainable Employability Using Different Age Conceptualizations

    Blanc, P.M. le; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vuuren, T. van; LeBlanc, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Though the importance of sustainable employability throughout people's working life is undisputed, up till now only one attempt for a conceptual definition has been made (van der Klink et al., 2016). Following the suggestions to further refine and improve this definition recently put forward by

  13. Land rental market, off-farm employment and agricultural production in Southeast China: A plot-level case study

    Feng, S.; Heerink, N.; Ruben, R.; Qu, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a plot-level analysis of the impact of land rental market participation and off-farm employment on land investment, input use, and rice yields for 215 plots cultivated by 52 households in three villages in Northeast Jiangxi Province. Our findings show that households that rent

  14. Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

  15. Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the

  16. A cytochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of the wall labyrinth apparatus in leaf transfer cells in Elodea canadensis.

    Ligrone, Roberto; Vaughn, Kevin C; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2011-04-01

    Transfer cells are plant cells specialized in apoplast/symplast transport and characterized by a distinctive wall labyrinth apparatus. The molecular architecture and biochemistry of the labyrinth apparatus are poorly known. The leaf lamina in the aquatic angiosperm Elodea canadensis consists of only two cell layers, with the abaxial cells developing as transfer cells. The present study investigated biochemical properties of wall ingrowths and associated plasmalemma in these cells. Leaves of Elodea were examined by light and electron microscopy and ATPase activity was localized cytochemically. Immunogold electron microscopy was employed to localize carbohydrate epitopes associated with major cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The plasmalemma associated with the wall labyrinth is strongly enriched in light-dependent ATPase activity. The wall ingrowths and an underlying wall layer share an LM11 epitope probably associated with glucuronoarabinoxylan and a CCRC-M7 epitope typically associated with rhamnogalacturonan I. No labelling was observed with LM10, an antibody that recognizes low-substituted and unsubstituted xylan, a polysaccharide consistently associated with secondary cell walls. The JIM5 and JIM7 epitopes, associated with homogalacturonan with different degrees of methylation, appear to be absent in the wall labyrinth but present in the rest of cell walls. The wall labyrinth apparatus of leaf transfer cells in Elodea is a specialized structure with distinctive biochemical properties. The high level of light-dependent ATPase activity in the plasmalemma lining the wall labyrinth is consistent with a formerly suggested role of leaf transfer cells in enhancing inorganic carbon inflow. The wall labyrinth is a part of the primary cell wall. The discovery that the wall ingrowths in Elodea have an antibody-binding pattern divergent, in part, from that of the rest of cell wall suggests that their carbohydrate composition is modulated in relation to transfer

  17. An analysis of the procedural components of supported employment programs associated with employment outcomes.

    McDonnell, J; Nofs, D; Hardman, M; Chambless, C

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for worker...

  18. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  19. GnRH在性成熟高白鲑神经系统及性腺中的分布定位%An Immunocytochemical Localization of GnRH in the Nerve System and Gonad of Mature Coregonus peled

    曹玉洁; 贾斌; 柳建新; 李志远; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    摘要:应用免疫组织化学方法,系统观察性成熟期高白鲑(Coregonus peled)神经系统及性腺中的促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH)的分布情况。结果表明,GnRH在大脑、小脑、中脑、脊髓、延髓中免疫阳性反应明显,且主要分布在神经元内。GnRH免疫阳性细胞在卵巢和精巢中均有分布,而且其阳性部位在卵巢主要分布于小生长期卵母细胞;在精巢中主要分布于间质细胞和精原细胞中。本文讨论了GnRH直接或间接参与高白鲑性腺发育成熟调节的可能性。%Immunocytochemical staining technique was used to study the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nervous system and gonad of Coregonus peled. The results showed that there were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the cerebrum,cerebellum,diencephalon,medulla oblongata,and spinal cord. There were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the ovary and testis. The positive staining was observed mainly in the small growing oocyte, and in the interstitial cells and spermatogonia. The possible physiological function and morphological evidence of GnRH regulation on the development of gonad in C. Peled were discussed.

  20. Location choice of Chinese urban fringe residents on employment, housing, and urban services: A case study of Nanjing

    Xingping Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringe area is the most important space for city development. It includes several complicated elements, such as population, space, and management organization. On the basis of local population attributes in the city fringe area combined with people’s movement characteristics in time and space, this article reclassifies basic public service facilities and discusses the relationship between facility layout and housing, employment, and commuter transportation. Through a questionnaire survey in Qiaobei District of the urban fringe area in Nanjing and on the basis of comparative analysis, we discuss the impact factor on the choice of housing, urban services, and the tolerance of commuting time. Our findings indicate mutual promoting and restricting connections among living, employment, and services. Workers’ living situation determines their daily behavior, such as dining, shopping, and entertainment. Furthermore, different income levels have a great influence on residents’ choices with regard to places to live and develop their careers.

  1. Preparing potential teachers for the transition from employment to teacher training: an evaluative case study of a Maths Enhancement Course

    May, Steve; Gay, Jane; Atkins, Nigel; Marks-Maran, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In response to a UK government drive to improve maths teaching in schools, the South West London Maths Enhancement Course (MEC) has been set up though collaboration between three Higher Education institutions (HEIs) to provide an efficient route for non maths graduates in employment to upgrade their subject knowledge and give a smooth transition into teacher training (PGCE).\\ud \\ud An evaluation of the scheme, measured against Teacher Development Agency (TDA) objectives and success criteria a...

  2. Cluster Sampling Bias in Government-Sponsored Evaluations: A Correlational Study of Employment and Welfare Pilots in England

    Vaganay, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    For pilot or experimental employment programme results to apply beyond their test bed, researchers must select 'clusters' (i.e. the job centres delivering the new intervention) that are reasonably representative of the whole territory. More specifically, this requirement must account for conditions that could artificially inflate the effect of a programme, such as the fluidity of the local labour market or the performance of the local job centre. Failure to achieve representativeness results ...

  3. Pistols or swords; which are the most useful weapons in the war for talent? : A study of business students employability

    Uddén, Sara; Karlsson, Lina; Hellqvist, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation has brought on dynamic markets and competition, and with that obliged companies to focus on long-term strategies and a greater focus on attracting, developing and retaining its employees. The present hunt for talent can be entitled as talent management, a concept that nowadays cannot be avoided. Talent management evidently not only affects companies, but also the newly graduates that are about to be employed. Students within business and economics are one affected group, since t...

  4. The pursuit of new role: A study of luxury products consumption during the liminal transition into first time employment

    Chucherd, Sunong

    2008-01-01

    Consumer behaviour research on role transition has so far been limited to the negative life changes and the changes-specific consequences towards the consumption pattern. Moreover, although young adult customers have recently been the new target customer for many luxury brands, no research has been conducted concerning the impacts of role transition during the transition into first-time employment and the role of luxury products in dealing with those effects. Liminal transition is also a new ...

  5. Equity in Whom Gets Studied: A Systematic Review Examining Geographical Region, Gender, Commodity, and Employment Context in Research of Low Back Disorders in Farmers.

    Trask, Catherine; Khan, Muhammad Idress; Adebayo, Olugbenga; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    Farmers are at high risk of having low back disorders (LBDs). Agriculture employs half the global workforce, but it is unclear whether all farming populations are represented equitably in the LBD literature. This systematic review quantifies the number and quality of research studies by geographical region, agricultural commodity, and farmer characteristics. MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched using conceptual groups of search terms: "farming" and "LBD." Screening and extraction were performed by two researchers in parallel, then reconciled through discussion. Extracted study characteristics included location of study; commodity produced; worker sex, ethnicity, and migration status; type of employment; and study quality. These were compared with agricultural employment statistics from the International Labour Organization and World Bank. From 125 articles, roughly half (67) did not specify the employment context of the participants in terms of migration status or subsistence versus commercial farming. Although in many regions worldwide women make up the bulk of the workforce, only a minority of low back disorder studies focus on women. Despite the predominance of the agricultural workforce in developing nations, 91% of included studies were conducted in developed nations. There was no significant difference in study quality by geographic region. The nature of the world's agricultural workforce is poorly represented by the literature when it comes to LBD research. If developing nations, female sex, and migrant work are related to increased vulnerability, then these groups need more representation to achieve equitable occupational health study.

  6. STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PATHOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS ON HUMAN RESOURCES JOB SATISFACTION, ALSO ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE LABOR MARKET

    Diana-Elena, SERB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People need to face the demands resulting induced neurotic styles of their leaders. The result is lower morale, affect behavior, dissatisfaction at work. This paper aims to present the point of view of theoretical and practical implications of failures in the organization on job satisfaction of employees. The practical part of this article is the analysis of statistically labor employment level , and a marketing research field, a survey using questionnaire as the main instrument. The main objectives during the research aims: knowledge labor employment in Romania, identify employee satisfaction on labor relations between managers and subordinates, knowledge of the involvement of the manager in providing a suitable work environment, to determine the extent the problems arising in the workplace creates dissatisfaction which ultimately rebounds on return. The main results drawn as a result of research carried out show that existing pathology in an organization is felt on one side by the employee the aggression and persecution has implications for morale, and on the other hand these disturbances are felt at employment in that workplace, stress employees resign and this leads to higher unemployment.

  7. [Impact of the labour market on vocational retraining centre participants' return to work: a study on employment agencies level].

    Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Schmidt, C

    2012-08-01

    This paper is aimed at identifying labour market factors impacting vocational retraining centre participants' return to work on Employment Agencies level and at comparing results to unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). Databases are regional return to work rates of 2006 graduates, selected labour market indicators 2007, and the 2007 labour market classification of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The n = 75 Employment Agency districts where 74.5 % of the participants followed-up lived were analyzed using analyses of variance and multiple loglinear regression. Compared to the unemployment context (Social Code Book III), the impact of the labour market is much lower and less complex. In the multiple model, the regional unemployment rate and the regional tertiarization rate (size of the service sector) are found to be significant and superior to the IAB-classification. Hence, participants' return to work is less dependent on labour market conditions than unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Chronic diseases as predictors of labour market attachment after participation in subsidised re-employment programme: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Nwaru, Chioma A; Peutere, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka J

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about the work patterns of re-employed people. We investigated the labour market attachment trajectories of re-employed people and assessed the influence of chronic diseases on these trajectories. The study was based on register data of 18 944 people (aged 18-60 years) who participated in a subsidised re-employment programme in Finland. Latent class growth analysis with zero-inflated Poisson was used to model the labour market attachment trajectories over a 6-year follow-up time. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between chronic diseases and labour market attachment trajectories, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, size of town and calendar year in subsidised re-employment programme. We identified four distinct labour market attachment trajectories, namely: strengthening (a relatively stable attachment throughout the follow-up time; 77%), delayed (initial weak attachment increasing later; 6%), leavers (attachment declined with time; 10%) and none-attached (weak attachment throughout the study period; 7%). We found that severe mental problems strongly increased the likelihood of belonging in the leavers (OR 3.61; 95% CI 2.23 to 5.37) and none-attached (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.91 to 6.10) trajectories, while chronic hypertension was associated with none-attached (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.77) trajectory. The associations between other chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, asthma and arthritics) and labour market attachment trajectories were less evident. Re-employed people appear to follow distinct labour market attachment trajectories over time. Having chronic diseases, especially mental disorders appear to increase the risk for relatively poor labour market attachment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Is temporary employment a risk factor for work disability due to depressive disorders and delayed return to work? The Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Pekka; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2014-07-01

    Research on temporary employment as a risk factor for work disability due to depression is mixed, and few studies have measured work disability outcome in detail. We separately examined the associations of temporary employment with (i) the onset of work disability due to depression, (ii) the length of disability episodes, and (iii) the recurrence of work disability, taking into account the possible effect modification of sociodemographic factors. We linked the prospective cohort study data of 107 828 Finnish public sector employees to national registers on work disability (>9 days) due to depression from January 2005 to December 2011. Disability episodes were longer among temporary than permanent employees after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, chronic somatic disease, and history of mental/behavioral disorders [cumulative odds ratio (COR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-51). The association between temporary employment and the length of depression-related disability episodes was more pronounced among participants with a low educational level (COR 1.95, 95% CI 1.54-2.48) and older employees (>52 years; COR 3.67, 95% CI 2.83-4.76). The association was weaker in a subgroup of employees employed for ≥ 50% of the follow-up period (95% of the original sample). Temporary employment was not associated with the onset or recurrence of depression-related work disability. Temporary employment is associated with slower return to work, indicated by longer depression-related disability episodes, especially among older workers and those with a low level of education. Continuous employment might protect temporary employees from prolonged work disability.

  10. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  11. Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden: a cohort study with multiple follow-ups.

    Canivet, Catarina; Bodin, Theo; Emmelin, Maria; Toivanen, Susanna; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-08-02

    The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people. Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18-34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job) and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135). Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0) when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population attributable fraction regarding poor mental health in the

  12. Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden: a cohort study with multiple follow-ups

    Catarina Canivet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18–34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135. Results Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1–2.0 when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population

  13. Problem-based Learning, Motivation and Employability - A case study with tourism students from Aalborg University, Denmark-

    Balslev, Helene; Andersson, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the Problem-based Learning model (PBL) and seeks to further the model by nuancing the idea of how to co-create knowledge by motivation for tourism Master students at Aalborg University (Denmark) with the aim of enhancing their employability approaches and skills. The paper...... challenges the models of experiences and experiential learning as being ‘enough’ to prepare students to take ownership for the experience of learning. We argue that students not only learn from experience or from general reflection they also need to be motivated by creating meaningful experiences and take...

  14. Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    David Card; Alan B. Krueger

    1993-01-01

    On April 1, 1992 New Jersey's minimum wage increased from $4.25 to $5.05 per hour. To evaluate the impact of the law we surveyed 410 fast food restaurants in New Jersey and Pennsylvania before and after the rise in the minimum. Comparisons of the changes in wages, employment, and prices at stores in New Jersey relative to stores in Pennsylvania (where the minimum wage remained fixed at $4.25 per hour) yield simple estimates of the effect of the higher minimum wage. Our empirical findings chal...

  15. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    Tackney, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop ...

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of Facebook to impact the knowledge of evidence-based employment practices by individuals with traumatic brain injury: A knowledge translation random control study.

    Inge, Katherine J; Graham, Carolyn W; McLaughlin, James W; Erickson, Doug; Wehman, Paul; Seward, Hannah E

    2017-09-14

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience difficulty with obtaining and maintaining employment post-injury. Although vocational rehabilitation (VR) can be one option to provide individuals with TBI support and services to lead to successful employment outcomes, information about these services can be difficult and confusing to navigate. Providing information on evidence-based employment practices to individuals with TBI through social media could be an effective approach. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a knowledge translation (KT) strategy and the use of a secret Facebook group, on the knowledge of evidence-based employment research by individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Sixty individuals with TBI were recruited through clubhouse programs in the state where the authors resided as well as through support groups nationally for individuals with TBI, and were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Both groups received information on evidence-based employment practices for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) over a three month period. One group received the information via participation in a secret Facebook group while the comparison group received information as an "e-news" email blast. Participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention with a Likert-scale instrument designed to measure knowledge of evidenced-based employment information for TBI. Both groups gained a significant amount of knowledge between baseline and post-intervention. However, there were no significant differences between groups in knowledge gained at post-intervention. While the study did not identify the most effective means of delivering information to individuals with TBI, it does provide some guidance for future KT research.

  17. The Correlation between Duration of Employment, Body Posture and Smoking Habit on Low Back Pain Incidence An Analytic Observational Study Among Taxi Driver in Semarang Municipality

    Syifa Dian Firmanita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain ((LBP ranks as number two of neurological disease’s highest prevalence after cephalgia and migraine in Indonesia. Objective: This study aim to determine the relationship between duration of employment, body posture and smoking habit on the incidence of low back pain on taxi driver. Method: This research is an observational analytic cross sectional design. Seventyfour taxi drivers in Semarang municipality was screened with Beck’s Depression Inventory Scale to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Respondents were then given Risk Factor of LBP questionnaire. Data were analyzed with a bivariate correlation test contingency coefficient to see the relationship between duration of employment, body posture, smoking habit and low back pain.Result: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years were moderate smokers and having astenis body posture. The analysis of correlation coefficients contingency test showed a significance relationship between duration of employment (p = 0,000, body posture (p = 0,000, and moderate smokers (p=0.010 with the incidence of LBP. Conclusion: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years with astenis body posture, and moderate smokers were posstively correlated with LBP.

  18. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan.

    Yasuo Imanishi

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES factors such as employment, educational attainment, income, and marital status can affect the health and well-being of the general population and have been associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, no studies to date in Japan have reported on the prognosis of patients with CKD with respect to SES. This study aimed to investigate the influences of employment and education level on mortality and hospitalization among maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients in Japan.Data on 7974 HD patients enrolled in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phases 1-4 (1999-2011 in Japan were analysed. Employment status, education level, demographic data, and comorbidities were abstracted at entry into DOPPS from patient records. Mortality and hospitalization events were collected during follow-up. Patients on dialysis < 120 days at study entry were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression modelled the association between employment and both mortality and hospitalization among patients < 60 years old. The association between education and outcomes was also assessed. The association between patient characteristics and employment among patients < 60 years old was assessed using logistic regression.During a median follow-up of 24.9 months (interquartile range, 18.4-32.0, 10% of patients died and 43% of patients had an inpatient hospitalization. Unemployment was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.36 and hospitalization (HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08-1.44. Compared to patients who graduated from university, patients with less than a high school (HS education and patients who graduated HS with some college tended to have elevated mortality (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 and HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.82, respectively but were not at risk for increased hospitalizations. Factors associated with unemployment included lower level of education, older age, female

  19. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  20. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  1. Adolescent mental health and behavioural predictors of being NEET: a prospective study of young adults not in employment, education, or training

    Rodwell, L.; Romaniuk, H.; Nilsen, W.; Carlin, J.B.; Lee, K.J.; Patton, G.C.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young adults who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET) are at risk of long-term economic disadvantage and social exclusion. Knowledge about risk factors for being NEET largely comes from cross-sectional studies of vulnerable individuals. Using data collected over a 10-year

  2. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults : a cross-sectional study

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: South Korea. Participants: 7228 from fourth wave of

  3. An Evaluation of a Social Skills Intervention for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities Preparing for Employment in Ireland: A Pilot Study

    Walsh, Edith; Holloway, Jennifer; Lydon, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are faced with significant barriers relating to employment opportunities and workplace participation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Walker social skills curriculum: the ACCESS program and video modeling to increase social communication skills necessary for workplace inclusion.…

  4. A Descriptive Study of Perceived Impact of Gender on Employment Status, Type of Work, Industry Relationships, Working Environment & Job Satisfaction in Livestock Industry Magazines.

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A two-part study examined the employment status, distribution, job satisfaction, and promotion opportunities of women working for livestock industry magazines. Livestock publications were chosen for this research because they are typical of industry-related magazines and are traditionally dominated by males. The mastheads of 59 magazines were…

  5. Training Southeast Asian Women for Employment: Public Policies and Community Programs, 1975-1985. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Four.

    Mason, Sarah R.

    This paper evaluates the effect of Federal resettlement policy on Southeast Asian refugee women's employment training programs and describes the extent to which this training contributed to the refugees' economic mobility and acculturation. The report is divided into three major sections. Part 1 introduces the study by discussing its background,…

  6. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Energy investments and employment

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  8. Metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland: a case diagnosed on fine-needle aspirate by a combined cytological, immunocytochemical, and molecular approach.

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Malapelle, Umberto; Carlomagno, Chiara; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with cytological evaluation reliably diagnoses primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. However, identifying the primary origin of a metastatic process involving the thyroid gland is challenging. In particular, metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland is very rare. In this case report, a right lobe solid thyroid nodule in a 66-year-old male was aspirated. FNA cytology showed necrosis and atypical tall columnar cells; since, the patient at age 60 had undergone surgery for a sigmoid-rectal cancer metastasizing to the liver and subsequently to the lung, a suspicion of metastasis from colon cancer was raised. This was corroborated by cell-block immunocytochemistry showing a cytokeratin (CK) 7 negative/CK20-positive staining pattern; thyreoglobulin and TTF-1 were both negative. Since KRAS codon 12/13 mutations frequently occur in colon cancer, whereas they are extremely uncommon in primary thyroid tumors, DNA was extracted from the aspirated cells, and KRAS mutational analysis was carried out. The codon 12 G12D mutation was found; the same mutation was evident in the primary cancer of the colon and in its liver and lung metastasis. Thus, a combined cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach unquestionably correlated metastatic adenocarcinoma cells aspirated from the thyroid to a colo-rectal origin. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  10. The association between modifiable well-being risks and productivity: a longitudinal study in pooled employer sample.

    Shi, Yuyan; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2013-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between modifiable well-being risks and productivity. A total of 19,121 employees from five employers participated in baseline and follow-up well-being assessment surveys. Multivariate regressions assessed whether changes in absenteeism, presenteeism, and job performance were associated with changes in 19 modifiable well-being risks. Over time, a 5% reduction in total count of well-being risks was significantly associated with 0.74% decrease in absenteeism, 2.38% decrease in presenteeism, and 0.24% increase in performance. High blood pressure, recurring pain, unhealthy diet, inadequate exercise, poor emotional health, poor supervisor relationship, not utilizing strengths doing job, and organization unsupportive of well-being had greater independent contributions in explaining productivity impairment. The often-ignored well-being risks such as work-related and financial health risks provided incremental explanation of longitudinal productivity variations beyond traditional measures of health-related risks.

  11. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  12. Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM): The Design of a Four-year Longitudinal Cohort Study among 15,118 Persons Aged 45 to 64 Years

    Ybema, Jan F.; Geuskens, Goedele A.; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna R M; Joling, Catelijne I.; Blatter, Birgitte M.; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in

  13. Study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM): the design of a four-year longitudinal cohort study among 15,118 persons aged 45 to 64 years

    Ybema, J.F.; Geuskens, G.A.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Jolings, C.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in

  14. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Why Immigrants choose to become self-employed? : A Qualitative study of South and Southeast Asian Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Umea City

    Sinnya, Utsav; Parajuli, Nipesh

    2012-01-01

    After going through the literature on entrepreneurship we found that very little studies have been done whether culture and family business traditions influence the decisions of entrepreneurship. Most people from the South and Southeast Asia had cultural and family business backgrounds. The purpose of our study is to investigate if culture and family business traditions of South andSoutheast Asian immigrants affect their decision to become self-employed and if so how. This will enhance the un...

  15. Perceptions of journalists on women access, employment and participation in news production: A case study of Uganda's print media-The New Vision

    Anyango, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The thesis, “Perceptions of journalists on women access, employment and participation in news production” constitutes an assessment of the situation of female journalists in one of Uganda’s print media, The New Vision. The study connects the problematic relationship that women have with news media, both as subjects and sources of news stories as well as their experiences and status as practitioners within the news industries. The study was concerned over what in this profession...

  16. FINANCIAL STUDY OF AN INVESTMENT PROJECT IN ALGERIA: CREATION OF A COMPANY WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE NATIONAL FUNDSUPPORT FOR YOUTH EMPLOYMENT (FNSEJ)

    Dr Lyes OUABDESSELAM

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a financial study of a project to create a commercial enterprise through the scheme proposed by the National Agency for Youth Employment Support (ANSEJ). The company is a testing and analysis laboratory. In this study we have prepared a complete financial package and we have budgeted this project over the entire amortization period of the investment credit in accordance with the timetable set by the support system for young entrepreneurs to set up a business in Algeria. ...

  17. The impact of colorectal cancer and self-efficacy beliefs on work ability and employment status: a longitudinal study.

    Bains, M; Munir, F; Yarker, J; Bowley, D; Thomas, A; Armitage, N; Steward, W

    2012-09-01

    We examined how colorectal cancer patients' treatment and symptom management impacted perceptions of work ability and subsequent work decisions. Fifty patients completed questionnaires at baseline (post-surgery/pretreatment), 3 months and 6 months. Questionnaires assessed fatigue, depression, quality-of-life (QoL), cancer self-efficacy, job self-efficacy (JSE) and work ability. Factors related to perceived work ability were occupation (β= 0.31, P= 0.0005) and QoL (β= 0.42, P= 0.01) at baseline, treatment type (β=-0.19, P= 0.05) at 3 months, and JSE at 3 months (β= 0.57, P= 0.0005) and 6 months (β= 0.50, P= 0.006). Factors related to being on sick leave were lower levels of JSE (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.17-4.13) at baseline and being employed in a manual occupation (OR = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00-0.86), and perceived work ability (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.00-12.80) at 6 months. Along with self-assessed work ability at baseline (β= 0.67, P= 0.0005), receiving chemotherapy or a combination of treatments (β=-0.24, P= 0.05) were the strongest predictors of poorer perceptions of follow-up work ability. Self-efficacy beliefs may add to understanding and should be considered in future research. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The influence of endometriosis-related symptoms on work life and work ability - a study of Danish endometriosis patients in employment

    Hansen, Karina Ejgaard; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Baldursson, Einar B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. Study design In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed...... ability. The level of statistical significance was set at pwork disturbances due to symptoms, lower work ability and a wide number of other implications on work life in employed women...... endometriosis and 751 reference women completed an electronic survey based on the Endometriosis Health Profile 30-questionnaire and the Work Ability Index (short form). Percentages were reported for all data. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess risk factors for low work...

  19. 'Negotiating the tensions of having to attach and detach concurrently': a qualitative study on combining breastfeeding and employment in public education and health sectors in New Delhi, India.

    Omer-Salim, Amal; Suri, Shoba; Dadhich, Jai Prakash; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Olsson, Pia

    2015-04-01

    the aim of this study was to explore the factors involved in combining breastfeeding and employment in the context of six months of maternity leave in India. qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. Health and Education sectors in New Delhi, India. 20 first-time mothers with one 8-12 month-old infant and who had returned to work after six months׳ maternity leave. the interviews followed a pre-tested guide with a vignette, one key question and six thematic areas; intentions, strategies, barriers, facilitators, actual experiences and appraisal of combining breastfeeding and employment. Probing covered pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, maternity leave, the transition and return to work. This study revealed a model of how employed women negotiate the tensions of concurrently having to attach and detach from their infant, work, and family. Women managed competing interests to ensure trusted care and nutrition at home; facing workplace conditions; and meeting roles and responsibilities in the family. In order to navigate these tensions, they used various satisficing actions of both an anticipatory and troubleshooting nature. in spite of a relatively generous maternity leave of six months available to these women, several individual, familial and workplace factors interacted to both hinder and facilitate the process of combining breastfeeding and employment. Tension, negotiation and compromise are inherent to the process. antenatal and postnatal interventions providing information and support for working mothers need to address factors at the individual, family and workplace levels in addition to the provision of paid maternity leave to enable the successful combination of breastfeeding and employment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Individual Skills Based Volunteerism and Life Satisfaction among Healthcare Volunteers in Malaysia: Role of Employer Encouragement, Self-Esteem and Job Performance, A Cross-Sectional Study

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism. PMID:24194894

  2. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  3. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    Chanthiran Veerasamy

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The main results of this study are: (1 Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2 volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3 self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4 job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5 current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  4. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers

  5. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes.

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C

    2002-08-01

    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  6. THE BANGLADESHI EMPLOYMENT SECTOR: EMPLOYER PERSPECTIVES CONCERNING ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

    Rubina Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills

  7. Nutritional Status and Effect of Maternal Employment among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Eshete, Hiwot; Abebe, Yewelsew; Loha, Eskindir; Gebru, Teklemichael; Tesheme, Tesfalem

    2017-03-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains common in many parts of the world; the magnitude of worldwide stunting, underweight and wasting in children under five years of age were 24.7 %, 15.1 % and 7.8 %, respectively. More than 150 million children under the age of five years in the developing world are malnourished. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates of malnutrition. In Ethiopia, 44.4% and 9.7% of children under-five years old were stunted and wasted, respectively. This study was aimed to assess nutritional status and effect of maternal employment among children aged 6-59 months. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolayta Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic characteristics, child feeding and healthcare seeking practice of mothers, and child's anthropometric status were assessed. Probability proportional to size sampling approach was used to select a sample of 316 mothers having children aged 6-59 months. The study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Health Science College, Hawasa University. The overall result revealed that the prevalence of stunting was 22.2%, of which 21.8% and 22.6% were in children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. Low-weight-for age was 10.8% for children of employed mothers and 13.4% for children of unemployed mothers. Wasting was 8.8% and 10.8% for children of employed and unemployed mothers, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between maternal employment and nutritional status of their children. However, chronic malnutrition (stunting) was influenced by being educated mother (OR: 0.37) child age group of 24-59 months (OR: 0.36) and households' fifth wealth quintile (OR: 0.28). Low prevalence of stunting was observed. Stunting is a public health concern in the study area. Furthermore, stunting is significantly influenced by mothers' education, household wealth and child age. However, maternal employment was not statistically

  8. The Impact of Physical Work Demands on Need for Recovery, Employment Status, Retirement Intentions, and Ability to Extend Working Careers: A Longitudinal Study Among Older Workers.

    Gommans, Fleur G; Jansen, Nicole W H; Mackey, Martin G; Stynen, Dave; de Grip, Andries; Kant, I Jmert

    2016-04-01

    Prospectively investigating whether different approaches of physical work demands are associated with need for recovery (NFR), employment status, retirement intentions, and ability to prolong working life among older employees from the industry and health care sector. A subsample from the Maastricht Cohort Study was studied (n = 1126). Poisson, Cox, and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate outcomes. Perceiving physical work demands as strenuous was associated with higher NFR. Continuous physical strain was associated with being out of employment 4 years later. Employees with the highest amount of physical work demands perceived they were less able to prolong working life, although no significant associations between physical work demands and retirement intentions were found. Overall, physical work demands were associated with adverse outcomes, with divergent insights for the different approaches of physical work demands.

  9. The impact of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances: A prospective study.

    Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of self-reported health and register-based prescription medicine purchases on re-employment chances, and whether these health indicators measure similar aspects of health in this analysis. Data came from a 2006 Danish unemployment survey among a random sample of unemployed individuals enriched with register data (2006-2008, N =1806). The survey participants all received unemployment benefits from the welfare system and had been unemployed for more than 20 weeks at the time of the interview in 2006. We combined these data with longitudinal register data on individual prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses, information on re-employment and various socio-demographic variables. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses to investigate the impact of self-reported health and prescription medicine purchases measured in 2006 on re-employment chances in 2007 and 2008. Our analyses show that unemployed workers with poor self-reported health and workers who had prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses were less likely to be re-employed in 2007 and 2008. Furthermore, the impact of both prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses and for mental illnesses increased when adding self-reported health to the model although prescription purchases for somatic illnesses became statistically insignificant. The impact of prescription medicine purchases for somatic illnesses was mediated by self-reported health, whilst prescription medicine purchases for mental illnesses was only partly mediated. Finally, SRH seemed a much stronger prediction than prescription medicines. From these results, we propose, when possible, the inclusion of both an indicator of self-reported health and an indicator of mental health in studies on re-employment.

  10. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: Factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG-ACRIN's Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary E; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles S; Fisch, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. A better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step toward the development of tools for assisting survivors in this important realm. The ECOG-ACRIN Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study was analyzed to investigate what factors were associated with the employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working with patients no longer working. There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in the analysis: 236 (35%) worked full- or part-time, whereas 302 (45%) had stopped working because of illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. A better performance status and non-Hispanic white ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. The disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. A significant percentage of the metastatic patients remained employed; increased symptom burden was associated with a change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working if this is desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address workplace difficulties have promise for improving this aspect of survivorship. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  11. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG’s Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP) study

    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles; Fisch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. Better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step towards the development of tools to assist survivors in this important realm. Methods We analyzed the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group’s “Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP)” study to investigate what factors were associated with employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working (Group A) to patients no longer working (Group B). Results There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in our analysis; 236 (35%) worked full or part-time while 302 (45%) stopped working due to illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. Better performance status and non-Hispanic White ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis on multivariable analysis. Disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. Conclusions A significant percentage of metastatic patients remain employed; symptom burden was associated with change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working, if desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address work place difficulties have promise to improve this aspect of survivorship. PMID:26687819

  12. Individual Skills Based Volunteerism and Life Satisfaction among Healthcare Volunteers in Malaysia: Role of Employer Encouragement, Self-Esteem and Job Performance, A Cross-Sectional Study

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and se...

  13. Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomes.

    Larson, Bruce A; Fox, Mathew P; Rosen, Sydney; Bii, Margret; Sigei, Carolyne; Shaffer, Douglas; Sawe, Fredrick; McCoy, Kelly; Wasunna, Monique; Simon, Jonathan L

    2009-07-15

    As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men) and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women) for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya--days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less productive than the general female workforce over sustained periods of

  14. Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomes

    Sigei Carolyne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Methods Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya – days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. Results The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Conclusion Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less

  15. Self-Employment, Earnings, and Sexual Orientation

    Jepsen, Christopher; Jepsen, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies document differences by sexual orientation in earnings and other labor-market outcomes, little is known about differences in self-employment. Our study contributes to both the self-employment literature and sexual-orientation literature by analyzing differences in self-employment rates and earnings by sexual orientation. Gay men are less likely to be self-employed than married men, whereas lesbians are equally likely to be self-employed as married women. We find that gay...

  16. Youth employment in Egypt

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  17. Employment in Agribusiness.

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  18. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...

  19. Adolescent mental health and behavioural predictors of being NEET: a prospective study of young adults not in employment, education, or training.

    Rodwell, L; Romaniuk, H; Nilsen, W; Carlin, J B; Lee, K J; Patton, G C

    2018-04-01

    Young adults who are not in employment, education, or training (NEET) are at risk of long-term economic disadvantage and social exclusion. Knowledge about risk factors for being NEET largely comes from cross-sectional studies of vulnerable individuals. Using data collected over a 10-year period, we examined adolescent predictors of being NEET in young adulthood. We used data on 1938 participants from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, a community-based longitudinal study of adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Associations between common mental disorders, disruptive behaviour, cannabis use and drinking behaviour in adolescence, and NEET status at two waves of follow-up in young adulthood (mean ages of 20.7 and 24.1 years) were investigated using logistic regression, with generalised estimating equations used to account for the repeated outcome measure. Overall, 8.5% of the participants were NEET at age 20.7 years and 8.2% at 24.1 years. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found evidence of increased risk of being NEET among frequent adolescent cannabis users [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.75] and those who reported repeated disruptive behaviours (ORadj = 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.55) or persistent common mental disorders in adolescence (ORadj = 1.60; 95% CI 1.07-2.40). Similar associations were present when participants with children were included in the same category as those in employment, education, or training. Young people with an early onset of mental health and behavioural problems are at risk of failing to make the transition from school to employment. This finding reinforces the importance of integrated employment and mental health support programmes.

  20. Power of national economy, disease control and employment status in patients with RA-an analytical multi-site ecological study.

    Pieringer, Herwig; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Danninger, Kathrin

    2016-02-01

    In rheumatology, sufficient disease control is a central part of the treatment concept. However, modern treatment strategies are associated with a substantial economic burden for health care systems. Ecological studies offer the unique opportunity to analyse differences between groups as well as group level effects. In the present analytical multi-site ecological study, we investigated whether more powerful national economies as measured by the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) are associated with better disease control in RA patients as measured by the disease activity score 28 (DAS28). We used aggregated data on RA patients from the recently published COMORA study as well as the World Health Organization database. There was a strong negative correlation between DAS28 and GDPpc (r = -0.815; p = 0.0002). Adjustment for sex, smoking status, disease duration or current employment status did not significantly change this association. There was a strong, negative correlation between DAS28 and age (r = -0.870; p < 0.001) and a strong, positive correlation between GDPpc and age (r = 0.737; p = 0.002). Adjustment for age reduced the regression coefficient (DAS28/GDPpc) to -0.000018 (p = 0.054). There was a negative correlation between DAS28 and current employment status (r = -0.642; p = 0.008) and a positive correlation between GDPpc and employment status (r = 0.722; p = 0.002). In conclusion, there is evidence of an association between disease control and GDPpc. This association is alleviated after adjustment for age. Of note, in countries with higher GDPpc, a higher proportion of RA patients are currently employed. This is true despite the fact that RA patients in countries with higher GDPpc are also older.

  1. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis and brain of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    Oelschläger, H A; Northcutt, R G

    1992-01-15

    Little is known about the immunohistochemistry of the nervous system in bats. This is particularly true of the nervus terminalis, which exerts strong influence on the reproductive system during ontogeny and in the adult. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was visualized immunocytochemically in the nervus terminalis and brain of juvenile and adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). The peripheral LHRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells and fibers (nervus terminalis) are dispersed along the basal surface of the forebrain from the olfactory bulbs to the prepiriform cortex and the interpeduncular fossa. A concentration of peripheral LHRH-ir perikarya and fibers was found at the caudalmost part of the olfactory bulbs, near the medioventral forebrain sulcus; obviously these cells mediate between the bulbs and the remaining forebrain. Within the central nervous system (CNS), LHRH-ir perikarya and fibers were distributed throughout the olfactory tubercle, diagonal band, preoptic area, suprachiasmatic and supraoptic nuclei, the bed nuclei of stria terminalis and stria medullaris, the anterior lateral and posterior hypothalamus, and the tuber cinereum. The highest concentration of cells was found within the arcuate nucleus. Fibers were most concentrated within the median eminence, infundibular stalk, and the medial habenula. The data obtained suggest that this distribution of LHRH immunoreactivity may be characteristic for microchiropteran (insectivorous) bats. The strong projections of LHRH-containing nuclei in the basal forebrain (including the arcuate nucleus) to the habenula, may indicate close functional contact between these brain areas via feedback loops, which could be important for the processing of thermal and other environmental stimuli correlated with hibernation.

  2. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  3. Factors influencing decision of general practitioners and managers to train and employ a nurse practitioner or physician assistant in primary care: a qualitative study.

    van der Biezen, Mieke; Derckx, Emmy; Wensing, Michel; Laurant, Miranda

    2017-02-07

    Due to the increasing demand on primary care, it is not only debated whether there are enough general practitioners (GPs) to comply with these demands but also whether specific tasks can be performed by other care providers. Although changing the workforce skill mix care by employing Physician Assistants (PAs) and Nurse Practitioners (NPs) has proven to be both effective and safe, the implementation of those professionals differs widely between and within countries. To support policy making regarding PAs/NPs in primary care, the aim of this study is to provide insight into factors influencing the decision of GPs and managers to train and employ a PA/NP within their organisation. A qualitative study was conducted in 2014 in which 7 managers of out-of-hours primary care services and 32 GPs who owned a general practice were interviewed. Three main topic areas were covered in the interviews: the decision-making process in the organisation, considerations and arguments to train and employ a PA/NP, and the tasks and responsibilities of a PA/NP. Employment of PAs/NPs in out-of-hours services was intended to substitute care for minor ailments in order to decrease GPs' caseload or to increase service capacity. Mangers formulated long-term planning and role definitions when changing workforce skill mix. Lastly, out-of-hours services experienced difficulties with creating team support among their members regarding the employment of PAs/NPs. In general practices during office hours, GPs indented both substitution and supplementation for minor ailments and/or target populations through changing the skill mix. Supplementation was aimed at improving quality of care and extending the range of services to patients. The decision-making in general practices was accompanied with little planning and role definition. The willingness to employ PAs/NPs was highly influenced by an employees' motivation to start the master's programme and GPs' prior experience with PAs/NPs. Knowledge about

  4. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  5. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present...... study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time....

  6. The Professional Value of Temporary Study in Another European Country: Employment and Work of Former ERASMUS Students

    Teichler, Ulrich; Janson, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Temporary study in another European country supported by the ERASMUS programmes spread from a few thousand participants in the late 1980s to about 150,000 annually in recent years. Such a study period is not only viewed as academically, culturally, and linguistically valuable but is also expected to have a positive impact on subsequent employment…

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  8. The influence of endometriosis-related symptoms on work life and work ability: a study of Danish endometriosis patients in employment.

    Hansen, Karina E; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Baldursson, Einar B; Schultz, Rikke; Forman, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed endometriosis and 751 reference women completed an electronic survey based on the Endometriosis Health Profile 30-questionnaire and the Work Ability Index (short form). Percentages were reported for all data. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess risk factors for low work ability. The level of statistical significance was set at pwork disturbances due to symptoms, lower work ability and a wide number of other implications on work life in employed women. Moreover, a higher pain level and degree of symptoms were associated with low work ability. Full regression analysis indicated that tiredness, frequent pain, a higher daily pain level, a higher number of sick days and feeling depressed at work were associated with low work ability. A long delay from symptom onset to diagnosis was associated with low work ability. These data indicate a severe impact of endometriosis on the work ability of employed women with endometriosis and add to the evidence that this disease represents a significant socio-economic burden. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit and re-employment: a prospective study with ten years follow-up in the Netherlands.

    Schuring, Merel; Robroek, Suzan J W; Otten, Ferdy W J; Arts, Coos H; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on labor force exit due to unemployment, early retirement, disability pension, or becoming economically inactive. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of ill health and socioeconomic status on return to work. A representative sample of the Dutch working population (N=15 152) was selected for a prospective study with ten years follow-up (93 917 person-years). Perceived health and individual and household characteristics were measured at baseline with the Permanent Quality of Life Survey (POLS) during 1999-2002. Statistics Netherlands ascertained employment status monthly from January 1999 to December 2008. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine the factors that predicted labor force exit and return to work. Ill health increased the likelihood of labor force exit into unemployment [hazard ratio (HR) 1.89], disability pension (HR 6.39), and early retirement (HR 1.20), but was not a determinant of becoming economically inactive (HR 1.07). Workers with low socioeconomic status were, even after adjusting for ill health, more likely to leave the labor force due to unemployment, disability pension, and economic inactivity. Workers with ill health at baseline were less likely to return to work after unemployment (HR 0.75) or disability pension (HR 0.62). Socioeconomic status did not influence re-employment. Ill health is an important determinant for entering and maintaining paid employment. Workers with lower education were at increased risk for health-based selection out of paid employment. Policies to improve labor force participation, especially among low socioeconomic level workers, should protect workers with health problems against exclusion from the labor force.

  10. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Pmicro-implant group resulted in significantly more apical root resorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  11. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  12. Re-employment services in the Netherlands: A comparative study of bureaucratic, market and network forms of organization

    Svensson, J.; Trommel, W.A.; Lantink, T.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in New Public Management research requires careful comparison of different organizational approaches to public tasks, preferably within a single political and institutional setting. This paper presents a study of three approaches to reemployment services, a recent development in the

  13. A registry for the study of the health of radiation workers employed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Weeks, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    Factors to be considered in formulating a study of the health of radiation workers are discussed, and a proposal is made for the establishment of such a study in relation to the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. By setting up a registry of AECL radiation workers, data could be accumulated suitable for the long-term followup of their health, and for preparing periodic interim reports on mortality and morbidity. (author)

  14. An Experimental Study of Psychological Contract Breach: The Effects of Exchange Congruence in the Employer - Employee Relationship

    Schaupp , Gretchen Lina

    2012-01-01

    Although the psychological contract has been a popular topic in managerial research for the past twenty years, recent critiques of the research in this area point to several shortcomings. These are believed to result primarily from the overwhelming use of field studies, survey questionnaires, and other correlational procedures in the study of this construct. One particular research question that has generated mixed results involves the effect that oneâ s underlying contract (either transacti...

  15. Life Sciences and employability

    Wynand J. Boshoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses unemployment in rural areas. South Africa is also characterised by skills shortage and high unemployment figures, especially in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The institutional reality of education is that every rural village hosts a high school which is primarily engaged in preparing learners for further studies, whilst the Further Training Colleges (previously known as technical colleges are mainly located in the larger centres. It is with this scenario as a backdrop that the possible role of high schools to alleviate the problem is being argued. It is clear that rural employers do not expect from school leavers to be in possession of applicable knowledge, but rather to be in possession of the ability as well as certain personal characteristics that would make them employable. Unfortunately, however, this is not always found in young persons who have completed their schooling successfully. Life Sciences educators can render a valuable service should certain nontraditional approaches be incorporated into the teaching practice. This will enable them to contribute to solving one of South Africa’s serious problems.

  16. Authenticity in Employment Relations

    Tackney, Charles Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study of employm......Authenticity is developed and deployed as a criterion variable for a theology of the workplace inquiry that combines theory and methodological development with data analysis. The goal is to show that social science method can offer an empirically valid, prophetic dimension to the study...... of employment and work parameters in light of religious teachings on the social question at national, organizational, or firm-specific levels. The function of a criterion variable is described, noting that the switch from a dependent variable approach introduces an open-system dynamism to social science...

  17. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    experience, economic environment, and rules and restrictions with respect to active labor market policies. A few studies show that organizational structures and managerial organization within the unemployment offices also influence the employability of unemployed clients. But until now, no studies have...... empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  18. The measurement of employment benefits

    Burtraw, D.

    1994-01-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  19. The measurement of employment benefits

    Burtraw, D

    1994-07-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income.

  20. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...