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Sample records for study comparing conventional

  1. Comparative study between computed radiography and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Sapizah Rahim; Shaharudin Sayuti; Arshad Yassin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    In Industrial Radiography, there are many criteria that need to be considered based on established standards to accept or reject the radiographic film. For conventional radiography, we need to consider the optical density by using the densitometer when viewing the film on the viewer. But in the computed radiography (CR) we need to evaluate and performed the analysis from the quality of the digital image through grey value. There are many factors that affected the digital image quality. One of the factors which are affected to the digital image quality in the image processing is grey value that related to the contrast resolution. In this work, we performed grey value study measurement on digital radiography systems and compared it with exposed films in conventional radiography. The test sample is a steel step wedge. We found out the contrast resolution is higher in Computed Radiography compared with Conventional Radiography. (author)

  2. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Materials and methods: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for res-pective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite...

  3. Gonioscopic changes in conventional ECCE vs manual SICS: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Joseph, Sundararajan D, Rajvin Samuel Ponraj, Srinivasan M, Veluchamy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to observe and compare the Gonioscopic changes in the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye after surgeries namely; Conventional Extra capsular cataract extraction (ECCE with Posterior chamber Intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation, Manual Small incision Cataract Surgery with PCIOL implantation. The clinical study was undertaken after Institutional Ethical committee clearance, securing the inform consent, total number of 100 patients were enrolled in the study. 50 ECCE; 50 SICS consisting of 57 Males and 43 Females aged between 40 – 80yrs who were admitted and operated for Cataract at Meenakshi Medical college Hospital & Research institute. The following parameters are studied: Gonioscopic changes in the angle, namely the PAS formation in the quadrants, pigment dispersion in each of the methods. After this study, we arrive to a conclusion that complications in the angle of anterior chamber occur mostly in Conventional with insignificant change in manual SICS. So manual Small incision Cataract Surgery with PCIOL implantation is preferable over Conventional ECCE with PCIOL implantation.

  4. The comparative study of conventional and innovative phlebographies in lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Gu Jianping; He Xu; Lou Wensheng; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Song Jinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The clinical values of conventional phlebography via percutaneous dorsal pedal vein access with scalp puncture was compared with innovative phlebography via a percutaneous great saphenous approach with retained catheter in lower extremity for detection of venous diseases. Methods: Conventional and innovative phlebographies in lower extremity were performed in 34 suffering lower extremities of 30 patients, and the efficacy of the two methods was compared in demonstrating the venous diseases in lower extremities. Results: The rates of vascular display of the common iliac vein, the valve of saphenous-femoral vein and the first couple valve of femoral vein were 100%, 100% and 91.18% respectively with innovative phlebography while the rates of vascular display were 32.25%, 73.53% and 64.71% respectively with conventional phlebography. Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous valvular disfunction of saphenous-femoral vein and the venous valvular disfunction of the first couple valve of femoral vein were shown in 14, 25 and 21 cases respectively by innovative phlebography, and in 3, 14 and 12 cases respectively by conventional phlebography in patients suffering from varicose veins and chronic swelling of the lower extremities. There was significant difference between the innovative and conventional phlebographies (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The innovative phlebography possesses a higher efficacy in diagnosing IVCS, venous valvular disfunctions of saphenous-femoral vein and the first couple valve of femoral vein compared with conventional method. It would be an alternative method to the conventional one or percutaneous femoral venous approach. (authors)

  5. Comparative study between manual injection intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Ata-Ali, J; Oltra-Moscardó, M-J; Peñarrocha-Diago, M-A; Peñarrocha, M

    2012-03-01

    To compare intraosseous anesthesia (IA) with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. The mean patient age was 28.6±9.92 years. Fifty-five vestibular infiltrations and 45 mandibular blocks were performed. All patients were also subjected to IA. The type of intervention (conservative or endodontic) exerted no significant influence (p=0.58 and p=0.62, respectively). The latency period was 8.52±2.44 minutes for the conventional techniques and 0.89±0.73 minutes for IA - the difference being statistically significant (panesthesia sensation, the infiltrative techniques lasted a maximum of one hour, the inferior alveolar nerve blocks lasted between 1-3 hours, and IA lasted only 2.5 minutes - the differences being statistically significant (p≤0.0000, Φ=0.29). Anesthetic success was recorded in 89% of the conventional procedures and in 78% of the IA. Most patients preferred IA (61%)(p=0.0032). The two anesthetic procedures have been compared for latency, duration of anesthetic effect, anesthetic success rate and patient preference. Intraosseous anesthesia has been shown to be a technique to be taken into account when planning conservative and endodontic treatments.

  6. Comparing distance education and conventional education: observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Duffy

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study presents a comparison of assessment results achieved by distancelearning students and classroom-based students undertaking the same module in a degree course. The purpose of the comparison is to provide some objective measurement of the quality of distance education in relation to conventional classroom-based education. The authors have selected three groups of students, who have all undertaken the same module in the B. Sc Health Studies degree programme offered by the University of Paisley. One group (in Paisley undertook their studies by means of conventional classroom-based education, the second (in Hong Kong by supported distance learning with face-to-face contact in the form of tutorials, and the third (in a geographically dispersed group in the United Kingdom and other countries by supported distance learning with no face-to-face contact. The results obtained by these three groups of students were analysed. Because of the differences in the size of the groups, the Kruskal- Wallis 1- Way Anova test was applied to validate the face value findings. The authors include findings from the literature comparing distance education with conventional education and from cross-cultural studies to present their data in context. Analysis of the assessment results showed that students from all three groups were successful in their studies, but the students studying by distance learning obtained significantly higher end-of-module results than their classroom-based colleagues. This latter finding reflects the conclusion that other investigators have reached In their discussion the authors identify educational, cultural and personal factors that may help to explain their findings. A limitation in the study is that it concerns only one module in the degree programme. The research now moves on to comparing students who have undertaken the whole degree programme by the means described

  7. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

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    F Cobanoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic broiler chicken production has recently received more attention worldwide. This study carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. In this study, 400 slow-growing broilers (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system and the same number of fast-growing broilers (Ross-308 were reared in a conventional system. Profitability was deduced from an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was €0.75, which is 180% higher compared with the conventional system (€0.27; however, organic broiler meat was sold at a twice as high price than the conventional one. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more economical than conventional rearing.

  8. Comparative analysis of conventional and eversion carotid endarterectomy: Prospective randomized study

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    Marković Dragan M.

    2008-01-01

    often needed during the conventional carotid endarterectomy (34.7% compared to eversion endarterectomy (3.9%. χ2-test showed a statistically highly significant difference. CONCLUSION Eversion carotid endarectomy represents a statistically significantly shorter procedure. Distal intimal fixation demanded by this procedure is very rare, clammping of the internal carotid artery is significantly shorter, and it also has a lower rate of the early neurological complications. Based on the results of this study, as well as the opinions of other authors, it can be concluded that the eversion carotid endarterectomy has an advantage over the conventional procedure. We recommend conventional procedure only in cases when retrograde pressure indicates the use of the intraluminal shunting.

  9. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION:A STUDY ON CONVENTIONAL AND ISLAMI BANKS OF BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Evana NUSRAT DOOTY; Syeda Tamanna FAHIM; Israth SULTANA

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to undertake a comparative study regarding employee satisfaction between conventional and islami banks of Bangladesh. Job satisfaction, compensation and benefit, promotion, supervision, communication, career development, work environment and work-life balance were selected as indicator of employee satisfaction. The sample was collected from five islami banks and five conventional banks. Fifty sample was collected from each type of bank. The study was conducted t...

  10. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cobanoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308 in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27; however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.

  11. Digital vs. conventional full-arch implant impressions: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sarah; Weber, Hans Peter; Finkelman, Matthew; El Rafie, Khaled; Kudara, Yukio; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2017-11-01

    To test whether or not digital full-arch implant impressions with two different intra-oral scanners (CEREC Omnicam and True Definition) have the same accuracy as conventional ones. The hypothesis was that the splinted open-tray impressions would be more accurate than digital full-arch impressions. A stone master cast representing an edentulous mandible using five internal connection implant analogs (Straumann Bone Level RC, Basel, Switzerland) was fabricated. The three median implants were parallel to each other, the far left implant had 10°, and the far right had 15° distal angulation. A splinted open-tray technique was used for the conventional polyether impressions (n = 10) for Group 1. Digital impressions (n = 10) were taken with two intra-oral optical scanners (CEREC Omnicam and 3M True Definition) after connecting polymer scan bodies to the master cast for groups 2 and 3. Master cast and conventional impression test casts were digitized with a high-resolution reference scanner (Activity 880 scanner; Smart Optics, Bochum, Germany) to obtain digital files. Standard tessellation language (STL) datasets from the three test groups of digital and conventional impressions were superimposed with the STL dataset from the master cast to assess the 3D deviations. Deviations were recorded as root-mean-square error. To compare the master cast with conventional and digital impressions at the implant level, Welch's F-test was used together with Games-Howell post hoc test. Group I had a mean value of 167.93 μm (SD 50.37); Group II (Omnicam) had a mean value of 46.41 μm (SD 7.34); Group III (True Definition) had a mean value of 19.32 μm (SD 2.77). Welch's F-test was used together with the Games-Howell test for post hoc comparisons. Welch's F-test showed a significant difference between the groups (P digital implant impressions using True Definition scanner and Omnicam were significantly more accurate than the conventional impressions with the splinted open

  12. Randomized clinical study comparing piezosurgery and conventional rotatory surgery in mandibular cyst enucleation.

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    Pappalardo, Sabrina; Guarnieri, Renzo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare piezoelectric surgery to the conventional rotatory surgery in mandibular cyst enucleation, and to determine the 2 method's suitability and the postoperative outcomes. Eighty patients were included in the study. 35 male and 45 female, which showed cystic mandibular lesions, compared with the inferior alveolar nerve or the mental nerve. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cystectomy was performed using conventional rotatory instrumentation (rotatory-group), and in the other one piezoelectric surgery (piezo-group). The swelling was documented 24/48/72 h and 1 week post-surgery and the patients recorded their subjective postoperative pain daily for 7 days using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Patients treated with piezoelectric technique have presented a lower VAS, minor swelling and less recovery time compared to the rotatory-group. No lesions of the mandible nerve were detected with piezosurgery whereas surgery with rotary instruments resulted in 8% hypesthesia at least up to one week. The results of this study suggest that piezosurgery may be considered effective in cyst enucleation compared to traditional procedures with burs, since it grants the patients significantly less post-surgical pain and swelling. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.; Knudsen, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Part I contains a comprehensive treatment of the comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods. The conventional methods chosen for comparison were: (a) the polygon method, (b) the inverse of the distance squared method, and (c) a method similar to (b) but allowing different weights in different directions. Briefly, the overall result from this comparative study is in favor of the use of geostatistics in most cases because the method has lived up to its theoretical claims. A good exposition on the theory of geostatistics, the adopted study procedures, conclusions and recommended future research are given in Part I. Part II of this report contains the results of the second and the third study objectives, which are to assess the potential benefits that can be derived by the introduction of the geostatistical method to the current state-of-the-art in uranium reserve estimation method and to be instrumental in generating the acceptance of the new method by practitioners through illustrative examples, assuming its superiority and practicality. These are given in the form of illustrative examples on the use of geostatistics and the accompanying computer program user's guide

  14. Comparative Study of Elemental Nutrients in Organic and Conventional Vegetables Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chet R; Alfarraj, Bader; Ghany, Charles T; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used to identify and compare the presence of major nutrient elements in organic and conventional vegetables. Different parts of cauliflowers and broccolis were used as working samples. Laser-induced breakdown spectra from these samples were acquired at optimum values of laser energy, gate delay, and gate width. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for the comparison of these organic and conventional vegetable flowers. Principal component analysis (PCA) was taken into account for multivariate analysis while for univariate analysis, the intensity of selected atomic lines of different elements and their intensity ratio with some reference lines of organic cauliflower and broccoli samples were compared with those of conventional ones. In addition, different parts of the cauliflower and broccoli were compared in terms of intensity and intensity ratio of elemental lines.

  15. Comparative study on microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo sawdust: Hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Leilei; He, Chao; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Yu, Zhenting; Zhou, Yue; Fan, Liangliang; Duan, Dengle

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two pretreatments affect differently the hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors. • Hydrochar by conventional hydrothermal pretreatment shows higher thermal stability. • Microwave hydrothermal pretreatment removes more acetyl. • Hydrochar by microwave hydrothermal pretreatment produces more glucopyranose and less acids. - Abstract: Comparative study on microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo sawdust was carried out in this study. Microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment both improved the hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors. Proximate and elemental analyses show that the properties of hydrochar from microwave hydrothermal pretreatment are better than conventional hydrothermal pretreatment in terms of calorific value and oxygen content except for 150 °C. Microwave hydrothermal pretreatment removes more acetyl groups in hemicellulose compared to conventional hydrothermal pretreatment, which may be attributed to the hot spot effect of microwave irradiation. The peaks of thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric curves of pretreated samples always shifted to higher temperature region. Also, the conventional hydrothermal pretreated samples are more thermally stable than those by microwave heating. In addition, the glucopyranose content in pyrolysis vapors of microwave hydrothermal pretreated bamboo sawdust (190 °C) was 9.82% higher than that from conventional hydrothermal pretreated bamboo sawdust. However, the acids content from microwave hydrothermal pretreated bamboo sawdust (150 °C) was 4.12% lower. In this regard, microwave hydrothermal pretreatment is more suitable for upgrading the pyrolysis oil quality than conventional hydrothermal pretreatment.

  16. Comparative study of long-term outcomes of accelerated and conventional collagen crosslinking for progressive keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, J J; Viswanathan, D

    2018-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the long-term outcomes of accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) to conventional CXL for progressive keratoconus.Patients and methodsComparative clinical study of consecutive progressive keratoconic eyes that underwent either accelerated CXL (9 mW/cm 2 ultraviolet A (UVA) light irradiance for 10 min) or conventional CXL (3 mW/cm 2 UVA light irradiance for 30 min). Eyes with minimum 12 months' follow-up were included. Post-procedure changes in keratometry readings (Flat meridian: K1; steep meridian: K2), central corneal thickness (CCT), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) were analysed.ResultsA total of 42 eyes were included. In all, 21 eyes had accelerated CXL (20.5±5.5 months' follow-up) and 21 eyes had conventional CXL group (20.2±5.6 months' follow-up). In the accelerated CXL group, a significant reduction in K2 (P=0.02), however no significant change in K1 (P=0.35) and CCT (P=0.62) was noted. In the conventional CXL group, a significant reduction was seen in K1 (P=0.01) and K2 (P=0.04), but not in CCT (P=0.95). Although both groups exhibited significant reductions in K2 readings, no noteworthy differences were noted between them (P=0.36). Improvements in BSCVA (accelerated CXL; P=0.22 and conventional CXL; P=0.20) and MRSE (accelerated CXL; P=0.97 and conventional CXL; P=0.54) were noted, however were not significant in either group.ConclusionAccelerated and conventional CXL appear to be effective procedures for stabilising progressive keratoconus in the long-term.

  17. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.

  18. Randomized controlled pilot study to compare Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M N; Siddiqui, V A; Nayak, C; Singh, Vikram; Dixit, Rupali; Dewan, Deepti; Mishra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media (AOM). A randomized placebo-controlled parallel group pilot study of homeopathic vs conventional treatment for AOM was conducted in Jaipur, India. Patients were randomized by a computer generated random number list to receive either individualized homeopathic medicines in fifty millesimal (LM) potencies, or conventional treatment including analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients who did not improve were prescribed antibiotics at the 3rd day. Outcomes were assessed by the Acute Otitis Media-Severity of Symptoms (AOM-SOS) Scale and Tympanic Membrane Examination over 21 days. 81 patients were included, 80 completed follow-up: 41 for conventional and 40 for homeopathic treatment. In the Conventional group, all 40 (100%) patients were cured, in the Homeopathy group, 38 (95%) patients were cured while 02 (5%) patients were lost to the last two follow-up. By the 3rd day of treatment, 4 patients were cured in Homeopathy group but in Conventional group only one patient was cured. In the Conventional group antibiotics were prescribed in 39 (97.5%), no antibiotics were required in the Homeopathy group. 85% of patients were prescribed six homeopathic medicines. Individualized homeopathy is an effective conventional treatment in AOM, there were no significant differences between groups in the main outcome. Symptomatic improvement was quicker in the Homeopathy group, and there was a large difference in antibiotic requirements, favouring homeopathy. Further work on a larger scale should be conducted. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Financial Performance of Islamic and Conventional Banks During and After US Sub-prime Crisis in Pakistan: A Comparative Study

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    Muhammad Bilal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking system that is based on Shariah principles is considered more resilient to the financial shocks due to its interest free nature. This study is aimed to compare the financial performances and investigate whether Islamic banks are more profitable, liquid, less risky and operationally efficient compared to conventional banks during and after US Sub-prime crisis in Pakistan. The time span used for the study was from 2007 to 2012. Thirteen financial ratios composed of five Islamic and five conventional banks to measure the financial performance in terms of profitability, risk and solvency, liquidity and capital adequacy. Independent sample t-test is used to determine the significance of mean differences of selected ratios. The results of profitability measures indicate that Islamic banks remained less profitable; however, liquidity performances of Islamic banks were better than conventional banks. However, overall operational efficiency measures are not in favour of Islamic banks. The study concluded that conventional banks performed more efficiently and profitably as compared to Islamic banks. The opportunity of future empirical study is recommended at the end of this paper.

  20. Comparative study of conventional and ultrasonically-assisted bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, K; Ahmed, Naseer; Silberschmidt, V V

    2014-01-01

    Bone drilling is a well-known surgical procedure in orthopaedics and dentistry for fracture treatment and reconstruction. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of the drill-bone interaction is necessary to overcome challenges associated with the process and related postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of a novel drilling technique, ultrasonically-assisted drilling (UAD), and its possible utilization in orthopaedic surgeries. The study was performed by conducting experiments to understand the basic mechanics of the drilling process using high speed filming of the drilling zone followed by measurements to quantify thrust force, surface roughness and cracking of the bone near the immediate vicinity of the hole with and without ultrasonic assistance. Compared to the spiral chips produced during conventional drilling (CD), UAD was found to break the chips in small pieces which facilitated their fast evacuation from the cutting region. In UAD, lower drilling force and better surface roughness was measured in drilling in the radial and longitudinal axis of the bone. UAD produced crack-free holes which will enhance postoperative performance of fixative devices anchoring the bone. UAD may be used as a possible substitute for CD in orthopaedic clinics.

  1. A Comparative Study of Single Incision versus Conventional Four Ports Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajong, Ranendra; Hajong, Debobratta; Natung, Tanie; Anand, Madhur; Sharma, Girish

    2016-10-01

    Cholelithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the digestive tract encountered by general surgeons worldwide. Conventional or open cholecystectomy was the mainstay of treatment for a long time for this disease. In the 1980s laparoscopic surgery revolutionized the management of biliary tract diseases. It brought about a revolutionary change in the basic concepts of surgical principles and minimal access surgery gradually started to be acknowledged as a safe means of carrying out surgeries. To investigate the technical feasibility, safety and benefit of Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC) versus Conventional Four Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (C4PLC). This prospective randomized control trial was conducted to compare the advantages if any between the SILC and C4PLC. Thirty two patients underwent SILC procedure and C4PLC, each. The age of the patients ranged from 16-60years. Other demographic data and indications for cholecystectomy were comparable in both the groups. Simple comparative statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. Results on continuous variables are shown in Mean ± SD; whereas results on categorical variables are shown in percentage (%) by keeping the level of significance at 5%. Intergroup analysis of the various study parameters was done by using Fisher exact test. SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis. The mean operating time was higher in the SILC group (69 ± 4.00 mins vs. 38.53 ± 4.00 mins) which was of statistical significance (p=post-operative pain, with lesser analgesic requirements (p=operating time was longer otherwise it has almost similar clinical outcomes to those of C4PLC.

  2. A comparative study of computed radiographic cephalometry and conventional cephalometry in reliability of head film measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Done; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and to find out the variability of head film measurements (landmarks identification) between Fuji computed radiographic cephalometry and conventional cephalometry. 28 Korean adults were selected. Lateral cephalometric FCR film and conventional cephalometric film of each subject was taken. Four investigators identified 24 cephalometric landmarks on lateral cephalometric FCR film and conventional cephalometric film were statistically analysed. The results were as follows : 1. In FCR film and conventional film, coefficient of variation (C.V.) of 24 landmarks was taken horizontally and vertically. 2. In comparison of significant differences of landmarks variability between FCR film and conventional film, horizontal l value of coefficient of variation showed significant differences in four landmarks among twenty-four landmarks, but vertical a value of coefficient of variation showed significant differences in sixteen landmarks among twenty-four landmarks. FCR film showed significantly less variability than conventional film in 17 subjects among 20 (4+16) subjects that sho wed significant difference.

  3. Nanosize Fe x O y @SBA-3: A Comparative Study Between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sunita; Badamali, Sushanta K; Sahoo, Sagarika; Behera, Nandakishor; Dapurkar, Sudhir E

    2018-01-01

    The present study is focussed on development of highly dispersed nanosize iron oxide (FexOy) particles within the uniform mesopore channels of SBA-3. Herein we report a comparative study between conventional incipient wetness and microwave assisted synthesis routes adopted to devise nanoparticles. The developed materials are characterised by following X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, proton induced X-ray emission, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mesoporous siliceous SBA-3 was prepared at room temperature to obtain samples with good crystallinity and ordered pore structure. Pore channels of SBA-3 were used as nanoreactor for developing iron oxide nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles developed under microwave activation showed uniform distribution within the SBA-3 structure along with retaining the orderness of the pore architecture. On the contrary, iron oxides developed under incipient wetness method followed by conventional heating resulted in agglomeration of nanoparticles along with significant loss in SBA-3 pore structure. Proton induced X-ray emission studies revealed the extremely high purity of the samples and almost thrice higher amount of iron oxide particles are encapsulated within the host by microwave assisted preparation as compared to incipient/conventional heating method.

  4. Comparative study of conventional therapy and additional yogasanas for knee rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Bedekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amongst various modalities of post operative rehabilitation in a total knee replacement (TKR surgery, this study focuses on evaluating the effect of additional yoga therapy on functional outcome of TKR patients. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was done to compare the effects of conventional physiotherapy and additional yoga asanas, on 56 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. After obtaining written informed consent, the patients were alternately assigned to two groups: Conventional and experimental. Baseline WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness were taken on third post operative day. The subjects in conventional group received physiotherapy rehabilitation program of Sancheti Institute where the study was conducted, the experimental group received additional modified yoga asanas once daily by the therapist. After discharge from the hospital, patients were provided with written instructions and photographs of the asanas, two sets of WOMAC questionnaire with stamped and addressed envelopes and were instructed to perform yoga asanas 3 days/week. Subjects filled the questionnaire after 6 weeks and 3 months from the day of surgery and mailed back. The primary outcome measure was WOMAC questionnaire which consists of 24 questions, each corresponding to a visual analog scale, designed to measure patient′s perception of pain, stiffness and function. Results: The results suggest that there was a significant change (P<0.05 for all the groups for pain, stiffness and function subscales of WOMAC scale. The pain and stiffness was found to be less in experimental group receiving additional yoga therapy than in conventional group on 3 rd post operative day, 6 weeks and 3 months after the surgery. Conclusion: A combination of physiotherapy and yoga asana protocol works better than only physiotherapy protocol. Larger and blinded study is needed.

  5. Mid-term survival analysis of closed wedge high tibial osteotomy: A comparative study of computer-assisted and conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dae Kyung; Song, Sang Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hur, Dong; Jeong, Ho Yeon

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results and survival rates between computer-assisted and conventional closing wedge high tibial osteotomies (HTOs). Data from a consecutive cohort comprised of 75 computer-assisted HTOs and 75 conventional HTOs were retrospectively reviewed. The Knee Society knee and function scores, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score and femorotibial angle (FTA) were compared between the two groups. Survival rates were also compared with procedure failure. The knee and function scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better in the computer-assisted group than those in conventional group (90.1 vs. 86.1) (82.0 vs. 76.0). The HSS scores at one year postoperatively were slightly better for the computer-assisted HTOs than those of conventional HTOs (89.5 vs. 81.8). The inlier of the postoperative FTA was wider in the computer-assisted group than that in the conventional HTO group (88.0% vs. 58.7%), and mean postoperative FTA was greater in the computer-assisted group that in the conventional HTO group (valgus 9.0° vs. valgus 7.6°, pclinical and radiographic results were better in the computer-assisted group that those in the conventional HTO group. Mid-term survival rates did not differ between computer-assisted and conventional HTOs. A comparative analysis of longer-term survival rate is required to demonstrate the long-term benefit of computer-assisted HTO. III. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative study on stiffness properties of WOODCAST and conventional casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, Eija; Pärssinen, Antti; Pelto, Mika

    2013-08-01

    Plaster-of-Paris and synthetic materials (e.g. fibreglass) have been in clinical use as casting materials for decades. An innovative casting material, WOODCAST, brings interesting alternatives to the traditional materials. The aim of this study was to compare the stiffness properties of the WOODCAST material to traditional casting materials. In immobilization by casting, materials with variable stiffness properties are required. Ring stiffness of cylindrical samples correlates well with cast rigidity. For load-bearing structures, the use of the WOODCAST Splint is recommended as equally high stiffness was obtained with the WOODCAST Splint as was with fibreglass. The WOODCAST 2 mm product is optimal for structures where some elasticity is required, and WOODCAST Ribbon can be used in any WOODCAST structure where further reinforcement is needed. The results show that WOODCAST material can be used in replacing traditional casting materials used in extremity immobilization. The mechanical properties of casting material play an important role in safe and effective fracture immobilization. Stiffness properties of the WOODCAST casting material and conventional materials - fibreglass and plaster-of-Paris - were analysed in this study. The WOODCAST Splint appears to compare favorably with traditional materials such as Scotchcast.

  7. Robotic distal pancreatectomy versus conventional laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: a comparative study for short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eric C H; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-09-01

    Robotic system has been increasingly used in pancreatectomy. However, the effectiveness of this method remains uncertain. This study compared the surgical outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and conventional laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. During a 15-year period, 35 patients underwent minimally invasive approach of distal pancreatectomy in our center. Seventeen of these patients had robot-assisted laparoscopic approach, and the remaining 18 had conventional laparoscopic approach. Their operative parameters and perioperative outcomes were analyzed retrospectively in a prospective database. The mean operating time in the robotic group (221.4 min) was significantly longer than that in the laparoscopic group (173.6 min) (P = 0.026). Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic groups presented no significant difference in spleen-preservation rate (52.9% vs. 38.9%) (P = 0.505), operative blood loss (100.3 ml vs. 268.3 ml) (P = 0.29), overall morbidity rate (47.1% vs. 38.9%) (P = 0.73), and post-operative hospital stay (11.4 days vs. 14.2 days) (P = 0.46). Both groups also showed no perioperative mortality. Similar outcomes were observed in robotic distal pancreatectomy and conventional laparoscopic approach. However, robotic approach tended to have the advantages of less blood loss and shorter hospital stay. Further studies are necessary to determine the clinical position of robotic distal pancreatectomy.

  8. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  9. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  10. Comparative Study of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Low Heat Rejection (Mullite Coated) Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patond, S. B.; Chaple, S. A.; Shrirao, P. N.; Shaikh, P. I.

    2013-06-01

    Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, diesel engine whose piston crown, cylinder head and valves were coated with a 0.5 mm thickness of 3Al2O3·2SiO2 (mullite) (Al2O3 = 60%, SiO2 = 40%) over a 150 μm thickness of NiCrAlY bond coat. The working conditions for the conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engine were kept exactly same to ensure a comparison between the two configurations of the engine. This paper is intended to emphasis on performance and combustion characteristics of conventional and LHR (Mullite coated) diesel engines under identical conditions. Tests were carried out at same operational constraints i.e. air-fuel ratio and engine speed conditions for both conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engines. The results showed that, there was as much as 1.8 % increasing on brake power for LHR (mullite coated) engine compared to conventional engine (without coating) at full load The average decrease in brake specific fuel consumption in the LHR engine compared with the conventional engine was 1.76 % for full engine load. However, there was increasing on cylinder gas pressure and net heat release rate for LHR engine compared to conventional engine. Also the results revealed that, there was as much as 22% increasing on exhaust gas temperature for LHR engine compared to conventional engine at full engine load.

  11. Comparative Study of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Low Heat Rejection (Mullite Coated) Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patond, S B; Chaple, S A; Shrirao, P N; Shaikh, P I

    2013-01-01

    Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, diesel engine whose piston crown, cylinder head and valves were coated with a 0.5 mm thickness of 3Al 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 (mullite) (Al 2 O 3 = 60%, SiO 2 = 40%) over a 150 μm thickness of NiCrAlY bond coat. The working conditions for the conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engine were kept exactly same to ensure a comparison between the two configurations of the engine. This paper is intended to emphasis on performance and combustion characteristics of conventional and LHR (Mullite coated) diesel engines under identical conditions. Tests were carried out at same operational constraints i.e. air-fuel ratio and engine speed conditions for both conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engines. The results showed that, there was as much as 1.8 % increasing on brake power for LHR (mullite coated) engine compared to conventional engine (without coating) at full load The average decrease in brake specific fuel consumption in the LHR engine compared with the conventional engine was 1.76 % for full engine load. However, there was increasing on cylinder gas pressure and net heat release rate for LHR engine compared to conventional engine. Also the results revealed that, there was as much as 22% increasing on exhaust gas temperature for LHR engine compared to conventional engine at full engine load.

  12. A comparative study on the short-term clinicopathologic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery versus conventional open surgery for transverse colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Lee, I K; Lee, Y S; Kang, W K; Park, J K; Oh, S T; Kim, J G; Kim, Y H

    2009-08-01

    The long-term oncologic stability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer was established, and laparoscopic surgery was accepted as an alternative to conventional open surgery for colon cancer. However, transverse colon cancer was excluded from the majority of the previous prospective studies. As a result, debate on laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer continues. This study aimed to compare the clinicopathologic outcome of laparoscopic surgery with that of conventional open surgery for transverse colon cancer. From August 2004 to December 2007, 106 cases of transverse colon cancer were managed by resection at our institution, and 89 of these cases were included in this study. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), operation time, blood loss, time to first flatus, time to start of diet, hospital stay, complications, tumor size, distal resection margin, proximal resection margin, and number of nodes harvested were compared between the two groups. No significant differences were found between the laparoscopic and conventional groups in terms of age, sex, BMI, operation time, or hospital stay. The mean blood loss during the operations was significantly less in the laparoscopic group (113.8 +/- 128.9 ml) than in the conventional group (278.8 +/- 268.7 ml; p transverse colon cancer, and the oncologic quality of laparoscopic surgery was found to be acceptable compared with conventional open surgery.

  13. Comparative evaluation of organic and conventional farming on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five samples of organic fruits with seal certification, organic fruits without seal certification and conventional fruits were acquired from supermarkets and farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Organic lime and orange showed higher mean values of acidity, being 4.5 and 34.8% higher, when compared to conventional fruit, ...

  14. A Clinical Comparative Study of 3-Dimensional Accuracy between Digital and Conventional Implant Impression Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharbaty, Mohammed Hussein M; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Zarrati, Simindokht; Shamshiri, Ahmed Reza

    2018-02-09

    To evaluate the accuracy of a digital implant impression technique using a TRIOS 3Shape intraoral scanner (IOS) compared to conventional implant impression techniques (pick-up and transfer) in clinical situations. Thirty-six patients who had two implants (Implantium, internal connection) ranging in diameter between 3.8 and 4.8 mm in posterior regions participated in this study after signing a consent form. Thirty-six reference models (RM) were fabricated by attaching two impression copings intraorally, splinted with autopolymerizing acrylic resin, verified by sectioning through the middle of the index, and rejoined again with freshly mixed autopolymerizing acrylic resin pattern (Pattern Resin) with the brush bead method. After that, the splinted assemblies were attached to implant analogs (DANSE) and impressed with type III dental stone (Gypsum Microstone) in standard plastic die lock trays. Thirty-six working casts were fabricated for each conventional impression technique (i.e., pick-up and transfer). Thirty-six digital impressions were made with a TRIOS 3Shape IOS. Eight of the digitally scanned files were damaged; 28 digital scan files were retrieved to STL format. A coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) was used to record linear displacement measurements (x, y, and z-coordinates), interimplant distances, and angular displacements for the RMs and conventionally fabricated working casts. CATIA 3D evaluation software was used to assess the digital STL files for the same variables as the CMM measurements. CMM measurements made on the RMs and conventionally fabricated working casts were compared with 3D software measurements made on the digitally scanned files. Data were statistically analyzed using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) with an exchangeable correlation matrix and linear method, followed by the Bonferroni method for pairwise comparisons (α = 0.05). The results showed significant differences between the pick-up and digital groups in all of the

  15. In Vitro Comparative Study of the Working Length Determination with Radiovisiography and Conventional Radiography in Dilacerated Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare digital and conventional radiography in determining the working length of dilacerated canals.Methods: Thirty nine human extracted single-rooted teeth with root curvature more than 35 degrees were included in this study. After access preparation, a file was inserted into the canal and advanced until the file tip was visualized at the foramen. With measurement of the file length using a millimeter ruler, true canal length was determined for each canal. Then, teeth were mounted in acrylic blocks and canal length was estimated by using on-screen digital radiography with both 3- and 6-clicks measurement and from conventional radiography by conforming a preserved file on the image of the root canal.Results: There were no significant differences in measurement accuracy between the true canal length and conventional radiographic length, but there were significant difference between both digital radiographic techniques with true canal length. There was no significant correlation between root curvature and canal length estimation error of studied methods.Conclusion: In dilacerated canals, the accuracy of determination of working length by using conventional radiography is higher than digital radiography

  16. Comparative study on flow rate measurement by nuclear and conventional methods in selected rivers at Ulu Langat district, Selangor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Mohamad Tahir, Wan Zakaria; Mohamad, Daud; Hamzah, Abdul Razak; Yusuf, Johari Mohamad; Aziz Wan Mohamad, Wan Abdul

    1986-06-01

    A radiotracer technique using Tc-99 to measure flows of small rivers was introduced in Malaysia. Three rivers in the Ulu Langat District were selected for a comparative study on flow rate determination by conventional and radioisotope methods. Radioisotopic approach, comprising injection procedures, calibration, mixing length and safety aspects are discussed. The results measured by radioisotope method are compared to the Drainage and Irrigation Department's (DID's) discharge curves data collected from 1980 to 1982 which is calibrated using a current meter. The results are comparable and fall within the range obtained by conventional method. Related to this study, a comprehensive work on stream gauging of moderate and high flow rates using both methods is proposed to be carried out directly.

  17. Comparative study of the novel and conventional injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiriseth, K; Sirintawat, N; Arunakul, K; Wongsirichat, N

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anesthesia obtained with a novel injection approach for inferior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional injection approach. 40 patients in good health, randomly received each of two injection approaches of local anesthetic on each side of the mandible at two separate appointments. A sharp probe and an electric pulp tester were used to test anesthesia before injection, after injection when the patients' sensation changed, and 5 min after injection. This study comprised positive aspiration and intravascular injection 5% and neurovascular bundle injection 7.5% in the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, but without occurrence in the novel injection approach. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment was used during injection and surgery. The significance level used in the statistical analysis was pinferior alveolar nerve block by the novel injection approach provided adequate anesthesia and caused less pain and greater safety during injection. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Life Cycle Studies on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-Based Composites as Potential Replacement for Conventional Petrochemical Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietrini, M.; Roes, A.L.; Patel, M.K.; Chiellini, E.

    2007-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of a few poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) based composites has been performed and was compared to commodity petrochemical polymers. The end products studied are a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor housing (conventionally produced from high-impact

  19. Analyze image quality and comparative study between conventional and computed radiography applied to the inspection of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Silva, Aline S.S.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Piping system design takes into account relevant factors such as: internal coating, dimensioning, vibration system, adequate supports and principally, piping material. Cost is a decisive factor in the phase of material selection. The non-destructive testing method most commonly employed in industry to analyze the structure of an object is radiographic testing. Computed radiography (CR) is a quicker and much more efficient alternative to conventional radiography but, although CR presents numerous advantages, testing procedures are still largely based on trial and error, due to the lack of a consecrated methodology to choose parameters as it exists for conventional radiography. Notwithstanding, this paper presents a study that uses the technique of computed radiography to analyze metal alloys. These metal alloys are used as internal pipe coating aiming to protect against corrosion and cracks. This study seeks to evaluate parameters such as basic spatial resolution, Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNRN), contrast, intensity and also to compare conventional radiography with CR. (author)

  20. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2013-01-01

    ) with zero binary-interaction parameters (BIPs) and later generalized to situations with nonzero-BIP matrices. Most of the studies in the last decade suggest that the reduced-variables methods are much more efficient than the conventional flash method. However, Haugen and Beckner (2011) questioned...... with the conventional minimization-based flash. A test with the use of the SPE 3 example (Kenyon and Behie 1987) showed that the best reduction in time was less than 20% for the extreme situation of 25 components and just one row/column with nonzero BIPs. A better performance can be achieved by a simpler implementation...... directly using the sparsity of the BIP matrix....

  1. Comparing the effectiveness of laser vs. conventional endoforehead lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Jen; Yu, De-Yi; Chang, Shu-Ying; Hsiao, Yen-Chang

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of laser versus conventional endoforehead lifting. Over a period of 12 years (January 2000-January 2012), a total of 110 patients with hyperactive muscles over the frontal region have been collected for a retrospective study. The SurgiLase 150XJ CO 2 laser system, in conjunction with the flexible FIBERLASE, was used. The endoscope was 4 mm in diameter with an angle of 30°. The primary efficacy measurement was the assessment of the final outcome for using laser vs. conventional methods. Both groups were observed at three weeks, six weeks and six months after surgery. The most common complication in early convalescence (three weeks) was swelling. This was followed by local paraesthesia, ecchymosis, localized hematomas and scar with alopecia. All these problems disappeared completely after the 6-month study period. Based on a chi-square analysis, there were clinically and statistically significant differences favouring the laser endoforehead surgery in the operative time, early and late complications. All patients achieved significant improvement after both laser and conventional endoforehead surgery in the final outcome. However, the early and late complications indicated a greater difference in the laser group.

  2. Pars Plana-Modified versus Conventional Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Patients Undergoing Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Comparative Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Jitendra Kumar Singh; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya; Mishra, Avinash

    2017-03-01

    To compare the outcome of pars-plana-modified Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) versus limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber, in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for glaucoma with coexisting corneal diseases. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 58 eyes of 58 patients with glaucoma and coexisting corneal disease were divided into two groups. Group 1 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included patients undergoing limbal-based conventional AGV into the anterior chamber (AC) along-with PK and group 2 (29 eyes of 29 patients) included those undergoing pars-plana-modified AGV along-with PK. Outcome measures included corneal graft clarity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 2 years. Out of 58 eyes (58 patients), 50 eyes (50 patients: 25 eyes of 25 patients each in group 1 and group 2) completed the study and were analyzed. Complete success rate for AGV (group 1: 76%; group 2: 72%; p = 0.842) and corneal graft clarity (group 1: 68%; group 2: 76%; p = 0.081) were comparable between the two groups at 2 years. Graft failure was more in conventional AGV (32%) as compared to pars plana-modified AGV (24%) but not statistically significant (p = 0.078) at 2 years. Though both procedures were comparable in various outcome measures, pars-plana-modified AGV is a viable option for patients undergoing PK, as it provides a relatively better corneal graft survival rate and lesser complications that were associated with conventional AGV.

  3. Comparative study of the macroscopic finding, conventional tomographic imaging, and computed tomographic imaging in locating the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon; You, Dong Soo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparison of conventional tomography with reformatted computed tomography for dental implant in locating the mandibular canal. Five dogs were used and after conventional tomographs and fitted computed tomographs were taken, four dentist traced all films. Mandibles were sectioned with 2 mm slice thickness and the sections were then radiographed (contact radiography). Each radiograpic image was traced and linear measurements were made from mandibular canal to alveolar crest, buccal cortex, lingual cortex, and inferior border. The following results were obtained; 1. Reformatted computed tomographs were exacter than conventional tomography by alveolar crest to canal length of -0.6 mm difference between real values and radiographs 2. The average measurements of buccal cortex to mandibular canal width and lingual cortex to mandibular canal width of conventional tomographs were exacter than reformatted computed tomographs, but standard deviations were higher than reformatted computed tomographs. 3. Standard deviations of reformatted computed tomographs were lower than conventional tomographs at all comparing sites 4. At reformatted computed tomography 62.5% of the measurements performed were within ±1 mm of the true value, and at conventional tomography 24.1% were. 5. Mandibular canal invisibility was 0.8% at reformatted computed tomography and 9.2% at conventional tomography. Reformatted computed tomography has been shown to be more useful radiographic technique for assessment of the mandibular canal than conventional tomography.

  4. Conventional Gymnasium vs. Geodesic Field House. A Comparative Study of High School Physical Education and Assembly Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A description is presented of the design features of a high school's geodesic dome field house. Following consideration of various design features and criteria for the physical education facility, a comprehensive analysis is given of comparative costs of a geodesic dome field house and conventional gymnasium. On the basis of the study it would…

  5. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one's peers, the current study aimed to determine whether the relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction would be stronger for those exposed to social media images, compared to conventional media images. A sample of 193 female first year university students were randomly allocated to view a series of either Facebook or conventional media thin-ideal images. Participants completed questionnaires assessing pre- and post- image exposure measures of thin-ideal internalisation, appearance comparison, self-esteem, Facebook use and eating disorder risk. Type of exposure was not found to moderate the relationship between appearance comparison and changes in body image dissatisfaction. When analysed according to exposure type, appearance comparison only significantly predicted body image dissatisfaction change for those exposed to Facebook, but not conventional media. Facebook use was found to predict higher baseline body image dissatisfaction and was associated with higher eating disorder risk. The findings suggest the importance of extending the body image dissatisfaction literature by taking into account emerging social media formats. It is recommended that interventions for body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders consider appearance comparison processes elicited by thin-ideal content on social media forums, such as Facebook, in addition to conventional media.

  6. Comparative study of mesothelioma and asbestosis using computed tomography and conventional chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, T.G.; Efremidis, S.C.; Cohen, B.; Dan, S.; Efremidis, A.; Chahinian, A.P.; Teirstein, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study using computed tomography and conventional posteroanterior radiography was performed on 27 patients with mesothelioma and 13 patients with advanced asbestosis. The major pathologic features of both asbestosis and mesothelioma were well demonstrated by both modalities; computed tomography demonstrated the findings more frequently and in greater detail. No distinguishing features could be established based on configuration and size of the lesion. Many pleural plaques associated with advanced asbestosis were large and irregular and resembled those associated with mesothelioma. However, nodular involvement of the pleural fissures, pleural effusion, and ipsilateral volume loss with a fixed mediastinum were features predominating in mesothelioma. Growth determination of the plaques associated with asbestosis may be of minimal value since such plaques also undergo growth due to active inflammatory changes

  7. Comparative study on conventional, ultrasonication and microwave assisted extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Pradyuman; Panesar, Paramjeet Singh; Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Mishra, Diwaker; Chopra, H K

    2016-04-01

    In present study, conventional, ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction methods were compared with the aim of optimizing best fitting solvent and method, solvent concentration and digestion time for high yield of γ-oryzanol from rice bran. Petroleum ether, hexane and methanol were used to prepare extracts. Extraction yield were evaluated for giving high crude oil yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and γ-oryzanol content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry was used for the determination of γ-oryzanol concentration. The highest concentration of γ-oryzanol was detected in methanolic extracts of microwave treatment (85.0 ppm) followed by ultrasonication (82.0 ppm) and conventional extraction method (73.5 ppm). Concentration of γ-oryzanol present in the extracts was found to be directly proportional to the total phenolic content. A combination of 80 % methanolic concentration and 55 minutes digestion time of microwave treatment yielded the best extraction method for TPC and thus γ-oryzanol (105 ppm).

  8. [A comparative study of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of fungemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Axel Rodolfo; Hernández, Betsy; Rodríguez, Marina; Romero, Hilda

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique. Out of 450 blood specimens received in one year, 100 where chosen for this comparative study: 60 from patients with AIDS, 15 from leukemic patients, ten from febrile neutropenic patients, five from patients with respiratory infections, five from diabetics and five from septicemic patients. The specimens were processed, simultaneously, according to the above mentioned methodologies with daily inspections searching for fungal growth in order to obtain the final identification of the causative agent. The number (40) of isolates recovered was the same using both methods, which included; 18 Candida albicans (45%), ten Candida spp. (25%), ten Histoplasma capsulatum (25%), and two Cryptococcus neoformans (5%). When the fungal growth time was compared by both methods, growth was more rapid when using the modified lysis/centrifugation technique than when using the conventional method. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (pcentrifugation technique showed to be more efficacious than the conventional one, and therefore the implementation of this methodology is highly recommended for the isolation of fungi from blood.

  9. Comparative clinical evaluation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator over conventional local anesthesia in children seeking dental procedures: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Varadharaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the effectiveness of pain control by employing transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS over conventional injectable local anesthesia for children requiring restorative procedures under rubber dam. Materials and Methods: The study design considered was the split mouth design, in experiment (right side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under TENS and in control (left side, dental procedures under rubber dam was performed under conventional injectable local anesthetic (LA. The level of comfort and discomfort experienced during TENS and conventional LA was determined using visual analog scale (VAS and heart rate. Result: Increase in mean heart rate associated with TENS (0.78% was significantly less compared to increase in heart rate with administration of conventional local anesthesia (11.78%. In VAS, the mean values for pain indicate that minimum pain was felt with TENS, which was closely followed by LA. Conclusion: TENS can offer many safer and psychological advantages and is a valuable alternative to conventional LA for children.

  10. A novel, ring-connected stent versus conventional GI stents: comparative study of physical properties and migration rates in a canine colon obstruction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Suk; Choo, In Wook; Seo, Soowon; Hyun, Dongho; Lim, Sooyoun; Kim, Jae J; Hong, Saet-Byul; Min, Byung-Hoon; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki

    2015-01-01

    Migration of stents is one of the most common adverse events in covered stent placement in GI tract obstruction. To compare physical property and migration rates in a canine colon obstruction model among a novel stent and conventional stents. Comparative physical test and animal study. Medical device testing laboratory and animal laboratory. Mongrel dogs (N=26). Surgical colon obstruction followed by placement of a novel (n=13) or conventional (n=13) stent. Physical properties, migration, and adverse events. The novel stent showed better flexibility, as in a physical test of longitudinal compressibility and axial force, than did conventional stents, and it withstood the fatigue test for 10 days. In terms of radial force and tensile strength, the novel stent showed the same or better results than conventional stents. In a canine colon obstruction model, the migration rate of a novel stent was significantly lower than that of a conventional stent (2/13, 15.4% vs 8/13, 61.5%; P=.008). Animal study of limited size. The novel, ring-connected stent is more flexible and more resistant to migration than the conventional stents. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Clinical Study of Conventional Dental Implants and Mini Dental Implants for Mandibular Overdentures: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunmeungtong, Weerapan; Kumchai, Thongnard; Strietzel, Frank P; Reichart, Peter A; Khongkhunthian, Pathawee

    2017-04-01

    Dental implant-retained overdentures have been chosen as the treatment of choice for complete mandibular removable dentures. Dental implants, such as mini dental implants, and components for retaining overdentures, are commercially available. However, comparative clinical studies comparing mini dental implants and conventional dental implants using different attachment for implant-retained overdentures have not been well documented. To compare the clinical outcomes of using two mini dental implants with Equator ® attachments, four mini dental implants with Equator attachments, or two conventional dental implants with ball attachments, by means of a randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients received implant-retained mandibular overdentures in the interforaminal region. The patients were divided into three groups. In Groups 1 and 2, two and four mini dental implants, respectively, were placed and immediately loaded by overdentures, using Equator ® attachments. In Group 3, conventional implants were placed. After osseointegration, the implants were loaded by overdentures, using ball attachments. The study distribution was randomized and double-blinded. Outcome measures included changes in radiological peri-implant bone level from surgery to 12 months postinsertion, prosthodontic complications and patient satisfaction. The cumulative survival rate in the three clinical groups after one year was 100%. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in clinical results regarding the number (two or four) of mini dental implants with Equator attachments. However, there was a significant difference in marginal bone loss and patient satisfaction between those receiving mini dental implants with Equator attachments and conventional dental implants with ball attachments. The marginal bone resorption in Group 3 was significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05); there were no significant differences between Groups 1 and 2. There was no significant difference in

  12. Comparative study of the performance of conventional and column flotation when treating coking coal fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, M.S.; Biswal, S.K.; Das, S.P.; Reddy, P.S.R. [Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar - 751 013 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Investigations were carried out on coking coal fines by conventional cell and column flotation techniques. The effects of different operating parameters were evaluated for both conventional and column flotation. The coal fines were collected from Bhojudih washery, India. These coal fines averaged 24.4% ash, 19.8% volatile matter and 53.8% fixed carbon on a dry basis. A commercial grade sodium silicate, light diesel oil and pine oil were used as depressant, collector and frother respectively. The flotation performance was compared with release analysis. The conventional flotation results indicated that a clean coal with 14.4% ash could be obtained at 78.0% yield with 88.4% combustible recovery. The ash of the clean coal could be further reduced to 10.1% at 72.0% yield with 85.6% combustible recovery by using column flotation. The column flotation results were close to those obtained by release analysis. (author)

  13. CORE STABILIZATION PROGRAM AND CONVENTIONAL EXERCISES IN THE PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Venkata Naga Prahalada Karnati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional back care exercises are advocated to treat the pain and to strengthen the involved muscles. There will always be the possibility of the pain getting recurred due to disproportionate balance and stability in the muscles. The core stabilization is major trend in rehabilitation. It aims at improving stability during functional activities, balance, flexibility, strength training and effectively manage the pain as well. Methods: Forty patients with chronic Mechanical Low back pain were randomly assigned into control group that received conventional back exercises and SWD (n=20, experimental group received core stabilization and SWD (n=20. Both the groups received SWD, along with conventional back exercises for one-group and core stabilization for the other group 3 days a week for 6 weeks .The treatment outcome was assessed using visual analogue scale, Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Lumbar range of motion by using goniometer. Results: After a 6 week training period the core stabilization group scored significantly higher than the conventional group for VAS (p=0.05 and RMDQ (p=0.05 where as ROM improved higher in conventional group (p=0.05 Conclusion: After the treatment sessions Core stabilization group registered a significant improvement when compared to conventional back care exercises in improving function and in relieving pain.

  14. Comparative study of heat transfer and wetting behaviour of conventional and bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Peter; Prabhu, K. Narayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar 575 025 Mangalore, Karnataka State (India)

    2008-02-15

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils as bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment. The study involved the assessment of the severity of quenching and wetting behaviour of conventional and vegetable oil quench media. Quench severities of sunflower, coconut and palm oils were found to be greater than mineral oil. The quench severity of aqueous media is greater than oil media although their wettability is poor as indicated by their higher contact angles. A dimensionless contact angle parameter defined in this work is found to be a better parameter to compare the wetting behaviour with heat transfer. (author)

  15. Comparative study of dose estimation in the change a conventional mammography to digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Otero Martinez, C.; Soto Bua, M.; Santamarina Vazquez, F.; Carril Iglesias, S.; Lobato Busto, R.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Sueiro, J.; Sqanchez Garcia, M.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mammographic studies are now one of the most demanding radiological because of its effectiveness in detecting breast cancer early. The introduction of digital mammography has been a major advance because it has overcome some of the limitations of conventional systems. Due to the nature of the radiosensitive glandular tissue becomes very important control of the dose given to patients. In the present study is to analyze the variations in dosimetry that can exist between a conventional mammography and digital mammography.

  16. Comparative study of the effects of photodynamic therapy and conventional therapy on ligature induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayek, Ricardo Rada Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Progressive peri-implanter bone losses, which are accompanied by inflammatory process in the soft tissues is referred to as peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of lethal photosensitisation with the conventional technique on bacterial reduction in ligature induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Seventeen third pre-molars of Labrador dogs were extracted and, immediately after, the implants were submerged. After osteointegration, peri-implantitis was induced. After 4 months, ligature were removed and the same period was waited for natural induction of bacterial plaque. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional group, they were treated with the conventional techniques of mucoperiosteal flaps for scaling the implant surface and irrigate it. In the laser group, only mucoperiosteal scaling was carried out before photodynamic therapy. On the peri-implanter pocket an azulene paste was injected and a GaAlAs low-power laser (λ= 660 nm, P= 30 mW, E= 5,4 J and Δt= 3 min.). Microbiological samples were obtained before and immediately after treatment. One implant was removed to be analyzed by scan electron microscopy to verify contamination on the implant surface. The results of this study showed that Prevotella sp., Fusobacterium e S. Beta-haemolyticus were significantly reduced for the conventional and laser groups. (author)

  17. A prospective, split-mouth study comparing tilted implants with angulated connection versus conventional implants with angulated abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weehaeghe, Manú; De Bruyn, Hugo; Vandeweghe, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    An angulation of the implant connection could overcome the problems related to angulated abutments. This study compares conventional implants with angulated abutment to tilted implants with an angulated connection. Twenty patients were treated in the edentulous mandible. In the posterior jaw locations, one conventional tilted implant with angulated abutment and one angulated implant without abutment were placed. In the anterior jaw, two conventional implants were placed, one with and one without abutment. Implants were immediately loaded and 3 months later, the final bridge (PFM or monolithic zirconia) was placed. After a follow-up of 48 months, 17 patients were available for clinical examination. The mean overall marginal bone loss (MBL) was 1.26 mm. No significant differences in implant survival, MBL, periodontal indices, patients' satisfaction, or complications was found between implants restored on abutment or implant level, between the posteriorly located angulated implant nor angulated abutment, and between both anterior implants with or without abutment. The posterior implants demonstrated less MBL compared to the anterior implants (P abutment were replaced and four loose bridge screws connected to the angulated abutments had to be tightened. Patients were overall satisfied (4.74/5). An implant with angulated connection may results in a stronger connection but does not affect the marginal bone loss. No difference in MBL was seen between implants restored on abutment or implant level. Zirconia seems to reduce the amount of plaque. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE AMOUNT OF ASTIGMATISM FOLLOWING CONVENTIONAL EXTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION AND MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumari Bigyabati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cataract is the principal cause of avoidable blindness in India and throughout the world. Surgical removal of the cataractous lens remains the only effective treatment for management of cataract blindness. The success of cataract surgery is determined by best and earliest visual recovery. But the occurrence of postoperative astigmatism has become a major hurdle in achieving this goal. AIMS The study was designed to compare the amount of astigmatism following conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE and manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in 100 eyes of 75 patients aged between 50 and 80 years admitted for cataract surgery. Out of these, 50 eyes were operated by conventional extracapsular cataract extraction and 50 eyes by manual small incision cataract surgery. The patients were followed up at 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th and 8 th weeks. At each follow-up visual acuity, refraction and acceptance and keratometry were recorded and the findings analysed for astigmatism. RESULTS In the current study, the mean (SD astigmatism developed at the end of the 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th of follow-up was significantly lower in the SICS group as compared to the ECCE group (P<0.000. At the end of 8 weeks of follow-up, the mean (SD astigmatism of the SICS group was 0.64±0.56 D as compared to the mean (SD of the ECCE group of 1.39±86 D and the difference was found to be significant (p<0.014. CONCLUSION The current study concludes that manual small incision cataract surgery is a better technique to control postoperative astigmatism than conventional extracapsular cataract extraction.

  20. Conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorption cavities and also to evaluate whether the detectability was influenced by resorption cavity sizes. Methods : Thirty-two selected teeth from human dentate mandibles were radiographed in orthoradial, mesioradial and distoradial aspect using conventional film (Insight Kodak F-speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY and a digital sensor (Trophy RVG advanced imaging system with 0.7mm and 1.0mm deep cavities prepared on their vestibular, mesial and distal surfaces at the cervical, middle and apical thirds. Three dental professionals, an endodontist, a radiologist and a general practitioner, evaluated the images twice with a one-week time interval. Results : No statistical significance was seen in the first observation for both conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions and for small and medium cavities but statistical difference was noted in the second observation (P< 0.001 for both the methods. Conclusion : Considering the methodology and the overall results, conventional radiographic method (F-speed performed slightly better than the digital radiographic method in the detection of simulated radiographic method but better consistency was seen with the digital system. Overall size of the resorption cavity had no influence on the performance of both methods and suggests that initial external root resorption lesion is not well-appreciated with both the methods as compared to the advanced lesion.

  1. Comparative studies on conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) procedures for extraction and chemical characterization of pectin from peel waste of mango cultivar chaunsa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, S.; Saeed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Pectin, a naturally occurring heteropolysaccharide, is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its gelling and stabilizing properties. During the present study pectin was extracted from peel of mango (cultivar Chaunsa) using conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) methods. In conventional method, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, or HCl was used under variable conditions of pH (2.0, 2.5, 3.0), temperature (70, 80, 90, 100 degree C), duration of extraction (30, 60, 90, 120 min), and solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol). Maximum yield of 16.6 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained with HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5, 90 degree C, 90 min extraction, and ethanol. Whereas in non-conventional method, ultrasonication was used for different time intervals (10, 20, 40 min) using HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5 and 90 degree C. Maximum yield of 15.8 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained by this method in 20 min. Pectin extracted by the above two methods was found to be of high quality as was determined in respect of methoxyl and galacturonic acid contents, degree of esterification, equivalent weight, and FTIR spectra. Extraction of pectin from mango peel by employing non-conventional method (ultrasonication) was observed to be an energy efficient method due to its less extraction time (20 min as compared to 90 min in conventional method) suggesting its suitability on commercial scale for the extraction of pectin from mango and other available fruit peel wastes. (author)

  2. Single site and conventional totally extraperitoneal techniques for uncomplicated inguinal hernia repair: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Felipe Brandão Corrêa; Starling, Eduardo Simão; Maricevich, Marco; Tobias-Machado, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of endoscopic extraperitoneal single site (EESS) inguinal hernia repair and compare it outcomes with the conventional totally extraperitoneal (TEP) technique. TEP inguinal hernia repair is a widely accepted alternative to conventional open technique with several perioperative advantages. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic singlesite surgery (LESS) is an emerging approach and has been reported for a number of surgical procedures with superior aesthetic results but other advantages need to be proven. Thirty-eight uncomplicated inguinal hernias were repaired by EESS approach between January 2010 and January 2011. All procedures were performed through a 25 cm infraumbilical incision using the Alexis wound retractor attached to a surgical glove and three trocars. Body mass index, age, operative time, blood loss, complications, conversion rate, analgesia requirement, hospital stay, return to normal activities and patient satisfaction with aesthetic results were analysed and compared with the last 38 matched-pair group of patients who underwent a conventional TEP inguinal hernia repair by the same surgeon. All procedures were performed successfully with no conversion. In both unilateral and bilateral EESS inguinal repairs, the mean operative time was longer than conventional TEP (55± 20 vs. 40± 15 min, P = 0.049 and 70± 15 vs. 55± 10 min, P = 0.014). Aesthetic result was superior in the EESS group (2.88± 0.43 vs. 2.79± 0.51, P = 0.042). There was no difference between the two approaches regarding blood loss, complications, hospital stay, time until returns to normal activities and analgesic requirement. EESS inguinal hernia repair is safe and effective, with superior cosmetic results in the treatment of uncomplicated inguinal hernias. Other advantages of this new technique still need to be proven.

  3. Familiarity Vs Trust: A Comparative Study of Domain Scientists' Trust in Visual Analytics and Conventional Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aritra; Lee, Joon-Yong; Wilson, Ryan; Lafrance, Robert A; Cramer, Nick; Cook, Kristin; Payne, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Combining interactive visualization with automated analytical methods like statistics and data mining facilitates data-driven discovery. These visual analytic methods are beginning to be instantiated within mixed-initiative systems, where humans and machines collaboratively influence evidence-gathering and decision-making. But an open research question is that, when domain experts analyze their data, can they completely trust the outputs and operations on the machine-side? Visualization potentially leads to a transparent analysis process, but do domain experts always trust what they see? To address these questions, we present results from the design and evaluation of a mixed-initiative, visual analytics system for biologists, focusing on analyzing the relationships between familiarity of an analysis medium and domain experts' trust. We propose a trust-augmented design of the visual analytics system, that explicitly takes into account domain-specific tasks, conventions, and preferences. For evaluating the system, we present the results of a controlled user study with 34 biologists where we compare the variation of the level of trust across conventional and visual analytic mediums and explore the influence of familiarity and task complexity on trust. We find that despite being unfamiliar with a visual analytic medium, scientists seem to have an average level of trust that is comparable with the same in conventional analysis medium. In fact, for complex sense-making tasks, we find that the visual analytic system is able to inspire greater trust than other mediums. We summarize the implications of our findings with directions for future research on trustworthiness of visual analytic systems.

  4. Comparative effects of Facebook and conventional media on body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Rachel; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background Appearance comparison has consistently been shown to engender body image dissatisfaction. To date, most studies have demonstrated this relationship between appearance comparison and body image dissatisfaction in the context of conventional media images depicting the thin-ideal. Social comparison theory posits that people are more likely to compare themselves to similar others. Since social media forums such as Facebook involve one?s peers, the current study aimed to determine wheth...

  5. Comparative Study of Communication Error between Conventional and Digital MCR Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this regard, the appropriate communication is directly related to the efficient and safe system operation, and inappropriate communication is one of the main causes of the accidents in various industries since inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants. According to the study conducted by Y. Hirotsu in 2001, about 25 percents of human error caused incidents in NPPs were related to communication issues. Also, other studies were reported that 85 percents of human error caused incidents in aviation industry and 92 percents in railway industry were related to communication problems. Accordingly, the importance of the efforts for reducing inappropriate communications has been emphasized in order to enhance the safety of pre-described systems. As a result, the average ratio of inappropriate communication in digital MCRs was slightly higher than that in conventional MCRs when the average ratio of no communication in digital MCRs was much smaller than that in conventional MCRs. Regarding the average ratio of inappropriate communication, it can be inferred that operators are still more familiar to the conventional MCRs than digital MCRs. More case studies are required for more delicate comparison since there were only three examined cases for digital MCRs. However, similar result is expected because there are no differences in communication method, although there are many differences in the way of procedure proceeding.

  6. Comparative Analysis Between Computed and Conventional Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Gabriela Madeira; Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; Dias, Tasiana Guedes de Souza; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Vasconcellos, Ricardo José de Holanda; de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to compare the computed and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in symmetrically positioned inferior third molars. Both computed and conventional anesthetic techniques were performed in 29 healthy patients (58 surgeries) aged between 18 and 40 years. The anesthetic of choice was 2% lidocaine with 1: 200,000 epinephrine. The Visual Analogue Scale assessed the pain variable after anesthetic infiltration. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the Likert Scale. Heart and respiratory rates, mean time to perform technique, and the need for additional anesthesia were also evaluated. Pain variable means were higher for the conventional technique as compared with computed, 3.45 ± 2.73 and 2.86 ± 1.96, respectively, but no statistically significant differences were found (P > 0.05). Patient satisfaction showed no statistically significant differences. The average computed technique runtime and the conventional were 3.85 and 1.61 minutes, respectively, showing statistically significant differences (P <0.001). The computed anesthetic technique showed lower mean pain perception, but did not show statistically significant differences when contrasted to the conventional technique.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Conventional and Accelerated Castings on Marginal Fit and Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Vivek Dattatray; Motwani, Bhagwan K.; Shinde, Jitendra; Adhapure, Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal fit and surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by a conventional and an accelerated casting technique. Settings and Design: This study was divided into three parts. In Part I, the marginal fit of full metal crowns made by both casting techniques in the vertical direction was checked, in Part II, the fit of sectional metal crowns in the horizontal direction made by both casting techniques was checked, and in Part III, the surface roughness of disc-shaped metal plate specimens made by both casting techniques was checked. Materials and Methods: A conventional technique was compared with an accelerated technique. In Part I of the study, the marginal fit of the full metal crowns as well as in Part II, the horizontal fit of sectional metal crowns made by both casting techniques was determined, and in Part III, the surface roughness of castings made with the same techniques was compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The results of the t-test and independent sample test do not indicate statistically significant differences in the marginal discrepancy detected between the two casting techniques. Results: For the marginal discrepancy and surface roughness, crowns fabricated with the accelerated technique were significantly different from those fabricated with the conventional technique. Conclusions: Accelerated casting technique showed quite satisfactory results, but the conventional technique was superior in terms of marginal fit and surface roughness. PMID:29042726

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN JOINT MOBILIZATION AND CONVENTIONAL PHYSIOTHERAPY IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (O.A. is an active disease process involving articular cartilage destruction, subchondral bone thickening and new bone formation. Worldwide osteoarthritis is estimated to be the fourth leading cause of disability, in which 10% are males and 13% are females. Studies from china, Bangladesh and Pakistan have shown high prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. Pharmacological interventions, surgical procedures and Physiotherapy management play important role in knee Osteoarthritis. In Physiotherapy management of osteoarthritis, manual therapy along with thermotherapy and/or electrotherapy is used. Current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of joint mobilization in knee osteo-arthritis. Methods: Comparative study was undertaken on 50 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who were randomly assigned to one of two groups that received Joint mobilization alone (n = 25; mean age, 53 years or Conventional Physiotherapy (n = 25; mean age, 50 years.Both groups were received their programs for 8 weeks; two sessions per week. Analysis of data within group and between groups of the pre and post treatment values of the function and pain was done using pair t test and independent t test. Results: Both groups showed significant improvement in ISOA score and VAS. There was statistical significant difference between the two groups (Group A and B i.e. p < 0.005. Conclusion: Manual joint mobilization improves the effectiveness of the treatment program in treating symptoms of knee OA and improves function in elderly people with knee OA.

  9. Advantages of laparoscopic compared to conventional surgery are not related to an innate immune response of peritoneal immune activation: an animal study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingohr, Philipp; Dohmen, Jonas; Matthaei, Hanno; Schwandt, Timo; Stein, Kathy; Hong, Gun-Soo; Steitz, Julia; Longerich, Thomas; Bölke, Edwin; Wehner, Sven; Kalff, Jörg C

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery (LS) has proved superior compared to conventional surgery (CS) regarding morbidity, length of hospital stay, rate of wound infection and time until recovery. An improved preservation of the postoperative immune function is assumed to contribute to these benefits though the role of the local peritoneal immune response is still poorly understood. Our study investigates the peritoneal immune response subsequent to abdominal surgery and compares it between laparoscopic and conventional surgery to find an immunological explanation for the clinically proven benefits of LS. Wistar rats (N = 140) underwent laparoscopic cecum resection (LCR; N = 28), conventional cecum resection (CCR; N = 28), laparoscopic sham operation (LSO; N = 28), conventional sham operation (CSO; N = 28), or no surgical treatment (CTRL; N = 28). Postoperatively, peritoneal lavages were performed, leukocytes isolated and analyzed regarding immune function and phagocytosis activity. Immune function was inhibited postoperatively in animals undergoing LCR or CCR compared to CTRL reflected by a lower TNF-α (CTRL 3956.65 pg/ml, LCR 2018.48 pg/ml (p = 0.023), CCR 2793.78 pg/ml (n.s.)) and IL-6 secretion (CTRL 625.84 pg/ml, LCR 142.84 pg/ml (p = 0.009), CCR 169.53 pg/ml (p = 0.01)). Phagocytosis was not affected in rats undergoing any kind of surgery compared to CTRL. Neither cytokine secretion nor phagocytosis activity differed significantly between laparoscopic and conventional surgery. According to our findings the benefits associated with LS compared to CS cannot be explained by differences in the postoperative peritoneal innate immune response. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causes for a more favorable postoperative outcome in patients after LS compared to CS.

  10. Comparing organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Mátyás

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil management has great potential to affect soil respiration. In this study, we investigated the effects of organic versus conventional soil management on soil respiration.  We measured the main soil physical-chemical properties from conventional and organic managed soil in Ecuador. Soil respiration was determined using alkaline absorption according to Witkamp.  Soil properties such as organic matter, nitrogen, and humidity, were comparable between conventional and organic soils in the present study, and in a further analysis there was no statically significant correlation with soil respiration. Therefore, even though organic farmers tend to apply more organic material to their fields, but this did not result in a significantly higher CO2 production in their soils in the present study.

  11. [Conventional radiology, digital radiology with photostimulable phosphor, laser digitalization of thoracic radiographic films at the bedside. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M; Stamati, R; Burci, P; Guidarelli, G; Sartoni Galloni, S

    1992-10-01

    The bedside chest images obtained with conventional radiology and with "on line" and "off line" digital modalities were compared to evaluate the respective capabilities in visualizing chest anatomical structures. Seventy patients were submitted to bedside chest examinations with a portable unit; both a conventional film and a digital system (PCR Graphics 1, Philips) with photostimulable phosphor imaging plate were fitted in the radiographic cassette. The former was digitized using an "off line" laser beam unit (FD 2000, Dupont); the latter was subsequently postprocessed by modifying contrast, optical density and spatial frequencies. Thus, 4 different viewing modalities were obtained for each examination: a) conventional radiography; b) standard digital radiography; c) postprocessed digital radiography; d) digitized conventional radiography. Detectability rates of chest anatomical structures were analyzed by 4 independent radiologists on the different images and expressed by a score 1-4. The values were always higher with digital modalities than with the conventional one and the differences were statistically significant (Student's t-test modified by Bonferroni). In particular, the greatest difference was found between c) and a) in retrocardiac lung parenchyma and in skeletal structures, in favour of c). Concerning the comparative adequacy of the various digital modalities, higher detectability rates of chest anatomical structures were obtained with c), but also with b), than with d).

  12. Infliximab effects compared to conventional therapy in the management of retinal vasculitis in Behçet disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Hemidan, Amal I

    2008-12-01

    To assess the outcome of retinal vasculitis in patients with Behçet disease treated with infliximab compared to treatment with conventional therapy. Nonrandomized, retrospective comparative clinical study. Patients with Behçet disease with all four major criteria were included in this study. Patients had recurrent episodes of uveitis and retinal vasculitis. Thirty-three patients (Group 1) were treated with oral prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine or methotrexate for a minimum period of three months. Ten patients (Group 2) who failed to respond to conventional therapy were given infliximab at a dose of 5 mg/kg in a single intravenous infusion on day 1 and every two weeks for a total of six doses. Patients were given the same treatment during each subsequent relapse. The main outcome measures were the number of relapses, visual outcome, and ocular complications. The mean follow-up period was 36 months in Group 1 and 30 months in Group 2. The mean number of relapses was significantly reduced and the duration of remission was longer in the infliximab therapy group compared to conventional therapy group (P < .0001). The visual acuity at 24 months follow-up was significantly better in patients treated with infliximab (Group 2) when compared to conventional therapy (Group 1) (P = .0059). Patients with Behçet disease had significant decrease in inflammation, improvement of visual acuity, and reduced ocular complications following infliximab when compared to conventional therapy. The number of relapses was less in the infliximab treatment group than the conventional therapy group.

  13. Comparative study of the friction and wear behavior of plasma sprayed conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings on stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoqin; Zhou Huidi; Chen Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate using air plasma spraying. The hardness of the coatings was measured, while their friction and wear behavior sliding against Si 3 N 4 at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 400 deg. C was comparatively studied. The microstructures and worn surface morphologies of the coatings were comparatively analyzed as well by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). It was found that the as-sprayed WC-12%Co coatings were composed of WC as the major phase and W 2 C, WC 1-x , and W 3 Co 3 C as the minor phases. The plasma sprayed nanostructured WC-12%Co coating had much higher hardness and refined microstructures than the conventional WC-12%Co coating. This largely accounted for the better wear resistance of the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating than the conventional coating. Besides, the two types of WC-12%Co coatings showed minor differences in friction coefficients, though the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating roughly had slightly smaller friction coefficient than the conventional coating under the same sliding condition. Moreover, both the conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings recorded gradually increased wear rate with increasing temperature, and the nanostructured coating was less sensitive to the temperature rise in terms of the wear resistance. The worn surfaces of the conventional WC-12%Co coating at different sliding conditions showed more severe adhesion, microfracture, and peeling as compared to the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating, which well conformed to the corresponding wear resistance of the two types of coatings. The nanostructured WC-12%Co coating with a wear rate as small as 1.01 x 10 -7 mm 3 /Nm at 400 deg. C could be promising candidate coating for the surface-modification of some sliding components subject to harsh working conditions involving elevated

  14. A study on some welfare-related parameters of hDAF transgenic pigs when compared with their conventional close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Stancampiano, L; Govoni, N; Zannoni, A; Nannoni, E; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2014-05-01

    Pigs are increasingly used in medical research as transgenic laboratory animals; however, little knowledge is presently available concerning their welfare assessment. The aim of the present study was to investigate some welfare-related parameters of transgenic pigs intended for xenotrasplantation (human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF)) when compared with their conventional (i.e. not transgenic) close relatives (full sibs and half sibs). A total of 14 Large White female transgenic pigs and 10 female non-transgenic (conventional) pigs from four litters were used. All pigs were from the same conventional boar, donor of the semen treated for sperm-mediated gene transfer. During the experiment, BW ranged from 50 to about 80 kg and pigs were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Animals were subjected to a set of behavioural tests: a human approach test (HAT), a novel object test (NOT) and an open-door test (ODT). Food preferences were tested through the offer of different foods (banana, apple, carrot, cracker and lemon). During a 4-day period, pigs were diurnally videotaped to study the prevalence of the different behaviours and social interactions (aggressive and non-aggressive interactions). At the end of the trial, cortisol level had been assessed on bristles. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between hDAF transgenic and conventional pigs with respect to growth traits, reactivity towards unexpected situations (HAT, NOT, ODT), food preferences, main behavioural traits, social interactions and hair cortisol.

  15. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of stroke units in France compared with conventional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, R; Giroud, M; Mégnigbêto, A C; Le Lay, K; Présenté, G; Mahagne, M H; Durand, I; Gaudin, A F

    2004-03-01

    The incidence of stroke in France is estimated at between 120 000 and 150 000 cases per year. This modeling study assessed the clinical and economic benefits of establishing specialized stroke units compared with conventional care. Data from the Dijon stroke registry were used to determine healthcare trajectories according to the degree of autonomy and organization of patient care. The relative risks of death or institutionalization or death or dependence after passage through a stroke unit were compared with conventional care. These risks were then inserted with the costing data into a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of stroke units. Patients cared for in a stroke unit survive more trimesters without sequelae in the 5 years after hospitalization than those cared for conventionally (11.6 versus 8.28 trimesters). The mean cost per patient at 5 years was estimated at 30 983 for conventional care and 34 638 in a stroke unit. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for stroke units of 1359 per year of life gained without disability was estimated. The cost-effectiveness ratio for stroke units is much lower than the threshold (53 400 ) of acceptability recognized by the international scientific community. This finding justifies organizational changes in the management of stroke patients and the establishment of stroke units in France.

  16. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  17. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional quality of MR-compatible automatic biopsy guns compared with conventional ferromagnetic biopsy systems. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, H.J.; Landwehr, P.

    2001-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of specimens obtained with different MR-compatible biopsy systems and a conventional ferromagnetic system. Methods: Biopsies of a pig liver were performed post-mortem with three different MR-compatible (Somatex; E-Z-EM; Daum) and one conventional biopsy system (Somatex), five with each device. The specimens were measured and the histopathological quality was graded on a scale from 0 (no tissue) to 9 (best). The tip of the needle was examined with an electron microscope before and after biopsy to demonstrate abrasion. Results: The histopathological score between the first and fifth specimen taken with one biopsy device showed no significant difference. The conventional system yielded significantly better results in nearly all categories (p 2 ) were significantly smaller than those from the conventional system (9.98 mm 2 ). The needle tip abrasion of the different biopsy systems determined by electron microscopy showed no substantial difference. (orig.) [de

  19. Comparative effects of enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere therapy after conventional and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Borm, J. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; Hofmann, A. F.; de Goeij, J. J.; van Royen, E. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; de Wit, L. T.; Gouma, D. J.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A comparative study was performed between patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after conventional pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). In these patients the pharmacodynamics of 2-mm enteric-coated pancreatin

  20. Post mortem magnetic resonance imaging in the fetus, infant and child: A comparative study with conventional autopsy (MaRIAS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayyil Sudhin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimally invasive autopsy by post mortem magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been suggested as an alternative for conventional autopsy in view of the declining consented autopsy rates. However, large prospective studies rigorously evaluating the accuracy of such an approach are lacking. We intend to compare the accuracy of a minimally invasive autopsy approach using post mortem MR imaging with that of conventional autopsy in fetuses, newborns and children for detection of the major pathological abnormalities and/or determination of the cause of death. Methods/Design We recruited 400 consecutive fetuses, newborns and children referred for conventional autopsy to one of the two participating hospitals over a three-year period. We acquired whole body post mortem MR imaging using a 1.5 T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions, Enlargen, Germany prior to autopsy. The total scan time varied between 90 to 120 minutes. Each MR image was reported by a team of four specialist radiologists (paediatric neuroradiology, paediatric cardiology, paediatric chest & abdominal imaging and musculoskeletal imaging, blinded to the autopsy data. Conventional autopsy was performed according to the guidelines set down by the Royal College of Pathologists (UK by experienced paediatric or perinatal pathologists, blinded to the MR data. The MR and autopsy data were recorded using predefined categorical variables by an independent person. Discussion Using conventional post mortem as the gold standard comparator, the MR images will be assessed for accuracy of the anatomical morphology, associated lesions, clinical usefulness of information and determination of the cause of death. The sensitivities, specificities and predictive values of post mortem MR alone and MR imaging along with other minimally invasive post mortem investigations will be presented for the final diagnosis, broad diagnostic categories and for specific diagnosis of each system

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Conventional Rote Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...

  2. A comparative study of modified transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy versus conventional transcanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Eduardo Damous; Caixeta, Juliana Alves; de Souza Nery, Ana Carla; Limongi, Roberto Murillo; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2017-08-01

    External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the gold standard surgical technique for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO). However, new techniques such as endoscopic DCR and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (T-DCR) are being studied in an attempt to reduce surgical time, avoid external scarring and preserve the lacrimal pump while achieving the same efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy between conventional T-DCR and modified transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy (MT-DCR) in patients with PANDO. MT-DCR is performed to remove nasal mucosa prior to laser osteotomy. This is a comparative, prospective, interventionist and randomized study. Patients with PANDO were selected to undergo MT-DCR or T-DCR by blocked randomization. PANDO was diagnosed based on clinical presentation, dye disappearance test and dacryocystography. All of the procedures were performed by the same surgery team members. Anatomical success outcome was defined as positive lacrimal syringing and functional success outcome was defined as the absence or improvement of epiphora. A total of 44 surgical procedures were performed (22 MT-DCR and 22 T-DCR). In the case of MT-DCR, the anatomical and functional success rates after 12 months were 90 and 86%, respectively. After T-DCR, these rates were 77 and 72%, respectively (p = 0.162). MT-DCR and T-DCR are both safe and fast procedures with low morbidity and well-tolerated.

  3. Comparative efficacy trial of cupping and serkangabin versus conventional therapy of migraine headaches: A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Mohammad Dehghani; Navabzadeh, Maryam; Roudsari, Mohammad Khodashenas; Zahmatkash, Mohsen

    2014-12-01

    Migraine headaches are the most common acute and recurrent headaches. Current treatment of a migraine headache consists of multiple medications for control and prevention of recurrent attacks. Global emergence of alternative medicine led us to examine the efficacy of cupping therapy plus serkangabin syrup in the treatment of migraine headaches. This study was a randomized, controlled, open-label, comparative efficacy trial. We randomly assigned patients with migraine into cupping therapy plus serkangabin group (30 patients) and conventional treatment group (30 patients). An investigator assessed the severity of headache, frequency of attacks in a week and duration of attacks per hour in 5 visits (at the end of 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months). Generalized estimating equations approach was used to analyze repeated measures data to compare outcomes in both groups. Average age for cupping therapy group and conventional treatment group were 31.7 (±7.6) and 32.6 (±12.7) years, respectively (P = 0.45). After treatment for 2 weeks; and 1, 3 and 6 months, severity of headache (P = 0.80), frequency of migraine attacks (P = 0.63) and duration of attacks per hours (P = 0.48) were similar in conventional and cupping groups but these symptoms were decreased in each group during the study (P cupping plus serkangabin therapy and conventional treatment in the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine. The alternative therapy may be used in cases of drug intolerance, no medication response, and in primary care.

  4. A Comparative Dosimetric Study of Adjuvant 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Operable Stomach Cancer Versus AP-PA Conventional Radiotherapy in NCI-Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hossiny, H.A.; Diab, N.A.; El-Taher, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare this multiple field conformal technique to the AP-PA technique with respect to target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with stages II-III denocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant postoperative chemoradiotherapy presented to radiotherapy department in National Cancer Institute, Cairo in period between February 2009 to March 2010 using 3D conformal radiotherapy technique that consisted of a mono isocentric arrangement employing 4-6 radiation fields. For each patient, a second radiotherapy treatment plan was done using an antroposterior (AP-PA) fields, the two techniques were then compared using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Results: Comparing different DVHs, it was found that the planning target volume (PTV) was adequately covered in both (3D and 2D) plans while the left kidney and spinal cord demonstrate lower radiation doses on using the conformal technique. The liver doses is higher in the 3D tecq, but still well below liver tolerance. Conclusions: Both 3D conformal radiotherapy and AP-PA conventional techniques doses are within range of normal tissues tolerance. Regarding the left kidney and spinal cord the 3D conformal radiotherapy is superior than the AP-PA conventional techniques but with higher doses to the liver in the 3D conformal radiotherapy compared to the AP-PA conventional techniques

  5. Comparative study of conventional US, contrast enhanced US and enhanced MR for the follow-up of prostatic radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Hu, Bin; Hu, Bing; Chen, Lei; Li, Jia; Huang, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different imaging methods during follow-up of prostatic radiofrequency ablation. Prostatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed in 20 healthy beagle dogs. Various imaging examinations were used to monitor the results of RFA, including conventional ultrasound (US), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and enhanced magnetic resonance (MR). Imaging exams were performed at five phases: Immediately following RFA, one week later, one month later, three months later and six months later. The morphology for each imaging test and histological results were recorded and compared in each phase. Based on the actual results from autopsy, the accuracy of those imaging exams was evaluated. The canine prostate gland demonstrated typical coagulative necrosis immediately following RFA. The lesion would develop into stable cyst if no other complications occurred within the six-month follow-up. Regarding the RFA lesion volume measurement and the reflection of pathological changes, conventional US was not able to accurately measure the volume of RFA lesion and missed many more details concerning the RFA-treated area than CEUS and MR during the three months. The results from CEUS exhibited comparable accuracy to those from enhanced MR at each phase. However, there were no significant differences in the results from US, CEUS and MR at six months, which may contribute to the complete formation of lesion cyst. In the early phase, conventional US was not sufficient for evaluating the efficacy of RFA. Enhanced US and MR provided clear images and accurate information. However, CEUS has the advantage of being more economical, using more convenient equipment and faster scanning, thus identifying it as the more feasible choice. Furthermore, no notable advantages were observed among any image examinations in the long-term follow-up.

  6. No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Seifert, Stephanie; Weibel, Franco P; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce. Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed. In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans. Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.

  7. Baby sleeping bag and conventional bedding conditions--comparative investigations by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng, W; Kerbl, R; Thaller, S; Hanzer, M; Zotter, H

    2011-09-01

    Thermal stress is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recently, baby sleeping bags have been recommended as a preventive measure against SIDS. The aim of this study was to describe in which way the use of baby sleeping bags might influence thermoregulation of sleeping infants and maybe the incidence of SIDS. Body surface temperature was recorded by use of infrared thermography in 15 infants (median age 49 days). Recordings were done twice: after sleeping for 60 min under a blanket and after sleeping for 60 min in a baby sleeping bag. Temperature was recorded and compared for defined sites of body surface. Infants' mean body surface temperature as well as core temperature after sleeping in a baby sleeping bag did not show significant differences when compared to infants sleeping under a conventional blanket. Under controlled conditions, core temperature and mean body surface temperature are comparable, equally if using a baby sleeping bag or conventional bedding. However, under the more uncontrolled conditions of baby care at home, sleeping bags might provide a more constant temperature profile, while other bedding conditions may lead to significant variations of temperature pattern. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Prospective, randomized comparative study between single-port laparoscopic appendectomy and conventional laparoscopic appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Mori, Rafael; Escoll Rufino, Jordi; Herrerías González, Fernando; Mias Carballal, M Carmen; Escartin Arias, Alfredo; Olsina Kissler, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy is probably the technique of choice in acute appendicitis. Single port laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has been proposed as an alternative technique. The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of SILS against conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). From January 2011 to September 2012, 120 patients with acute appendicitis were prospectively randomized; 60 for SILS and 60 for LA. Patients between 15 to 65 years were selected, with onset of symptoms less than 48h. We compared BMI, surgery time, start of oral intake, hospital stay, postoperative pain, pathology and costs. The median age, BMI, sex and time of onset of symptoms to diagnosis were similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the operative time, start of oral intake or hospital stay. There was a significant difference in postoperative pain being higher in SILS (4±1.3) than in LA (3.3±0.5) with a P=.004. Flemonous appendicitis predominated in both groups in a similar percentage. A total of 3 cases with intra-abdominal abscess (SILS 2, LA 1) required readmission and resolved spontaneously with intravenous antibiotic treatment. One case of SILS required assistance by a 5mm trocar in the RLC for drainage placement. The cost was higher in SILS due the single port device. SILS appendectomy is safe, effective and has similar results to LA in selected patients, and although the cost is greater, the long term results will determine the future of this technique. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of ionizing radiation on food, compared to the effects of conventional food treatment: A literature study. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, W.; Boegl, K.W.

    1987-08-01

    The extent and quality of changes due to irradiation is described and compared with conventional methods. Effects of radiation treatment on vegetable products as well as pork, beef, any type of fish and poultry product are compared with conventional thermic, micro-wave or smoke treatments, drying processes, ethylene oxide gas treatment, as well as effects from storage, temperature and sealed packaging. In this context the influences of the different treatment methods on various food components and on sensory, physical-chemical or biochemical characteristics were compared. The following tendencies were observed: conventional treatment methods produce partly more pronounced changes than irradiation with standard doses. Heat treatment, for instance, results in a greater weight loss, in altered sugar content, and in higher content of carbonyl and aldehyde releasing compounds. Gas treatment will cut the volatile oil content in half, while it remains nearly constant after irradiation. However, in some cases, an irradiation with standard doses may cause changes which should not be disregarded. In onions, for instance, irradiation is causing a stronger decomposition during storage than only cold storage. (orig./MG) [de

  10. The Cost-Effectiveness of Conventional Discectomy Compared to Other Surgical Techniques for Lumbar Disk Herniation. A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, May Tone; Ødegaard-Olsen, Øystein; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    Background: The current study reviews the literature on the cost-effectiveness of conventional diskectomy compared to other surgical techniques, by assessing studies with economical evaluation and studies using proxy measures of cost-effectiveness. Methods: In April 2016, a comprehensive search w...... studies. The available evidence, however, suggests that any cost-effectiveness difference between conventional diskectomy and the alternatives is unlikely to be great.......Background: The current study reviews the literature on the cost-effectiveness of conventional diskectomy compared to other surgical techniques, by assessing studies with economical evaluation and studies using proxy measures of cost-effectiveness. Methods: In April 2016, a comprehensive search......-four articles were included in the review, 9 retrieved from the original search, and an additional 15 from reference lists. Four studies included an economical evaluation and 20 reported proxy measures of cost-effectiveness. The quality of studies varied considerably and results were ambiguous; the four...

  11. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  12. Conventional frontal radiographs compared with frontal radiographs obtained from cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kilkis, Dogan; Sezgin, Omer Said

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between measurements performed on conventional frontal radiographs (FRs) and those performed on FRs obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This study consisted of conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs obtained from 30 young adult patients. Twenty-three landmarks were identified on both types of cephalometric radiographs. Twenty-one widely used cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 4 angles, and 3 ratios) were calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to compare the means of corresponding measurements on two cephalometric radiographs of the same patient. Reproducibility of measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.99 for CBCT-constructed FRs, and from 0.78 to 0.96 for conventional FRs. A statistically significant difference was observed between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for all linear measurements (eurR-eurL, loR-loL, moR-moL, zygR-zygL, lapR-lapL, mxR-mxL, maR-maL, umR-umL, lmR-lmL, agR-agL, me-ans) (P .05). However, no statistically significant differences were noted between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for ratios and angular measurements (P > .05). The hypothesis was rejected. A difference has been noted between measurements performed on conventional FRs and those performed on CBCT-constructed FRs, particularly in terms of linear measurements.

  13. A Comparative Dermal Microdialysis Study of Diclofenac QPS versus Conventional 1% Diclofenac Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar H. Maroo; Ketan R. Patel; Vipul Prajapati; Rajen Shah; Milind Bagul; Rakesh U. Ojha

    2013-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate penetration of diclofenac through skin after application of diclofenac 4 % quick penetrating solution (Dynapar QPS) versus conventional diclofenac 1% gel. In this 2 way crossover study, 6 male healthy human subjects were randomized to receive either 1 mg of diclofenac of the Dynapar QPS (25µl) or 1 mg of diclofenac from gel (100 mg) on to the marked area of the forearm three times daily for 3 days. On day 4, after 10th application, the dermal microdialysis w...

  14. Comparative efficacy trial of cupping and serkangabin versus conventional therapy of migraine headaches: A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani Firoozabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine headaches are the most common acute and recurrent headaches. Current treatment of a migraine headache consists of multiple medications for control and prevention of recurrent attacks. Global emergence of alternative medicine led us to examine the efficacy of cupping therapy plus serkangabin syrup in the treatment of migraine headaches. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, open-label, comparative efficacy trial. We randomly assigned patients with migraine into cupping therapy plus serkangabin group (30 patients and conventional treatment group (30 patients. An investigator assessed the severity of headache, frequency of attacks in a week and duration of attacks per hour in 5 visits (at the end of 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months. Generalized estimating equations approach was used to analyze repeated measures data to compare outcomes in both groups. Results: Average age for cupping therapy group and conventional treatment group were 31.7 (±7.6 and 32.6 (±12.7 years, respectively (P = 0.45. After treatment for 2 weeks; and 1, 3 and 6 months, severity of headache (P = 0.80, frequency of migraine attacks (P = 0.63 and duration of attacks per hours (P = 0.48 were similar in conventional and cupping groups but these symptoms were decreased in each group during the study (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between cupping plus serkangabin therapy and conventional treatment in the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine. The alternative therapy may be used in cases of drug intolerance, no medication response, and in primary care.

  15. Comparative evaluation of debris removal from root canal wall by using EndoVac and conventional needle irrigation: An in vitro study

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    Vandana J Gade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial control is of paramount importance in Clinical Endodontics. Therefore, cleaning and disinfection of root canals are essential to achieve endodontic success. Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle (30 gauges side venting needle irrigation for removal of debris from the root canal walls at coronal, middle and apical third by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Settings and Design: An in vitro randomized control trial study. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 mandibular premolars with completely formed roots were selected and randomly divided into two groups - Group 1: Irrigation with the Conventional system and Group 2: EndoVac irrigation. After access opening and working length determination biomechanical preparation completed up to a rotary protaper F4 file. Groupwise irrigation with sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was done with each canal in between instrumentation. Then, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and the halves were sputter-coated with gold palladium and coronal, middle and apical third were examined by SEM at x2000 magnification. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney test for comparison between methods, Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among thirds and Miller test for individual comparisons. Results: The apical, middle and cervical root canal thirds were evaluated and the results were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test for comparison between methods, Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among thirds and Miller test for individual comparisons. Conclusions: EndoVac group resulted in significantly less debris at apical third compared with the conventional needle irrigation group. There was no statistical significant difference found in debris removal at coronal and middle third of root canal wall between the EndoVac group and conventional needle irrigation group.

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia: comparative study between conventional-dose and low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine

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    Imbelloni LE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni1, Raphael Sant'Anna2, Marcos Fornasari2, José Carlos Fialho21Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medecine Nova Esperança, Hospital de Mangabeira, João Pessoa, 2Hospital Rio Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the advantages of causing less postoperative pain and requiring a short hospital stay, and therefore is the treatment of choice for cholelithiasis. This study was designed to compare spinal anesthesia using hyperbaric bupivacaine given as a conventional dose by lumbar puncture or as a low-dose by thoracic puncture.Methods: A total of 140 patients with symptomatic gallstone disease were randomized to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum under spinal anesthesia using either conventional lumbar spinal anesthesia (hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg and fentanyl 20 mg or low-dose thoracic spinal anesthesia (hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg and fentanyl 20 µg. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative pain, complications, recovery time, and patient satisfaction at follow-up were compared between the two treatment groups.Results: All procedures were completed under spinal anesthesia, with no cases needing conversion to general anesthesia. Values for time for block to reach the T3 dermatomal level, duration of motor and sensory block, and hypotensive events were significantly lower with low-dose bupivacaine. Postoperative pain was higher for low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine at 6 and 12 hours. All patients were discharged after 24 hours. Follow-up 1 week postoperatively showed all patients to be satisfied and to be keen advocates of spinal anesthesia.Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed successfully under spinal anesthesia. A small dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg and 20 µg fentanyl provides adequate spinal anesthesia for laparoscopy and, in comparison with hyperbaric bupivacaine 15% and fentanyl 20 µg, causes markedly

  17. A comparative evaluation of early stent occlusion among biliary conventional versus wing stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashab, Mouen A; Hutfless, Susan; Kim, Katherine; Lennon, Anne Marie; Canto, Marcia I; Jagannath, Sanjay B; Okolo, Patrick I; Shin, Eun Ji; Singh, Vikesh K

    2012-06-01

    Conventional plastic stents with a lumen typically have limited patency. The lumenless wing stent was engineered to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of early stent occlusion (symptomatic occlusion/cholangitis necessitating re-insertion within 90 days) for wing stents and conventional plastic stents. Patients with biliary pathology treated with plastic biliary stenting during the period 2003-2009 comprised the study cohort. Patients who had at least one biliary wing stent placed comprised the wing stent group, whereas patients who underwent only conventional stent plastic placement comprised the conventional stent group. Patients were stratified by indication: benign biliary strictures (group 1), malignant biliary strictures (group 2), or benign biliary non-stricture pathology (group 3). The association of stent type with the occurrence of primary outcome by indication was analyzed by use of multivariable logistic regression. Three-hundred and forty-six patients underwent 612 ERCP procedures with placement of plastic biliary stent(s). On multivariate analysis, early stent occlusion did not differ between the wing and conventional groups in groups 1, 2, and 3. Among patients who achieved primary outcome in group 2, significantly fewer patients in the wing group had cholangitis (6.7% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.03). Among patients who achieved primary outcome in group 3, significantly fewer patients in the wing group had cholangitis (10% vs. 50%, P = 0.03). Early stent occlusion was similar for wing stents and conventional plastic stents. Wing stents, however, were associated with a lower incidence of cholangitis in patients with malignant biliary obstruction and benign non-stricturing biliary pathology.

  18. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies comparing conventional, biological and surgical interventions for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Nadia; Dusheiko, Mark; Burnand, Bernard; Pittet, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease placing a large health and economic burden on health systems worldwide. The treatment landscape is complex with multiple strategies to induce and maintain remission while avoiding long-term complications. The extent to which rising treatment costs, due to expensive biologic agents, are offset by improved outcomes and fewer hospitalisations and surgeries needs to be evaluated. This systematic review aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies for IBD. A systematic literature search was performed in March 2017 to identify economic evaluations of pharmacological and surgical interventions, for adults diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were adjusted to reflect 2015 purchasing power parity (PPP). Risk of bias assessments and a narrative synthesis of individual study findings are presented. Forty-nine articles were included; 24 on CD and 25 on UC. Infliximab and adalimumab induction and maintenance treatments were cost-effective compared to standard care in patients with moderate or severe CD; however, in patients with conventional-drug refractory CD, fistulising CD and for maintenance of surgically-induced remission ICERs were above acceptable cost-effectiveness thresholds. In mild UC, induction of remission using high dose mesalazine was dominant compared to standard dose. In UC refractory to conventional treatments, infliximab and adalimumab induction and maintenance treatment were not cost-effective compared to standard care; however, ICERs for treatment with vedolizumab and surgery were favourable. We found that, in general, while biologic agents helped improve outcomes, they incurred high costs and therefore were not cost-effective, particularly for use as maintenance therapy. The cost-effectiveness of biologic agents may improve as market prices fall and with the introduction of biosimilars. Future research

  19. Detectability index of differential phase contrast CT compared with conventional CT: a preliminary channelized Hotelling observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2013-03-01

    Under the framework of model observer with signal and background exactly known (SKE/BKE), we investigate the detectability of differential phase contrast CT compared with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Using the channelized Hotelling observer and the radially symmetric difference-of-Gaussians channel template , we investigate the detectability index and its variation over the dimension of object and detector cells. The preliminary data show that the differential phase contrast CT outperforms the conventional attenuation-based CT significantly in the detectability index while both the object to be detected and the cell of detector used for data acquisition are relatively small. However, the differential phase contrast CT's dominance in the detectability index diminishes with increasing dimension of either object or detector cell, and virtually disappears while the dimension of object or detector cell approaches a threshold, respectively. It is hoped that the preliminary data reported in this paper may provide insightful understanding of the differential phase contrast CT's characteristic in the detectability index and its comparison with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT.

  20. Comparative study on mammographic findings between conventional mammography and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Calle, Aurelio; Saldarriaga Jaramillo, Ximena; Zapata Walliser, Luz Estela; Mejia Restrepo, Jorge Hernando; Arango Martinez, Adriana; Velez Arango, Jorge Mario

    2007-01-01

    We performed conventional-film mammograms in 180 patients between 35 and 6 years and additionally, we added 2 digital CR technique images to each patient, either craneocaudal (90 patients) or oblique (90 patients). All images were interpreted independently by four radiologists for a total of 720 evaluations, who compared film versus digital images through a 5 mega pixel monitor (soft-copy), using a score scale using the following parameters: mass visualization, detection of micro-calcifications, architectural distortion, visibility of the skin line, and image sharpness and noise. Additionally the tissue density was classified as well as the BIRADS score. The data was processed with the Teleform program and analyzed by de SPSSS program. Results: 52.6% of the micro-calcifications were equally visualized with both systems, in 13.5% of the cases they were better visualized with digital mammography. Similarly, in 50% of the cases, the skin line was better visualized with the digital CR modality. Conclusion: the sharpness of the image was also better seen with the digital CR technique in 48.2%. On the contrary, more noise was seen in digital CR images (63%). digital mammography is a diagnostic alternative that can improve mammographic findings detection and finally become a useful tool in breast cancer diagnosis

  1. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

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    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  2. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in conventional glass ionomer cements and triclosan incorporated glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Somani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The aim of the following study is to comparatively evaluate the microleakage of triclosan incorporated GIC with conventional restorative GIC. Materials and Methods: Triclosan in powder form was added to conventional GIC to formulate a concentration of 2.5%. Class five cavities were prepared in non-carious extracted molars and were respectively restored with conventional restorative GIC and triclosan incorporated GIC. Samples were kept in 10% methylene blue dye. Ground sections were obtained and were observed under a binocular microscope for dye penetration. Result: No significant difference was found in the microleakage of two groups. Conclusion: Triclosan incorporated GIC can be considered as an alternative to GIC with enhanced antibacterial property.

  3. Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: A comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Max; Riley, David S; Heger, Marianne; Brien, Sara; Jong, Miek; Fischer, Michael; Lewith, George T; Jansen, Gerard; Thurneysen, André E

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting. Methods The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (≤ 7 days) runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8), Germany (8), the Netherlands (7), Russia (6), Spain (6), Ukraine (4), United Kingdom (10) and the USA (8) and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy. Results Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H) and 720 conventional (C) treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; p = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing). In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients) similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; p = 0.0019). Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5%) and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22) in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34) in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic treatment both

  4. A comparative study of the efficacy of topical negative pressure moist dressings and conventional moist dressings in chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the efficacy of topical negative pressure moist wound dressing as compared to conventional moist wound dressings in improving the healing process in chronic wounds and to prove that negative pressure dressings can be used as a much better treatment option in the management of chronic wounds. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study of data from 112 patients with chronic wounds, of which 56 patients underwent topical negative pressure dressings (17 diabetic, 10 pressure sores, nine ischemic, two varicose, 10 post-infective raw areas and eight traumatic - six had bone exposed, two orthopaedic prosthesis exposed. The remaining 56 patients underwent conventional moist dressings (20 diabetic, two ischemic, 15 pressure sores, three varicose, eight post-infective raw areas and eight traumatic - five had bone exposed, three orthopaedic prosthesis exposed. The results were compared after 10 days. The variables compared were, rate of granulation tissue formation as a percentage of ulcer area covered, skin graft take up as the percentage of ulcer surface area and duration of hospital stay. The variables were compared using Unpaired Student′s t test. A " P" value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 56 patients who underwent topical negative pressure dressings, six (10.71% were failures, due to failure in maintaining topical negative pressure due to defective sealing technique; these were included into the study group. After 10 days, the mean rate of granulation tissue formation was 71.43% of ulcer surface area. All these 56 cases underwent split-thickness skin grafting. The mean graft take-up was 79.29%. The mean hospital stay was 32.64 days. In the remaining 56 patients, the mean rate of granulation tissue formation was 52.85% of ulcer surface area. The mean graft take-up was only 60.45% of the total ulcer surface area. The mean hospital stay was 60.45 days. Conclusion: To conclude, topical negative

  5. Arthroscopic release using F and C method versus conventional open release method in the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Saroj; Jin, Shengyang; Meng, Chunqing; Chaudhary, Nabin; Tamang, Nira; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Xianzhe; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-03-16

    Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC), a debilitating disease, usually starts in early childhood after variable dose of injections around the buttock, if left untreated it worsens gradually and persists throughout the life. Because the disease mostly affects adolescents and adults, there is always an aesthetic concerns. Purposeof the study was to introduce the arthroscopic F and C method of GMC release, and to compare its clinical efficiency with conventional open surgery in terms of clinical outcome, rate of complications, patient's satisfactions, and recurrence. Between Jan 2013 and July 2015, 75 patients received an arthroscopic release with F and C release method and 71 patients received conventional open release of GMC. Primary surgeries in 16 years or older patients were included in the study. Two groups were compared clinically using Hip Outcome Scores - Activities of Daily Living Subscale (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Scores - Sports Subscale (HOS-Sports), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Ye et al. evaluation criteria. No statistically significant differences were observed in Hip Outcome Scores - Activities of Daily Living Subscale (HOS-ADL) (P = 0.078), Hip Outcome Scores - Sports Subscale (HOS-Sports) (P = 0.340), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (P = 0.524) between the two groups. 74 (98.7%) patients in the arthroscopic surgery group had good to excellent results, whereas 69 (97.1%) patients in the conventional open surgery group had good to excellent results (P = 0.727). No statistically significant difference was observed in recurrence rate (P = 0.612). Statistically significant differences were observed in incision length, use of post-operative analgesia, post-operative off-bed activity, and hospital stay. Complications were significantly higher in the conventional open surgery group (n = 21) than in the arthroscopic surgery group (n = 10) (P = 0.016). More importantly, cosmetic satisfaction was 100% in arthroscopic release group

  6. Time-dependent opportunities in energy business. A comparative study of locally available renewable and conventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolis, Athanasios I.; Rentizelas, Athanasios A.; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates and compares energy-related, private business strategies, potentially interesting for investors willing to exploit either local biomass sources or strategic conventional fuels. Two distinct fuels and related power-production technologies are compared as a case study, in terms of economic efficiency: the biomass of cotton stalks and the natural gas. The carbon capture and storage option are also investigated for power plants based on both fuel types. The model used in this study investigates important economic aspects using a 'real options' method instead of traditional Discounted Cash Flow techniques, as it might handle in a more effective way the problems arising from the stochastic nature of significant cash flow contributors' evolution like electricity, fuel and CO 2 allowance prices. The capital costs have also a functional relationship with time, thus providing an additional reason for implementing 'real options' as well as the learning-curves technique. The methodology as well as the results presented in this work, may lead to interesting conclusions and affect potential private investment strategies and future decision making. This study indicates that both technologies lead to positive investment yields, with the natural gas being more profitable for the case study examined, while the carbon capture and storage does not seem to be cost efficient with the current CO 2 allowance prices. Furthermore, low interest rates might encourage potential investors to wait before actualising their business plans while higher interest rates favor immediate investment decisions. (author)

  7. Comparative study of friction between metallic and conventional interactive self-ligating brackets in different alignment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Sérgio Ricardo; Matheus, Davison; Jimenez-Pellegrin, Maria Cristina; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the friction between three bracket models: conventional stainless steel (Ovation, Dentsply GAC), self-ligating ceramic (In-Ovation, Denstply GAC) and self-ligating stainless steel brackets (In-Ovation R, Dentsply GAC). Five brackets were used for each model. They were bonded to an aluminum prototype that allowed the simulation of four misalignment situations (n = 10). Three of these situations occured at the initial phase (in which a 0.016-in nickel-titanium wire was used): 1. horizontal; 2. vertical; and 3. simultaneous horizontal/vertical. One of the situations occurred at the final treatment phase: 4. no misalignment (in which a 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel rectangular wire was used). The wires slipped through the brackets and friction was measured by a Universal Testing Machine. Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's Test for multiple comparisons (α = 0.05) were applied to assess the results. Significant interaction (p friction. The two self-ligating models resulted in lower and similar values, except for the horizontal situation, in which In-Ovation C® showed lower friction, which was similar to the In-Ovation R® metallic model. For the no misalignment situation, the same results were observed. The self-ligating system was superior to the conventional one due to producing less friction. With regard to the material used for manufacturing the brackets, the In-Ovation C® ceramic model showed less friction than the metallic ones.

  8. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullattuthodi, Sujana; Cherian, Kandathil Phillip; Anandkumar, R; Nambiar, M Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    This in vitro study seeks to evaluate and compare the marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) techniques. A master model of a prepared molar tooth was made using cobalt-chromium alloy. Silicone impression of the master model was made and thirty standardized working models were then produced; twenty working models for conventional lost-wax technique and ten working models for DMLS technique. A total of twenty metal copings were fabricated using two different production techniques: conventional lost-wax method and DMLS; ten samples in each group. The conventional and DMLS copings were cemented to the working models using glass ionomer cement. Marginal gap of the copings were measured at predetermined four points. The die with the cemented copings are standardized-sectioned with a heavy duty lathe. Then, each sectioned samples were analyzed for the internal gap between the die and the metal coping using a metallurgical microscope. Digital photographs were taken at ×50 magnification and analyzed using measurement software. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired t -test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study reveal that no significant difference was present in the marginal gap of conventional and DMLS copings ( P > 0.05) by means of ANOVA. The mean values of internal gap of DMLS copings were significantly greater than that of conventional copings ( P < 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  9. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  10. Comparative performance evaluation of conventional and ultrasonic assisted bleaching of cotton fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Ashraf, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Conventional bleaching process is an important and quality influencing process for textile wet processors. However, the process requires high energy consumption, and is slow and time consuming. In the present research work, cotton woven fabric was bleached with different bleaching agents using conventional and ultrasonic assisted techniques. After bleaching whiteness index, weight loss and tensile strength of samples were measured and compared statistically. The results showed that ultrasonic energy intensifies the diffusion of chemicals and increases the production of hydroxyl radicals which catalyze the bleaching process. Ultrasonic assisted bleaching proved to be a novel technique that can produce better results than conventional bleaching process even at low temperature and in less time. (author)

  11. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137 Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  12. Amplitude Integrated Electroencephalography Compared With Conventional Video EEG for Neonatal Seizure Detection: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Rao, Shripada; Palumbo, Linda; Ghosh, Soumya; Nagarajan, Lakshmi

    2017-08-01

    This diagnostic accuracy study compared the accuracy of seizure detection by amplitude-integrated electroencephalography with the criterion standard conventional video EEG in term and near-term infants at risk of seizures. Simultaneous recording of amplitude-integrated EEG (2-channel amplitude-integrated EEG with raw trace) and video EEG was done for 24 hours for each infant. Amplitude-integrated EEG was interpreted by a neonatologist; video EEG was interpreted by a neurologist independently. Thirty-five infants were included in the analysis. In the 7 infants with seizures on video EEG, there were 169 seizure episodes on video EEG, of which only 57 were identified by amplitude-integrated EEG. Amplitude-integrated EEG had a sensitivity of 33.7% for individual seizure detection. Amplitude-integrated EEG had an 86% sensitivity for detection of babies with seizures; however, it was nonspecific, in that 50% of infants with seizures detected by amplitude-integrated EEG did not have true seizures by video EEG. In conclusion, our study suggests that amplitude-integrated EEG is a poor screening tool for neonatal seizures.

  13. Comparing the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in orthodontic soft tissue procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ize-Iyamu, I N; Saheeb, B D; Edetanlen, B E

    2013-09-01

    To compare the use of the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in the management of soft tissue mucogingival problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic patients requiring different soft tissue surgical procedures were randomly assigned to receive conventional surgery or soft tissue diode laser, (wavelength 810 nm). Parameters documented include the type of anaesthesia used, intra and post operative pain, bleeding, the use of scalpel and sutures. The chi-squared test was used to test for significance at 95% confidence level. Probability values (p-values) less than 0.05 were regarded as significant. Only 2(16.7%) of the procedures carried out with the soft tissue laser required infiltration anaesthesia compared to 10 (90.9%) with conventional surgery and this was significant (Pdiode laser (Pdiode laser. No sutures were used in all soft tissue cases managed with the diode laser and this was significant (Plaser compared with conventional surgery. Orthodontic patients treated with the diode laser required less infiltration anaesthesia, had reduced bleeding during and after surgery, rapid postoperative haemostasis, elimination of the need for sutures and an improved postoperative comfort and healing.

  14. Minimally invasive, imaging guided virtual autopsy compared to conventional autopsy in foetal, newborn and infant cases: study protocol for the paediatric virtual autopsy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of declining autopsy rates around the world, post-mortem MR imaging is a promising alternative to conventional autopsy in the investigation of infant death. A major drawback of this non-invasive autopsy approach is the fact that histopathological and microbiological examination of the tissue is not possible. The objective of this prospective study is to compare the performance of minimally invasive, virtual autopsy, including CT-guided biopsy, with conventional autopsy procedures in a paediatric population. Methods/Design Foetuses, newborns and infants that are referred for autopsy at three different institutions associated with the University of Zurich will be eligible for recruitment. All bodies will be examined with a commercial CT and a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, masked to the results of conventional autopsy. After cross-sectional imaging, CT-guided tissue sampling will be performed by a multifunctional robotic system (Virtobot) allowing for automated post-mortem biopsies. Virtual autopsy results will be classified with regards to the likely final diagnosis and major pathological findings and compared to the results of conventional autopsy, which remains the diagnostic gold standard. Discussion There is an urgent need for the development of alternative post-mortem examination methods, not only as a counselling tool for families and as a quality control measure for clinical diagnosis and treatment but also as an instrument to advance medical knowledge and clinical practice. This interdisciplinary study will determine whether virtual autopsy will narrow the gap in information between non-invasive and traditional autopsy procedures. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888380 PMID:24438163

  15. A clinical comparative study between conventional and camouflaged syringes to evaluate behavior and anxiety in 6-11-year-old children during local anesthesia administration-a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melwani, Anjana M; Srinivasan, Ila; Setty, Jyothsna V; D R, Murali Krishna; Pamnani, Sunaina S; Lalitya, Dandamudi

    2018-02-01

    The sight of dental injection can bring about severe anxiety in children. Therefore, an alternative method that is convenient, effective, and keeps the needle hidden making it child friendly is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of a camouflaged syringe and conventional syringe on behavior and anxiety in 6-11-year-old children during local anesthesia administration. The study was a randomized, crossover clinical study including 30 children. Children were separated into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 15 children aged 6-8 years while group 2 consisted of 15 children aged 9-11 years. This study involved two sessions wherein all the children were injected using conventional and camouflaged syringes in separate sessions. Their behavior was assessed using the Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) behavior pain scale and anxiety was assessed by measuring changes in pulse rate. Patient and operator preferences were compared. The results showed a lower mean change in pulse rate and FLACC scores in the camouflaged group, suggesting a positive behavior and lesser anxiety with camouflaged syringes than with conventional syringes. The use of camouflaged syringes for anesthesia was demonstrated to be effective in improving the behavior of children and decreasing their anxiety, and is therefore recommended as an alternative to the use of conventional syringes for local anesthesia.

  16. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the "Conventional Instruction" (CI) study group or to the "Video-based Instruction" (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, pvideo-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video instruction. In this study, the use of the video-based instruction emerged as the more effective teaching method for learning surgical hand disinfection for medical students and is preferable to conventional instruction. The video instruction is associated with a higher learning effectiveness, efficiency

  17. Multicenter comparative study of conventional mechanical gas ventilation to tidal liquid ventilation in oleic acid injured sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Marla R; Hirschl, Ronald B; Jackson, J Craig; Gauvin, France; Foley, David S; Lamm, Wayne J E; Gaughan, John; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    We performed a multicenter study to test the hypothesis that tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) would improve cardiopulmonary, lung histomorphological, and inflammatory profiles compared with conventional mechanical gas ventilation (CMV). Sheep were studied using the same volume-controlled, pressure-limited ventilator systems, protocols, and treatment strategies in three independent laboratories. Following baseline measurements, oleic acid lung injury was induced and animals were randomized to 4 hours of CMV or TLV targeted to "best PaO2" and PaCO2 35 to 60 mm Hg. The following were significantly higher (p ventilation, physiologic shunt, plasma lactate, lung interleukin-6, interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, and composite total injury score. No significant laboratories by treatment group interactions were found. In summary, TLV resulted in improved cardiopulmonary physiology at lower ventilatory requirements with more favorable histological and inflammatory profiles than CMV. As such, TLV offers a feasible ventilatory alternative as a lung protective strategy in this model of acute lung injury.

  18. Comparing the force ripple during asynchronous and conventional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Ryan J; Tate, Mark; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Dixon, Warren E

    2014-10-01

    Asynchronous stimulation has been shown to reduce fatigue during electrical stimulation; however, it may also exhibit a force ripple. We quantified the ripple during asynchronous and conventional single-channel transcutaneous stimulation across a range of stimulation frequencies. The ripple was measured during 5 asynchronous stimulation protocols, 2 conventional stimulation protocols, and 3 volitional contractions in 12 healthy individuals. Conventional 40 Hz and asynchronous 16 Hz stimulation were found to induce contractions that were as smooth as volitional contractions. Asynchronous 8, 10, and 12 Hz stimulation induced contractions with significant ripple. Lower stimulation frequencies can reduce fatigue; however, they may also lead to increased ripple. Future efforts should study the relationship between force ripple and the smoothness of the evoked movements in addition to the relationship between stimulation frequency and NMES-induced fatigue to elucidate an optimal stimulation frequency for asynchronous stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Efficiency and stability: A comparative study between islamic and conventional banks in GCC countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dulal Miah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at examining the differences between Islamic and conventional banks in terms of business orientation, stability, and efficiency. Data for this research are collected from 48 conventional banks and 28 Islamic banks of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC countries over the period 2005 to 2014. Collected data are analyzed using accounting ratios, Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA, and ordinary least square (OLS regression technique. Results show that conventional banks are more efficient in managing cost than their Islamic counterparts. However, Islamic banks are more solid in terms of short-term solvency but no such difference exists as far as the long-term stability is concerned. Regression estimation further shows that the operations of Islamic banks are different from their conventional counterparts and the results remain statistically significant even after controlling for bank specific variables. Moreover, larger banks have less intermediation ratio which indicates diseconomies of scale. Results also indicate that highly capitalized banks are more stable but cost inefficient which proves that capital-rich banks have failed to capitalize on the leverage effect. JEL classification: G21, G28, Keywords: Cost efficiency, Financial stability, Financial crisis, Islamic banks, GCC

  20. Evaluation of Bone Atrophy After Treatment of Forearm Fracture Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis: A Comparative Study of Locking Plates and Conventional Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takane; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    Forearm diaphysis fractures are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. Recently, locking plates have been used for treatment. In the long-term period after surgery, some patients present with bone atrophy adjacent to the plate. However, a comparison of locking and conventional plates as a cause of atrophy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term bone atrophy associated with use of locking and conventional plates for forearm fracture treatment. In this study we included 15 patients with forearm fracture managed by either locking or conventional plates and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Computed tomographic imaging of both forearms was performed to assess bone thickness and local bone mineral density and to predict bone strength without plate reinforcement based on finite element analysis. Mean patient age at surgery was 48.0 years. Eight patients underwent reduction with fixed locking plates and were followed up for a mean of 79.5 months; the remaining 7 patients were treated with conventional plates and were followed up for a mean of 105.0 months. Compared with the conventional plate group, the locking plate group had the same fractured limb-contralateral limb ratio of cortex bone thickness, but had significantly lower ratios of mineral density adjacent to the plate and adjusted bone strength. This study demonstrated bone atrophy after locking plate fixation for forearm fractures. Treatment plans for forearm fracture should take into consideration the impact of bone atrophy long after plate fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  2. Comparing the engineering program feeders from SiF and convention models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongruangsri, Warawaran; Moonpa, Niwat; Vuthijumnonk, Janyawat; Sangsuwan, Kampanart

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to compare the relationship between two types of engineering program feeder models within the technical education systems of Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna (RMUTL), Chiangmai, Thailand. To illustrate, the paper refers to two typologies of feeder models, which are the convention and the school in factory (SiF) models. The new SiF model is developed through a collaborative educational process between the sectors of industry, government and academia, using work-integrated learning. The research methodology were use to compared features of the the SiF model with conventional models in terms of learning outcome, funding budget for the study, the advantages and disadvantages from the point of view of students, professors, the university, government and industrial partners. The results of this research indicate that the developed SiF feeder model is the most pertinent ones as it meet the requirements of the university, the government and the industry. The SiF feeder model showed the ability to yield positive learning outcomes with low expenditures per student for both the family and the university. In parallel, the sharing of knowledge between university and industry became increasingly important in the process, which resulted in the improvement of industrial skills for professors and an increase in industrial based research for the university. The SiF feeder model meets its demand of public policy in supporting a skilled workforce for the industry, which could be an effective tool for the triple helix educational model of Thailand.

  3. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  4. Randomized Controlled Double-blind Trial Comparing Haloperidol Combined With Conventional Therapy to Conventional Therapy Alone in Patients With Symptomatic Gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Carlos J; Chambers, Kimberly A; Paniagua, Linda; Patel, Sonali; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Chathampally, Yashwant

    2017-11-01

    Gastroparesis is a debilitating condition that causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Management includes analgesics and antiemetics, but symptoms are often refractory. Haloperidol has been utilized in the palliative care setting for similar symptoms. The study objective was to determine whether haloperidol as an adjunct to conventional therapy would improve symptoms in gastroparesis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adult ED patients with acute exacerbation of previously diagnosed gastroparesis. The treatment group received 5 mg of haloperidol plus conventional therapy (determined by the treating physician). The control group received a placebo plus conventional therapy. The severity of each subject's abdominal pain and nausea were assessed before intervention and every 15 minutes thereafter for 1 hour using a 10-point scale for pain and a 5-point scale for nausea. Primary outcomes were decreased pain and nausea 1 hour after treatment. Of the 33 study patients, 15 were randomized to receive haloperidol. Before treatment, the mean intensity of pain was 8.5 in the haloperidol group and 8.28 in the placebo group; mean pretreatment nausea scores were 4.53 and 4.11, respectively. One hour after therapy, the mean pain and nausea scores in the haloperidol group were 3.13 and 1.83 compared to 7.17 and 3.39 in the placebo group. The reduction in mean pain intensity therapy was 5.37 in the haloperidol group (p ≤ 0.001) compared to 1.11 in the placebo group (p = 0.11). The reduction in mean nausea score was 2.70 in the haloperidol group (p ≤ 0.001) and 0.72 in the placebo group (p = 0.05). Therefore, the reductions in symptom scores were statistically significant in the haloperidol group but not in the placebo group. No adverse events were reported. Haloperidol as an adjunctive therapy is superior to placebo for acute gastroparesis symptoms. © 2017 by the Society for Academic

  5. Comparative evaluation of surgical outcome after removal of impacted mandibular third molars using a Piezotome or a conventional handpiece: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manoj; Marya, Karan; Jhamb, Aakarsh; Chawla, Sonia; Sonoo, Priyanshu Ranjan; Singh, Veenita; Aggarwal, Anuj

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to compare the use of a conventional rotary handpiece and a Piezosurgical unit for extraction of lower third molars. We studied 40 patients, who were allocated alternately to have the third molar removed with either the handpiece or the Piezosurgical unit. Pain, trismus, and oedema were evaluated at baseline and then postoperatively, together with paraesthesiae, on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 15. Damage to surrounding tissue was checked on the same day whereas dry socket was evaluated from postoperative day 3 onwards. More patients complained of pain in the conventional group, they also required more analgesics, and they developed trismus more often than in the Piezosurgery group. There was also significantly more postoperative swelling in the conventional group. Patients were also evaluated using the subjective Postoperative Symptom Severity (PoSSe) scale. Our results suggest that apart from some inherent limitations with the Piezotome, it is a valuable alternative for extraction of third molars. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early small-bowel ischemia: dual-energy CT improves conspicuity compared with conventional CT in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potretzke, Theodora A; Brace, Christopher L; Lubner, Meghan G; Sampson, Lisa A; Willey, Bridgett J; Lee, Fred T

    2015-04-01

    To compare dual-energy computed tomography (CT) with conventional CT for the detection of small-bowel ischemia in an experimental animal model. The study was approved by the animal care and use committee and was performed in accordance with the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals issued by the National Research Council. Ischemic bowel segments (n = 8) were created in swine (n = 4) by means of surgical occlusion of distal mesenteric arteries and veins. Contrast material-enhanced dual-energy CT and conventional single-energy CT (120 kVp) sequences were performed during the portal venous phase with a single-source fast-switching dual-energy CT scanner. Attenuation values and contrast-to-noise ratios of ischemic and perfused segments on iodine material-density, monospectral dual-energy CT (51 keV, 65 keV, and 70 keV), and conventional 120-kVp CT images were compared. Linear mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. The attenuation difference between ischemic and perfused segments was significantly greater on dual-energy 51-keV CT images than on conventional 120-kVp CT images (mean difference, 91.7 HU vs 47.6 HU; P conventional CT by increasing attenuation differences between ischemic and perfused segments on low-kiloelectron volt and iodine material density images. © RSNA, 2014.

  7. Progressive changes in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion treated by 2-jaw surgery with minimal and conventional presurgical orthodontics: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Zili; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zou, Bingshuang; Zhou, Yanheng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare treatment efficacy and postsurgical stability between minimal presurgical orthodontics and conventional presurgical orthodontics for patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Forty patients received minimal presurgical orthodontics (n = 20) or conventional presurgical orthodontics (n = 20). Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment, before orthognathic surgery, and at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Changes of overjet and mandibular incisal angle before surgery were greater in the conventional presurgical orthodontics group than in the minimal presurgical orthodontics group. Postsurgical horizontal changes in Points A and B, overjet, and mandibular incisal angle showed significant differences among the time points. Most of the horizontal and vertical relapses in the maxilla and the mandible occurred within the first 6 months in both groups. Minimal presurgical orthodontics and conventional presurgical orthodontics showed similar extents and directions of skeletal changes in patients with Class III malocclusion. However, orthodontists and surgeons should preoperatively consider the postsurgical counterclockwise rotation of the mandible when using minimal presurgical orthodontics. Close and frequent observations are recommended in the early postsurgical stages. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of microwaves on changes in foodstuffs as compared with conventional heat treatment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, M.; Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.

    1980-01-01

    It is purpose of this study to contribute to the discussion and to answer the question as to whether changes are caused by microwave-heating of foodstuffs, which differ from those caused by conventional heating. This is achieved by summarizing extensive test materials. In the relevant literature, a great number of tests are listed on the cooking and reheating of foodstuffs by means of micro-waves, as compared to conventional methods. The subject of these tests is the determination of quantitative changes of certain ingredients (vitamins, fatty acids etc.) and sensory characteristics (flavour, colour etc.) due to the different heating methods. In addition to cooking and heating, a more comprehensive use of microwaves in preparation of food is discussed in this study. Works on the thawing, blanching, freeze-drying, and pasteurization are taken into account when comparing the different heating methods. Moreover, this study includes a comaprison as to the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, the thermic decomposition of pesticide residues, and the physiological effect of lipids. It was determined that there is no indication of radiation-specific effects, i. e. athermic effects, of microwaves contained in any of the studies reviewed up to now. (orig./MG) [de

  9. A comparative assessment of torque generated by lingual and conventional brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets. Incognito lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), In-Ovation L lingual brackets (DENTSPLY GAC), and conventional 0.018

  10. Time-Efficiency Analysis Comparing Digital and Conventional Workflows for Implant Crowns: A Prospective Clinical Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Brägger, Urs

    2015-01-01

    To compare time-efficiency in the production of implant crowns using a digital workflow versus the conventional pathway. This prospective clinical study used a crossover design that included 20 study participants receiving single-tooth replacements in posterior sites. Each patient received a customized titanium abutment plus a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia suprastructure (for those in the test group, using digital workflow) and a standardized titanium abutment plus a porcelain-fused-to-metal crown (for those in the control group, using a conventional pathway). The start of the implant prosthetic treatment was established as the baseline. Time-efficiency analysis was defined as the primary outcome, and was measured for every single clinical and laboratory work step in minutes. Statistical analysis was calculated with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. All crowns could be provided within two clinical appointments, independent of the manufacturing process. The mean total production time, as the sum of clinical plus laboratory work steps, was significantly different. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) time was 185.4 ± 17.9 minutes for the digital workflow process and 223.0 ± 26.2 minutes for the conventional pathway (P = .0001). Therefore, digital processing for overall treatment was 16% faster. Detailed analysis for the clinical treatment revealed a significantly reduced mean ± SD chair time of 27.3 ± 3.4 minutes for the test group compared with 33.2 ± 4.9 minutes for the control group (P = .0001). Similar results were found for the mean laboratory work time, with a significant decrease of 158.1 ± 17.2 minutes for the test group vs 189.8 ± 25.3 minutes for the control group (P = .0001). Only a few studies have investigated efficiency parameters of digital workflows compared with conventional pathways in implant dental medicine. This investigation shows that the digital workflow seems to be more time-efficient than the

  11. Comparative study of friction between metallic and conventional interactive self-ligating brackets in different alignment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ricardo Jakob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the friction between three bracket models: conventional stainless steel (Ovation, Dentsply GAC, self-ligating ceramic (In-Ovation, Denstply GAC and self-ligating stainless steel brackets (In-Ovation R, Dentsply GAC. METHODS: Five brackets were used for each model. They were bonded to an aluminum prototype that allowed the simulation of four misalignment situations (n = 10. Three of these situations occurred at the initial phase (in which a 0.016-in nickel-titanium wire was used: 1. horizontal; 2. vertical; and 3. simultaneous horizontal/vertical. One of the situations occurred at the final treatment phase: 4. no misalignment (in which a 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel rectangular wire was used. The wires slipped through the brackets and friction was measured by a Universal Testing Machine. RESULTS: Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's Test for multiple comparisons (α = 0.05 were applied to assess the results. Significant interaction (p < 0.01 among groups was found. For the tests that simulated initial alignment, Ovation(r bracket produced the highest friction. The two self-ligating models resulted in lower and similar values, except for the horizontal situation, in which In-Ovation C(r showed lower friction, which was similar to the In-Ovation R(r metallic model. For the no misalignment situation, the same results were observed. CONCLUSION: The self-ligating system was superior to the conventional one due to producing less friction. With regard to the material used for manufacturing the brackets, the In-Ovation C(r ceramic model showed less friction than the metallic ones.

  12. Comparing risk in conventional and organic dairy farming in the Netherlands: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, P B M; Kovacs, K; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to contribute to the understanding of why most dairy farmers do not convert to organic farming. Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess and compare risks for conventional and organic farming in the Netherlands with respect to gross margin and the underlying price and production variables. To investigate the risk factors a farm accountancy database was used containing panel data from both conventional and organic representative Dutch dairy farms (2001-2007). Variables with regard to price and production risk were identified using a gross margin analysis scheme. Price risk variables were milk price and concentrate price. The main production risk variables were milk yield per cow, roughage yield per hectare, and veterinary costs per cow. To assess risk, an error component implicit detrending method was applied and the resulting detrended standard deviations were compared between conventional and organic farms. Results indicate that the risk included in the gross margin per cow is significantly higher in organic farming. This is caused by both higher price and production risks. Price risks are significantly higher in organic farming for both milk price and concentrate price. With regard to production risk, only milk yield per cow poses a significantly higher risk in organic farming. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital radiography with computerized conventional monitors compared to medical monitors in vertical root fracture diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofangchiha, Maryam; Adel, Mamak; Bakhshi, Mahin; Esfehani, Mahsa; Nazeman, Pantea; Ghorbani Elizeyi, Mojgan; Javadi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Vertical root fracture (VRF) is a complication which is chiefly diagnosed radiographically. Recently, film-based radiography has been substituted with digital radiography. At the moment, there is a wide range of monitors available in the market for viewing digital images. The present study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of medical and conventional monitors in detection of vertical root fractures. In this in vitro study 228 extracted single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated. Vertical root fractures were induced in 114 samples. The teeth were imaged by a digital charge-coupled device radiography using parallel technique. The images were evaluated by a radiologist and an endodontist on two medical and conventional liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors twice. Z-test was used to analyze the sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of each monitor. Significance level was set at 0.05. Inter and intra observer agreements were calculated by Cohen's kappa. Accuracy, specificity and sensitivity for conventional monitor were calculated as 67.5%, 72%, 62.5% respectively; and data for medical grade monitor were 67.5%, 66.5% and 68% respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in detecting VRF between the two techniques. Inter-observer agreement for conventional and medical monitor was 0.47 and 0.55 respectively (moderate). Intra-observer agreement was 0.78 for medical monitor and 0.87 for conventional one (substantial). The type of monitor does not influence diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  14. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of chemomechanical caries removal agent (Papacarie and conventional method of caries removal: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawa D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Painless dentistry, minimal intervention and thus giving comfort, relief and solace and instill positive attitude toward dental treatments, are some of the factors justifying the specialty of pediatric dentistry. Thus, this in vitro study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of a new chemomechanical caries removal agent, Papacarie (Formula and Acao, with conventional slow-speed rotary instrument (bur. Papacarie is a new formulation and has the main active ingredient papain, an endoprotein with bactericidal, bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory actions. Twenty extracted human molar teeth with deep dentine caries and no enamel coverage were selected for the study. After the preparation of the teeth and removal of the caries with the respective methods, they were decalcified, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin blocks for histologic studies. Serial sections of 5 μm thickness were examined for the presence of bacteria under light microscope. Though complete removal of caries was achieved significantly in both the methods, there was less marked destruction of dentinal tubules in chemomechanical caries removal method by Papacarie. Thus, Papacarie is recommended as an efficient, easy to perform, comfortable and less destructive solution for the patient seeking an alternative to the conventional method.

  16. Osseointegration of implants with dendrimers surface characteristics installed conventionally or with Piezosurgery®. A comparative study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengazi, Franco; Lang, Niklaus P; Canciani, Elena; Viganò, Paolo; Velez, Joaquin Urbizo; Botticelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of the present experiment was to compare bone healing at implants installed in recipient sites prepared with conventional drills or a piezoelectric device. The second aim was to compare implant osseointegration onto surfaces with and without dendrimers coatings. Six Beagles dogs were used in this study. Five implants with two different surfaces, three with a ZirTi(®) surface (zirconia sand blasted, acid etched), and two with a ZirTi(®)-modified surface with dendrimers of phosphoserine and polylysine were installed in the right side of the mandible. In the most anterior region (P2, P3), two recipient sites were prepared with drills, and one implant ZirTi(®) surface and one coated with dendrimers implants were installed at random. In the posterior region (P4 and M1), three recipient sites were randomly prepared: two sites with a Piezosurgery(®) instrument and one site with drill and two ZirTi(®) surface and one coated with dendrimers implants installed. Three months after the surgery, the animals were sacrificed for histological analysis. No complications occurred during the healing period. Three implants were found not integrated and were excluded from analysis. However, n = 6 was obtained. The distance IS-B at the buccal aspect was 2.2 ± 0.8 and 1.8 ± 0.5 mm, while IS-C was 1.5 ± 0.9 and 1.4 ± 0.6 mm at the Piezosurgery(®) and drill groups, respectively. Similar values were obtained between the dendrimers-coated and ZirTi(®) surface implants. The BIC% values were higher at the drill (72%) compared to the Piezosurgery(®) (67%) sites. The BIC% were also found to be higher at the ZirTi(®) (74%) compared to the dendrimers-coated (65%) implants, the difference being statistically significant. This study has revealed that oral implants may osseointegrate equally well irrespective of whether their bed was prepared utilizing conventional drills with abundant cooling or Piezosurgery(®). Moreover, the surface coating of implants with dendrimers

  17. Minimally invasive compared to conventional approach for coronary artery bypass grafting improves outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitumoni Baishya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Minimally invasive (MI cardiac surgery is a rapidly gaining popularity, globally as well as in India. We aimed to compare the outcome of MI to the conventional approach for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Methods: This prospective, comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care cardiac surgical center. All patients who underwent CABG surgery via MI approach (MI group from July 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled and were compared against same number of EuroSCORE II matched patients undergoing CABG through conventional mid-sternotomy approach (CON group. Demographic, intra- and post-operative variables were collected. Results: In MI group, duration of the surgery was significantly longer (P = 0.029. Intraoperative blood loss lesser (P = 0.002, shorter duration of ventilation (P = 0.002, shorter Intensive Care Unit stay (P = 0.004, shorter hospital stay (P = 0.003, lesser postoperative analgesic requirements (P = 0.027, and lower visual analog scale scores on day of surgery (P = 0.032 and 1 st postoperative day (P = 0.025. No significant difference in postoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, or duration of inotrope requirement observed. There was no conversion to mid-sternotomy in any patients, 8% of patients had desaturation intraoperatively. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion: MI surgery is associated with lesser intraoperative blood loss, better analgesia, and faster recovery.

  18. RANDOMISED CONTROLLED STUDY COMPARING A 0.75% ROPIVACAINE TO A CONVENTIONAL DOSE OF HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE FOR CESARIAN SECTION BY EPIDURAL ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Central neuraxial blocked is one of the safest and efficacious methods of anaesthesia and analgesia. It has the added advantage of prolonged pain relief into the postoperative period. Epidural analgesia has increased steadily in popularity when compared to spinal anaesthes ia due to its neurological consequences and improved post - operative analgesia with epidural Opioids and as a consequence decreased side effects and prolonged the duration of analgesia. Present study is undertaken to compare hemodynamic and analgesic charac teristics using a 0.75% ropivacaine to a conventional dose of 0.5% bupivacaine for cesarean section under epidural anaesthesia. This study was conducted in ASA Grade I 50 singleton parturient to compare hemodynamics, APGAR scores and analgesic characterist ics of ropivacaine and bupivacaine. We have observed that the onset of sensory blockade was slower with ropivacaine and the duration of sensory blockade was also less. Whereas there was no significant change in haemodynamics and APGAR scores with both the drugs.

  19. Comparative study of two modes of gastroesophageal reflux measuring: conventional esophageal pH monitoring and wireless pH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimon Sobhi Azzam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal pH monitoring is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal acid reflux. However, this method is very troublesome and considerably limits the patient's routine activities. Wireless pH monitoring was developed to avoid these restrictions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the first 24 hours of the conventional and wireless pH monitoring, positioned 3 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, in relation to: the occurrence of relevant technical failures, the ability to detect reflux and the ability to correlate the clinical symptoms to reflux. METHODS: Twenty-five patients referred for esophageal pH monitoring and with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied prospectively, underwent clinical interview, endoscopy, esophageal manometry and were submitted, with a simultaneous initial period, to 24-hour catheter pH monitoring and 48-hour wireless pH monitoring. RESULTS: Early capsule detachment occurred in one (4% case and there were no technical failures with the catheter pH monitoring (P = 0.463. Percentages of reflux time (total, upright and supine were higher with the wireless pH monitoring (P < 0.05. Pathological gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 16 (64% patients submitted to catheter and in 19 (76% to the capsule (P = 0.355. The symptom index was positive in 12 (48% patients with catheter pH monitoring and in 13 (52% with wireless pH monitoring (P = 0.777. CONCLUSIONS: 1 No significant differences were reported between the two methods of pH monitoring (capsule vs catheter, in regard to relevant technical failures; 2 Wireless pH monitoring detected higher percentages of reflux time than the conventional pH-metry; 3 The two methods of pH monitoring were comparable in diagnosis of pathological gastroesophageal reflux and comparable in correlating the clinical symptoms with the gastroesophageal reflux.

  20. Non-conventional plasma assisted catalysts for diesel exhaust treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Srinivas Kumar, P.K.; Ravi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The author reports the application of pulse discharges along with catalysts in treating the exhaust gas at higher temperatures. In the present work, a plasma reactor, filled with catalysts, called as plasma catalytic reactor, is studied for removal of oxides of nitrogen, total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experiments are conducted on an actual diesel engine exhaust at no-load and at different temperatures starting from room temperature to 300 degree C. The removal efficiencies of these pollutants are studied. The experiments are carried out with both conventional and non-conventional catalysts. The idea is to explore the pollutant removal efficiency characteristics by non-conventional catalysts. The efficiency results are compared with that of conventional catalysts. The experiments are carried out at a constant pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. Both pellet and honeycomb type catalysts are used in the study

  1. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid......, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double......-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed...

  2. A comparative study of tissue glue and vicryl suture for conjunctival and scleral closure in conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, C; Ozdamar, Y; Mutevelli, S; Sonmez, K; Zilelioglu, G; Karakaya, J

    2009-06-01

    To describe the use of tissue glue to close scleral and conjunctival wounds, and to compare the clinical outcomes using tissue glue and vicryl suture for closing these areas in conventional 20-gauge (G) vitrectomy. Thirty eyes of 30 patients were included in this study. The indications for vitreoretinal surgery were diabetic vitreous haemorrhage with severe vitreoretinal traction in 10 eyes, retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy in 14 eyes, and vitreous opacity in 6 eyes. Tissue glue (Tisseel, Baxter AG Industries, Vienna, Austria) was used to attach scleral and conjunctival wounds in 15 eyes and vicryl sutures in 15 eyes. The patients were allotted into two subgroups as tissue glue group (TG) and vicryl suture group (VG). The sclerotomy sites were evaluated with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) postoperatively in TG. Follow-up period was 2 months. The groups were statistically compared for ocular signs and symptoms by Mann-Whitney U-test. No scleral wound leakage and conjunctival reattachment were observed at the end of the surgical procedure and during the follow-up period. No adverse effects were seen in TG. Abnormal fibrous ingrowth was not detected at the sclerotomy sites by means of UBM in TG. Patient comfort was significantly higher in TG than VG (P<0.05). Tissue glue has no adverse effects on ocular tissue and can be used as a substitute for suture materials, and the use of tissue glue decreases patient symptoms during the postoperative period after 20-G vitrectomy. Tissue glue can enable to perform sutureless surgery in the conventional 20-G vitrectomy.

  3. Comparative study between probe focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of cadmium and copper in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Sara; Fonseca, Luis P. [Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Capelo, Jose L. [University of Vigo at Ourense Campus, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, Ourense (Spain); Armas, Teresa; Vilhena, Fernanda; Goncalves, Maria L.S.; Mota, A.M. [Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Pinto, Ana P. [University of Evora, Herdade Experimental da Mitra, ICAAM-Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas, Evora (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    Ultrasound (US)-assisted extraction has been widely used for metal ion extraction in plants due to its unique properties of decreased extraction time, minimal contamination, low reagent consumption and low cost. However, very few papers present a sound comparison between probe-focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of metal ion extraction in plants. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted digestion has been evaluated and compared to magnetic stirring for total copper and cadmium determination by atomic absorption spectrometry in biological samples (plants, plankton and mussels). The same experimental conditions of sample amount and particle size, extractant solution and extraction time were applied for both ultrasound and magnetic stirring-assisted extraction methods in order to truly compare their effect on metal ion solubilisation. To gain further insight in this issue, dried and fresh plants were tested. The results obtained indicated that osmotic tension in cell walls, produced when dried and powdered samples were immersed in the extractant solution, had an important contribution to metal ion solubilisation, the enhancement due to US for the same purpose being negligible. (orig.)

  4. Detection of micro calcifications in breast specimen by 4-fold DIMA direct magnification radiography compared to 1.5-fold conventional magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunert, J.H.; Borchert, B.; Farber, A.; Gmelin, E.

    1999-01-01

    Aims of the study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4-fold magnification breast specimen radiography (direct magnification, DIMA) compared to conventional 1.5-fold magnification radiography in evaluating the presence of absence of carcinoma at the surgical margins by detection of microcalcification. Results: In 50 specimen 2821 (1305 within 3 mm distance to the margins) microcalcifications were detected with the DIMA mammography technique compared to 1608 (446) microcalcifications with the conventional technique. This increased detection rate by DIMA-magnetification radiography was accompanied by a decreased specificity in comparison to the conventional magnification radiography (33,3% DIMA versus 83,3% conventional) regarding the evaluation of presence or absence of carcinoma at the surgical margins. Differentiating the microcalcifications into calcifications belonging to the suspicious cluster and those that are located outside the cluster led to an increase in specificity (83,3% DIMA versus 100% conventional). Conclusions: The efficacy of breast specimens radiography in evaluating the presence or absence of carcinoma at the surgical margins by detection of microcalcification is not improved by 4-fold magnification radiography (direct magnification, DIMA) compared to conventional 1.5-fold magnification radiography due to an increase in false-positive results. Analysis of the attachement of the microcalcifications to the cluster can improve the specificity. (orig.) [de

  5. Comparative study of magnetization in conventional and high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.; Grover, A.K.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paulose, P.L.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a comparative study of thermomagnetic history effects and anomalous variations in isothermal magnetization hysteresis curves in a High T compound (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) with two specimens of Nb are presented. They show that the former behaves like any hard type c II superconductor

  6. An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Anjana; Rao, Polsani Laxman; Vikas, B V J; Ravindranath, T; Paradkar, Archana; Malakondaiah, G

    2013-01-01

    Acrylic resins have been in the center stage of Prosthodontics for more than half a century. The flexural fatigue failure of denture base materials is the primary mode of clinical failure. Hence there is a need for superior physical and mechanical properties. This in vitro study compared the transverse strength of specimens of thermopressed injection-molded and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers and examined the morphology and microstructure of fractured acrylic specimens. The following denture base resins were examined: Brecrystal (Thermopressed injection-molded, modified polymethylmethacrylate) and Pyrax (compression molded, control group). Specimens of each material were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard D790-03 for flexural strength testing of reinforced plastics and subsequently examined under SEM. The data was analyzed with Student unpaired t test. Flexural strength of Brecrystal (82.08 ± 1.27 MPa) was significantly higher than Pyrax (72.76 ± 0.97 MPa). The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa). The scanning electron microscopy image of Brecrystal revealed a ductile fracture with crazing. The fracture pattern of control group specimens exhibited poorly defined crystallographic planes with a high degree of disorganization. Flexural strength of Brecrystal was significantly higher than the control group. Brecrystal showed a higher mean transverse strength value of 82.08 ± 1.27 MPa and a more homogenous pattern at microscopic level. Based on flexural strength properties and handling characteristics, Brecrystal may prove to be an useful alternative to conventional denture base resins.

  7. An in vitro study to compare the transverse strength of thermopressed and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Raut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Acrylic resins have been in the center stage of Prosthodontics for more than half a century. The flexural fatigue failure of denture base materials is the primary mode of clinical failure. Hence there is a need for superior physical and mechanical properties. Purpose: This in vitro study compared the transverse strength of specimens of thermopressed injection-molded and conventional compression-molded polymethylmethacrylate polymers and examined the morphology and microstructure of fractured acrylic specimens. Materials and Methods: The following denture base resins were examined: Brecrystal (Thermopressed injection-molded, modified polymethylmethacrylate and Pyrax (compression molded, control group. Specimens of each material were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard D790-03 for flexural strength testing of reinforced plastics and subsequently examined under SEM. The data was analyzed with Student unpaired t test. Results: Flexural strength of Brecrystal (82.08 ± 1.27 MPa was significantly higher than Pyrax (72.76 ± 0.97 MPa. The tested denture base materials fulfilled the requirements regarding flexural strength (>65 MPa. The scanning electron microscopy image of Brecrystal revealed a ductile fracture with crazing. The fracture pattern of control group specimens exhibited poorly defined crystallographic planes with a high degree of disorganization. Conclusion: Flexural strength of Brecrystal was significantly higher than the control group. Brecrystal showed a higher mean transverse strength value of 82.08 ± 1.27 MPa and a more homogenous pattern at microscopic level. Based on flexural strength properties and handling characteristics, Brecrystal may prove to be an useful alternative to conventional denture base resins.

  8. Comparative study of postoperative stability between conventional orthognathic surgery and a surgery-first orthognathic approach after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for skeletal class III correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Jung, Seo-Yun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yu, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the postoperative stability of conventional orthognathic surgery to a surgery-first orthognathic approach after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO). The study included 20 patients who underwent BSSRO for skeletal class III conventional orthognathic surgery and 20 patients who underwent a surgery-first orthognathic approach. Serial lateral cephalograms were analyzed to identify skeletal changes before surgery (T0), immediately after surgery (T1), and after surgery (T2, after 1 year or at debonding). The amount of relapse of the mandible in the conventional orthognathic surgery group from T1 to T2 was 2.23±0.92 mm ( P surgery-first orthognathic approach group from T1 to T2 was 3.49±1.71 mm ( P surgery-first orthognathic approach. Therefore, careful planning and skeletal stability should be considered in orthognathic surgery.

  9. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B4C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B 4 C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of ∼ 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B 4 C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ''Gelcasting'' developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ''gelled'' in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B 4 C and ''conventionally'' die-pressed B 4 C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B 4 C specimens are discussed

  10. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  11. Comparative Short-Term Clinical Outcomes of Mediastinum Tumor Excision Performed by Conventional VATS and Single-Port VATS: Is It Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Feng; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wen, Chih-Tsung; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ching-Yang; Chen, Wei-Hsun

    2015-11-01

    Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely applied recently. However, there are still only few reports describing its use in mediastinum tumor resection. We present the technique of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinum tumor resection and compare it with conventional VATS with regard to short-term outcome.We retrospectively enrolled 105 patients who received mediastinum surgery in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Sixteen patients received sternotomy or thoracotomy, 29 patients received single-port VATS, and 60 patients received conventional VATS (3 ports). The operative time, blood loss, postoperation day 1 pain score, discharge day pain score, and postoperative hospital stay were compared. In order to establish a well balanced cohort study, we also use propensity scores match (1:1) to compare the short-term clinical outcome in 2 groups.No operative deaths occurred in this study. Single-port VATS was associated with shorter operative time, lower postoperation day 1 pain score, and shorter postoperation hospital stay in our cohort study (P = 0.001, short-term outcome not inferior to conventional VATS in our cohort study. The long-term oncology outcome may require time and more enrolled patients to be further evaluated.

  12. A comparative study of ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloys prepared by conventional casting and casting under high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotadia, H.R., E-mail: hiren.kotadia@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Das, A. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Doernberg, E.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic investigation on the solidification microstructure of ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible system aided by computational thermodynamics calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparative study of conventional casting and casting under high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated the high effectiveness of ultrasound exposure during solidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cavitation on nucleation and the relative effects of cavitation and acoustic streaming on the dispersion of Sn-rich liquid phases have been explained from the experimental observation. Cavitation was found to promote fragmentation and dispersion of Sn-rich liquid leading to homogeneous dispersion of refined Sn phase. Microstructural modification was found to be contributed by cavitation and associated shockwave generation while bulk fluid flow under acoustic streaming was found to be less effective on the microstructure evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Globular and highly refined {alpha}-Al formed near the radiator through enhanced heterogeneous nucleation in contrast to dendritic {alpha}-Al observed in conventional solidification. - Abstract: A comparative study on the microstructure of four ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloys, guided by the recent thermodynamic assessment of the system, was carried out with specific focus on the soft Sn particulate distribution in hard Al-rich matrix in the presence and absence of ultrasonic irradiation during solidification. The results clearly demonstrate high effectiveness of ultrasonication in promoting significantly refined and homogeneously dispersed microstructure, probably aided by enhanced nucleation and droplet fragmentation under cavitation. While conventional solidification produced highly segregated Sn phase at the centre and bottom of Sn-rich alloy ingots, ultrasonic treatment produced effective dispersion irrespective of the alloy constitution in

  13. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a of the preparation and (b of the procedure as well as (c the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire.Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (=-78, <0.44 or in the quality (=-99, <0.34. With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (=-3.33, <0.002, =0.943 and in the total score (=-2.65, <0.011, =0.751, the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4% of students stated video instruction

  14. R-2000 home health study : Homeowner health in R-2000 and new conventional homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, A.

    2002-01-01

    A field study was conducted by Health Canada and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to evaluate self-reported health symptoms by residents of R-2000 and conventional homes in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It involved 52 energy efficient R-2000 and 50 conventionally built houses. Health Canada collected and analyzed data concerning changes in occupant health after moving into R-2000 houses and similar conventional houses. Definite trends in improvements of respiratory symptoms of occupants in R-2000 houses were revealed, compared to the results obtained for occupants of conventional houses. New occupants of R-2000 houses reported significant improvement in indoor air quality in 94 per cent of cases, while only 77 per cent of conventional homeowners reported similar results. Fifty six per cent of the occupants of R-2000 homes reported a general improvement in their health, compared to 32 per cent in conventional houses. The testing of houses in other regions is being planned by Health Canada. tabs

  15. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federkeil Gero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem-based Learning (PBL has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Methods Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke and conventional curricula. Results Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p Conclusion Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  16. The Effects of Asset Management and Profitability on Stock Returns: A Comparative Study between Conventional and Islamic Stock Markets in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Midesia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at empirically examining whether there are differences in stock returns between conventional and Islamic stock returns In Indonesia for the period 2010-2013. This study also attempts to explore the effect of asset management and profitability both stock returns in Indonesia. Annual pooled data gathered from the annual financial reports of 100 conventional and Islamic stock returns, which were published by the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2010 to 2013 were used and analyzed by using the independent t-test and panel multivariate regression analysis. The result shows that there was no difference in stock returns between the conventional and Islamic stock markets. Additionally, the study documents that only profitability, which is measured by market ratio, was found to have an influence on the conventional stock markets. Meanwhile, as for Islamic stock market, only management of assets was found to have a significant effect on the stock return. These findings imply that investors who are investing in both Islamic and conventional markets would gain similar returns. However, in predicting and stabilizing the stock markets, both investors and policy makers should focus on the profitability for the conventional and management of assets for the Islamic stock market.

  17. Comparative study of nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cotton grown under conventional and fertigation practices using 15N methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization and irrigation methods are the key factors of yield increase. With proper management of these two factors a good production and protection of the environment could be attained at the same time. Field experiments were carried out at Hama (Tezeen's Agricultural Research Station) for four consecutive years 1995=1998. The objectives of this study were: Assessment of nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) under conventional and fertigation practices; Nitrogen requirements of cotton crop grown under fertigation practices: Comparative study of water use efficiency (WUE), and seed cotton yield of cotton crop grown under conventional and drip irrigation. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates for the fertigated cotton crop (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 ). While of the surface irrigated cotton treatment only one recommended rate by MAAR was applied (180 kg N ha -1 ). Irrigation methods and N treatments were arranged in RBD. The soil water content and available soil nitrogen were monitored according to the standard procedures. The results revealed that fertigation of cotton under the given circumstances improved water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, seed cotton yield, dry matter production, earliness and in some cases lint properties. Under fertigation practices 35-55% of the irrigation water was saved in comparison with surface irrigated cotton grown under the same condition. The seed cotton yield was increased by more than 50% relatively to the surface irrigated cotton. Furthermore, water use efficiency of the fertigated cotton was increased by almost 90 %. (author)

  18. Comparative performance of conventional OPC concrete and HPC designed by densified mixture design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trong-Phuoc; Hwang, Chao-Lung; Yang, Shu-Ti

    2017-12-01

    This experimental study evaluated the performance of normal ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC) that were designed by the conventional method (ACI) and densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA) method, respectively. Engineering properties and durability performance of both the OPC and HPC samples were studied using the tests of workability, compressive strength, water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and electrical surface resistivity. Test results show that the HPC performed good fresh property and further showed better performance in terms of strength and durability as compared to the OPC.

  19. Navigated versus conventional total knee arthroplasty: A prospective study at three years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, C; Sanz-Sainz, M; Revenga-Giertych, C; Hernández-Vaquero, D; Fernández-Carreira, J M; Albareda-Albareda, J; Castillo-Palacios, A; Ranera-Garcia, M

    2018-03-28

    Computer-assisted surgery application in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has shown more accurate implant alignment compared with conventional instrumentation and is associated with more homogeneous alignment results. Although longer implant survival and superior clinical outcomes should be expected from navigated TKA, currently available evidence does not support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to compare navigated TKA with conventional TKA regarding clinical and radiological outcomes after a 3-year follow-up under the hypothesis that navigated TKA would provide better outcomes than conventional TKA. In a prospective multicentre study, 119 patients underwent navigated TKA and 80 patients received conventional instrumentation. Patients were evaluated at the baseline and at postoperative months 3, 12, 24, and 36. Analysis included the American Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short Form-12 (SF12) Health Survey, and radiographic assessment. All clinical scores improved significantly for all patients during the follow-up but were significantly better in the navigation group. The percentage of patients showing a mechanical axis between 3° of varus and 3° of valgus was significantly higher in the ATR group (93%) than in the conventional TKA group (71%) (P<.01). The use of computer-assisted surgery in TKA provides more accurate mechanical alignment and superior short-term functional outcomes compared to conventional TKA. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep Parameters in Short Daily versus Conventional Dialysis: An Actigraphic Study

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    Ludimila D’Avila e Silva Allemand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have observed worse sleep quality in patients undergoing conventional dialysis as compared to daily dialysis. Our aim was to compare the sleep parameters of patients undergoing daily or conventional dialysis using an objective measure (actigraphy. This cross-sectional study was performed in three dialysis centers, including a convenience sample (nonprobability sampling of 73 patients (36 patients on daily hemodialysis and 37 patients on conventional hemodialysis. The following parameters were evaluated: nocturnal total sleep time (NTST, expressed in minutes; wake time after sleep onset (WASO, expressed in minutes; number of nighttime awakenings; daytime total sleep time (DTST, expressed in minutes; number of daytime naps; and nighttime percentage of sleep (% sleep. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory were also administered. The mean age was 53.4  ±  17.0 years. After adjustment of confounding factors using multiple linear regression analysis, no difference in actigraphy parameters was detected between the groups: NTST (p=0.468, WASO (p=0.88, % sleep (p=0.754, awakenings (p=0.648, naps (p=0.414, and DTST (p=0.805. Different from previous studies employing qualitative analysis, the present assessment did not observe an influence of hemodialysis modality on objective sleep parameters in chronic renal patients.

  1. Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Atkinson, Fiona S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-07-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are intrinsically insulin resistant and have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Weight loss improves risk factors, but the optimal diet composition is unknown. Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets are recommended without evidence of their clinical effectiveness. We compared changes in insulin sensitivity and clinical outcomes after similar weight losses after consumption of a low-GI diet compared with a conventional healthy diet in women with PCOS. We assigned overweight and obese premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 96) to consume either an ad libitum low-GI diet or a macronutrient-matched healthy diet and followed the women for 12 mo or until they achieved a 7% weight loss. We compared changes in whole-body insulin sensitivity, which we assessed using the insulin sensitivity index derived from the oral-glucose-tolerance test (ISI(OGTT)); glucose tolerance; body composition; plasma lipids; reproductive hormones; health-related quality of life; and menstrual cycle regularity. The attrition rate was high in both groups (49%). Among completers, ISI(OGTT) improved more with the low-GI diet than with the conventional healthy diet (mean +/- SEM: 2.2 +/- 0.7 compared with 0.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; P = 0.03). There was a significant diet-metformin interaction (P = 0.048), with greater improvement in ISI(OGTT) among women prescribed both metformin and the low-GI diet. Compared with women who consumed the conventional healthy diet, more women who consumed the low-GI diet showed improved menstrual cyclicity (95% compared with 63%, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the biochemical measures, only serum fibrinogen concentrations showed significant differences between diets (P < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first objective evidence to justify the use of low-GI diets in the management of PCOS.

  2. Effects of persistent insecticides on beneficial soil arthropod in conventional fields compared to organic fields, puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarashan, Padmavathy; Gopalswamy, Poyyamoli

    2013-07-15

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides had a significant effect on non-targeted arthropods order- Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Hymenoptera and Thysonoptera were suppressed after pesticides/insecticides spraying. Bio-insecticides in organic fields had a non-significant effect on non targeted species and they started to increase in abundance after 7 days of spraying, whereas insecticide treatment in conventional fields had a significant long-term effect on non targeted arthropods and short term effect on pests/insects, it started to increase after 21 days of the spraying. These results indicate that insecticide treatment kept non targeted arthropods at low abundance. In conclusion, organic farming does not significantly affected the beneficial-non targeted arthropods biodiversity, whereas preventive insecticide application in conventional fields had significant negative effects on beneficial non targeted arthropods. Therefore, conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications, unless pest densities reach the thresholds and more desirably can switch to organic farming practices.

  3. To Compare the Effect of Pre and Post Weight Bearing Anxiety, Depression in Conventional and Modular Prosthesis on Unilateral Transtibial Amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of anxiety and depression on unilateral trans tibial amputees those who are using conventional and modular patellar tendon bearing (PTB prosthesis with stump exercises. Material and Methods: A sample of 40 persons with below knee amputation who were trained to wear prosthesis were studied with an experimental comparative study design. Patients who were admitted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy and Research Centre Mangalore, (N=150 who underwent unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and other amputations between August 2009 - December 2011. To find out peri and postoperative prosthetic fitting, anxiety and depression level of transtibial amputees who wear conventional and modular PTB prosthesis. 3 years of experimental comparative study reveals that the outcome measures of peri and post-operative anxiety and depression level while using conventional PTB prosthesis with stump exercises and modular PTB prosthesis with stump exercises on unilateral transtibial amputees. Results: The unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with modular prosthesis along with stump exercises group patients anxiety and depression levels are reduced as compared to the unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with conventional PTB prosthesis along with stump exercises. There is no significant difference seen in both the groups while giving stump exercises alone. Conclusion: The unilateral transtibial amputees who were trained with modular prosthesis along with stump exercises group, patient’s anxiety and depression levels are reduced drastically.

  4. Large-field image intensifiers versus conventional chest radiography: ROC study with simulated interstitial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.L.; Chakraborty, D.P.; Waes, P.F.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two image intensifier tubes have recently been introduced whose large imaging area makes them suitable for chest imaging (Phillips Pulmodiagnost TLX slit II and Siemens TX 57 large entrance field II). Both modalities present a 10 x 10-cm hard copy image to the radiologist. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve study with simulated interstitial disease was performed to compare the image quality of these image intensifiers with conventional chest images. The relative ranking in terms of decreasing ROC areas was Siemens, conventional, and Philips. Compared with conventional imaging, none of the differences in ROC curve area were statistically significant at the 5% level

  5. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  6. A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of conventional training and virtual reality simulation in the skills acquisition of junior dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Frank; Keogh, Paul; McDonald, Ailbhe; Hussey, David

    2003-02-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) in the training of operative dentistry is a recent innovation and little research has been published on its efficacy compared to conventional training methods. To evaluate possible benefits, junior undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1 as taught by conventional means only; group 2 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement (with access to a human instructor for operative advice); and group 3 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement, but without instructor evaluation/advice, which was only supplied via the VR-associated software. At the end of the research period, all groups executed two class 1 preparations that were evaluated blindly by 'expert' trainers, under traditional criteria (outline, retention, smoothness, depth, wall angulation and cavity margin index). Analyses of resulting scores indicated a lack of significant differences between the three groups except for scores for the category of 'outline form', for group 2, which produced significantly lower (i.e. better) scores than the conventionally trained group. A statistical comparison between scores from two 'expert' examiners indicated lack of agreement, despite identical written and visual criteria being used for evaluation by both. Both examiners, however, generally showed similar trends in evaluation. An anonymous questionnaire suggested that students recognized the benefits of VR training (e.g. ready access to assessment, error identification and how they can be corrected), but the majority felt that it would not replace conventional training methods (95%), although participants recognized the potential for development of VR systems in dentistry. The most common reasons cited for the preference of conventional training were excessive critical feedback (55%), lack of personal contact (50%) and technical hardware difficulties (20%) associated with VR

  7. Additive Complex Ayurvedic Treatment in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Compared to Conventional Standard Care Alone: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Pilot Study (KAFA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S. Kessler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS is a challenging condition for health care systems worldwide. Only limited trial data is available for FMS for outcomes of complex treatment interventions of complementary and integrative (CIM approaches. Methods. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized feasibility study that compared outcomes in 21 patients treated with Ayurveda with those of 11 patients treated with a conventional approach at the end of a two-week inpatient hospital stay. Primary outcome was the impact of fibromyalgia on patients as assessed by the FIQ. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain intensity, pain perception, depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep. Follow-up assessments were done after 6 months. Results. At 2 weeks, there were comparable and significant improvements in the FIQ and for most of secondary outcomes in both groups with no significant in-between-group differences. The beneficial effects for both treatment groups were partly maintained for the main outcome and a number of secondary outcomes at the 6-month followup, again with no significant in-between-group differences. Discussion. The findings of this feasibility study suggest that Ayurvedic therapy is noninferior to conventional treatment in patients with severe FMS. Since Ayurveda was only used as add-on treatment, RCTs on Ayurveda alone are warranted to increase model validity. This trial is registered with NCT01389336.

  8. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Abduh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of vedolizumab compared with conventional therapy for ulcerative colitis patients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson MR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Michele R Wilson,1 Ismail Azzabi Zouraq,2 Helene Chevrou-Severac,2 Ross Selby,3 Matthew C Kerrigan4 1RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Takeda UK Ltd., Bucks, UK; 4PHMR Limited, London, UK Objective: To examine the clinical and economic impact of vedolizumab compared with conventional therapy in the treatment of moderately-to-severely active ulcerative colitis (UC in the UK based on results of the GEMINI I trial. Methods: A decision-analytic model in Microsoft Excel was used to compare vedolizumab with conventional therapy (aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators for the treatment of patients with UC in the UK. We considered the following three populations: the overall intent-to-treat population from the GEMINI I trial, patients naïve to anti-TNF therapy, and those who had failed anti-TNF-therapy. Population characteristics and efficacy data were obtained from the GEMINI I trial. Other inputs (eg, unit costs, probability of surgery, mortality were obtained from published literature. Time horizon was a lifetime horizon, with costs and outcomes discounted by 3.5% per year. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to measure the impact of parameter uncertainty. Results: Vedolizumab had incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of £4,095/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY, £4,423/QALY, and £5,972/QALY compared with conventional therapy in the intent-to-treat, anti-TNF-naïve, and anti-TNF-failure populations, respectively. Patients on vedolizumab accrued more QALYs while incurring more costs than patients on conventional therapy. The sensitivity analyses showed that the results were most sensitive to induction response and transition probabilities for each treatment. Conclusion: The results suggest that vedolizumab results in more QALYs and may be a cost-effective treatment option compared with conventional therapy for both anti

  10. Comparison of conventional study model measurements and 3D digital study model measurements from laser scanned dental impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahani, F.; Jazaldi, F.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    The field of orthodontics is always evolving,and this includes the use of innovative technology. One type of orthodontic technology is the development of three-dimensional (3D) digital study models that replace conventional study models made by stone. This study aims to compare the mesio-distal teeth width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurements between a 3D digital study model and a conventional study model. Twelve sets of upper arch dental impressions were taken from subjects with non-crowding teeth. The impressions were taken twice, once with alginate and once with polivinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions used in the conventional study model and the polivinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to obtain the 3D digital study model. Scanning was performed using a laser triangulation scanner device assembled by the School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics at the Institut Teknologi Bandung and David Laser Scan software. For the conventional model, themesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width were measured using digital calipers; in the 3D digital study model they were measured using software. There were no significant differences between the mesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurments between the conventional and 3D digital study models (p>0.05). Thus, measurements using 3D digital study models are as accurate as those obtained from conventional study models

  11. Energy input in conventional and organic paddy rice production in Missouri and Italy: A comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Johnson, Thomas G; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The expected decline in availability of fossil fuels over the next several decades, either because of resource depletion or because of limits on carbon emissions, is leading to a keen interest in finding more sustainable energy sources. For this reason, it is useful to assess the energy footprint of alternative agricultural systems for crops and animal production and to identify potential transition scenarios to systems largely based on renewable energy. The present work aims to assess for the first time a comparative analysis of energy inputs in rice production systems in Southern Europe (Piemonte, Italy) and in North America (Missouri, USA). A total of twelve rice farms, either conventional or organic, were selected, collecting detailed data on direct (fuel and electricity) and indirect (machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds) energy inputs. While energy input of conventional farms ranged from 3.5 to 7 MJ/kg paddy rice, organic farming could reduce inputs by more than 50% with only 8% yield decrease. A significant reduction in fuel or electricity use can be achieved also with no till and surface irrigation. The use of renewable energy sources, as already practiced by some farms, could more than cover their electrical energy requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopic undersurface rotator cuff repair versus conventional arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair - Comparable results at 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Benjamin Fu Hong; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Yeo, William; Lie, Denny Tijauw Tjoen; Chang, Paul Chee Cheng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study is to compare the improvement in clinical outcomes after conventional arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair and arthroscopic undersurface rotator cuff repair. A consecutive series of 120 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was analysed. Sixty-one patients underwent conventional double-row rotator cuff repair and 59 patients underwent undersurface rotator cuff repair. Several clinical outcomes, including numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), constant shoulder score (CSS), Oxford shoulder score (OSS) and University of California Los Angeles shoulder score (UCLASS), were prospectively recorded by a trained healthcare professional preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Comparing both groups, there were no differences in age, gender and preoperative NPRS, CSS, OSS and UCLASS. However, the tear size was 0.7 ± 0.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-1.1) cm larger in the conventional group ( p = 0.002). There was no difference in the improvement of NPRS, CSS, OSS and UCLASS at all time points of follow-up, that is, at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The duration of operation was shorter by 35 ± 3 (95% CI 28-42) min in the undersurface group ( p rotator cuff repair and conventional arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair showed marked improvements in clinical scores when compared preoperatively, and there was no difference in improvements between both groups. Arthroscopic undersurface rotator cuff repair is a faster technique compared to the conventional arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair.

  13. A comparative clinical study of the failure rate of orthodontic brackets bonded with two adhesive systems: conventional and self-etching primer (SEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gladys Cristina; Tortamano, André; Lopes, Luiz Vicente de Moura; Catharino, Priscilla Campanatti Chibebe; Morea, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the clinical performance of orthodontic brackets bonded with Transbond adhesive paste after two primer systems: a two-stage conventional system (acid etching + Transbond XT adhesive primer) and a single-stage self-etching primer (SEP) (Transbond Plus). The sample comprised 480 metal brackets bonded to the teeth of 24 consecutive patients treated for 36 to 48 months. A split-mouth design was used for bonding, and both systems were used in each patient. Bracket failure rates for each system were analyzed; and failure causes as reported by the patients and the quadrant of teeth for which brackets failed were recorded. The conventional system group had a failure rate of 5.41%, whereas the rate for SEP was 4.58%. In this group, there were 5 failures (38.4%) in the right maxillary quadrant, 2 (15.4%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 4 (30.8%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 2 (15.4%) in the left mandibular quadrant. In the SEP group, there were 4 (36.4%) failures in the right maxillary quadrant, 1 (9%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 3 (27.3%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 3 (27.3%) in the left mandibular quadrant. Results of descriptive statistical analysis and odds ratio did not show any significant differences between rates (p = 0.67). The clinical efficiency of SEP was similar to that of the conventional system.

  14. Conventional and Indigenous Biodiversity Conservation Approach: A Comparative Study of Jachie Sacred Grove and Nkrabea Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional managed forests and sacred groves are seldom assessed to determine their effectiveness in biodiversity conservation strategies. This study investigated tree and insect diversity in Jachie sacred grove (JSG and Nkrabea forest reserve (NFR in Ashanti region, Ghana. The study area constituted eight plots of 50 × 50 m along two 300 m long transects. Insects were sampled in eight pitfall traps, diagonally between the transects. Out of 150 individuals, 13 species in NFR and 15 species from JSG were registered. Celtis mildbraedii was the most dominant species in NFR = 43.18% and JSG = 23.58%. Mean DBH showed a significant relationship with basal area in NFR and JSG. Tree diversity and richness were higher in JSG (H′ = 1.43–2.3 ± 0.10; D = 1.8–3.69 ± 0.30 compared to NFR (H′ = 0.86–1.56 ± 0.09; D = 1.1–2.3 ± 0.57. However, insect diversity was higher in NFR (H′ = 1.34 ± 0.10 than in JSG (H′ = 0.5 ± 0.005. Camponotus furvus and Pachycondyla tarsata were most abundant in JSG and NFR, respectively. These findings will help conservationists work closely with traditional authorities in protecting sacred groves as key biodiversity hotspots.

  15. A comparative study of the metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity and inflammatory response between organically and conventionally managed dairy cattle during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2014-09-01

    The number of organically managed cattle (OMC) within the European Union has increased tremendously in the last decade. However, there are still some concerns about animals under this farming system meeting their dietary requirements for milk production. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic adaptations to the onset of lactation in three different herds, one conventional and two organic ones. Twenty-two conventionally managed cattle (CMC) and 20 from each organic farm were sampled throughout the periparturient period. These samplings were grouped into four different stages: (i) far-off dry, (ii) close-up dry, (iii) fresh and (iv) peak of lactation and compared among them. In addition, the results of periparturient animals were also compared within each management type with a control group (animals between the 4th and 5th months of pregnancy). Metabolic profiles were used to assess the health status of the herds, along with the quantification of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, insulin and the calculation of different surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity. Generalised linear mixed models with repeated measurements were used to study the effect of the stage, management type or their interaction on the serum variables studied. The prevalence of subclinical ketosis was higher in OMC, although they showed better insulin sensitivity, a lower degree of inflammation and less liver injury, without a higher risk of macromineral deficiencies. Therefore, attention should be paid on organic farms to the nutritional management of cows around the time of calving in order to prevent the harmful consequences of excessive negative energy balance. Moreover, it must be taken into account that most of the common practices used to treat this condition in CMC are not allowed on a systematic basis in OMC.

  16. A comparative Thermal Analysis of conventional parabolic receiver tube and Cavity model tube in a Solar Parabolic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Ramakrishna, P.; Sangavi, S.

    2018-02-01

    Improvements in heating technology with solar energy is gaining focus, especially solar parabolic collectors. Solar heating in conventional parabolic collectors is done with the help of radiation concentration on receiver tubes. Conventional receiver tubes are open to atmosphere and loose heat by ambient air currents. In order to reduce the convection losses and also to improve the aperture area, we designed a tube with cavity. This study is a comparative performance behaviour of conventional tube and cavity model tube. The performance formulae were derived for the cavity model based on conventional model. Reduction in overall heat loss coefficient was observed for cavity model, though collector heat removal factor and collector efficiency were nearly same for both models. Improvement in efficiency was also observed in the cavity model’s performance. The approach towards the design of a cavity model tube as the receiver tube in solar parabolic collectors gave improved results and proved as a good consideration.

  17. Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlett, Christopher L; Doll, Hinnerk; Dahmen, Janosch; Polacsek, Ole; Federkeil, Gero; Fischer, Martin R; Bamberg, Fabian; Butzlaff, Martin

    2010-01-14

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements. Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke) and conventional curricula. Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female) and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female) were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p learning/working" (Delta + 0.57), "Psycho-social competence" (Delta + 0.56), "Teamwork" (Delta + 0.39) and "Problem-solving skills" (Delta + 0.36), whereas "Research competence" (Delta--1.23) and "Business competence" (Delta--1.44) in the PBL-based curriculum needed improvement. Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  18. Adjuvant radiotherapy for cutaneous melanoma: Comparing hypofractionation to conventional fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Daniel T.; Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine locoregional control after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for cutaneous melanoma and compare outcomes between conventional fractionation and hypofractionation. Methods and Materials: Between January 1980 and June 2004, 56 patients with high-risk disease were treated with adjuvant RT. Indications for RT included: recurrent disease, cervical lymph node involvement, lymph nodes >3 cm, more than three lymph nodes involved, extracapsular extension, gross residual disease, close or positive margins, or satellitosis. Hypofractionation was used in 41 patients (73%) and conventional fractionation was used in 15 patients (27%). Results: The median age was 61 years (21->90). The median follow-up among living patients was 4.4 years (range, 0.6-14.4 years). The primary site was located in the head and neck in 49 patients (87%) and below the clavicles in 7 patients (13%). There were 7 in-field locoregional failures (12%), 3 out-of-field regional failures (5%), and 24 (43%) distant failures. The 5-year in-field locoregional control (ifLRC) and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM) rates were 87% and 43%, respectively. The 5-year cause-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) was 57% and 46%, respectively. The only factor associated with ifLRC was satellitosis (p = 0.0002). Nodal involvement was the only factor associated with FFDM (p = 0.0007), CSS (p = 0.0065), and OS (p = 0.016). Two patients (4%) who experienced severe late complications, osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone and radiation plexopathy, and both received hypofractionation (5%). Conclusions: Although surgery and adjuvant RT provides excellent locoregional control, distant metastases remain the major cause of mortality. Hypofractionation and conventional fractionation are equally efficacious

  19. A comparative analysis of optical and conventional axiography for the analysis of temporomandibular joint movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Arne; Seemann, Rudolf; Schicho, Kurt; Ewers, Rolf; Piehslinger, Eva

    2003-11-01

    Currently available systems for pantographic tracing are heavy, bulky, and can interfere with jaw movements. This study describes the development and clinical application of optoelectronic axiography designed to overcome system inherent problems of conventional bulky frame-based registration axiography. The purpose of this study is the comparison of the newly developed system and conventional axiography. Three-dimensional recordings of condylar pathways were acquired by means of infrared digitizers interfaced to newly developed software. Ten distinct curves in each of 10 subjects were recorded by synchronous optoelectronic axiography (100 tracings) and by conventional axiography (100 tracings). Usually, two 3-dimensional (3D) light weight sensors are provisionally fixed to the facial surface of a maxillary and mandibular incisor by means of a single orthodontic bracket. To allow for direct comparison of all 100 pairs of curves in this study, the 3D sensors of the optoelectronic system were attached to the bulky double face-bow system of the axiograph. The conformity of tracings (protrusion, opening/closing, mediotrusion, and laterotrusion) was evaluated by means of correlation analysis. Resulting axiographic recordings from both systems were evaluated by 3 experts (dentists, experienced in axiographic investigations, who were blind to the source of the data), focusing on standardized qualitative criteria of the recordings (homogeneity/smoothness, pathway-characteristics, excursion, and left/right-symmetry). After testing for normal distribution of the ratio scaled data (length of pathway, horizontal condylar inclination [HCI], Bennett angle) with the Kolmogoroff-Smirnov test (alpha=.01), axiographic curves were quantitatively compared by means of an intraclass correlation coefficient ([ICC] alpha =.01). The Wilcoxon test (alpha=.01) was used to evaluate equivalence of ordinally scaled values (homogeneity of tracings) and Cohen's Kappa was used to compare excursion

  20. Remifentanil-propofol analgo-sedation shortens duration of ventilation and length of ICU stay compared to a conventional regimen: A centre randomised, cross-over, open-label study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Rozendaal (Frans); P.E. Spronk (Peter); F.F. Snellen (Ferdinand); A. Schoen (Adri); A.R.H. van Zanten (Arthur); N.A. Foudraine (Norbert); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); J. Bakker (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Compare duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), weaning time, ICU-LOS (ICU-LOS), efficacy and safety of remifentanil-based regimen with conventional sedation and analgesia. Design: Centre randomised, open-label, crossover, 'real-life' study. Setting: 15 Dutch hospitals.

  1. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduction for the conventional vehicle. Generally, light weighting has the potential to lower vehicle costs, however, the results are very sensitive to parameters affecting lifetime fuel costs for conventional and battery costs for electric vehicles. Based on current technology cost estimates it is shown that the optimal amount of primary mass reduction minimizing total costs is similar for conventional and electric vehicles and ranges from 22% to 39%, depending on vehicle range and overall use patterns. The difference between the optimal solutions minimizing manufacturing versus total costs is higher for conventional than battery electric vehicles.

  2. Prospective study of irradiation and magnification on a pelvic imaging: EOS system versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The pelvic x-ray is essential for the orthopedic practise. Recently, EOS system has been developed with technology to limit irradiation and theoretically not create magnification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOS system realizing a pelvic x-ray. All patients who underwent hip replacement between September 2014 and April 2015 have benefited pelvis radiograph with the 2 techniques, after surgery. The size of the head was measured with both techniques and compared to the established size. Irradiation of each technique was listed. A correlation study was carried out with the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. Irradiation was significantly greater with conventional radiography than with the EOS system: PDS of conventional radiography = 15.0 (10.5; 25.2) against the EOS system PDS = 8.2 (7.1; 9.7), p ≤0.0001. It was found a significant correlation between BMI and irradiation, particularly with conventional radiography. About expansion, the EOS system not create any except in 4 cases, unlike the conventional radiograph. The EOS system significantly decreases irradiation in all patients, compared to the conventional radiography, and it do not create magnification when realizing a pelvic x-ray, even in overweight patients [fr

  3. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. A comparative clinical study of the failure rate of orthodontic brackets bonded with two adhesive systems: conventional and self-etching primer (SEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Cristina Dominguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the clinical performance of orthodontic brackets bonded with Transbond adhesive paste after two priming systems: a two-stage conventional system (acid etching + Transbond XT adhesive primer and a singlestage self-etching primer (SEP (Transbond Plus. METHODS: The sample comprised 480 metal brackets bonded to the teeth of 24 consecutive patients treated for 36 to 48 months. A split-mouth design was used for bonding, and both systems were used in each patient. Bracket failure rates for each system were analyzed; and failure causes as reported by the patients and the quadrant of teeth for which brackets failed were recorded. RESULTS: The conventional system group had a failure rate of 5.41%, whereas the rate for SEP was 4.58%. In this group, there were 5 failures (38.4% in the right maxillary quadrant, 2 (15.4% in the left maxillary quadrant, 4 (30.8% in the right mandibular quadrant, and 2 (15.4% in the left mandibular quadrant. In the SEP group, there were 4 (36.4% failures in the right maxillary quadrant, 1 (9% in the left maxillary quadrant, 3 (27.3% in the right mandibular quadrant, and 3 (27.3% in the left mandibular quadrant. Results of descriptive statistical analysis and odds ratio did not show any significant differences between rates (p = 0.67. CONCLUSION: The clinical efficiency of SEP was similar to that of the conventional system.

  5. ANALISIS KUALITAS AUDIT TERHADAP MANAJEMEN LABA AKUNTANSI: STUDI PENDEKATAN COMPOSITE MEASURE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL MEASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Herusetya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of audit quality on earnings management behavior using a variety of audit quality proxies, either using a single proxy or a joint test of some proxies of audit quality. The study proposed a new composite measure of audit quality called the Audit Quality Metric Score (AQMS, which represents the dimension of competence and independence of audit quality. The study compared the validity of the conventional and the multidimensional measurement of audit quality. With a sample of 1,152 firm-years panel data of non-financial companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX for the year 1999-2007, the study found a negative effect of audit quality over the accrual earnings management, whether using conventional or multidimensional measures of audit quality. These findings are consistent with the previous findings. The study did not find evidence that composite measure of audit quality has higher validity than conventional measures. Rather, we found evidence that Big 4 as a single proxy of audit quality has higher validity compared to the other proxies or using AQMS. The findings of this study are robust due to sensitivity test that support the main findings.

  6. The comparative evaluation of patients′ body dry weight under hemodialysis using two methods: Bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Alijanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dry weight (DW is an important concept related to patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conventional method seems to be time consuming and operator dependent. Bio impedance analysis (BIA is a new and simple method reported to be an accurate way for estimating DW. In this study, we aimed to compare the conventional estimation of DW with measuring DW by BIA. Materials and Methods: This study involved 130 uremic patients, performed in Isfahan, Iran. DW was calculated by both conventional (CDW and BIA (BIADW method and results were compared based on different grouping factors including sex, underlying cause of renal failure (RF (diabetic RF and non-diabetic RF, body mass index (BMI status, and sessions of hemodialysis. We also calculated the difference between DWs of 2 methods (DW diff = CDW-BIADW. Results: The mean of BIADW was significantly lower than CDW (57.20 ± 1.82 vs 59.36 ± 1.77, P value < 0.001. After grouping cases according to the underlying cause, BMI, sex, and dialysis sessions BIADW was significantly lower than CDW. Conclusion: Based on the combination of problems with CDW measurement which are corrected by BIA, and more clinical reliability of CDW, we concluded that although conventional method is a time-consuming and operator-dependent way to assess DW, DW could be estimated by combining both of these methods by finding the mathematic correlation between these methods.

  7. Risk of iron overload is decreased in beating heart coronary artery surgery compared to conventional bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, S; Koh, T W; Pepper, J R; Gutteridge, J M

    2001-11-29

    Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CCPB) increases the iron loading of plasma transferrin often to a state of plasma iron overload, with the presence of low molecular mass iron. Such iron is a potential risk factor for oxidative stress and microbial virulence. Here we assess 'off-pump' coronary artery surgery on the beating heart for changes in plasma iron chemistry. Seventeen patients undergoing cardiac surgery using the 'Octopus' myocardial wall stabilisation device were monitored at five time points for changes in plasma iron chemistry. This group was further divided into those (n=9) who had one- or two- (n=8) vessel grafts, and compared with eight patients undergoing conventional coronary artery surgery. Patients undergoing beating heart surgery had significantly lower levels of total plasma non-haem iron, and a decreased percentage saturation of their transferrin at all time points compared to conventional bypass patients. Plasma iron overload occurred in only one patient undergoing CCPB. Beating heart surgery appears to decrease red blood cell haemolysis, and tissue damage during the operative procedures and thereby significantly decreases the risk of plasma iron overload associated with conventional bypass.

  8. Recurrent unexplained palpitations (RUP) study comparison of implantable loop recorder versus conventional diagnostic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giada, Franco; Gulizia, Michele; Francese, Maura; Croci, Francesco; Santangelo, Lucio; Santomauro, Maurizio; Occhetta, Eraldo; Menozzi, Carlo; Raviele, Antonio

    2007-05-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic yield and the costs of implantable loop recorder (ILR) with those of the conventional strategy in patients with unexplained palpitations. In patients with unexplained palpitations, especially in those with infrequent symptoms, the conventional strategy, including short-term ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and electrophysiological study, sometimes fails to establish a diagnosis. We studied 50 patients with infrequent (1 min) palpitations. Before enrollment, patients had a negative initial evaluation, including history, physical examination, and ECG. Patients were randomized either to conventional strategy (24-h Holter recording, a 4-week period of ambulatory ECG monitoring with an external recorder, and electrophysiological study) (n = 24) or to ILR implantation with 1-year monitoring (n = 26). Hospital costs of the 2 strategies were calculated. A diagnosis was obtained in 5 patients in the conventional strategy group, and in 19 subjects in the ILR group (21% vs. 73%, p < 0.001). Despite the higher initial cost, the cost per diagnosis in the ILR group was lower than in the conventional strategy group (euro 3,056 +/- euro 363 vs. euro 6,768 +/- euro 6,672, p = 0.012). In subjects without severe heart disease and with infrequent palpitations, ILR is a safe and more cost-effective diagnostic approach than conventional strategy.

  9. The impact of efficiency on discretionary loans/finance loss provision: A comparative study of Islamic and conventional banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekri Ali Shawtari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether there is a significance difference between the practices of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions between Islamic and conventional banks. Same time, the paper tests whether the efficiency may influence the behaviour of discretionary loans/finance loss provisions, taken into consideration other micro and macro variables. The study utilizes panel data runs over 1996–2011 with unbalanced observations for 16 banks, of which 4 Islamic banks. In order to achieve research objectives, the two-stage approach is adopted to examine the factors that may influence the behaviour of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions with specific emphasize on the efficiency. Furthermore, efficiency scores are estimated using Data Envelopment Windows Analysis. The findings of the research show that Islamic banks employ the discretionary loans/finance loss provisions to manage their earnings. However, the magnitude of discretion of accruals is significantly lower than conventional banks with exception for foreign banks which have reported lower discretionary loans/finance loss provisions than Islamic banks. Moreover, the analysis showed that efficiency affects the overall discretionary loans/finance loss provision positively, although this impact is shaped differently for Islamic and conventional banks.

  10. [A comparative study between the Vitek YBC and Microscan Walk Away RYID automated systems with conventional phenotypic methods for the identification of yeasts of clinical interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mercedes Panizol, Maria; Mazzone, Marja; Delia Pequeneze, Maria; Reviakina, Vera

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the identification of clin- ically relevant yeasts by the Vitek YBC and Microscan Walk Away RYID automated methods with conventional phenotypic methods. One hundred and ninety three yeast strains isolated from clinical samples and five controls strains were used. All the yeasts were identified by the automated methods previously mentioned and conventional phenotypic methods such as carbohydrate assimilation, visualization of microscopic morphology on corn meal agar and the use of chromogenic agar. Variables were assessed by 2 x 2 contingency tables, McNemar's Chi square, the Kappa index, and concordance values were calculated, as well as major and minor errors for the automated methods. Yeasts were divided into two groups: (1) frequent isolation and (2) rare isolation. The Vitek YBC and Microscan Walk Away RYID systems were concordant in 88.4 and 85.9% respectively, when compared to conventional phenotypic methods. Although both automated systems can be used for yeasts identification, the presence of major and minor errors indicates the possibility of misidentifications; therefore, the operator of this equipment must use in parallel, phenotypic tests such as visualization of microscopic morphology on corn meal agar and chromogenic agar, especially against infrequently isolated yeasts. Automated systems are a valuable tool; however, the expertise and judgment of the microbiologist are an important strength to ensure the quality of the results.

  11. Storage stability study for margarines produced by enzymatically interesterified fats compared to the margarines by the conventional methods I. Physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    was more similar to that of the physically mixed fat than that of the margarine from the chemically randomized fat, which had less color. Crystal transformation was accelerated at high storage temperature. Crystal size was not only related to the types of crystals, but also to the driving force......In this study, margarine hardstocks were produced from two enzymatically interesterified fats at conversion degrees of 80 and 100%, a chemically randomized fat and a physically mixed fat, respectively. These four hardstocks blended with 50% of sunflower oil were mainly used for the production...... of table margarines in a pilot plant. Storage stability studies were carried out at storage temperatures of 5 and 25 7C during 12 wk. Margarines from the enzymatically interesterified fats were compared to the margarines produced by conventional methods and to selected commercial products. The changes...

  12. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Double Casting Technique Using Functionally Generated Path and Conventional Single Casting with Respect to Functional Articulation, Patient Satisfaction and Chair Side Time, in Single Unit Molar Teeth: An In Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Sarfaraz

    2014-12-01

    A stable centric occlusal position that shows no evidence of occlusal disease should not be altered. Confirmative restorative dentistry deals with making restorations that are in harmony with existing jaw relations. Conventional techniques for construction have been unsuccessful in producing a prosthesis that can be inserted without minor intraoral occlusal adjustment. This study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of the double casting technique with FGP over the conventional casting technique. Ten patients with root canal treated maxillary molar were selected for the fabrication of metal crown. Two techniques, one involving the conventional fabrication and other using functionally generated path with double casting were used to fabricate the prosthesis. A comparison based on various parameters which was done between the two techniques. The change in the height of castings for the double casting group was less compared to the conventional group and was highly statistically significant (P casting group than the conventional group (P casting group compared to conventional (P casting technique resulted in castings which had better dimensional accuracy, less occlusal correction and better patient satisfaction compared to the conventional castings.

  13. Comparative evaluation of frictional characteristics of coated low friction ligatures - Super Slick Ties™ with conventional uncoated ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Leander

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: SST produced lower levels of friction (11% for all archwire materials when compared to conventional uncoated ligatures (Dispense-A-Stix and both conventional uncoated ligatures and coated ligatures gave a rank order of coefficient of kinetic friction (μkf among archwires, with stainless steel archwires exhibiting the least and TMA TM showing the highest.

  14. Comparative ultrasound study of acute lateral ankle ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The return to competitive level of sport dates were also documented and compared. A single blind randomised control study comparing the JSFB rehabilitation programme with conventional ankle rehabilitation programmes was used. Ultrasound examinations were done on all first time lateral ankle ligament injuries 72 ...

  15. Comparative investigations on xeroradiography and conventional X-radiation with chronical polyarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisl, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    We compared the roentgenologic and xeroradiographic findings of the hands of 50 patients suffering from polyarthritis. Both techniques were compared with respect to their imaging quality of roentgenologically significant alterations occurring with chronical polyarthritis. The superiority of xeroradiography bases on the better contour delineation facilities. Disadvantages are the loss of detailed information due to neutralisation effects and also to the impaired representation of areal density differences and of the absolute density of an object. The conventional roentgenologic method is superior with respect to the more informative imaging of areal density modifications, also to the partly better representation of cystic transluences and to a minor degree with respect to a more distinct reproduction of an atrophy of the subchondral lamina terminalis. However, in general it can be said that the results of the two compared techniques do not differ significantly. Consequently the traditional roentgenologic method appears to be the more suitable technique for the diagnosis of chronical polyarthritis. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Comparing the Ability of Conventional and Digital Soil Maps to Explain Soil Variability using Diversity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh mosleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective and sustainable soil management requires knowledge about the spatial patterns of soil variation and soil surveys are important and useful sources of data that can be used. Prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the soils is the first essential step for this aim but this requires the collection of large amounts of soil information. However, the conventional soil surveys are usually not useful for providing quantitative information about the spatial distribution of soil properties that are used in many environmental studies. Recently, by the rapid development of the computers and technology together with the availability of new types of remote sensing data and digital elevation models (DEMs, digital and quantitative approaches have been developed. These new techniques relies on finding the relationships between soil properties or classes and the auxiliary information that explain the soil forming factors or processes and finally predict soil patterns on the landscape. Different types of the machine learning approaches have been applied for digital soil mapping of soil classes, such as the logistic and multinomial logistic regressions, neural networks and classification trees. In reality, soils are physical outcomes of the interactions happening among the geology, climate, hydrology and geomorphic processes. Diversity is a way of measuring soil variation. Ibanez (9 first introduced ecological diversity indices as measures of diversity. Application of the diversity indices in soil science have considerably increased in recent years. Taxonomic diversity has been evaluated in the most previous researches whereas comparing the ability of different soil mapping approaches based on these indices was rarely considered. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to compare the ability of the conventional and digital soil maps to explain the soil variability using diversity indices in the Shahrekord plain of

  17. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  18. TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT: A CASE STUDY OF TURKISH LABOUR LAW TO COMPARE ILO CONVENTION NO. 158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PİR ALİ KAYA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, employment security is a most important need for wage-earners, especially in developing countries which have a high rate of unemployment, where firing workers is a way to lower wages. Because of that there are some provisions of international regulations that need to be addressed. Job security and restrictions on firing figure prominently in much national labour legislation. These provisions and principles are underlined in ILO Recommendation No. 119 and Convention No. 158. In this paper, attention is focused on ILO Convention No. 158 and its repercussions on Turkish labour law.

  19. Cancer of the larynx: the outcomes of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy in prospective and retrospective studies. Is the meaning of conventionality the same?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hliniak, A.; Michalski, W.; Kraszewska, E.; Szutkowski, Z.; Jarzabski, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies on the radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer were completed at the Radiotherapy Department of the Cancer Center Warsaw at the end of 1999. One of them was a multicenter randomized clinical trial, and the second one - a retrospective study on patients treated between years 1989 and 1995. An opinion exists that the trial outcomes of the conventional arm correspond to the outcomes of everyday practice. The subject of the study was to evaluate this thesis, and to find out, whether the outcomes of prospective and retrospective studies following the same treatment protocol are comparable. Selection criteria were - age ≤75, WHO 0-1, T1, T2, T3, N0, M0 stage of glottic and supraglottic laryngeal cancer. The treatment was: 66 Gy/2 Gy/33 fraction/45 days. The prospective group had - 199 patients, and the retrospective group: 150 patients. The two groups were comparable according to the age, site, sex and mean hemoglobin level. There was a significant difference in T-stage and performance status between the two groups. Overall survival, local control and CR-response were analyzed. To eliminate the influence of the differences in T=stage and performance status, regression models were applied - Cox's for survival and local control, logit for CR-response endpoint. The protocol compliance (prospective, retrospective) was as follows - total dose: (88%, 49%), treatment time: (47%, 11%) respectively. Three-year survival for the prospective and the retrospective groups were 89% and 74%, respectively (p=0.035), CR-response rates were 96% and 75%, respectively (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in probability of local recurrence in CR patients. A better outcome of treatment was observed in the prospective study group. It is probably due to a certain 'over-selection' of patients for the prospective study and many deviations from the therapeutic protocol in the historical group. 'Conventional treatment' has the same meaning in the prospective and retrospective

  20. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  1. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  2. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts (≥1,600 cm 3 , n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Clymer, Jeffrey W; Ferko, Nicole C; Patel, Leena; Soleas, Ireena M; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection. A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002), seroma by 46% (Pmastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup. In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and BCS procedures, the use of Harmonic technology reduced the risk of most complications by about half across breast cancer surgery patients. These benefits may be due to superior hemostatic capabilities of Harmonic technology and better dissection, particularly lymph node dissection. Reduction in complications and other resource outcomes may engender lower downstream health care costs.

  4. Radiation dose of cone-beam computed tomography compared to conventional radiographs in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Luca; Patcas, Raphael; Peltomäki, Timo; Schätzle, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine radiation doses of different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan modes in comparison to a conventional set of orthodontic radiographs (COR) by means of phantom dosimetry. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips (3 × 1 × 1 mm) were used on an adult male tissue-equivalent phantom to record the distribution of the absorbed radiation dose. Three different scanning modes (i.e., portrait, normal landscape, and fast scan landscape) were compared to CORs [i.e., conventional lateral (LC) and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms and digital panoramic radiograph (OPG)]. The following radiation levels were measured: 131.7, 91, and 77 μSv in the portrait, normal landscape, and fast landscape modes, respectively. The overall effective dose for a COR was 35.81 μSv (PA: 8.90 μSv; OPG: 21.87 μSv; LC: 5.03 μSv). Although one CBCT scan may replace all CORs, one set of CORs still entails 2-4 times less radiation than one CBCT. Depending on the scan mode, the radiation dose of a CBCT is about 3-6 times an OPG, 8-14 times a PA, and 15-26 times a lateral LC. Finally, in order to fully reconstruct cephalograms including the cranial base and other important structures, the CBCT portrait mode must be chosen, rendering the difference in radiation exposure even clearer (131.7 vs. 35.81 μSv). Shielding radiation-sensitive organs can reduce the effective dose considerably. CBCT should not be recommended for use in all orthodontic patients as a substitute for a conventional set of radiographs. In CBCT, reducing the height of the field of view and shielding the thyroid are advisable methods and must be implemented to lower the exposure dose.

  5. Extraction of SelectSecure leads compared to conventional pacing leads in patients with congenital heart disease and congenital atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Emma; Stuart, Graham; Martin, Rob; Walsh, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    SelectSecure™ pacing leads (Medtronic Inc) are increasingly being used in pediatric patients and adults with structural congenital heart disease. The 4Fr lead is ideal for patients who may require lifelong pacing and can be advantageous for patients with complex anatomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the extraction of SelectSecure leads with conventional (stylette-driven) pacing leads in patients with structural congenital heart disease and congenital atrioventricular block. The data on lead extractions from pediatric and adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients from August 2004 to July 2014 at Bristol Royal Hospital for Children and the Bristol Heart Institute were reviewed. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine whether conventional pacing leads were associated with a more difficult extraction process. A total of 57 patients underwent pacemaker lead extractions (22 SelectSecure, 35 conventional). No deaths occurred. Mean age at the time of extraction was 17.6 ± 10.5 years, mean weight was 47 ± 18 kg, and mean lead age was 5.6 ± 2.6 years (range 1-11 years). Complex extraction (partial extraction/femoral extraction) was more common in patients with conventional pacing leads at univariate (P < .01) and multivariate (P = .04) levels. Lead age was also a significant predictor of complex extraction (P < .01). SelectSecure leads can be successfully extracted using techniques that are used for conventional pacing leads. They are less likely to be partially extracted and are less likely to require extraction using a femoral approach compared with conventional pacing leads. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging in breast cancer patients. Is there a relevant impact on treatment planning compared to conventional staging modalities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, J.; Schnitzer, A.; Kaiser, C.G.; Buesing, K.A.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Wasser, K.; Sperk, E.; Brade, J.; Wasgindt, S.; Suetterlin, M.; Sutton, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT on initial staging of breast cancer in comparison to conventional staging modalities. This study included 102 breast cancer patients, 101 patients were eligible for evaluation. Preoperative whole-body staging with PET/CT was performed in patients with clinical stage ≥ T2 tumours or positive local lymph nodes (n = 91). Postoperative PET/CT was performed in patients without these criteria but positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 10). All patients underwent PET/CT and a conventional staging algorithm, which included bone scan, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound. PET/CT findings were compared to conventional staging and the impact on therapeutic management was evaluated. PET/CT led to an upgrade of the N or M stage in overall 19 patients (19 %) and newly identified manifestation of breast cancer in two patients (2 %). PET/CT findings caused a change in treatment of 11 patients (11 %). This is within the range of recent studies, all applying conventional inclusion criteria based on the initial T and N status. PET/CT has a relevant impact on initial staging and treatment of breast cancer when compared to conventional modalities. Further studies should assess inclusion criteria beyond the conventional T and N status, e.g. tumour grading and receptor status. (orig.)

  7. Functioning assessment vs. conventional medical assessment : a comparative study on health professionals' clinical decision-making and the fit with patient's own perspective of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, Hillegonda A.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Annema, Coby; Jansen, Gerard J.; Wynia, Klaske

    Aims and objectives. To compare a functioning assessment based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) with a conventional medical assessment, in terms of their respective consequences for health professionals' clinical decision-making and the fit with

  8. Pulmonary function in women: comparative analysis of conventional versus single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISA DE CARVALHO BORGES

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the pulmonary function of women submitted to conventional and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: forty women with symptomatic cholelithiasis, aged 18 to 70 years, participated in the study. We divided the patients into two groups: 21 patients underwent conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and 19, single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We assessed pulmonary function through forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, and the FEV1/FVC ratio, measured before and 24 hours after the procedure. Results: in both groups, FVC and FEV1 were lower in the postoperative period than those obtained in the preoperative period, with a greater reduction in the group undergoing conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Regarding the FEV1/FVC (% values, there was no statistically significant difference in any of the groups or times analyzed. Conclusion: there was a greater decline in FVC and FEV1 in the postoperative group of patients submitted to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  9. Comparing conventional physical therapy rehabilitation with neuromuscular electrical stimulation after TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael; McElroy, Karen; Stakich, Valerie; Cicco, Jodie

    2013-03-01

    Rehabilitation following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a costly, cumbersome, and often painful process. Physical therapy contributes to the successful outcome of TKA but can be expensive. Alternative methods of obtaining good functional results that help minimize costs are desirable. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a potential option. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been shown to increase quadriceps muscle strength and activation following TKA. Functional scores also improve following TKA when NMES is added to conventional therapy protocols vs therapy alone. The authors hypothesized that rehabilitation managed by a physical therapist would not result in a functional advantage for patients undergoing TKA when compared with NMES and an unsupervised at-home range of motion exercise program and that patient satisfaction would not differ between the 2 groups. Seventy patients were randomized into a postoperative protocol of conventional physical therapy with a licensed therapist, including range of motion exercises and strengthening exercises, or into a program of NMES and range of motion exercises performed at home without therapist supervision. Noninferiority of the NMES program was obtained 6 weeks postoperatively (Knee Society pain/function scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, flexion). Noninferiority was shown 6 months postoperatively for all parameters. The results suggest that rehabilitation managed by a physical therapist results in no functional advantage or difference in patient satisfaction when compared with NMES and an unsupervised at-home range of motion program. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and unsupervised at-home range of motion exercises may provide an option for reducing the cost of the postoperative TKA recovery process without compromising quadriceps strength or patient satisfaction. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Full arch scans: conventional versus digital impressions--an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2011-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression has become a central part of the CAD/CAM technique. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of digital impressions of the full arch with that of conventional impressions on the in-vitro model. For this purpose, a master model was acquired with a new reference scanning process, the measuring trueness of which was +/- 4.1 microm and the precision +/- 2.5 microm. On the one hand, conventional impressions and then plaster models (n = 5) were produced from this master model, and on the other hand, digital impressions were made with the Cerec AC Bluecam and the Lava COS system (each n = 5). The plaster models were also scanned with the reference scanner. The available data records were superimposed and the differences determined. The deviation from the master model defines the trueness of the impression method. The deviations of the models among one another demonstrate the precision of the method. The trueness of the impressions was 55 +/- 21.8 microm in the conventional impression group, for digital impressions with Cerec Bluecam it was 49 +/- 14.2 microm and for digital impressions with Lava COS 40.3 +/- 14.1 microm. The precision was 61.3 +/- 17.9 microm for conventional impression with Impregum, 30.9 +/- 7.1 microm for digital impression with the Cerec Bluecam and 60.1 +/- 31.3 microm for digital impression with Lava COS. These in-vitro results show that accuracy of the digital impression is similar to that of the conventional impression. These results will have to be confirmed in further clinical studies.

  11. Comparative Cost/Benefit of Alternative/Conventional Feedstuff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit of the use of conventional (corn/soya bean based) and alternative (less of corn and soya bean substituted with agro-allied and industrial by-products) feedstuffs. Completely randomized design was used and the experiment conducted for a ...

  12. Robotic technique improves entry point alignment for intramedullary nailing of femur fractures compared to the conventional technique: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suero, Eduardo M; Westphal, Ralf; Citak, Musa; Hawi, Nael; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Krettek, Christian; Stuebig, Timo

    2017-08-11

    We aimed to test whether a robotic technique would offer more accurate access to the proximal femoral medullary cavity for insertion of an intramedullary nail compared to the conventional manual technique. The medullary cavity of ten femur specimens was accessed in a conventional fashion using fluoroscopic control. In ten additional femur specimens, ISO-C 3D scans were obtained and a computer program calculated the ideal location of the cavity opening based on the trajectory of the medullary canal. In both techniques, the surgeon opened the cavity using a drill and inserted a radiopaque tube that matched the diameter of the cavity. The mean difference in angle between the proximal opening and the medullary canal in the shaft of the femur was calculated for both groups. Robotic cavity opening was more accurate than the manual technique, with a mean difference in trajectory between the proximal opening and the shaft canal of 2.0° (95% CI 0.6°-3.5°) compared to a mean difference of 4.3° (95% CI 2.11°-6.48°) using the manual technique (P = 0.0218). The robotic technique was more accurate than the manual procedure for identifying the optimal location for opening the medullary canal for insertion of an intramedullary nail. Additional advantages may include a reduction in total radiation exposure, as only one ISO-C 3D scan is needed, as opposed to multiple radiographs when using the manual technique.

  13. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with lower plasma FGF23 levels when compared with conventional hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Joshua; Rastogi, Anjay; Fischmann, George; Yan, Jieshi; Kleinman, Kenneth; Chow, Georgina; Gales, Barbara; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The utilization of short-term daily hemodialysis has increased over the last few years, but little is known on its effects on the control of serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to compare FGF23 levels as well as other biochemical variables between 24 patients undergoing short daily hemodialysis using the NxStage System® and 54 patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. FGF23 levels were measured using the second-generation Immutopics® C-terminal assay. Short daily hemodialysis patients were younger than patients on conventional hemodialysis but there were no differences between groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease nor in the number of patients with residual renal function. A greater number of short daily hemodialysis patients received vitamin D sterol therapy than did conventional in-center hemodialysis patients while there were no differences in the use of different phosphate binders and calcimimetic therapy between groups. Overall serum calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between groups. While serum phosphorus levels correlated with FGF23 concentrations in each group separately [r=0.522 (P<0.01) and r=0.42 (P<0.01) in short daily and conventional in-center hemodialysis, respectively], FGF23 levels were lower [823 RU/mL (263, 2169)] in the patients receiving short daily hemodialysis than in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis [2521 RU/mL (909, 5556)] (P<0.01 between groups). These findings demonstrate that FGF23 levels are significantly lower in short daily hemodialysis patients and suggest that FGF23 levels may be a more sensitive biomarker of cumulative phosphate burden than single or multiple serum phosphorus determinations in patients treated with hemodialysis.

  14. Comparing conventional Descriptive Analysis and Napping®-UFP against physiochemical measurements: a case study using apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickup, William; Bremer, Phil; Peng, Mei

    2018-03-01

    The extensive time and cost associated with conventional sensory profiling methods has spurred sensory researchers to develop rapid method alternatives, such as Napping® with Ultra-Flash Profiling (UFP). Napping®-UFP generates sensory maps by requiring untrained panellists to separate samples based on perceived sensory similarities. Evaluations of this method have been restrained to manufactured/formulated food models, and predominantly structured on comparisons against the conventional descriptive method. The present study aims to extend the validation of Napping®-UFP (N = 72) to natural biological products; and to evaluate this method against Descriptive Analysis (DA; N = 8) with physiochemical measurements as an additional evaluative criterion. The results revealed that sample configurations generated by DA and Napping®-UFP were not significantly correlated (RV = 0.425, P = 0.077); however, they were both correlated with the product map generated based on the instrumental measures (P Napping®-UFP were driven by different sensory attributes, indicating potential structural differences between these two methods in configuring samples. Overall, these findings lent support for the extended use of Napping®-UFP for evaluations of natural biological products. Although DA was shown to be a better method for establishing sensory-instrumental relationships, Napping®-UFP exhibited strengths in generating informative sample configurations based on holistic perception of products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the principles of total mesorectal excision to colon cancer by undertaking complete mesocolic excision (CME) has been proposed to improve oncological outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether implementation of CME improved disease-free survival compared with conventional...... consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients...... updated by the National Central Office of Civil Registration. FINDINGS: The CME group consisted of 364 patients and the non-CME group consisted of 1031 patients. For all patients, 4-year disease-free survival was 85.8% (95% CI 81.4-90.1) after CME and 75.9% (72.2-79.7) after non-CME surgery (log-rank p=0...

  16. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%). PMID:27604860

  17. A comparative study of conventional and supercritical fluid extraction methods for the recovery of secondary metabolites from Syzygium campanulatum Korth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul Hakeem; Hamil, Mohammad Shahrul Ridzuan; Laghari, Madeeha; Rithwan, Fahim; Zhari, Salman; Saeed, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Syzygium campanulatum Korth is a plant, which is a rich source of secondary metabolites (especially flavanones, chalcone, and triterpenoids). In our present study, three conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) techniques were performed to achieve a maximum recovery of two flavanones, chalcone, and two triterpenoids from S. campanulatum leaves. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken design was constructed for the SFE technique using pressure, temperature, and particle size as independent variables, and yields of crude extract, individual and total secondary metabolites as the dependent variables. In the CSE procedure, twenty extracts were produced using ten different solvents and three techniques (maceration, soxhletion, and reflux). An enriched extract of five secondary metabolites was collected using n-hexane:methanol (1:1) soxhletion. Using food-grade ethanol as a modifier, the SFE methods produced a higher recovery (25.5%‒84.9%) of selected secondary metabolites as compared to the CSE techniques (0.92%‒66.00%).

  18. Acute radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese breast cancer patients with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Tomo; Oguchi, Masahiko; Kumada, Madoka; Nemoto, Keiko; Iwase, Takuji; Yamashita, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate acute morbidity, radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis, of Japanese patients treated with whole breast hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS), compared to conventional RT. Japanese patients who received whole breast RT after BCS between October 2003 and September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had selected the conventional or hypofractionated schedule received whole breast irradiation of 50 Gy in 25 fractions plus boost or 40 Gy in 16 fractions plus boost. Radiation dermatitis and symptomatic pneumonitis were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Of 443 consecutive patients, 377 (85%) received the conventional schedule and 66 (15%) received the hypofractionated schedule. Of patients treated with the conventional schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation dermatitis were observed in 16 (4%), 278 (74%), 77 (20%) and 6 (2%), respectively. Of patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule, Grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 dermatitis were observed in 11 (17%), 49 (74%), 5 (8%) and 1 (1%), respectively. Grade 2-3 dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule (9%) was observed less frequently than that by the conventional schedule (22%) (chi-square test; P=0.016). Moreover, of patients treated with the conventional schedule, 4 (1%) had Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. No patient treated with the hypofractionated schedule had symptomatic pneumonitis. Radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis in Japanese patients treated with the hypofractionated schedule is acceptable. Especially, radiation dermatitis by the hypofractionated schedule is milder than that by the conventional schedule. (author)

  19. Comparison of Bolton analysis and Little’s irregularity index on laser scanned three-dimensional digital study models with conventional study models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, H.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    Three-dimensional digital study models were introduced following advances in digital technology. This study was carried out to assess the reliability of digital study models scanned by a laser scanning device newly assembled. The aim of this study was to compare the digital study models and conventional models. Twelve sets of dental impressions were taken from patients with mild-to-moderate crowding. The impressions were taken twice, one with alginate and the other with polyvinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions were made into conventional models, and the polyvinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to produce digital models. The mesiodistal tooth width and Little’s irregularity index (LII) were measured manually with digital calipers on the conventional models and digitally on the digital study models. Bolton analysis was performed on each study models. Each method was carried out twice to check for intra-observer variability. The reproducibility (comparison of the methods) was assessed using independent-sample t-tests. The mesiodistal tooth width between conventional and digital models did not significantly differ (p > 0.05). Independent-sample t-tests did not identify statistically significant differences for Bolton analysis and LII (p = 0.603 for Bolton and p = 0894 for LII). The measurements of the digital study models are as accurate as those of the conventional models.

  20. Accuracy of Digital vs Conventional Implant Impression Approach: A Three-Dimensional Comparative In Vitro Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaki, Kinga; Alkumru, Hasan; De Souza, Grace; Finer, Yoav

    To assess the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy and clinical acceptability of implant definitive casts fabricated using a digital impression approach and to compare the results with those of a conventional impression method in a partially edentulous condition. A mandibular reference model was fabricated with implants in the first premolar and molar positions to simulate a patient with bilateral posterior edentulism. Ten implant-level impressions per method were made using either an intraoral scanner with scanning abutments for the digital approach or an open-tray technique and polyvinylsiloxane material for the conventional approach. 3D analysis and comparison of implant location on resultant definitive casts were performed using laser scanner and quality control software. The inter-implant distances and interimplant angulations for each implant pair were measured for the reference model and for each definitive cast (n = 20 per group); these measurements were compared to calculate the magnitude of error in 3D for each definitive cast. The influence of implant angulation on definitive cast accuracy was evaluated for both digital and conventional approaches. Statistical analysis was performed using t test (α = .05) for implant position and angulation. Clinical qualitative assessment of accuracy was done via the assessment of the passivity of a master verification stent for each implant pair, and significance was analyzed using chi-square test (α = .05). A 3D error of implant positioning was observed for the two impression techniques vs the reference model, with mean ± standard deviation (SD) error of 116 ± 94 μm and 56 ± 29 μm for the digital and conventional approaches, respectively (P = .01). In contrast, the inter-implant angulation errors were not significantly different between the two techniques (P = .83). Implant angulation did not have a significant influence on definitive cast accuracy within either technique (P = .64). The verification stent

  1. Functioning assessment vs. conventional medical assessment: a comparative study on health professionals’ clinical decision-making and the fit with patient’s own perspective of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, Gonda; Roodbol, Petrie; Annema, Coby; Jansen, Gerard; Wynia, Klaske

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives. To compare a functioning assessment based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) with a conventional medical assessment, in terms of their respective consequences for health professionals’ clinical decision-making and the fit with

  2. Image quality of conventional images of dual-layer SPECTRAL CT: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, F; Bennink, E; Vlassenbroek, A; Dankbaar, J W; Schilham, A M R; Viergever, M A; de Jong, H W A M

    2018-05-10

    Spectral CT using a dual layer detector offers the possibility of retrospectively introducing spectral information to conventional CT images. In theory, the dual-layer technology should not come with a dose or image quality penalty for conventional images. In this study, we evaluate the influence of a dual-layer detector (IQon Spectral CT, Philips) on the image quality of conventional CT images, by comparing these images with those of a conventional but otherwise technically comparable single-layer CT scanner (Brilliance iCT, Philips), by means of phantom experiments. For both CT scanners conventional CT images were acquired using four adult scanning protocols: i) body helical, ii) body axial, iii) head helical and iv) head axial. A CATPHAN 600 phantom was scanned to conduct an assessment of image quality metrics at equivalent (CTDI) dose levels. Noise was characterized by means of noise power spectra (NPS) and standard deviation (SD) of a uniform region, and spatial resolution was evaluated with modulation transfer functions (MTF) of a tungsten wire. In addition, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), image uniformity, CT number linearity, slice thickness, slice spacing, and spatial linearity were measured and evaluated. Additional measurements of CNR, resolution and noise were performed in two larger phantoms. The resolution levels at 50%, 10% and 5% MTF of the iCT and IQon showed small but significant differences up to 0.25 lp/cm for body scans, and up to 0.2 lp/cm for head scans in favor of the IQon. The iCT and IQon showed perfect CT linearity for body scans, but for head scans both scanners showed an underestimation of the CT numbers of materials with a high opacity. Slice thickness was slightly overestimated for both scanners. Slice spacing was comparable and reconstructed correctly. In addition, spatial linearity was excellent for both scanners, with a maximum error of 0.11 mm. CNR was higher on the IQon compared to the iCT for both normal and larger phantoms with

  3. Linyphiid spider populations in sustainable wheat‐clover bi‐cropping compared to conventional wheat‐growing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2008-01-01

    Linyphiid web densities in wheat-clover bi-crop systems where winter wheat was grown in an under-storey of white clover were compared with web densities estimated in conventional wheat-growing systems. The web densities in the wheat-clover bi-crop systems were on average between 200 and 250 webs ...

  4. The relationship between internet-gaming experience and executive functions measured by virtual environment compared with conventional laboratory multitasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Quan Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if individuals with frequent internet gaming (IG experience exhibited better or worse multitasking ability compared with those with infrequent IG experience. The individuals' multitasking abilities were measured using virtual environment multitasks, such as Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET, and conventional laboratory multitasks, such as the dual task and task switching. Seventy-two young healthy college students participated in this study. They were split into two groups based on the time spent on playing online games, as evaluated using the Internet Use Questionnaire. Each participant performed EVET, dual-task, and task-switching paradigms on a computer. The current results showed that the frequent IG group performed better on EVET compared with the infrequent IG group, but their performance on the dual-task and task-switching paradigms did not differ significantly. The results suggest that the frequent IG group exhibited better multitasking efficacy if measured using a more ecologically valid task, but not when measured using a conventional laboratory multitasking task. The differences in terms of the subcomponents of executive function measured by these task paradigms were discussed. The current results show the importance of the task effect while evaluating frequent internet gamers' multitasking ability.

  5. Comparative Studies on Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Homoallylic Alcohol Derivatives Linked to Sulfonyl Dibenzene Moiety in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Mady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel homoallylic alcohols incorporating sulfone moieties were synthesized by the treatment of different carbonyl compounds with allylic bromides in aqueous media via sonochemical Barbier-type reaction conditions. Sulfonation of α-bromoketones with sodium benzenesulfinate in presence of CuI/2,6-lutidine rapidly gave β-keto-sulfones in good yields. In general, ultrasound irradiation offered the advantages of high yields, short reaction times, and simplicity compared to the conventional methods. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectral data.

  6. Radiography of scoliosis: comparative dosimetry between conventional technique and digital fluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorincour, G.; Paris, M.; Aschero, A.; Bourliere, B.; Devred, P.; Petit, P.; Barrau, K.; Auquier, P.; Waultier, S.; Bourrelly, M.; Mundler, O.; Viehweger, E.; Jouve, J.L.; Bollini, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Compare the irradiation delivered in conventional radiography and digital radiography by image intensifier during a scoliosis workup. Patients and Methods. Our prospective randomized study included 105 patients, all of whom were identified according to socio-demographic parameters as well as criteria evaluating the quality of the full front spinal x-ray at PA incidence. The entry dose at the scapula and the exit dose in inter-orbital, thyroid, mammary, and hypo-gastric projection was measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results. The results of 71 girls and 28 boys, aged a mean 13.8 years with a mean weight of 47 kg were analyzed. At equal image quality, the entry dose was not significantly different between the two techniques; the mean exit dose reduction was 64% during digital acquisition. This reduction involved the inter-orbital (162%), mammary (43%), and thyroid (309%) regions. However, this system is more irradiating in the hypo-gastric region (34%). Conclusion. The dosimetric evaluation of the different imaging techniques used to explore the entirety of the spine should be part of radiologists' quality standard used to document their work and their choices. (authors)

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Advanced and Conventional Diagnostic Aids for Endodontic Management of Periapical Lesions, An in Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Arora, Saurabh; Sandhu, Amneet Kaur; Dhingra, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate efficacy of Colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG), direct digital radiography (DDR) and conventional radiography (CR) in diagnosis of periapical lesions and to clinically correlate treatment plan of periapical diseases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients which were diagnosed with periapical lesions in anterior region by using both conventional and digital radiography were examined using colour doppler ultrasound imaging at the site of lesion. The images of each lesion were analysed by two endodontists and by an expert oral radiologist. A tentative differential diagnosis was agreed upon, based on certain principles discussed in article, then a diagnosis between cyst, granuloma and mixed lesions was made. Periapical lesions diagnosed as mixed lesions by colour doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG) were treated non-surgically whereas other periapical lesions were treated surgically. Tissues obtained during endodontic surgery were processed and examined for histopathological findings, and compared with the diagnosis made by ultrasound images. Statistical analysis was done with Chi-Square test and using one-way-Anova. Results: The periapical lesions which were diagnosed as granuloma by ultrasonographic findings, was confirmed by the results of histopathological examination in all 16 surgically treated cases. The lesions in rest of the 14 cases which showed vascularity and were diagnosed as mixed lesions by ultrasonography, were treated non-surgically and had a favourable prognosis. Conclusion: CR and DDR facilitate diagnosis of the presence of periapical disease, but do not provide and information of its nature. CDUSG imaging facilitates accurate information on the pathological nature of the lesion and hence can lead to predictable treatment planning. PMID:25738075

  8. Banded versus Single-sided bonded space maintainers: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of conventional band and loop space maintainer and fiber reinforced composite resin (FRCR space maintainers. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 extraction sites in the age group of 6–9 years having premature loss of primary molars or indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups as Group I, in which conventional band and loop space maintainer was given, Group II and Group III (FRCR, in which FRCR (everStick CandB and impregnated glass fibers (Interlig space maintainers were given, respectively. Patients were recalled at 3, 6, and 12-month interval for evaluation of all the three types of space maintainer. Results: Overall success rate of Group I was 86.7%, for Group II was 80%, and for Group III was 73.3% at the end of the study. Patient acceptability was significantly higher in Group II and Group III (FRCR as compared to Group I (Conventional band and loop. In Group I, cement loss and fracture of loop, whereas in Group II and Group III, debonding at enamel composite was the most common failure followed by debonding at fiber composite and fiber fracture. FRCR space maintainers were found to be cost-effective as compared to Group I. More linear changes and angular changes were recorded in Group I as compared to Group II and Group III but difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Only single (buccal surface application of FRCR space maintainers showed almost equal clinical efficacy compared to conventional band and loop space maintainer with significantly better patient acceptability, less cost, and time taken.

  9. Probiotic or Conventional Yogurt for Treating Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea: A Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khademian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The popularity of probiotics is on the rise. Despite the beneficial effects of antibiotics, gastrointestinal health is at risk of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate whether probiotic yogurt is of capability to prevent the incidence of diarrhea versus conventional yogurt. Materials and Methods This controlled, randomized, double-blind trial was designed to recruit 48 hospitalized children, whose treatments included different types of antibiotics. They were subsequently assigned into a 1:1 ratio into groups A and B at random. The first group was instructed to consume probiotic yogurt (Bifidobacterium strains and Lactobacillus acidophilus, while the second were on conventional yogurt (placebo containing Streptococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus at least for 7 days. The incidence of diarrhea, its onset and duration were compared between the two groups. Results The findings indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05. No significant decrease was observed in the incidence of diarrhea between the groups following adjustment for negative C-reactive protein (CRP (p > 0.05. Conclusion According to the results, the consumption of yogurt, either probiotic or conventional, reduced the incidence, duration, and onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in pediatric population. This study showed no significantly better performance for probiotic yogurt than conventional yogurt.

  10. Pre-bent instruments used in single-port laparoscopic surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery: comparative study of performance in a dry lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Arkadiusz; Schoenthaler, Martin; Lilienthal, Kerstin; Frankenschmidt, Alexander; Karcz, Wojciech Konrad; Kuesters, Simon

    2012-07-01

    Different types of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have become increasingly popular. Although SILS is technically even more challenging than conventional laparoscopy, published data of first clinical series seem to demonstrate the feasibility of these approaches. Various attempts have been made to overcome restrictions due to loss of triangulation in SILS by specially designed SILS-specific instruments. This study involving novices in a dry lab compared task performances between conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) and single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using newly designed pre-bent instruments. In this study, 90 medical students without previous experience in laparoscopic techniques were randomly assigned to undergo one of three procedures: CLS, SPLS using two pre-bent instruments (SPLS-pp), or SPLS using one pre-bent and one straight laparoscopic instrument (SPLS-ps). In the dry lab, the participants performed four typical laparoscopic tasks of increasing difficulty. Evaluation included performance times or number of completed tasks within a given time frame. All performances were videotaped and evaluated for unsuccessful attempts and unwanted interactions of instruments. Using subjective questionnaires, the participants rated difficulties with two-dimensional vision and coordination of instruments. Task performances were significantly better in the CLS group than in either SPLS group. The SPLS-ps group showed a tendency toward better performances than the SPLS-pp group, but the difference was not significant. Video sequences and participants` questionnaires showed instrument interaction as the major problem in the single-incision surgery groups. Although SILS is feasible, as shown in clinical series published by laparoscopically experienced experts, SILS techniques are demanding due to restrictions that come with the loss of triangulation. These can be compensated only partially by currently available SILS-designed instruments. The future of

  11. Efficacy of do-it-yourself whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S R; Meharry, M; Oyoyo, U; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening as compared to conventional tooth whitening modalities using different shade assessment tools. Extracted human molars (120) were randomly distributed to six groups (n=20). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter, dentist-dispensed for home use, and in-office whitening. DIY whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. Two evaluators used the Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Bleachedguide 3D-Master with interpolated numbers (BGi) for visual assessment at baseline and one-week, one-month, and three-month postwhitening. Instrumental measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Kruskal-Wallis procedure was used to assess color changes among groups and intraclass correlation (ICC) to evaluate agreement between evaluators. DIY exhibited lower color change (ΔSGUVC, ΔSGUBGi, ΔE*, where SGU = shade guide unit and E = overall color change) compared to other whitening groups at all time points (p<0.05). ICC demonstrated very good agreement between evaluators with VC and BGi at each time point. Both shade guides were related with each other and strongly related to instrumental measurements (p<0.05). DIY whitening was the least effective whitening modality. Both VC and BGi are related with each other and have good correlation with instrumental measurements.

  12. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  13. Comparison of community managed projects and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of community managed projects and conventional approaches in rural water supply of Ethiopia. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... This study aimed to compare Community Managed Projects (CMP) approach with the conventional approaches (Non-CMP) in the case of Ethiopia.

  14. Comparing the Efficacy of Low Dose and Conventional Dose of Oral Isotretinoin in Treatment of Moderate and Severe Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Fard, Nasrin Motamedi; Motamedi, Narges; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of low-dose isotretinoin with its conventional dose in patients with moderate and severe acne. This was a clinical trial conducted on 60 male and female patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris. The patients were divided into two treatment groups: 0.5 mg/kg/day isotretinoin capsule and low-dose isotretinoin capsule (0.25 mg/kg/day). Patients in both groups received 6-month treatment. At the end of the 6 th month and 12 th month (6 months after the end of the treatment), they were examined again, and their improvement was determined and compared. The average severity of acne in the two treatment groups did not differ significantly within any of the study periods. The most common side effects were nose dryness in the low-dose group (17%) and hair thinning and loss in the conventional-dose group (33.2%), although all the patients had dry lips. According to the same severity of the acne in two groups in different study periods, as well as fewer side effects and more patients' satisfaction, the low-dose isotretinoin can be considered in the treatment of acne.

  15. A comparative cost analysis of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS versus conventional radiology in the private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indres Moodley

    2015-03-01

    Aim: To undertake an incremental cost analysis of PACS compared with conventional radiology to determine productivity gains, if any, at two private hospitals in Durban. Method: An incremental cost analysis for chest radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans with and without contrast were performed. The overall incremental cost for PACS in comparison with a conventional radiology site was determined. The net present value was also determined to evaluate the capital budgeting requirements for both systems. Results: The incremental cost of both capital and the radiology information system for installing PACS shows an expected increase. The incremental PACS image cost shows a reduction. Conclusion: The study provides a benchmark for the cost incurred when implementing PACS. It also provides a decision framework for radiology departments that plan to introduce PACS and helps to determine the feasibility of its introduction.

  16. Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, HL; Spilki, FR; dos Santos, MMAB; de Almeida, RS; Arns, CW

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  17. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicioni, Milko; Castiglioni, Chiara; Giori, Andrea; Cupone, Irma; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA) was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra®) after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years) in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax) and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t) of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film and film-coated tablet were nearly superimposable. The bioequivalence test was fully satisfied for sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil in terms of rate and extent of bioavailability. Adverse events occurred at similar rates for the two formulations and were of mild-to-moderate severity. The results suggest that the new orodispersible film

  18. Comparative catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by polyacrylamide-gold nanocomposite synthesized by hydrothermal autoclaving and conventional heating routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I.

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in polymeric polyacrylamide (PAAm) matrix were synthesized using conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques. The synthesized Au/PAAm nanocomposite was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of the synthesized particles was approximately 6.37 nm and 8.19 nm with the conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques, respectively. Electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy and the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy were used for the composition and elemental studies, which confirmed that the Au metallic atoms were synthesized and embedded within a PAAm matrix via a coordination bond between the carbonyl (-CONH2) group and the metallic NPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the fabricated AuNPs with face centered cubic of nanocrystals. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared Au/PAAm nanocomposite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was studied in the presence of sodium borohydrate. The synthesized AuNPs had an effective catalytic activity; the smaller NPs synthesized NPs with the conventional heating technique had a higher reaction kinetic rate in comparation with those synthesized with the autoclaving technique. Therefore, the Au/PAAm nanocomposite can be widely used as an eco-friendly, non-toxic, a fast and cost-effective product to remove versatile organic pollutants such as aromatic nitro compounds.

  19. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast-An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Ranjith; George, Navia; Thummala, Niharika R; Ravi, S V; Nagpal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate. A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with self-disinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness. Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable. Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

  20. Conventional versus computer-navigated TKA: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesca, Alessandro; Garro, Luca; Penna, Massimo; Bejui-Hugues, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the midterm results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implanted with a specific computer navigation system in a group of patients (NAV) and to assess the same prosthesis implanted with the conventional technique in another group (CON); we hypothesized that computer navigation surgery would improve implant alignment, functional scores and survival of the implant compared to the conventional technique. From 2008 to 2009, 225 patients were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned in CON and NAV groups; 240 consecutive mobile-bearing ultra-congruent score (Amplitude, Valence, France) TKAs were performed by a single surgeon, 117 using the conventional method and 123 using the computer-navigated approach. Clinical outcome assessment was based on the Knee Society Score (KSS), the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score and the Western Ontario Mac Master University Index score. Component survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Median follow-up was 6.4 years (range 6-7 years). Two patients were lost to follow-up. No differences were seen between the two groups in age, sex, BMI and side of implantation. Three patients of CON group referred feelings of instability during walking, but clinical tests were all negative. NAV group showed statistical significant better KSS Score and wider ROM and fewer outliers from neutral mechanical axis, lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle and tibial slope in post-operative radiographic assessment. There was one case of early post-operative superficial infection (caused by Staph. Aureus) successfully treated with antibiotics. No mechanical loosening, mobile-bearing dislocation or patellofemoral complication was seen. At 7 years of follow-up, component survival in relation to the risk of aseptic loosening or other complications was 100 %. There were no implant revisions. This study demonstrates superior accuracy in implant positioning and statistical significant

  1. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  2. Comparative UAV and Field Phenotyping to Assess Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Hybrid and Conventional Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn C; Vicente, Rubén; Vergara-Díaz, Omar; Fernandez-Gallego, Jose A; Kerfal, Samir; Lopez, Antonio; Melichar, James P E; Serret Molins, María D; Araus, José L

    2017-01-01

    With the commercialization and increasing availability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) multiple rotor copters have expanded rapidly in plant phenotyping studies with their ability to provide clear, high resolution images. As such, the traditional bottleneck of plant phenotyping has shifted from data collection to data processing. Fortunately, the necessarily controlled and repetitive design of plant phenotyping allows for the development of semi-automatic computer processing tools that may sufficiently reduce the time spent in data extraction. Here we present a comparison of UAV and field based high throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP) using the free, open-source image analysis software FIJI (Fiji is just ImageJ) using RGB (conventional digital cameras), multispectral and thermal aerial imagery in combination with a matching suite of ground sensors in a study of two hybrids and one conventional barely variety with ten different nitrogen treatments, combining different fertilization levels and application schedules. A detailed correlation network for physiological traits and exploration of the data comparing between treatments and varieties provided insights into crop performance under different management scenarios. Multivariate regression models explained 77.8, 71.6, and 82.7% of the variance in yield from aerial, ground, and combined data sets, respectively.

  3. Robot-Assisted Hybrid Esophagectomy Is Associated with a Shorter Length of Stay Compared to Conventional Transthoracic Esophagectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Hans C; Ambrus, Rikard B; Belmouhand, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare the peri- and postoperative data between a hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) and the conventional Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Methods: Retrospective comparison of perioperative characteristics, postoperative complications, and survival between HMIE and Ivor Lewis esopha...

  4. Comparing Amazon's Mechanical Turk Platform to Conventional Data Collection Methods in the Health and Medical Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Karoline; Hughes, Taylor L

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this article is to conduct an assessment of the peer-reviewed primary literature with study objectives to analyze Amazon.com 's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a research tool in a health services research and medical context. Searches of Google Scholar and PubMed databases were conducted in February 2017. We screened article titles and abstracts to identify relevant articles that compare data from MTurk samples in a health and medical context to another sample, expert opinion, or other gold standard. Full-text manuscript reviews were conducted for the 35 articles that met the study criteria. The vast majority of the studies supported the use of MTurk for a variety of academic purposes. The literature overwhelmingly concludes that MTurk is an efficient, reliable, cost-effective tool for generating sample responses that are largely comparable to those collected via more conventional means. Caveats include survey responses may not be generalizable to the US population.

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Homoeopathic vs. Conventional Therapy in Usual Care of Atopic Eczema in Children: Long-Term Medical and Economic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Stephanie; Reinhold, Thomas; Pach, Daniel; Brinkhaus, Benno; Icke, Katja; Staab, Doris; Jäckel, Tanja; Wegscheider, Karl; Willich, Stefan N.; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background One in five children visiting a homeopathic physician suffers from atopic eczema. Objectives We aimed to examine the long-term effectiveness, safety and costs of homoeopathic vs. conventional treatment in usual medical care of children with atopic eczema. Methods In this prospective multi-centre comparative observational non-randomized rater-blinded study, 135 children (48 homoeopathy, 87 conventional) with mild to moderate atopic eczema were included by their respective physicians. Depending on the specialisation of the physician, the primary treatment was either standard conventional treatment or individualized homeopathy as delivered in routine medical care. The main outcome was the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) at 36 months by a blinded rater. Further outcomes included quality of life, conventional medicine consumption, safety and disease related costs at six, 12 and 36 months after baseline. A multilevel ANCOVA was used, with physician as random effect and the following fixed effects: age, gender, baseline value, severity score, social class and parents’ expectation. Results The adjusted mean SCORAD showed no significant differences between the groups at 36 months (13.7 95% CI [7.9–19.5] vs. 14.9 [10.4–19.4], p = 0.741). The SCORAD response rates at 36 months were similar in both groups (33% response: homoeopathic 63.9% vs. conventional 64.5%, p = 0.94; 50% response: 52.0% vs. 52.3%, p = 0.974). Total costs were higher in the homoeopathic versus the conventional group (months 31–36 200.54 Euro [132.33–268.76] vs. 68.86 Euro [9.13–128.58], p = 0.005). Conclusions Taking patient preferences into account, while being unable to rule out residual confounding, in this long-term observational study, the effects of homoeopathic treatment were not superior to conventional treatment for children with mild to moderate atopic eczema, but involved higher costs. PMID:23383019

  6. A Comparative Study between the Conventional MCQ Scores and MCQ with the CBA Scores at the Standardized Clinical Knowledge Exam for Clinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ghadermarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Partial knowledge is one of the main factors to be considered when dealing with the improvement of the administration of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ in testing. Various strategies have been proposed for this factor in the traditional testing environment. Therefore, this study proposed a Confidence Based Assessment (CBA as a pertinent solution and aims at comparing the effect of the CBA Scoring system with that of the conventional scoring systems (with and without negative score estimation as penalty on the students’ scores and estimating their partial knowledge on clinical studies.Methods: This comparative study was conducted using a standardized clinical knowledge exam for 117 clinical students. After two-step training, both the conventional MCQ and CBA examination was given in a single session simultaneously. The exam included 100 questions and the volunteers were requested to complete a questionnaire regarding their attitude and satisfaction on their first experience of the CBA after exam. A new confidence based marking system was selected for the scoring, which was a hybrid of the UCL and MUK2010 systems. The MCQ-Assistant, SPSS and Microsoft office Excel software were used for scoring and data analysis.Results: The mean age of the volunteers was 27.3±5.47, of whom 43.6% were men and 69.2% were senior medical students. Exam reliability was 0.977. The fit line of the MCQ scores without penalty estimation was R2=0.9816 and Intercept=18.125 or approximately.2 deviation in the low scores. The MCQ scoring with penalty had a fit line approximately parallel to the 45-degree line but on or above it and the CBA scoring fit line was nearer to the 45-degree line, parallel to it and a little below it. These two sets of scores had a significant p value0.037. The response percentage to the CBA is higher (p value=0.0001. The discrimination power of the MCQ and the CBA for the upper and lower 1/3 of the students was not

  7. A comparative study on trans-umbilical single-port laparoscopic approach versus conventional repair for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Zhang; Juntao, Ge; Shuli, Liu; Li, Long

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether singleport laparoscopic repair (SLR) for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children is superior toconventional repair (CR) approaches. Method: Between March 2013 and September 2013, 126 infants and children treatedwere retrospectively reviewed. All the patients were divided into three groups. Group A (48 patients) underwent trans-umbilical SLR, group B (36 patients) was subjected to trans-umbilical conventional two-port laparoscopic rep...

  8. A "typodont" study of rate of orthodontic space closure: self-ligating systems vs. conventional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, I; Butti, A C; Salvato, A; Biagi, R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of space closure of two bracket systems, self-ligating and conventional ones, considering two systems with the same design and prescription. The experimental model of this study aims to identify in general if one type of system is more suitable for planning the extractive therapy, without considering the clinical aspect necessary for an adequate orthodontic approach. A resin maxilla without the first premolars was used to test the self-ligating and conventional brackets system. Space closure was achieved on 0.016x0.022" in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs 150 grams in strength and 10 mm in length. Two experiment settings have been prepared. The first setting was made bonding conventional bracket on the right side and self-ligating on the left; the last one was made bonding self-ligating bracket on the right side and conventional on the left. All measurements (runs) have been repeated seven times for both settings. During the closing phase of extraction spaces both systems are equable since there are no significant statistical differences (P=0.70). Our typodont model showed no significant difference in the efficiency of space closure between the self-ligating bracket and conventional bracket tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  9. The economics of developing non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A fact-based perspective on the economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas was presented. Traditionally, tax credits stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. Although tax credits for non-conventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992, because of improved technologies, improved finding rates and well productivities, non-conventional reserves continue to play a major role in the U.S. gas drilling development. Non-conventional reserves account for three out of five gas wells drilled in the U.S. The non-conventional gas industry competes directly with the conventional natural gas industry. This paper examined how well non-conventional gas compares to the current replacement costs of conventional natural gas. Investment costs for a non-conventional operation were studied, illustrated by an overview of the costs and economics of non-conventional reserves in the San Juan coal basin, the Piceance tight gas basin and the Michigan and Ft. Worth gas shales basins. 9 tabs

  10. Residents' training to retinal photocoagulation: virtual reality compared to conventional apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peugnet, Frederic; Dubois, Patrick; Rouland, Jean-Francois

    1998-06-01

    Virtual reality is one of these recent technologies which can provide an efficient help in the field of surgical apprenticeship. We achieved an original training simulator for retinal photocoagulation destined to the residents of the ophthalmological department. This paper describes the comparison between this new training tool and the conventional practice. Two groups of residents, randomly selected, were trained exclusively by one of these methods. These two groups were under the responsibility of two distinct experts. A final evaluation was made by a third and different expert, ignoring the training mode practiced by each of the residents. The study lasted six months. The results show that this new training mode is at least as efficient as the current one in terms of elapsed time and efficiency. It may even reduce the training duration. These results confirm that a pedagogical simulator could give a new approach in the medical teaching, particularly in its management. Such a device may solve the problems of practitioner's lack of disponibility and of patients' safety and comfort during a conventional training. Furthermore, it could bring an objective way to value the students; practical ability. On the other hand, this preliminary study emphasizes the difficulties in introducing a new modality in a traditional teaching environment.

  11. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training Compared to Conventional Therapy on Cardiovascular and Psychological Aspects in Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ha-Yoon; Han, Hee-Jun; Choi, Ji-Won; Jung, Han-Young; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on psychological symptoms, activity states, and cardiovascular functions in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) of low and moderate risk stratification. This prospective study randomly allocated 44 patients with MI to 18 sessions of HIIT or conventional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 18 sessions. Post-exercise cardiovascular and functional states, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), metabolic equivalents (METs), 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), and Korean Activity Scale/Index (KASI) scores were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. In particular, VO 2max was significantly (pHIIT group (7.58 mL/kg/min) compared to that in the MICT group (2.42 mL/kg/min). In addition, post-exercise psychological states (i.e., scores of Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS] and depression items of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS_D]) were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. HADS-D was improved by 1.89 in the HIIT group compared to decrement of 0.47 in the MICT group. FSS was improved by 6.38 in the HIIT group compared to decrement of 0.77 in the MICT group (pHIIT can improve cardiac function, psychological, and activity states in low and moderate risk MI patients. Compared to conventional MICT, HIIT can improve cardiovascular functions, activity states, depression, and fatigue more effectively.

  12. Ultrasonography assessment of heel entheses in patients with spondyloarthritis: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila Maldonado, Rodrigo; Ruta, Santiago; Valuntas, María Laura; García, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the agreement between ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and conventional radiography (CR) in the detection of findings indicative of enthesopathy in spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 40 SpA patients. Heel entheses (Achilles tendon and plantar fascia) were bilaterally examined by US, MRI, and CR. The three imaging modalities were carried out by three independent operators blinded to the other imaging modality data. Soft tissue abnormalities indicative of enthesopathy as thickening, structural changes, and bursitis were assessed by both US and MRI, and cortical bone abnormalities indicative of enthesopathy as erosions and enthesophytes were assessed by the three imaging modalities. The unweighted kappa values between US and MRI were 0.80, 0.66, 0.69, 0.70, and 0.70 for thickening, structural changes, bursitis, enthesophytes, and bone erosions, respectively. With respect to the detection of enthesophytes, the unweighted kappa values between CR and both US and MRI were 0.78 and 0.76, respectively. At last, for the recognition of bone erosions, the unweighted kappa values between CR and both US and MRI were 0.38 and 0.45, respectively. Using MRI as standard reference method, US was more sensitive with respect to CR revealing bone erosions. The present study provides evidence about the high overall agreement between US and MRI for all abnormal comparable findings at entheseal level and between US, MRI, and CR for the detection of enthesophytes in SpA patients.

  13. NANOBIOCATALYTIC SYSTEMS BASED ON LIPASE-Fe3O4 AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS FOR ISONIAZID SYNTHESIS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Superparamagnetic nanomaterials have attracted interest in many areas due to the high saturation magnetization and surface area. For enzyme immobilization, these properties favor the enzyme-support contact during the immobilization reaction and easy separation from the reaction mixture by use of low-cost magnetic processes. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MNPs, produced by the co-precipitation method, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and glutaraldehyde (GLU, were evaluated as a solid support for Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB immobilization. The nanomagnetic derivative (11nm obtained after CALB immobilization (MNPs/APTES/GLU/CALB was evaluated as biocatalyst in isoniazide (INH synthesis using ethyl isonicotinate (INE and hydrazine hydrate (HID as substrates, in 1,4-dioxane. The results showed that MNPs/APTES/CALB had a similar performance when compared to a commercial enzyme Novozym 435, showing significant advantages over other biocatalysts, such as Rhizhomucor miehei lipase (RML and CALB immobilized on non-conventional, low-cost, chitosan-based supports.

  14. A comparative study on the deterioration of oils by microwave and conventional heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag, Radwan S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Refined cottonseed oil and hydrogenated palm oil were heated by two methods, i.e., conventionally by gas-cooker and microwaves. Quality assurance methods such as refractive index, color, diene content, acid value, peroxide value, TBA value, iodine value, petroleum ether insoluble oxidized fatty acid content and degree of polymerization were determined. Exposing the oil samples to various heating times and microwave oven power caused some hydrolysis to free fatty acids, accelerated the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The values from each test increased with both the power settings of microware oven and time of heating. In general, the development of rancidity for refined cottonseed oil heated by microwaves was twice faster than that produced by conventional heating. Also, the chemical values for refined cottonseed oil were much higher than that of hydrogenated palm oil in all cases.

    Se han calentado aceites de semilla de algodón y de palma hidrogenado mediante dos métodos: convencionalmente en cocina de gas y microonda. Se han determinado como métodos de garantía de calidad el índice de refracción, color, contenido en dienos, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, índice de TBA, índice de iodo, contenido en ácidos grasos oxidados insolubles en éter de petróleo y grado de polimerización. La exposición de las muestras de aceite a varios tiempos de calentamiento y potencia del horno microonda causó hidrólisis hacia ácidos grasos libres, aceleró la formación de hidroperóxidos y productos de oxidación secundarios. Los valores para cada test aumentaron con los ajustes de potencia del horno microonda y el tiempo de calentamiento. En general, el desarrollo de la rancidez para aceite de semilla de algodón refinado calentado por microonda fue 2 veces más rápido que el producido por calentamiento convencional. También, los índices químicos para aceites de semilla de algodón refinado fueron

  15. Transient heat transport studies in JET conventional and advanced tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P.; Coffey, I.; Dux, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transient transport studies are a valuable complement to steady-state analysis for the understanding of transport mechanisms and the validation of physics-based transport models. This paper presents results from transient heat transport experiments in JET and their modelling. Edge cold pulses and modulation of ICRH (in mode conversion scheme) have been used to provide detectable electron and ion temperature perturbations. The experiments have been performed in conventional L-mode plasmas or in Advanced Tokamak regimes, in the presence of an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB). In conventional plasmas, the issues of stiffness and non-locality have been addressed. Cold pulse propagation in ITB plasmas has provided useful insight into the physics of ITB formation. The use of edge perturbations for ITB triggering has been explored. Modelling of the experimental results has been performed using both empirical models and physics-based models. Results of cold pulse experiments in ITBs have also been compared with turbulence simulations. (author)

  16. Comparison of conventional and digital cephalometric analysis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata Bhagwan Tanwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the manual cephalometric tracings with computerized cephalometric tracings using Burstone hard tissue analysis and McNamara analysis. Materials and Methods: Conventional lateral cephalograms of 20 subjects were obtained and manually traced. The radiographs were subsequently scanned and digitized using Dolphin Imaging software version 11.7. McNamara analysis and Burstone hard tissue analysis were performed by both conventional and digital method. No differentiations were made for age or gender. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was undertaken using SPSS 17.0 version (Chicago, Illinois, USA statistical software program. A paired t-test was used to detect differences between the manual and digital methods. Statistical significance was set at the P < 0.05 level of confidence. Results: (A From Burstone analysis variables N-Pg II Hp show statistically very significant difference, and ANS-N, U1-NF, N-B II Hp, L1-Mp, and Go-Pg shows the statistically significant difference. (B From McNamara analysis variables Nasolabial angle and L1-APog show statistically significant differences and the Mandibular length shows the statistically very significant difference. Conclusion: According to this study, is reasonable to conclude that the manual and digital tracings show the statistically significant difference.

  17. Clinical comparative study between the use of lasers and conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment in deciduous teeth with presence of carious lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulga, Fabiane Galvao

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of deciduous tooth cavity preparation by the Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. Besides, we have used the laser fluorescence technique (DIAGNOdent equipment) for diagnosis and compared it to the usual tactile and visual examination as well as X-ray diagnosis. For this purpose, 20 chronic occlusal carious deciduous molar teeth from children with the ages between 5 to 10 years old were selected. Selection was ma de according to visual inspection, X-ray periapical image and measures of the DIAGNOdent. For treatment the teeth were divided in two groups, 10 to be treated by the Er:YAG laser and 10 with conventional burr. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 200 to 300 mJ; for the dentine the range was from 100 mJ to 200 mJ. In both cases, the laser frequency was in the range from 2 to 4 Hz. The results have shown that the laser treatment was more accepted by the children than the conventional burro Clinical evaluation of the cavity preparation indicates that the Er:YAG laser treatment is recommend. The DIAGNOdent evaluation method was very effective for diagnosis of carious tissue for initial detection. After successful removal of the carious tissue, confirmed by visual inspection, the DIAGNOdent evaluation method was only effective for the treatment with conventional burro For evaluation of the tooth after cavity preparation with the Er:YAG laser, the measurements oscillate covering the full range of the equipment. Therefore, the use of the DIAGNOdent equipment is indicated only for initial caries diagnosis. (author)

  18. Terminal illness and the increased mortality risk of conventional antipsychotics in observational studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Hendrika J; de Bruin, Niels C; Hulshof, Tessa A; Koolman, Xander

    2016-02-01

    Numerous large observational studies have shown an increased risk of mortality in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. Health authorities have warned against use of these drugs. However, terminal illness is a potentially strong confounder of the observational findings. So, the objective of this study was to systematically assess whether terminal illness may have biased the observational association between conventional antipsychotics and risk of mortality in elderly patients. Studies were searched in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, the references of selected studies and articles referring to selected studies (Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were (i) observational studies that estimated (ii) the risk of all-cause mortality in (iii) new elderly users of (iv) conventional antipsychotics compared with atypical antipsychotics or no use. Two investigators assessed the characteristics of the exposure and reference groups, main results, measured confounders and methods used to adjust for unmeasured confounders. We identified 21 studies. All studies were based on administrative medical and pharmaceutical databases. Sicker and older patients received conventional antipsychotics more often than new antipsychotics. The risk of dying was especially high in the first month of use, and when haloperidol was administered per injection or in high doses. Terminal illness was not measured in any study. Instrumental variables that were used were also confounded by terminal illness. We conclude that terminal illness has not been adjusted for in observational studies that reported an increased risk of mortality risk in elderly users of conventional antipsychotics. As the validity of the evidence is questionable, so is the warning based on it. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Single-port (OctoPort) assisted extracorporeal ovarian cystectomy for the treatment of large ovarian cysts: compare to conventional laparoscopy and laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gun Oh; Hong, Dae Gy; Lee, Yoon Soon

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy for treatment of large ovarian cysts and to compare its surgical outcomes, complications, and cystic content spillage rates with those of conventional laparoscopy and laparotomy. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University teaching hospital. Twenty-five patients who underwent single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy (group 1), 33 patients who underwent conventional laparoscopy (group 2), and 25 patients who underwent laparotomy (group 3). Surgical outcomes, complications, and spillage rates in group 1 were compared with those in groups 2 and 3. Patients characteristics and tumor histologic findings were similar in the 3 groups. The mean (SD) largest diameter of ovarian cysts was 11.4 (4.2) cm in group 1, 9.7 (2.3) cm in group 2, and 12.0 (3.4) cm in group 3. Operative time in groups 1 and 2 was similar at 69.3 (26.3) minutes vs 73.1 (36.3) minutes (p = .66); however, operative time in group 1 was shorter than in group 3, at 69.3 (26.3) minutes vs 87.5 (26.6) minutes (p =.02). Blood loss in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3, at 16.0 (19.4) mL vs 36.1 (20.7) mL (p < .001) and 16.0 (19.4) mL vs 42.2 (39.7) mL (p = .005). The spillage rate in group 1 was profoundly lower than in group 2, at 8.0% vs 69.7% (p < .001). Single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy offers an alternative to conventional laparoscopy and laparotomy for management of large ovarian cysts, with comparable surgical outcomes. Furthermore, cyst content spillage rate in single-port assisted extracorporeal cystectomy was remarkably lower than that in conventional laparoscopy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Wound healing of osteotomy defects prepared with piezo or conventional surgical instruments: a pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Mattheos, Nikos; Sun, Yan; Liu, Xi Ling; Yip Chui, Ying; Lang, Niklaus Peter

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wound-healing process following osteotomies performed with either conventional rotary burs or piezoelectric surgery in a rabbit model. Two types of osteotomy window defects of the nasal cavities were prepared on the nasal bone of 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits with either a conventional rotary bur or piezo surgery. The defects were covered with a resorbable membrane. Four animals were killed at 1, 2, 3, and 5 weeks after the surgical procedure, respectively. Histological and morphometric evaluations were performed to assess the volumetric density of various tissue components: the blood clot, vascularized structures, provisional matrix, osteoid, mineralized bone, bone debris, residual tissue, and old bone. Significantly more bone debris was found at 1 week in the conventionally-prepared defects compared to the piezo surgically-prepared defects. At 2 and 3 weeks, a newly-formed hard tissue bridge, mainly composed of woven bone, was seen; however, no statistically-significant differences were observed. At 5 weeks, the defects were completely filled with newly-formed bone. The defects prepared by piezo surgery showed a significantly decreased proportion of bone debris at 1 week, compared to conventional rotary bur defect. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. A comparative dosimetric study of conventional, conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in postoperative pelvic irradiation of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; An Jusheng; Wu Lingying; Huang Manni; Gao Juzhen; Xu Yingjie; Dai Jianrong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate target-volume coverage and organ at risk (OAR) protection achieved with conventional radiotherapy (CRT), three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) through dosimetric comparison in patients with cervical cancer after hysterectomy. Methods: The planning CT scans of 10 patients treated with pelvic radiation after hysterectomy for cervical cancer were used to generate CRT, 3DCRT and IMRT plans for this study. Clinical target volume(CTV) was contoured on the individual axial CT slices of every patient. The CTV was then uniformly expanded by 1.0 cm to create the planning target volume (PTV). The small bowel, rectum, bladder, bone marrow, ovaries, and femoral heads were outlined for the organ at risk (OAR) evaluation. The CRT, 3DCRT and IMRT plans were generated using commercial planning software. CRT plan was prescribed to deliver 45 Gy to the reference point, while IMRT and 3DCRT plans were 45 Gy to 95% of the PTV. Isodose line and dose volume histograms(DVH) were used to evaluate the dose distribution in CTV and OAR. Results: For 10 patients, the average volume of CTV receiving the prescribed dose of CRT was significantly lower than 3DCRT(Q=8.27, P<0.01) and IMRT(Q=8.37, P<0.01), respectively. Comparing with the CRT plan, the 3DCRT and IMRT plans notably reduced the volume of bowel at 30 and 45 Gy levels. The IMRT plan significantly spared rectum and bladder at 30 and 45 Gy levels comparing with the CRT (P<0.01) and 3DCRT(P<0.05) plans, while the 3DCRT plan significantly spared rectum and bladder at 45 Gy level comparing with the CRT(P<0.01) plans. For 4 patients with ovarian transposition, the average doses of ovary over 3 Gy were 2 patients with the 3 DCRT and IMRT plans, and 2 with all three plans. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCRT are superior to CRT in improving dose coverage of target volume and sparing of OAR, while IMRT being the best. The superiority of IMRT and 3DCRT is obvious in sparing

  2. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha, María

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. Design: A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent trea...

  3. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hang Cheng,1 Jeffrey W Clymer,1 Nicole C Ferko,2 Leena Patel,2 Ireena M Soleas,2 Chris G Cameron,2 Piet Hinoul1 1Ethicon Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Cornerstone Research Group, Burlington, ON, Canada Background: Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection.Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables.Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002, seroma by 46% (P<0.0001, necrosis by 49% (P=0.04, postoperative chest wall drainage by 46% (P=0.0005, blood loss by 38% (P=0.0005, and length of stay by 22% (P=0.007. Although benefits generally appeared greatest in mastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, ­Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup.Conclusion: In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and

  5. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  6. Comparing the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. The subjects were 14 recreationally resistance-trained men (age, 21-40 years) and the intervention period consisted of 5 weeks. After the initial testing, subjects were randomly assigned to either the "squat whole body vibration" (SWBV) group (n = 7), which performed squats on a vibration platform on a Smith Machine, or the "squat"(S) group (n = 7), which performed conventional squats with no vibrations on a Smith Machine. Testing was performed at the beginning and the end of the study and consisted of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in squat and maximum jump height in countermovement jump (CMJ). A modified daily undulating periodization program was used during the intervention period in both groups. Both groups trained at the same percentage of 1RM in squats (6-10RM). After the intervention, CMJ performance increased significantly only in the SWBV (p squats (p squats performed on a vibration platform compared with squats without vibrations regarding maximal strength and explosive power as long as the external load is similar in recreationally resistance-trained men.

  7. Comparison of patient-reported outcomes between immediately and conventionally loaded mandibular two-implant overdentures: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yuri; Kanazawa, Manabu; Sato, Daisuke; Kasugai, Shohei; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to compare patient-reported outcomes between immediately and conventionally loaded mandibular two-implant overdentures retained by magnetic attachments. Nineteen participants with edentulous mandibles were randomly assigned into either an immediate loading group (immediate group) or a conventional loading group (conventional group). Each participant received 2 implants in the inter-foraminal region by means of flapless surgery. Prostheses in the immediate and conventional groups were loaded using magnetic attachments on the same day as implant placement or 3 months after surgery, respectively. All participants completed questionnaires (the Japanese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for edentulous [OHIP-EDENT-J], the patient's denture assessment [PDA], and general satisfaction) before implant placement (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The median differences between baseline and each monthly score were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The differences in median and 95% confidence interval between two groups were analyzed. The immediate group showed slightly lower OHIP-EDENT-J summary score at 1 and 3 months than the conventional group (P=0.09). In the lower denture domain of PDA, the immediate group showed a statistically higher score at 3 months (P=0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in general satisfaction between the two groups. Based on this preliminary study, immediate loading of mandibular two-implant overdentures with magnetic attachments tends to improve oral health-related quality of life and patient assessment earlier than observed with a conventional loading protocol. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The early psychological adjustment of cleft patients after maxillary distraction osteogenesis and conventional orthognathic surgery: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lim Kwong; Loh, John Ser Pheng; Ho, Samuel M Y

    2006-12-01

    To compare the early psychological changes of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and noncleft patients after maxillofacial corrective surgery, including maxillary distraction osteogenesis and conventional orthognathic surgery. Nine CLP patients were compared with a group of 9 non-CLP patients having similar dentofacial deformities in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Five of the CLP patients underwent maxillary distraction osteogenesis and 4 underwent conventional orthognathic surgery. A control group of 9 noncleft patients received conventional orthognathic surgery. All patients completed a set of questionnaires to enable their psychological profile to be assessed. The data were collected immediately before surgery (T1), and at 3 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after surgery. The CLP patients treated with distraction osteogenesis were happier, but had a higher level of social anxiety and distress than the CLP patients receiving conventional orthognathic surgery. On the other hand, the CLP patients overall were happier, with lower social anxiety and distress, than the noncleft control group. The CLP patients showed a higher level of parental self-esteem than the noncleft patients. This preliminary study shows that CLP patients were generally happier, and had a higher level of parental support, than normal patients suffering from dentofacial deformities. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis seemed to induce a higher level of anxiety and distress in CLP patients than conventional orthognathic surgery in both cleft and noncleft patients.

  9. Comparative UAV and Field Phenotyping to Assess Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Hybrid and Conventional Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn C. Kefauver

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the commercialization and increasing availability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs multiple rotor copters have expanded rapidly in plant phenotyping studies with their ability to provide clear, high resolution images. As such, the traditional bottleneck of plant phenotyping has shifted from data collection to data processing. Fortunately, the necessarily controlled and repetitive design of plant phenotyping allows for the development of semi-automatic computer processing tools that may sufficiently reduce the time spent in data extraction. Here we present a comparison of UAV and field based high throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP using the free, open-source image analysis software FIJI (Fiji is just ImageJ using RGB (conventional digital cameras, multispectral and thermal aerial imagery in combination with a matching suite of ground sensors in a study of two hybrids and one conventional barely variety with ten different nitrogen treatments, combining different fertilization levels and application schedules. A detailed correlation network for physiological traits and exploration of the data comparing between treatments and varieties provided insights into crop performance under different management scenarios. Multivariate regression models explained 77.8, 71.6, and 82.7% of the variance in yield from aerial, ground, and combined data sets, respectively.

  10. Comparative review of computed tomography of the spinal column and conventional x-ray films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.; Yamaura, A.; Horie, T.; Makino, H. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-04-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) of the cervical spinal column was carried out in 39 patients using a GE.CT/T or Toshiba TCT60A scanner. There were 22 cervical disk lesions, 4 spinal neoplasms, 5 narrow spinal canals with or without ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, 2 syringomyelias, 5 traumas, and one Arnold-Chiari malformation. In all the patients, tomography was done after conventional spinal X-ray studies. The correlation between the CT findings and conventional X-ray films revealed the excellent capability of the CT. The measurement of the midline sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in the patient with the narrowest canal in this series showed 7.4 mm when done by CT and 9.6 mm when done by the conventional plain film at the C/sub 5/ level. To ascertain the precise sagittal diameter of the cord itself, CT myelography is indispensable after the intrathecal injection of metrizamide A; metrizamide CT myelogram is useful in determining the nature of the disease, the risk of and best approach to surgery, and the evaluation after a surgical procedure. Although the range of motion of cervical joints and intervertebral foramen are visible with the conventional films, the size of the spinal tumors, the degree of bony change, and the tumor extension to the paraspinal connective tissue can be precisely demonstrated only by CT. A CT study of the spine is a simple procedure and is less likely to produce complication, even with a metrizamide CT myelogram, though there are certain limitations in the examination.

  11. Comparison of Frictional Forces Generated by a New Ceramic Bracket with the Conventional Brackets using Unconventional and Conventional Ligation System and the Self-ligating Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Azam; Vishwakarma, Swati; Narayan, Anjali; Vinay, K; Shetty, Smitha V; Roy, Partha Pratim

    2015-09-01

    Fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy is associated with friction between the bracket - wire - ligature interfaces during the sliding mechanics. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance. The present study was done to analyze and compare the frictional forces generated by a new ceramic (Clarity Advanced) bracket with the conventional, (metal and ceramic) brackets using unconventional and conventional ligation system, and the self-ligating (metal and ceramic) brackets in the dry condition. The various bracket wire ligation combinations were tested in dry condition. The brackets used were of 0.022″ × 0.028″ nominal slot dimension of MBT prescription: Stainless steel (SS) self-ligating bracket (SLB) of (SmartClip), SS Conventional bracket (CB) (Victory series), Ceramic SLB (Clarity SL), Conventional Ceramic bracket with metal slot (Clarity Bracket), Clarity Advanced Ceramic Brackets (Clarity(™) ADVANCED, 3M Unitek). These brackets were used with two types of elastomeric ligatures: Conventional Elastomeric Ligatures (CEL) (Clear medium mini modules) and Unconventional Elastomeric Ligatures (UEL) (Clear medium slide ligatures, Leone orthodontic products). The aligning and the retraction wires were used, i.e., 0.014″ nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.019″ × 0.025″ SS wires, respectively. A universal strength testing machine was used to measure the friction produced between the different bracket, archwires, and ligation combination. This was done with the use of a custom-made jig being in position. Mean, standard deviation, and range were computed for the frictional values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. The frictional resistance observed in the new Clarity Advanced bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature was almost similar with the Clarity metal slot bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature. When using the UEL, the Clarity Advanced bracket

  12. A case study comparing the use of laser induced fluorescence with cone penetrometer testing to more conventional screening methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, K.; Rapp, K.

    1995-01-01

    Site assessments utilizing in-situ techniques to characterize subsurface stratigraphy and contaminant distribution are becoming more accepted and commonly used. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy with Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) is a new technology that provides real-time data on stratigraphy and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the subsurface environment. Over the last two years, LIF technological advances have led to field equipment with improved durability, reduced bulk and weight, and the ability to integrate LIF systems with CPT equipment. The Rapid Optical Screening Tool (a Unisys registered trademark hereafter referred to as ROST) presents the development of an in-situ data collection system which couples state-of-the-art LIF technology with CPT. ROST/CPT technology has recently been utilized in a variety of field and soil conditions. These advances, along with the need for rapid in-situ information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) have resulted in equipment that is now available for commercial applications. This paper presents a comparison of ROST/CPT to more conventional characterization methods at a manufacturing site in Nebraska. Various PHCs were stored in underground and above ground storage tanks across the site. One of these PHC spill areas consisting of a mixture of diesel fuel oil and kerosene was selected for a comparative study between various site assessment methods

  13. Study of antioxidant activity of non-conventional Brazilian fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, D M M; Jorge, N

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the proximate composition of seeds from some non-conventional Brazilian fruits, as well as to evaluate the antioxidant activity through DPPH(•) free radical and to quantify the total phenolic compounds. To obtain the extracts, dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 min, in a ratio of 1:3 (seeds:ethyl alcohol), under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Then, the mixtures were filtered and the supernatants were subjected to rotary evaporator under pressure reduced to 40 °C. The results report that the seeds of non-conventional fruits are remarkable sources of lipids, and the extraction of oil from these seeds could be an alternative for the commercial utilization of waste. They also presented significant percentages of protein and carbohydrates. Ethanol extracts of seeds from non-conventional Brazilian fruits showed relevant antioxidant activity and high amount of phenolic compounds. Therefore Brazilian non-conventional fruits can be used as functional food products or feed.

  14. Comparing the Effect of Animal-Rearing Education in Japan with Conventional Animal-Assisted Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of teachers are introducing animals into their class so that pupils foster cognitive, physiological, and social skills through their interaction with animals. Along with such an educational style termed animal-assisted education (AAE), Japanese formal education has also utilized animals for education. Japanese animal-rearing education is unique regarding the following two points: (1) it takes the form of "education through assisting animals" rather than "animals assisting education" and (2) animal rearing is embedded in formal education. While conventional AAE expects the benefit from the social support of animals, Japanese animal-rearing education expects benefit from nurturing and caring for animals. The present study aims to identify effective methods for using animals for education by highlighting the benefits of Japanese animal-rearing education. An overview of Japanese animal-rearing education is followed by a critical review of empirical studies of conventional AAE and Japanese animal-rearing education. Despite the differences in the educational styles, it was found that both systems commonly help children adapt to school. Additionally, conventional AAE were effective in enhancing cognitive and athletic ability of students and foster social skills, while Japanese animal-rearing education enhanced academic knowledge and skills and cultivated sympathy for animals and other people. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the experience of raising animals affects children's development for a long time even after children stop raising animals. In order to determine the effect of animal presence at school, however, more empirical studies with various viewpoints are necessary for both styles of education. Concerning Japanese animal-rearing education, the effects of the differences such as the amount of exposure to animals, developmental stage or character of individual children, the types of animals need to be controlled for a more sophisticated

  15. Comparing the Effect of Animal-Rearing Education in Japan with Conventional Animal-Assisted Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakajima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of teachers are introducing animals into their class so that pupils foster cognitive, physiological, and social skills through their interaction with animals. Along with such an educational style termed animal-assisted education (AAE, Japanese formal education has also utilized animals for education. Japanese animal-rearing education is unique regarding the following two points: (1 it takes the form of “education through assisting animals” rather than “animals assisting education” and (2 animal rearing is embedded in formal education. While conventional AAE expects the benefit from the social support of animals, Japanese animal-rearing education expects benefit from nurturing and caring for animals. The present study aims to identify effective methods for using animals for education by highlighting the benefits of Japanese animal-rearing education. An overview of Japanese animal-rearing education is followed by a critical review of empirical studies of conventional AAE and Japanese animal-rearing education. Despite the differences in the educational styles, it was found that both systems commonly help children adapt to school. Additionally, conventional AAE were effective in enhancing cognitive and athletic ability of students and foster social skills, while Japanese animal-rearing education enhanced academic knowledge and skills and cultivated sympathy for animals and other people. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the experience of raising animals affects children’s development for a long time even after children stop raising animals. In order to determine the effect of animal presence at school, however, more empirical studies with various viewpoints are necessary for both styles of education. Concerning Japanese animal-rearing education, the effects of the differences such as the amount of exposure to animals, developmental stage or character of individual children, the types of animals need to be

  16. Effectiveness and efficiency of CT-colonography compared to conventional colonoscopy for the early detection and diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiebinger, Cora

    2009-02-01

    to this calculation, the CTC-screening is cost-effective compared to the option ‘no screening’; however, conventional coloscopy-screening is generally more cost-effective.DiscussionIf modern CTC-devices are used with adequate technical settings, software, appropriate patient preparation and training of the operator, better results regarding sensitivity can be expected. Basically, the fact that no therapeutic measures (polypectomy can be taken during CTC compared to conventional coloscopy needs to be considered. Unanswered medical questions pertain to the interval of examinations for screening (considering the radiation exposure, the approach to small polyps and the significance of flat and depressed lesions. Regarding its cost-effectiveness, conventional coloscopy-screening results in greater health benefits and lower costs than CTC-screening in most model calculations. These results cannot be applied to Germany directly. An important ethical aspect is the consideration of patient preferences regarding the procedures. Legal aspects concern the stipulation and maintenance of quality standards. Conclusions: At this time, a clear endorsement of CTC as an alternative procedure for diagnosis and screening to the current gold standard conventional coloscopy cannot be given. On the basis of the available literature this holds true for both the medical as well as the economic assessment. However, despite the numerous studies and analyses on this topic, this assessment is afflicted with uncertainties. Due to the rapid development of CTC, short term revisions of these research questions are needed.

  17. Comparative study of contrast dacryocystogram and nuclear dacryocystogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Saparoff, G.R.; Dolan, K.D.; Chaudhuri, T.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study was run between conventional radiographic contrast dacryocystogram and radioisotope scan of the lacrimal drainage apparatus (henceforth called ''nuclear dacryocystogram''). A total of 20 contrast dacryocystograms (DCG), 22 irrigations, and 42 nuclear dacryocystograms (DCG) were performed in 21 patients having symptoms of obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system. The study revealed that there was a good correlation between these two diagnostic techniques and nuclear DCG was, perhaps, superior to contrast DCG. (U.S.)

  18. A comparative assessment of forces and moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Katsaros, C.; Eliades, T.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal forces and moments generated in the sagittal plane. Incognito lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded

  19. Results of a prospective randomised trial comparing conventional radiotherapy to split course bifractionated radiation therapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Jamel; Toumi, Nabil; Siala, Wissem; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Drira, Mohamed Mokthar; Frikha, Mounir

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is generally responsive to radiation therapy. However therapeutic results after conventional radiotherapy remain relatively poor especially for patients with locoregional advanced NPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a split course bifractionated radiotherapy regimen in a phase III randomised trial. Patients and methods: From January 1997 to September 2003, 154 patients with M0 histologically proven NPC were treated in our institution. They were staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer - International Union Against Cancer (AJCC-UICC) 1986 TNM classification. Patients with locally advanced nodal disease (N2-N3) received induction chemotherapy. All patients were randomised to receive either conventional radiotherapy at 2 Gy/fraction/day, 5 days/week to 70 Gy/7 weeks or split course bifractionated radiotherapy at 1.6 Gy/fraction, twice daily, 5 days/week to 70.4 Gy/6 weeks. Response and toxicity were evaluated according to the WHO and RTOG criteria. Results: Patients were well balanced between the two arms. The complete remission rate was 91% in conventional radiotherapy arm and 93% in bifractionated radiotherapy arm (p = 0.3). There was more grade II-III skin fibrosis in experimental arm with a 5 year actuarial probability of 66% vs 52% (p = 0.04). Locoregional and distant relapses occurred in 34% of cases in conventional arm and 38% in experimental arm (p = 0.28). With a median follow-up of 56 months, the 5 year overall survival and the disease free survival rates were, respectively (71% and 61%), in conventional arm and (62% and 60%) in bifractionated arm, the difference being statistically non significant. Comments: The present trial comparing conventional radiotherapy to a split course bifractionated radiation therapy failed to demonstrate significant improvement in locoregional control and survival in experimental arm which was associated with more grade II-III skin

  20. Conventional versus combined apgar scores in neonatal asphyxia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kamal Hardani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In asphyxiated neonates sensitivity and specificity of combined apgar were more than conventional apgar. With respect to this study, better assessment could be achieved by combined apgar score method instead of conventional Apgar.

  1. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Ali M.; Zaroo, Mohd I.; Laway, Bashir A.; Pala, Nazir A.; Bashir, Sheikh A.; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction.Methods: Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of pa...

  2. A comparative evaluation of effect of modern-curing lights and curing modes on conventional and novel-resin monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Konda Karthik; Kumar, Kanumuru Pavan; John, Gijo; Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Sowmya, Kyatham

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate effect of curing light and curing modes on the nanohybrid composite resins with conventional Bis-GMA and novel tricyclodecane (TCD) monomers. Methodology: Two nanohybrid composites, IPS empress direct and charisma diamond were used in this study. Light-emitting diode (LED)-curing unit and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH)-curing unit which were operated into two different modes: continuous and soft start. Based on the composite resin, curing lights, and mode of curing used, the samples were divided into 8 groups. After polymerization, the samples were stored for 48 h in complete darkness at 37°C and 100% humidity. The Vickers hardness (VK) of the surface was determined with Vickers indenter by the application of 200 g for 15 s. Three VK readings were recorded for each sample surface both on top and bottom surfaces. For all the specimens, the three hardness values for each surface were averaged and reported as a single value. The mean VK and hardness ratio were calculated. The depth of cure was assessed based on the hardness ratio. Results: Comparison of mean hardness values and hardness ratios was done using ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's test. Conclusion: Both QTH- and LED-curing units had shown the adequate depth of cure. Soft-start-curing mode in both QTH- and LED-curing lights had effectively increased microhardness than the continuous mode of curing. TCD monomer had shown higher hardness values compared with conventional Bis-GMA-containing resin. PMID:29628651

  3. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ali M; Zaroo, Mohd I; Laway, Bashir A; Pala, Nazir A; Bashir, Sheikh A; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction. Randomized case-control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period. Granulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85%) patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57%) patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78%) patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40%) patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B. VAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

  4. Resource Efficiency Assessment—Comparing a Plug-In Hybrid with a Conventional Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Henßler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong economic growth in recent years has led to an intensive use of natural resources, which causes environmental stress as well as restrictions on the availability of resources. Therefore, a more efficient use of resources is necessary as an important contribution to sustainable development. The ESSENZ method presented in this article comprehensively assesses a product’s resource efficiency by going beyond existing approaches and considering the pollution of the environment as well as the physical and socio-economic availability of resources. This paper contains a short description of the ESSENZ methodology as well as a case study of the Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W 205—comparing the conventional C 250 (petrol engine with the C 350 e Plug-In Hybrid (electric motor and petrol engine. By applying the ESSENZ method it can be shown that the use of more and different materials for the Plug-In-Hybrid influences the dimensions physical and socio-economic availability significantly. However, for environmental impacts, especially climate change and summer smog, clear advantages of the C 350 e occur due to lower demand of fossil energy carriers. As shown within the case study, the when applying the ESSENZ method a comprehensive evaluation of the used materials and fossil energy carriers can be achieved.

  5. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Johannes; Wilhelm, Erik; Schenler, Warren

    2014-01-01

    In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduc...

  6. Multiple sensor integration for seizure onset detection in human patients comparing conventional disc versus novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Ding, Quan; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Gaitanis, John; Kay, Steven M; Besio, Walter G

    2013-01-01

    As epilepsy affects approximately one percent of the world population, electrical stimulation of the brain has recently shown potential for additive seizure control therapy. Closed-loop systems that apply electrical stimulation when seizure onset is automatically detected require high accuracy of automatic seizure detection based on electrographic brain activity. To improve this accuracy we propose to use noninvasive tripolar concentric ring electrodes that have been shown to have significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, spatial selectivity, and mutual information compared to conventional disc electrodes. The proposed detection methodology is based on integration of multiple sensors using exponentially embedded family (EEF). In this preliminary study it is validated on over 26.3 hours of data collected using both tripolar concentric ring and conventional disc electrodes concurrently each from 7 human patients with epilepsy including five seizures. For a cross-validation based group model EEF correctly detected 100% and 80% of seizures respectively with tripolar concentric ring electrodes.

  7. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    2000-01-01

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  8. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  9. Comparative study of conventional and advanced oxidation techniques for the pathogen removal from UASB/UASF treated effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.; Irfan, M.; Latif, H.

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment did not eliminate the enteric pathogens (total Coliform, fecal Coliform, fecal streptococci, salmonella and E. coli) in effluent and required post treatment. In this study, an attempt was made to treat UASB/UASF treated effluent by conventional polishing processes (diffused aeration, sunlight and oxidation Ids) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) like ozonation (03), UV-light irradiation, peroxidation and their combinations; ozone-hydrogen peroxide (O/sub 3//H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), ozone-UV light (O/sub 3//UV) and hydrogen peroxide-UV It (H/sub 2/O/sub 2//UV). The optimal pathogen removal of 99% was achieved at 30 min ozonation. The same removal efficiency was achieved at the bubbling time of 20 min when the reactor column height was doubled by decreasing the diameter the reactor. It was because of better mass transfer due to enhanced liquid-gas contact. UV irradiation (wavelength of 254 nm) was resulted in 99% pathogen removal at irradiation time of 120 sec. However, at 180 the pathogens were totally removed from the water. For treatment with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, a dose of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/l eliminated more than 99% removal of pathogens. The treatment with the combinations such as O/sub 3//H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2//UV proved the most effective tool for the disinfection of the wastewater. More than 99% removal of pathogens was obtained with 10 min ozonation and mM dose of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and similar results were obtained at 30 sec UV irradiation and a dose of 0.5 mM H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. In case of O/sub 3//UV combination, the water was 99.9% clear from pathogens at 10 min ozonation and 60 sec UV irradiation, resulting in more than 66% reduction in treatment time taken by individual processes. This could be attributed to the combined effect of the O/sub 3/ and UV that destroyed the cell Structure and DNA and also seized the reproduction of the microbes. As far as the conventional methods were concerned, three parallel lab scale oxidation ponds were

  10. Comparison of ultrasound, digital, and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavathu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate in vivo the efficacy of ultrasound, digital and conventional radiography in identifying periapical lesions. To compare the results of the above imaging modalities with histopathology, which is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 15 and 45 years with periapical lesions associated with maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth indicated for endodontic surgery or extraction were selected for the study. Pre-operatively, conventional, digital periapical radiography and ultrasonography were done and interpreted. Endodontic surgery or extraction was performed including curettage of apical tissue to enable histopathological investigation, which provided the gold standard diagnosis. All measurements and findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: In conventional and digital radiography, the periapical lesions were readily identified but observers were unable to differentiate granuloma from cyst using these modalities only. But ultrasonography was able to give the true nature of the periapical pathology. All the cases diagnosed by ultrasound were confirmed with histopathology, and maximal number of cases diagnosed by ultrasound correlated with the histopathological diagnosis. Conclusion: The present study confirms that ultrasound is a promising and reliable imaging technique for differentiating periapical lesions i.e., periapical cysts and granulomas. Based on the echo texture of their contents and the presence of vascularity using color Doppler, periapical cyst and granulomas can be readily identified. The present study is further applicable for the evaluation of periapical lesions of the posterior teeth and evaluation of other jaw lesions.

  11. Marginal accuracy of nickel chromium copings fabricated by conventional and accelerated casting procedures, produced with ringless and metal ring investment procedures: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Alex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The Ni-Cr cast copings fabricated with the conventional casting using ringless investment system showed significantly better marginal fit than that of cast copings fabricated from conventional and accelerated casting with metal ring investment and accelerated casting using ringless investment since those copings had shown the least vertical marginal discrepancies among the four methods evaluated in this study.

  12. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  13. The Use of Hyper-Reference and Conventional Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Ronald; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of 80 undergraduate foreign language learners that compared the use of a hyper-reference source incorporating an electronic dictionary and a conventional paper dictionary. Measures of consultation frequency, study time, efficiency, and comprehension are examined; bilingual and monolingual dictionary use is compared; and further…

  14. Comparative Bio-Efficacy and Synergism of New Generation Polyfluorobenzyl and Conventional Pyrethroids Against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Manas; Akulwad, Ambadas; Kshirsagar, Rajendra; Muthukrishnan, Siva

    2018-05-28

    Intensive exposure to insecticides has resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes. We tested the bio-efficacy of two Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains differentially bio-responsive to pyrethroids to understand the comparative efficacy of different polyfluorobenzyle and conventional pyrethroid molecules and the role of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergizing these molecules in increased tolerance of mosquitoes to these molecules. We have taken deltamethrin (α-cyano pyrethroid with phenoxybenzyl moiety); permethrin (phenoxybenzyl pyrethroid without an α-cyano group); transfluthrin, dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin (polyfluorinated benzyl compounds); and prallethrin (modified cyclopentadienone compound) for this study. We found higher bio-efficacy in dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin compared with transfluthrin against tested mosquito strains. We found that transfluthrin exhibited synergism with PBO, which supports the hypothesis that P450 enzymes could play a role in the detoxification process of transfluthrin, which was earlier not believed. However, other polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with a 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl capping in the tetrafluorobenzyl ring (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin) exhibit greater synergism with PBO compared with transfluthrin. Further study is required to understand the mechanism for higher synergistic ratios in polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl moiety and ascertain the possible involvement of novel mechanisms that may involve in developing resistance. This is the first report of comparative bio-efficacy of multiple polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids and PBO synergism against mosquitoes.

  15. Paths of Discovery: Comparing the Search Effectiveness of EBSCO Discovery Service, Summon, Google Scholar, and Conventional Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Andrew D.; Duke, Lynda M.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, researchers at Bucknell University and Illinois Wesleyan University compared the search efficacy of Serial Solutions Summon, EBSCO Discovery Service, Google Scholar, and conventional library databases. Using a mixed-methods approach, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on students' usage of these tools. Regardless of the…

  16. Digital vs. conventional implant impressions: efficiency outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Gallucci, German O

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficiency, difficulty and operator's preference of a digital impression compared with a conventional impression for single implant restorations. Thirty HSDM second year dental students performed conventional and digital implant impressions on a customized model presenting a single implant. The outcome of the impressions was evaluated under an acceptance criteria and the need for retake/rescan was decided. The efficiency of both impression techniques was evaluated by measuring the preparation, working, and retake/scan time (m/s) and the number of retakes/rescans. Participants' perception on the level of difficulty for the both impressions was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire. Multiple questionnaires were obtained to assess the participants' perception on preference, effectiveness and proficiency. Mean total treatment time was of 24:42 m/s for conventional and 12:29 m/s for digital impressions (P impressions (P impression (P impression technique and 30.63 (±17.57) for digital impression technique (P = 0.006). Sixty percent of the participants preferred the digital impression, 7% the conventional impression technique and 33% preferred either technique. Digital impressions resulted in a more efficient technique than conventional impressions. Longer preparation, working, and retake time were consumed to complete an acceptable conventional impression. Difficulty was lower for the digital impression compared with the conventional ones when performed by inexperienced second year dental students. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The effects of nocturnal compared with conventional hemodialysis on mineral metabolism: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael; Manns, Braden J; Klarenbach, Scott; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Culleton, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients receiving dialysis and is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) is a long, slow dialytic modality that may improve hyperphosphatemia and disorders of mineral metabolism. We performed a randomized-controlled trial of NHD compared with conventional hemodialysis (CvHD); in this paper, we report detailed results of mineral metabolism outcomes. Prevalent patients were randomized to receive NHD 5 to 6 nights per week for 6to 10 hours per night or to continue CvHD thrice weekly for 6 months. Oral phosphate binders and vitamin D analogs were adjusted to maintain phosphate, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels within recommended targets. Compared with CvHD patients, patients in the NHD group had a significant decrease in serum phosphate over the course of the study (0.49 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.74; P=0.002) despite a significant reduction in the use of phosphate binders. Sixty-one percent of patients in the NHD group compared with 20% in the CvHD group had a decline in intact PTH (P=0.003). Nocturnal hemodialysis lowers serum phosphate, calcium-phosphate product and requirement for phosphate binders. The effects of NHD on PTH are variable. The impact of these changes on long-term cardiovascular and bone-related outcomes requires further investigation.

  18. A comparative study: Greener vs conventional synthesis of 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazoles via Biginelli reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shikha; Agarwal, Dinesh Kr.; Kalal, Priyanka; Gandhi, Divyani

    2018-05-01

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have been discovered as a powerful method for the synthesis of organic molecules, since the products are formed in a single step and the building blocks with diverse range of complexity can be obtained from easily available precursors. This strategy has become important in drug designing and discovery in the context of synthesis of biologically active compounds. In the today's scenario, MCRs are influenced by greener conditions as a powerful alternative over the conventional synthesis. In the last few years, a number of scientific publications have been appeared in the literature depicting the synthesis of pyrimidobenzothiazoles via greener routes which clearly states its importance in pharmaceutical chemistry for the drug development. Our article describes the synthesis of substituted pyrimidobenzothiazoles via one pot multicomponent reaction with structural diversity through conventional and greener pathways using different catalysts, ionic liquids, agar, resins etc.

  19. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition. Outbreeding of high-index CA gilts with high-index commercial YK boars linearly reduced (P = 0.002) back fat thickness with a corresponding linear increase (P = 0.001) in lean yield in finisher CA gilts, although no change in these parameters was observed in CA finisher boars. The increase in lean yield in CA gilts by selective breeding without affecting the level of salivary phytase activity documents the value of conventional genetic selection in conjunction with genetic modification.

  20. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ali M.; Zaroo, Mohd I.; Laway, Bashir A.; Pala, Nazir A.; Bashir, Sheikh A.; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction. Methods Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period. Results Granulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85%) patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57%) patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78%) patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40%) patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B. Conclusion VAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24765245

  1. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Lone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery, safety, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings, with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period. Results: Granulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85% patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57% patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78% patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40% patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B. Conclusion: VAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs.

  2. Health Technology Assessment of laparoscopic compared to conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair regarding safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI as well as by a manual search. The former included the following electronic resources: SOMED (SM78, Cochrane Library – Central (CCTR93, MEDLINE Alert (ME0A, MEDLINE (ME95, CATFILEplus (CATLINE (CA66, ETHMED (ED93, GeroLit (GE79, HECLINET (HN69, AMED (CB85, CAB Abstracts (CV72, GLOBAL Health (AZ72, IPA (IA70, Elsevier BIOBASE (EB94, BIOSIS Previews (BA93, EMBASE (EM95, EMBASE Alert (EA08, SciSearch (IS90, Cochrane Library – CDSR (CDSR93, NHS-CRD-DARE (CDAR94, NHS-CRD-HTA (INAHTA as well as NHSEED (NHSEED. The present report includes German and English literature published until 31.08.2005. The search parameters can be found in the appendix. No limits were placed on the target population. The methodological quality of the included clinical studies was assessed using the criteria recommended by the “Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Grading Review Group“. Economic studies were evaluated by the criteria of the German Scientific Working Group Technology Assessment for Health Care. Results: The literature search identified 17 relevant medical publications. One of these studies compared laparoscopic and conventional surgery with and without mesh for incisional hernia repair, while 16 studies compared laparoscopic and conventional surgery with mesh for incisional hernia repair. Among these studies were 14 primary studies (one randomised controlled trial (RCT, two systematic reviews and one HTA-Report. The only study comparing laparoscopic and conventional surgery without mesh found substantial differences in terms of baseline characteristics between treatment groups. The outcome parameters showed decreased recurrence rates for the laparoscopic repair and similar safety of the procedures. Studies comparing laparoscopic and conventional surgery with mesh found similar outcome in terms of medical efficacy and safety. However, there was a trend towards lower recurrence rates, length of hospital stay, and postoperative

  3. Comparative assessment of surgeons' task performance and surgical ergonomics associated with conventional and modified flank positions: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Kong, Gaiqing; Meng, Yisen; Tan, Shutao; Wei, Kunlin; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Flank position is extensively used in retroperitoneoscopic urological practice. Most surgeons follow the patients' position in open approaches. However, surgical ergonomics of the conventional position in the retroperitoneoscopic surgery is poor. We introduce a modified position and evaluated task performance and surgical ergonomics of both positions with simulated surgical tasks. Twenty-one novice surgeons were recruited to perform four tasks: bead transfer, ring transfer, continuous suturing, and cutting a circle. The conventional position was simulated by setting an endo-surgical simulator parallel to the long axis of a surgical desk. The modified position was simulated by rotating the simulator 30° with respect to the long axis of the desk. The outcome measurements include task performance measures, kinematic measures for body alignment, surface electromyography, relative loading between feet, and subjective ratings of fatigue. We observed significant improvements in both task performance and surgical ergonomics parameters under the modified position. For all four tasks, subjects finished tasks faster with higher accuracy (p ergonomics part: (1) The angle between the upper body and the head was decreased by 7.4 ± 1.7°; (2) The EMG amplitude collected from shoulders and left lumber was significantly lower (p ergonomics. With a simulated surgery, we demonstrated that our modified position could significantly improve task performance and surgical ergonomics. Further studies are still warranted to validate these benefits for both patients and surgeons.

  4. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of Abuad moringa soap with conventional medicated soaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Abimbola Okiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of 'ABUAD moringa soap', a herbal soap produced with Moringa oleifera leaf by 'ABUAD Farm', Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The physicochemical properties and antimicrobial qualities of  ABUAD moringa soap on some selected bacteria and fungi were evaluated and compared with those of some conventional medicated and herbal soaps commonly used in Nigeria, such as Dettol,  Tetmosol, Tura, Septol, Delta and Dudu Osun (herbal, as well as Lux, which serves as a control soap. The results of the physicochemical analyses revealed that all the soaps fall within the pH range of 8.83 and 9.83. All the soaps possess low values of free caustic alkali and detectable free fatty acid, as well as moderate values of total fatty matter. In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the soaps were investigated against microbial agents commonly found in association with skin infections, using the well-agar diffusion technique. The bacteria tested were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 12453, as well as four clinical isolates namely, Escherichia coli, Leutococcus sanguinis, Corynebacterium accolens and Burkholderia cepacia. The fungi were Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Malassezia furfur ATCC 44349, and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 23645. All the soaps, with exeption of lux, produced varied degrees of antibacterial activities, but ABUAD Moringa soap and Dudu Osun indicated superior effectiveness against the bacteria tested. Antifugal activities were produced by ABUAD moringa and Dudu Osun soaps only, on the fungi tested.  ABUAD Moringa produced significantly higher antifungal activities on Malassezia furfur ATCC 44349 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 than Dudu Osun, but no significant difference was observed between the two soaps on their activities against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 23645. The study showed that ABUAD Moringa soap

  5. Comparing the impact of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds were compared. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole a...

  6. A Comparative Study of the Effects of the Neurocognitive-Based Model and the Conventional Model on Learner Attention, Working Memory and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikoon, Sanit; Bunterm, Tassanee; Nethanomsak, Teerachai; Ngang, Tang Keow

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The attention, working memory, and mood of learners are the most important abilities in the learning process. This study was concerned with the comparison of contextualized attention, working memory, and mood through a neurocognitive-based model (5P) and a conventional model (5E). It sought to examine the significant change in attention,…

  7. Cognitive stimulation in healthy older adults: a cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities compared to a conventional cognitive stimulation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Élisabeth; Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of cognitive stimulation for the cognitive functions. The first method used an usual approach, the second used leisure activities in order to assess their benefits on cognitive functions (speed of processing; working memory capacity and executive functions) and psychoaffective measures (memory span and self esteem). 67 participants over 60 years old took part in the experiment. They were divided into three groups: 1 group followed a program of conventional cognitive stimulation, 1 group a program of cognitive stimulation using leisure activities and 1 control group. The different measures have been evaluated before and after the training program. Results show that the cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities is as effective on memory span, updating and memory self-perception as the program using conventional cognitive stimulation, and more effective on self-esteem than the conventional program. There is no difference between the two stimulated groups and the control group on speed of processing. Neither of the two cognitive stimulation programs provides a benefit over shifting and inhibition. These results indicate that it seems to be possible to enhance working memory and to observe far transfer benefits over self-perception (self-esteem and memory self-perception) when using leisure activities as a tool for cognitive stimulation.

  8. Medical experiments on persons with special needs, a comparative study of Islamic jurisprudence vs. Arab laws: UAE law as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Al-Karim

    2014-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of medical experiments on persons with special needs in Islamic jurisprudence and Arab laws; United Arab Emirates (UAE) law as case study. The current study adopts a comparative analytical and descriptive approach. The conclusion of this study points out that the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Special Needs, ratified by a number of Arab States, including the United Arab Emirates, approves conducting medical experiments on persons with special needs, subject to their free consent. As a result of ratifying this Convention, a number of special laws were enacted to be enforced in the United Arab Emirates. On the other hand, this issue is controversial from an Islamic jurisprudence point of view. One group of jurisprudents permits conducting these experimentations if they are designed to treat the person involved, and prohibits such experimentations for scientific advancement. Other jurisprudents permit conducting medical experimentations on persons with special needs, whether the purpose of such experimentations is treatment of the disabled or achieving scientific advancement. The opinion of this group is consistent with the International Convention and the Arab laws in this respect. However, neither the Convention nor the Arab laws regulate this matter by specific and comprehensive conditions, as addressed by some contemporary scholars. It is recommended that the Convention and the Arab laws adopt these conditions. Additionally, the Convention does not state whether the experimentations may be conducted for the interest of the person with disability or for the purpose of scientific advancement. The text of the Convention is unclear and therefore requires further illumination.

  9. Chemical Analysis and Simulated Pyrolysis of Tobacco Heating System 2.2 Compared to Conventional Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyu; Luo, Yanbo; Jiang, Xingyi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhu, Fengpeng; Hu, Shaodong; Hou, Hongwei; Hu, Qingyuan; Pang, Yongqiang

    2018-01-08

    Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2, marketed as iQOS), is a heat-not-burn (HNB) tobacco product that has been successfully introduced to global markets. Despite its expanding market, few independent and systematic researches into THS 2.2 have been carried out to date. We tested a comprehensive list of total particulate matter (TPM), water, tar, nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, aromatic amines, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, N-nitrosamines, phenol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under both ISO and HCI regimes. We also simulated pyrolysis of THS 2.2 heating sticks and made comparisons with conventional cigarette tobacco fillers using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC × GC-MS) to determine whether the specially designed ingredients help reduce harmful constituents. Other than some carbonyls, ammonia, and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), the delivered releases from THS 2.2 were at least 80% lower than those from 3R4F. Tar and nicotine remained almost the same as 3R4F. Interestingly, the normalized yield of THS 2.2 to 3R4F under the HCI regime was lower than under the ISO regime. THS 2.2 delivered fewer harmful constituents than the conventional cigarette 3R4F. Simulated pyrolysis results showed that the lower temperature instead of specially designed ingredients contributed to the distinct shift. In particular, if smoking machines are involved to evaluate the HNB products, smoking regimes of heat-not-burn tobacco products should be carefully chosen. To our knowledge, few independent studies of HNB products have been published. In this paper, a comprehensive list of chemical releases was tested systematically and compared to those from 3R4F. Although THS 2.2 generates lower levels of harmful constituents, the nicotine and tar levels were almost identical to 3R4F.The results should be discussed carefully in the future when assess the dual-use with other conventional cigarettes, nicotine dependence of HNB

  10. Helical tomotherapy with dynamic running-start-stop delivery compared to conventional tomotherapy delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Yi; Chen, Yu; Lu, Weiguo; Shang, Lu; Zuo, Li; Chen, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite superior target dose uniformity, helical tomotherapy ® (HT) may involve a trade-off between longitudinal dose conformity and beam-on time (BOT), due to the limitation of only three available jaw sizes with the conventional HT (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). The recently introduced dynamic running-start-stop (RSS) delivery allows smaller jaw opening at the superior and inferior ends of the target when a sharp penumbra is needed. This study compared the dosimetric performance of RSS delivery with the fixed jaw HT delivery. Methods: Twenty patient cases were selected and deidentified prior to treatment planning, including 16 common clinical cases (brain, head and neck (HN), lung, and prostate) and four special cases of whole brain with hippocampus avoidance (WBHA) that require a high degree of dose modulation. HT plans were generated for common clinical cases using the fixed 2.5 cm jaw width (HT2.5) and WBHA cases using 1.0 cm (HT1.0). The jaw widths for RSS were preset with a larger size (RSS5.0 vs HT2.5 and RSS2.5 vs HT1.0). Both delivery techniques were planned based on identical contours, prescriptions, and planning objectives. Dose indices for targets and critical organs were compared using dose-volume histograms, BOT, and monitor units. Results: The average BOT was reduced from 4.8 min with HT2.5 to 2.5 min with RSS5.0. Target dose homogeneity with RSS5.0 was shown comparable to HT2.5 for common clinical sites. Superior normal tissue sparing was observed in RSS5.0 for optic nerves and optic chiasm in brain and HN cases. RSS5.0 demonstrated improved dose sparing for cord and esophagus in lung cases, as well as penile bulb in prostate cases. The mean body dose was comparable for both techniques. For the WBHA cases, the target homogeneity was significantly degraded in RSS2.5 without distinct dose sparing for hippocampus, compared to HT1.0. Conclusions: Compared to the fixed jaw HT delivery, RSS combined with a larger jaw width provides faster treatment

  11. Helical tomotherapy with dynamic running-start-stop delivery compared to conventional tomotherapy delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Yi, E-mail: yi.rong@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Chen, Yu; Lu, Weiguo [21st Century Oncology, Madison, Wisconsin 53719 (United States); Shang, Lu [Guangxi Polytechnic of Construction and Technology, Nanning (China); Zuo, Li [Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Chen, Quan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Despite superior target dose uniformity, helical tomotherapy{sup ®} (HT) may involve a trade-off between longitudinal dose conformity and beam-on time (BOT), due to the limitation of only three available jaw sizes with the conventional HT (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). The recently introduced dynamic running-start-stop (RSS) delivery allows smaller jaw opening at the superior and inferior ends of the target when a sharp penumbra is needed. This study compared the dosimetric performance of RSS delivery with the fixed jaw HT delivery. Methods: Twenty patient cases were selected and deidentified prior to treatment planning, including 16 common clinical cases (brain, head and neck (HN), lung, and prostate) and four special cases of whole brain with hippocampus avoidance (WBHA) that require a high degree of dose modulation. HT plans were generated for common clinical cases using the fixed 2.5 cm jaw width (HT2.5) and WBHA cases using 1.0 cm (HT1.0). The jaw widths for RSS were preset with a larger size (RSS5.0 vs HT2.5 and RSS2.5 vs HT1.0). Both delivery techniques were planned based on identical contours, prescriptions, and planning objectives. Dose indices for targets and critical organs were compared using dose-volume histograms, BOT, and monitor units. Results: The average BOT was reduced from 4.8 min with HT2.5 to 2.5 min with RSS5.0. Target dose homogeneity with RSS5.0 was shown comparable to HT2.5 for common clinical sites. Superior normal tissue sparing was observed in RSS5.0 for optic nerves and optic chiasm in brain and HN cases. RSS5.0 demonstrated improved dose sparing for cord and esophagus in lung cases, as well as penile bulb in prostate cases. The mean body dose was comparable for both techniques. For the WBHA cases, the target homogeneity was significantly degraded in RSS2.5 without distinct dose sparing for hippocampus, compared to HT1.0. Conclusions: Compared to the fixed jaw HT delivery, RSS combined with a larger jaw width provides faster

  12. Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siewe Jan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis. Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step, followed by the addition of analgesic medication, and ultimately by surgery. The goal of non-pharmacologic and non-invasive therapy is to improve neuromuscular function, which in turn both prevents formation of and delays progression of OA. A modification of conventional physiotherapy, whole body vibration has been successfully employed for several years. Since its introduction, this therapy is in wide use at our facility not only for gonarthrosis, but also coxarthrosis and other diseases leading to muscular imbalance. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a primary care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to our outpatient clinic with initial symptoms of gonarthrosis will be assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. After patient consent, 6 weeks of treatment will ensue. During the six weeks of treatment, patients will receive one of two treatments, conventional physiotherapy or whole-body-vibration exercises of one hour three times a week. Follow-up examinations will be performed immediately after treatment and after another 6 and 20 weeks, for a total study duration of 6 months. 20 patients will be included in each therapy group. Outcome measurements will include objective analysis of motion and ambulation as well as examinations of balance and isokinetic force. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and SF-12 scores, the patients' overall status, and clinical examinations of the affected joint will be carried out. Discussion As new physiotherapy

  13. Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gregor; Knoell, Peter; Faymonville, Christoph; Kaulhausen, Thomas; Siewe, Jan; Otto, Christina; Eysel, Peer; Zarghooni, Kourosh

    2010-06-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis.Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step, followed by the addition of analgesic medication, and ultimately by surgery.The goal of non-pharmacologic and non-invasive therapy is to improve neuromuscular function, which in turn both prevents formation of and delays progression of OA. A modification of conventional physiotherapy, whole body vibration has been successfully employed for several years. Since its introduction, this therapy is in wide use at our facility not only for gonarthrosis, but also coxarthrosis and other diseases leading to muscular imbalance. This study is a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a primary care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to our outpatient clinic with initial symptoms of gonarthrosis will be assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. After patient consent, 6 weeks of treatment will ensue. During the six weeks of treatment, patients will receive one of two treatments, conventional physiotherapy or whole-body-vibration exercises of one hour three times a week. Follow-up examinations will be performed immediately after treatment and after another 6 and 20 weeks, for a total study duration of 6 months. 20 patients will be included in each therapy group.Outcome measurements will include objective analysis of motion and ambulation as well as examinations of balance and isokinetic force. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and SF-12 scores, the patients' overall status, and clinical examinations of the affected joint will be carried out. As new physiotherapy techniques develop for the treatment of OA, it is important to

  14. Studies of Non-Conventional Configuration Closed Electron Drift Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Smirnov; A.A. Litvak; L.A. Dorf; T. Graves; N.J. Fisch

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we review recent results obtained for segmented electrode and cylindrical Hall thrusters. A low sputtering graphite segmented electrode, placed at the exit of the annular thruster, is shown to affect the plasma potential distribution in the ceramic channel. This effect appears to be correlated with an observed plume reduction compared to a conventional, nonsegmented thruster. In preliminary experiments a 3-cm thruster was operated in the 50-200 W power range. Two operating regimes, stable and oscillating, were observed and investigated

  15. Assessing business proposals: genre conventions and audience response in document design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.; Bossers, Ellis

    2002-01-01

    We carried out two studies in which several genre conventions were tested on professional readers to verify the usefulness of applying genre conventions to business proposals. In the first study, 39 male business clients of the company IBM Netherlands compared an authentic busi ness proposal with a

  16. Crystal growth vs. conventional acid etching: A comparative evaluation of etch patterns, penetration depths, and bond strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanna Raghu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on enamel surface, penetration depth, and bond strength produced by 37% phosphoric acid and 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid as etching agents for direct bonding. Eighty teeth were used to study the efficacy of the etching agents on the enamel surface, penetration depth, and tensile bond strength. It was determined from the present study that a 30 sec application of 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid produced comparable etching topography with that of 37% phosphoric acid applied for 30 sec. The 37% phosphoric acid dissolves enamel to a greater extent than does the 20% sulfated polyacrylic acid. Instron Universal testing machine was used to evaluate the bond strengths of the two etching agents. Twenty percent sulfated polyacrylic acid provided adequate tensile bond strength. It was ascertained that crystal growth can be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid etching as it dissolves lesser enamel and provides adequate tensile bond strength.

  17. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  18. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  19. A comparative study on trans-umbilical single-port laparoscopic approach versus conventional repair for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Zhang; Juntao, Ge; Shuli, Liu; Li, Long

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether singleport laparoscopic repair (SLR) for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children is superior toconventional repair (CR) approaches. Between March 2013 and September 2013, 126 infants and children treatedwere retrospectively reviewed. All the patients were divided into three groups. Group A (48 patients) underwent trans-umbilical SLR, group B (36 patients) was subjected to trans-umbilical conventional two-port laparoscopic repair (TLR) while the conventional open surgery repair (COR) was performed in group C (42 patients). Data regarding the operating time, bleeding volume, post-operative hydrocele formation, testicular atrophy, cosmetic results, recurrence rate, and duration of hospital stay of the patients were collected. All the cases were completed successfully without conversion. The mean operative time for group A was 15 ± 3.9 min and 24 ± 7.2 min for unilateral hernia and bilateral hernia respectively, whereas for group B, it was 13 ± 6.7 min and 23 ± 9.2 min. The mean duration of surgery in group C was 35 ± 5.2 min for unilateral hernia. The recurrence rate was 0% in all the three groups. There were statistically significant differences in theoperating time, bleeding volume, post-operative hydrocele formation, cosmetic results and duration hospital stay between the three groups (P < 0.001). No statistically significant differences between SLR and TLR were observed except the more cosmetic result in SLR. SLR is safe and effective, minimally invasive, and is a new technology worth promoting.

  20. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words: Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation.

  1. Electromagnetic microscope compared with a conventional pulsed eddy-current probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podney, Walter N.

    1998-03-01

    A superconductive probe presently can detect a crack at a rivet hole that is two to three times smaller than the smallest crack detectable by a conventional probe. As the technology matures and noise resolution approaches a limit set by SQUIDS, approximately 1 fH, it will enable detecting submillimeter cracks down to approximately 15 mm.

  2. Comparison of frictional resistance among conventional, active and passive selfligating brackets with different combinations of arch wires: a finite elements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sandra L; Montoya, Yesid; Garcia, Nora L; Virgen, Ana L; Botero, Javier E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance among conventional, passive and active selfligating brackets using Finite Elements Analysis (FEA). Seventynine (79) slide tests were performed by combining an upper first bicuspid conventional bracket, 0.018" stainless steel wires and 0.010" ligature by means of an INSTRON 3345 load system to obtain average maximum static frictional resistance (MSFR). This value was compared to the FR (frictional resistance) obtained by simulation of a slide of the same combination by FEA following conventional bracket modeling by means of Computer Aided Design (CAD). Once the FEA was validated, bracket CADs were designed (upper right first bicuspid conventional, active and passive selfligating bracket) and bracket properties calculated. MSFR was compared among conventional, active and passive selfligating brackets with different alloys and archwire cross sections such as 0.018", 0.019" x 0.025"and 0.020" x 0.020". Passive selfligating brackets had the lowest MSFR, followed by conventional brackets and active selfligating brackets. In conventional brackets, a 0.018" archwire produced a linear pattern of stress with maximum concentration at the center. Conversely, stress in 0.020 x 0.020" and 0.019 x 0.025" archwires was distributed across the width of the slot. The highest normal forces were 1.53 N for the 0.018" archwire, 4.85 N for the 0.020 x 0.020" archwire and 8.18 N for the 0.019 x 0.025" archwire. Passive selfligating brackets presented less frictional resistance than conventional and active selfligating brackets. Regardless of bracket type, greater contact area between the slot and the archwire and the spring clip increased frictional resistance. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  3. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and design In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ≥40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy

  4. The Automated Breast Volume Scanner (ABVS: initial experiences in lesion detection compared with conventional handheld B-mode ultrasound: a pilot study of 50 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcinski S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Wojcinski1, Andre Farrokh1, Ursula Hille2, Jakub Wiskirchen3, Samuel Gyapong1, Amr A Soliman1,4, Friedrich Degenhardt1, Peter Hillemanns21Department of OB/GYN, Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld, Germany; 2Department of OB/GYN, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 3Department of Radiology, Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld, Germany; 4Department of OB/GYN, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: The idea of an automated whole breast ultrasound was developed three decades ago. We present our initial experiences with the latest technical advance in this technique, the automated breast volume scanner (ABVS ACUSON S2000TM. Volume data sets were collected from 50 patients and a database containing 23 women with no detectable lesions in conventional ultrasound (BI-RADS®-US 1, 13 women with clearly benign lesions (BI-RADS®-US 2, and 14 women with known breast cancer (BI-RADS®-US 5 was created. An independent examiner evaluated the ABVS data on a separate workstation without any prior knowledge of the patients’ histories. The diagnostic accuracy for the experimental ABVS was 66.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.9–79.1. The independent examiner detected all breast cancers in the volume data resulting in a calculated sensitivity of 100% in the described setting (95% CI: 73.2%–100%. After the ABVS examination, there were a high number of requests for second-look ultrasounds in 47% (95% CI: 30.9–63.5 of the healthy women (with either a clearly benign lesion or no breast lesions at all in conventional handheld ultrasound. Therefore, the specificity remained at 52.8% (95% CI: 35.7–69.2. When comparing the concordance of the ABVS with the gold standard (conventional handheld ultrasound, Cohen’s Kappa value as an estimation of the inter-rater reliability was κ = 0.37, indicating fair agreement. In conclusion, the ABVS must still be regarded as an experimental technique for breast ultrasound, which

  5. Paths of discovery: Comparing the search effectiveness of EBSCO Discovery Service, Summon, Google Scholar, and conventional library resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Akbulut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming hard for users to select significant sources among many others as number of scientific publications increase (Henning and Gunn, 2012. Search engines that are using cloud computing methods such as Google can list related documents successfully answering user requirements (Johnson, Levine and Smith, 2009. In order to meet users’ increasing demands, libraries started to use systems which enable users to access printed and electronic sources through a single interface. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare search effectiveness between Serial Solutions Summon, EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS web discovery tools, Google Scholar (GS and conventional library databases among users from Bucknell University and Illinois Wesleyan University.

  6. A comparative study of fuel management in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, D.E.G.; Nair, R.P.K.; Vellozo, S.O.

    1981-01-01

    A study about fuel management in PWR reactors, where not only the conventional uranium cycle is considered, but also the thorium cycle as an alternative is presented. The final results are presented in terms of U 3 O 8 demand and SWU and the approximate costs of the principal stages of the fuel cycle, comparing with the stardand cycle without recycling. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried products obtained by the conventional method. PLM and PBM had lower fat content (p ≤ 0.05) compared to conventionally fried CLM and CBM. Lipid oxidation was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in conventional frying as compared to pressure frying. Irrespective of the type of chicken meat, conventionally fried meat required higher shear force as compared to pressure fried products. Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella and E. coli were not detected. The study indicates the usefulness and superiority of pressure frying in comparison to conventional deep fat frying.

  8. Tumour budding and other prognostic pathological features at invasive margins in serrated colorectal adenocarcinoma: a comparative study with conventional carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solano, José; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Mäkinen, Markus J; Pérez-Guillermo, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    To assess the incidence of tumour budding (TB), cytoplasmic pseudo-fragments (CyPs), tumour growth pattern (TGP) and peritumoural lymphocytic infiltration (PLI) in a series of serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) and conventional carcinomas (CCs) of the colorectum in order to ascertain whether such features could explain the worse prognosis of SAC and whether they have prognostic value in SACs. Tumour budding, CyPs, TGP and PLI were evaluated in 81 SACs and 81 matched CCs. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox logistic regression analysis were obtained for histological parameters. SACs had more high-grade (HG) TB (HG-TB) (69.1%), HG-CyPs (47%), infiltrative TGP (42%) and weak PLI (W-PLI) (65.4%) than CCs (40.7%, P = 0.0003; 19.7%, P = 0.0002; 29.7%, P = 0.07; 45.7%, P = 0.0087). SACs with HG-TB (P = 0.017), HG-CyPs (P = 0.045), infiltrating TGP (P TGP (P = 0.047) and W-PLI (P = 0.04) compared with CCs. For SACs, infiltrative TGP and W-PLI were independent prognostic parameters on multivariate analysis, as was location and regional node status. Compared to CC, SAC displayed more HG-TB, HG-CyPs and fewer PLI at the invasive margins and this may account for its poorer clinical outcome. TB, CyPs, TGP and PLI are useful histological prognostic aids in SAC. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  9. Daily-diary evaluated side-effects of conformal versus conventional prostatic cancer radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmark, A.; Fransson, P.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional 4-field box radiotherapy technique induces high morbidity for patients with localized prostatic cancer. Using a patient daily diary, the present study compared side-effects after conventional radiotherapy with conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients treated with the conventional technique (with or without sucralfate) were compared with 72 patients treated with conformal technique. The patient groups were compared with an age-matched control population. Patients treated with conformal technique were also evaluated regarding acute and late urinary problems. Results showed that patients treated with conformal technique reported significantly fewer side-effects as compared with conventional technique. Patients treated with sucralfate also showed slightly decreased intestinal morbidity in comparison to non-sucralfate group. Acute and late morbidity evaluated by the patients was decreased after conformal radiotherapy as compared with the conventional technique. Sucralfate may be of value if conformal radiotherapy is used for dose escalation in prostatic cancer patients. (orig.)

  10. An Evaluation of Centrographic Analysis as Compared with Conventional Cephalometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion : Individuals belonging to same sample group and with well-balanced skeletal and soft tissue profiles and normal occlusion demonstrated wide variations in craniofacial structure as evaluated with centrographic analysis and routinely used conventional cephalometric measurements.

  11. Comparative Short-Term Clinical Outcomes of Mediastinum Tumor Excision Performed by Conventional VATS and Single-Port VATS

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ching-Feng; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wen, Chih-Tsung; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ching-Yang; Chen, Wei-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely applied recently. However, there are still only few reports describing its use in mediastinum tumor resection. We present the technique of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinum tumor resection and compare it with conventional VATS with regard to short-term outcome. We retrospectively enrolled 105 patients who received mediastinum surgery in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Sixteen patients received st...

  12. In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshagh Morteza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. Materials and Methods : A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel. In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Results : Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds for every 4 mm of expansion. Conclusion : In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.

  13. Marginal and internal fit of cobalt-chromium copings fabricated using the conventional and the direct metal laser sintering techniques: A comparative in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Ullattuthodi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the internal fit of conventional copings was superior to that of the DMLS copings. Marginal fit of the copings fabricated by two different techniques had no significant difference.

  14. Bioequivalence study of a new sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film compared to the conventional film-coated 100 mg tablet administered to healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicioni M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Milko Radicioni,1 Chiara Castiglioni,1 Andrea Giori,2 Irma Cupone,3 Valeria Frangione,4 Stefano Rovati4 1CROSS Research S.A., Phase I Unit, Arzo, Switzerland; 2IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy; 3Bouty S.p.A., Strada Padana Superiore, Cassina De’ Pecchi, Italy; 4IBSA Institut Biochimique S.A., Pambio-Noranco, Switzerland Abstract: A new orodispersible film formulation of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has been developed to examine the advantages of an orally disintegrating film formulation and provide an alternative to the current marketed products for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The pharmacokinetics of the sildenafil 100 mg orodispersible film (IBSA was compared to that of the conventional marketed 100 mg film-coated tablet (Viagra® after single-dose administration to 53 healthy male volunteers (aged 18–51 years in a randomized, open, two-way crossover bioequivalence study. Each subject received a single oral dose of 100 mg of sildenafil as test or reference formulation administered under fasting conditions at each of the two study periods according to a randomized crossover design. There was a washout interval of ≥7 days between the two administrations of the investigational medicinal products. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 24 h post-dosing. The primary objective was to compare the rate (peak plasma concentration; Cmax and extent (area under the curve [AUC] from administration to last observed concentration time; AUC0–t of sildenafil absorption after single-dose administration of test and reference. Secondary endpoints were observed to describe the plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl-sildenafil relative bioavailability and safety profile after single-dose administration. The mean sildenafil and N-desmethyl-sildenafil plasma concentration–time profiles up to 24 h after single-dose administration of sildenafil 100 mg

  15. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  16. Comparative environmental effects and cost analysis between conventional and non-conventional energy sources - A case for objective analysis and decision making in Nigeria's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinbami, J. F. K.

    1997-01-01

    Energy, which is simply 'ability to do work' is the central cross-sectoral issue which affects all human activities either directly or indirectly. It is a vital input to economic growth and development of any economy, developing or developed. However, as there are two sides to a coin, so is the issue of energy use. While it contributes to the economic growth and development of a nation, its usage has with it attendant environmental consequences. At every stage along the chain, from resource delineation and extraction, through conversion, transportation, and end-use, the energy industry faces environmental challenges. Each of these stages and even the associated environmental burdens is not without a cost. This paper therefore sets out to review and compare the environmental effects as well as the cost analysis of both the conventional and non-conventional energy resources generally and with particular emphasis on Nigeria. This hopefully should then inform the citizenry in their drive for energy consumption as well as the nation's planners and decision makers in their efforts at adequate energy planning and management for both economic and environmental sustainability in the country

  17. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Xia, P

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans can be produced with a series of rectangular segments formed by conventional jaws. This study investigates whether complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer can be delivered with the conventional jaws efficiently. Six nasopharyngeal cancer patients, previously treated with multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-IMRT plans, were re-planned using conventional jaw delivery options. All IMRT plans were subject to the plan acceptance criteria of the RTOG-0225 protocol. For a selected patient, the maximum number of segments varied from five to nine per beam, and was tested for both jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT) plans and MLC-IMRT plans. Subsequently, JO-IMRT plans and MLC-IMRT on the same treatment planning system were attempted for all patients with identical beams. The dose distribution, dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), the uniformity index and delivery efficiency were compared between the MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans. All JO-IMRT plans met the RTOG-0225 criteria for tumor coverage and sensitive structures sparing. The corresponding MLC-IMRT and JO-IMRT plans show comparable conformality and uniformity, with average COINs of the planning gross tumor volume(pGTV) 37.7% ± 18.7% versus 37.9% ± 18.1%, and the average uniformity index 82.8% ± 2.5% versus 83.6% ± 3.1%, respectively. The average monitor unit for JO-IMRT plans was about twice that of MLC-IMRT plans. In conclusion, conventional jaws can be used solely to deliver complex IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer yet still within a practical delivery time.

  18. A smart rotary technique versus conventional pulpectomy for primary teeth: A randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Negar; Shirazi, Alireza-Sarraf; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2017-11-01

    Techniques with adequate accuracy of working length determination along with shorter duration of treatment in pulpectomy procedure seems to be essential in pediatric dentistry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of root canal length measurement with Root ZX II apex locator and rotary system in pulpectomy of primary teeth. In this randomized control clinical trial complete pulpectomy was performed on 80 mandibular primary molars in 80, 4-6-year-old children. The study population was randomly divided into case and control groups. In control group conventional pulpectomy was performed and in the case group working length was determined by electronic apex locator Root ZXII and instrumented with Mtwo rotary files. Statistical evaluation was performed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests ( P <0.05). There were no significant differences between electronic apex locator Root ZXII and conventional method in accuracy of root canal length determination. However significantly less time was needed for instrumenting with rotary files ( P =0.000). Considering the comparable results in accuracy of root canal length determination and the considerably shorter instrumentation time in Root ZXII apex locator and rotary system, it may be suggested for pulpectomy in primary molar teeth. Key words: Rotary technique, conventional technique, pulpectomy, primary teeth.

  19. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  20. Comparative study of conducting iliac angioplasties with digital subtraction and conventional angiography. Incidence on true (consumable) costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, P.; Raynaud, A.; Pernes, J.M.; Parola, J.L.; Gaux, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Differences in time and cost were evaluated between the performance of iliac angioplasty with conventional (AC) and digital subtraction (AN) angiography, after a total of 27 angioplasties (13 with AC and 14 with AN). Excluding amortization of material and personnel costs, findings confirmed a certain number of advantages for AN: gain in time of about 34%, decrease of about 14% in charges, and notably of 83% in expenditure on films and 50% on contrast media [fr

  1. Simulation study of a capillary film solar still coupled with a conventional solar still in south Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerrouki, Moussa; Settou, Noureddine; Marif, Yacine; Belhadj, Mohmed Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling in series a capillary film solar still and a conventional solar still. • Combined heat and mass transfer analyses in solar distillation systems. • Design parameters of the system are optimized by simulation program. - Abstract: This work presents a numerical simulation of capillary film solar still (distiller) coupled in series with another conventional solar still. Different transfer phenomena of heat and mass are considered to evaluate the daily distillate production. The study takes into account the quality of brackish water with moderate salinity in Adrar city (south of Algeria). The performance of the system is evaluated and compared with that of conventional solar still under the same meteorological conditions. A numerical simulation is carried out to appreciate the developed model and to optimize the relationship between both distillers collecting surfaces. The obtained results show that the system daily production is at 54–83% higher than that of the conventional one. In addition, some parameters influences are studied to define the optimal operating conditions for the present system. For the first solar still, the inclination angle and surfaces ratio have a significant effect on distillate production. Brine flow rate and wind speed have slight effect on still production

  2. Comparative study of oxihydrogen injection in turbocharged compression ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, L.; Lelea, D.

    2018-01-01

    This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.

  3. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. A comparative study on trans-umbilical single-port laparoscopic approach versus conventional repair for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether singleport laparoscopic repair (SLR for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children is superior toconventional repair (CR approaches. Method: Between March 2013 and September 2013, 126 infants and children treatedwere retrospectively reviewed. All the patients were divided into three groups. Group A (48 patients underwent trans-umbilical SLR, group B (36 patients was subjected to trans-umbilical conventional two-port laparoscopic repair (TLR while the conventional open surgery repair (COR was performed in group C (42 patients. Data regarding the operating time, bleeding volume, post-operative hydrocele formation, testicular atrophy, cosmetic results, recurrence rate, and duration of hospital stay of the patients were collected. Result: All the cases were completed successfully without conversion. The mean operative time for group A was 15 ± 3.9 min and 24 ± 7.2 min for unilateral hernia and bilateral hernia respectively, whereas for group B, it was 13 ± 6.7 min and 23 ± 9.2 min. The mean duration of surgery in group C was 35 ± 5.2 min for unilateral hernia. The recurrence rate was 0% in all the three groups. There were statistically significant differences in theoperating time, bleeding volume, post-operative hydrocele formation, cosmetic results and duration hospital stay between the three groups (P < 0.001. No statistically significant differences between SLR and TLR were observed except the more cosmetic result in SLR. Conclusion: SLR is safe and effective, minimally invasive, and is a new technology worth promoting.

  5. Comparative evaluation of hydroxyapatite and nano-bioglass in two forms of conventional micro- and nano-particles in repairing bone defects (an animal study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosouhian, Saied; Razavi, Mohammad; Jafari-Pozve, Nasim; Rismanchian, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Many synthetic bone materials have been introduced for repairing bone defects. The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and nano-bioglass bone materials with their traditional micro counterparts in repairing bone defects. In this prospective animal study, four healthy dogs were included. First to fourth premolars were extracted in each quadrant and five cavities in each quadrant were created using trephine. Sixteen cavities in each dog were filled by HA, nano-HA, bioglass, and nano-bioglass and four defects were left as the control group. All defects were covered by a nonrestorable membrane. Dogs were sacrificed after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days sequentially. All 20 samples were extracted by trephine #8 with a sufficient amount of surrounding bone. All specimens were investigated under an optical microscope and the percentage of total regenerated bone, lamellar, and woven bone were evaluated. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS Software ver. 15 and Mann-Whitney U-test (α =0.05). After 15 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between HA and nano-HA and between HA and bioglass (P bone formation after 15 days. Nano-bioglass and bioglass and nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups represented a significant difference and nano-bioglass showed the highest rate of bone formation after 30 days (P = 0.01). After 45 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between nano-bioglass and bioglass and between nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups (P = 0.01). Nano-HA and nano-bioglass biomaterials showed promising results when compared to conventional micro-particles in the repair of bone defects.

  6. Storage stability of margarines produced from enzymatically interesterified fats compared to those prepared by conventional methods - Chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2006-01-01

    margarines in a pilot plant. Storage stability studies were carried out at storage temperatures of 5 and 25øC for 12wk. Margarines from the enzymatically interesterified fats were compared to the margarines produced by the conventional methods (chemical interesterification and physical blending......In this study, four margarine hardstocks were produced, two from enzymatically interesterified fats at 80 and 100% conversion, one from chemically randomized fat and one from physically mixed fat. These four hardstocks, blended with 50% sunflower oil, were mainly used for the production of table...... interesterified fat had higher PV in weeks4, 8 and10 than the margarines produced from the enzymatically interesterified fats and the physically blended fat. These differences were not caused by different contents of tocopherols in the hardstocks. The differences between the processes for chemical and enzymatic...

  7. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  8. Organic and conventional nonflavored yogurts from the Italian market: study on sensory profiles and consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Valli, Enrico; Cezanne, Marie Louise; Buchecker, Kirsten; Canavari, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The sensory properties of food products are an important success factor, especially in the organic market, where many producers and distributors of organic food claim superior taste for their products compared to the conventional alternative. For this reason consumer expectations and preferences, as well as the sensory properties of conventional and organic yogurt, have to be investigated in depth. In this work, the sensory profiling and consumer data of six nonflavored organic and conventional Italian yogurts were elaborated. Some results on the data segmentation (heavy and light users of organic food) and on the effect of information on liking (blind and labeled test) were obtained. Multivariate analysis was carried out to study how the sensory characteristics of 'natural yogurts' drive consumer liking. Consumers' preferences were oriented towards a creamy mouthfeel and smooth visual appearance and for a less acid and fresh taste. In particular, a conventional yogurt was the least accepted, because it was not creamy enough. This paper shows there is room to improve unflavored yogurt to better meet consumer expectations. Sensory profiling did not allow a distinction in odor/taste/texture between organic and conventional samples. However, three of four organic samples were in the region of highest consumer acceptability, fitting well consumers' preference. There was no clear tendency that heavy or light users scored differently in the blind and labeled tests regarding overall liking but, for all, the most liked conventional yogurt scored higher when labeled as organic. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha, María

    2012-05-01

    To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques, and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The treatments consisted of restorations, endodontic procedures and simple extractions. The study series comprised 12 females and 18 males with a mean age of 36.8 years. The 30 subjects underwent a total of 60 anesthetic procedures. Intraosseous and conventional oral anesthesia caused discomfort during administration in 46.3% and 32.1% of the patients, respectively. The latency was 7.1±2.23 minutes for the conventional technique and 0.48±0.32 for intraosseous anesthesia--the difference being statistically significant. The depth of the anesthetic effect was sufficient to allow the patients to tolerate the dental treatments. The duration of the anesthetic effect in soft tissues was 199.3 minutes with the conventional technique versus only 1.6 minutes with intraosseous anesthesia--the difference between the two techniques being statistically significant. Most of the patients (69.7%) preferred intraosseous anesthesia. The described intraosseous anesthetic system is effective, with a much shorter latency than the conventional technique, sufficient duration of anesthesia to perform the required dental treatments, and with a much lesser soft tissue anesthetic effect. Most of the patients preferred intraosseous anesthesia.

  10. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Material and method: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two ...

  11. Digital radiography: study of an alternative technique to conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Thomas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital radiography, already in use in many industrial applications, appears as a potential alternative technique to conventional radiography in the nuclear field (and more especially to the inspection of welded joints). The advantages of digital radiography are a reduced explosion risk (due to the use of lower energy and activity sources), a lower installation time, a reduced exclusion zone, and the absence of effluents. However, to the contrary of the US case, this technique may not be used in France as it is not referenced in the regulating codes (RCCM, etc.). Areva has launched a R and D study in order to characterize the equivalencies between digital and conventional radiography. First results of this study are given

  12. Functional MRI of Conventional and Anomalous Metaphors in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kathleen; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lee, Chia-Ying; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fang, Shin-Yi; Hsu, Yuan-Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study looks at whether conventional and anomalous metaphors are processed in different locations in the brain while being read when compared with a literal condition in Mandarin Chinese. We find that conventional metaphors differ from the literal condition with a slight amount of increased activation in the right inferior temporal gyrus. In…

  13. Surgical site infection: an observer-blind, randomized trial comparing electrocautery and conventional scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongetti, Regiane Ladislau; Oliveira e Castro, Paulo de Tarso; Vieira, Renê Aloisio da Costa; Serrano, Sérgio Vicente; Mengatto, Mariana Fabro; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) based on the type of scalpel used for incisions in the skin and in subcutaneous tissues. Observer-blind, randomized equivalence clinical trial with two arms (electrocautery versus conventional scalpel) which evaluated 133 women undergoing elective abdominal gynecologic oncology surgery. A simple randomization stratified by body mass index (BMI: 30 kg/m(2)) was carried out. Women were evaluated at 14 and 30 days following the operation. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to check whether the type of scalpel would be a risk factor for SSI. Group arms were balanced for all variables, excepted for surgical time, which was significantly higher in the electrocautery group (mean: 161.1 versus 203.5 min, P = 0.029). The rates of SSI were 7.4% and 9.7%, respectively, for the conventional scalpel and electrocautery groups (P = 0.756). The exploratory multivariate model identified body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (OR = 24.2, 95% CI: 2.8-212.1) and transverse surgical incision (OR = 8.1, 95% CI: 1.5-42.6) as independent risk factors for SSI. The type of scalpel used in surgery, when adjusted for these variables and the surgery time, was not a risk factor for SSI. This study showed that the SSI rates for conventional scalpel and electrocautery were not significantly different. These results were consistent with others reported in the literature and would not allow a surgeon to justify scalpel choice based on SSI. NCT01410175 (Clinical Trials - NIH). Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve results in protective conventional ventilation comparable to high frequency oscillatory ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Rossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies comparing high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome have used low values of positive end-expiratory pressure and identified a need for better recruitment and pulmonary stability with high frequency. OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional and high frequency ventilation using the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve as the determinant of positive end-expiratory pressure to obtain similar levels of recruitment and alveolar stability. METHODS: After lung lavage of adult rabbits and lower inflection point determination, two groups were randomized: conventional (positive end-expiratory pressure = lower inflection point; tidal volume=6 ml/kg and high frequency ventilation (mean airway pressures= lower inflection point +4 cmH2O. Blood gas and hemodynamic data were recorded over 4 h. After sacrifice, protein analysis from lung lavage and histologic evaluation were performed. RESULTS: The oxygenation parameters, protein and histological data were similar, except for the fact that significantly more normal alveoli were observed upon protective ventilation. High frequency ventilation led to lower PaCO2 levels. DISCUSSION: Determination of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve is important for setting the minimum end expiratory pressure needed to keep the airways opened. This is useful when comparing different strategies to treat severe respiratory insufficiency, optimizing conventional ventilation, improving oxygenation and reducing lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve in the ventilation strategies considered in this study resulted in comparable efficacy with regards to oxygenation and hemodynamics, a high PaCO2 level and a lower pH. In addition, a greater number of normal alveoli were found after protective conventional ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  15. Single-Incision Transumbilical Surgery (SITUS) versus Single-Port Laparoscopic Surgery and conventional laparoscopic surgery: a prospective randomized comparative study of performance with novices in a dry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Avcil, Tuba; Sevcenco, Sabina; Nagele, Udo; Hermann, Thomas E W; Kuehhas, Franklin E; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Frankenschmidt, Alexander; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Miernik, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the Single-Incision Transumbilical Surgery (SITUS) technique as compared to an established laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) technique (Single-Port Laparoscopic Surgery, SPLS) and conventional laparoscopy (CLS) in a surgical simulator model. Sixty-three medical students without previous laparoscopic experience were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (SITUS, SPLS and CLS). Subjects were asked to perform five standardized tasks of increasing difficulty adopted from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery curriculum. Statistical evaluation included task completion times and accuracy. Overall performances of all tasks (except precision cutting) were significantly faster and of higher accuracy in the CLS and SITUS groups than in the SPLS group (p = 0.004 to p port-assisted LESS technique such as SPLS. The demonstrated advantages of SITUS may be attributed to a preservation of the basic principles of conventional laparoscopy, such as the use of straight instruments and an adequate degree of triangulation.

  16. A comparative analysis of vehicle-related greenhouse gas emissions between organic and conventional dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestam, Vivianne; Buick, Jon

    2017-08-01

    Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods. The findings show organic and conventional production methods have different vehicle-related emission outputs that vary according to a reliance on either road transportation or increased farmyard machinery use. Mechanical weeding is more fuel demanding than conventional agrichemical sprayers. However, artificial fertilising is one of the highest farmyard vehicle-related emitters. The general findings show organic milk production emits higher levels of farm vehicle-related emissions that fail to be offset by reduced emissions occurring from international transport emissions. This paper does not propose to cover a comprehensive supply chain carbon footprint for milk production or attempt to determine which method of production has the largest climatic impact. However, it does demonstrate that Sweden's legal requirements for organic producers to produce more feed on-farm to reduce transport emissions have brought emissions back within Sweden's greenhouse gas inventory and raises questions around the effectiveness of policies to reduce vehicle-related emissions. Further research is needed into the effectiveness of climate change mitigation on food production policies, in particular looking at various trade-offs that affects the entire food supply chain.

  17. The effects of elastic tubing-based resistance training compared with conventional resistance training in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Fosco, Luciana Cristina; Bonfim, Rafaela; Bertolini, Giovana Navarro; Guarnier, Flavia Alessandra; Cecchini, Rubens; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik; Ramos, Dionei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of elastic tubing training compared with conventional resistance training on the improvement of functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, fat-free mass, and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, randomized, eight-week clinical trial. The study was conducted in a university-based, outpatient, physical therapy clinic. A total of 49 patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Participants were randomly assigned to perform elastic tubing training or conventional resistance training three times per week for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was functional exercise capacity. The secondary outcome measures were peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), fat-free mass, and cytokine profile. After eight weeks, the mean distance covered during six minutes increased by 73 meters (±69) in the elastic tubing group and by 42 meters (±59) in the conventional group (p tubing training had a greater effect on functional exercise capacity than conventional resistance training. Both interventions were equally effective in improving muscle strength and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Increased recovery of touch DNA evidence using FTA paper compared to conventional collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Irina A; Calloway, Cassandra

    2017-04-01

    Tape lifting and FTA paper scraping methods were directly compared to traditional double swabbing for collecting touch DNA from car steering wheels (n = 70 cars). Touch DNA was collected from the left or right side of each steering wheel (randomized) using two sterile cotton swabs, while the other side was sampled using water-soluble tape or FTA paper cards. DNA was extracted and quantified in duplicate using qPCR. Quantifiable amounts of DNA were detected for 100% of the samples (n = 140) collected independent of the method. However, the DNA collection yield was dependent on the collection method. A statistically significant difference in DNA yield was observed between FTA scraping and double swabbing methods (p = 0.0051), with FTA paper collecting a two-fold higher amount. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in DNA yields between the double swabbing and tape lifting techniques (p = 0.21). Based on the DNA concentration required for 1 ng input, 47% of the samples collected using FTA paper would be expected to yield a short tandem repeat (STR) profile compared to 30% and 23% using double swabbing or tape, respectively. Further, 55% and 77% of the samples collected using double swabbing or tape, respectively, did not yield a high enough DNA concentration for the 0.5 ng of DNA input recommended for conventional STR kits and would be expected to result in a partial or no profile compared to 35% of the samples collected using FTA paper. STR analysis was conducted for a subset of the higher concentrated samples to confirm that the DNA collected from the steering wheel was from the driver. 32 samples were selected with DNA amounts of at least 1 ng total DNA (100 pg/μl when concentrated if required). A mixed STR profile was observed for 26 samples (88%) and the last driver was the major DNA contributor for 29 samples (94%). For one sample, the last driver was the minor DNA contributor. A full STR profile of the last driver was observed for

  19. A comparison of piezosurgery with conventional techniques for internal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, I; Doğan, R; Gökler, O

    2017-06-01

    To compare conventional osteotomy with the piezosurgery medical device, in terms of postoperative edema, ecchymosis, pain, operation time, and mucosal integrity, in rhinoplasty patients. In this prospective study, 49 rhinoplasty patients were randomly divided into two groups according to osteotomy technique used, either conventional osteotomy or piezosurgery. For all patients, the total duration of the operation was recorded, and photographs were taken and scored for ecchymosis and edema on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7. In addition, pain level was evaluated on postoperative day 2, and mucosal integrity was assessed on day 4. All scoring and evaluation was conducted by a physician who was blinded to the osteotomy procedure. In the piezosurgery group, edema scores on postoperative day 2 and ecchymosis scores on postoperative days 2, 4, and 7 were significantly lower than in the conventional osteotomy group (p piezosurgery group than in the conventional osteotomy group (p piezosurgery group. When total operation duration was compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Piezosurgery is a safe osteotomy method, with less edema (in the early postoperative period) and ecchymosis compared with conventional osteotomy, as well as less pain, a similar operation duration, and no mucosal damage.

  20. 18F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Stege, Claudia; Kaspers, Gertjan; Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Onikul, Ella; Graf, Nicole; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2012-01-01

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUV max and greater SUV max reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Comparative study of age estimation using dentinal translucency by digital and conventional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommannavar, Sushma; Kulkarni, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Estimating age using the dentition plays a significant role in identification of the individual in forensic cases. Teeth are one of the most durable and strongest structures in the human body. The morphology and arrangement of teeth vary from person-to-person and is unique to an individual as are the fingerprints. Therefore, the use of dentition is the method of choice in the identification of the unknown. Root dentin translucency is considered to be one of the best parameters for dental age estimation. Traditionally, root dentin translucency was measured using calipers. Recently, the use of custom built software programs have been proposed for the same. Objectives: The present study describes a method to measure root dentin translucency on sectioned teeth using a custom built software program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 version (Adobe system Inc, Mountain View California). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 single rooted teeth were sectioned longitudinally to derive a 0.25 mm uniform thickness and the root dentin translucency was measured using digital and caliper methods and compared. The Gustafson's morphohistologic approach is used in this study. Results: Correlation coefficients of translucency measurements to age were statistically significant for both the methods (P < 0.125) and linear regression equations derived from both methods revealed better ability of the digital method to assess age. Conclusion: The custom built software program used in the present study is commercially available and widely used image editing software. Furthermore, this method is easy to use and less time consuming. The measurements obtained using this method are more precise and thus help in more accurate age estimation. Considering these benefits, the present study recommends the use of digital method to assess translucency for age estimation. PMID:25709325

  2. Endothelial cell loss and refractive predictability in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery compared with conventional cataract surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Holm, Lars Morten; la Cour, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and the contralateral eye operated by CPS (stop and chop technique). Both eyes had intraocular aspheric lenses implanted. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), central corneal endothelial cell count and hexagonality with a non-contact specular microscope were assessed......PURPOSE: To investigate the amount of endothelial cell loss (ECL) and refractive predictability by femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) compared to conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery (CPS). METHODS: Forty-seven patients had one eye operated by FLACS...

  3. Soil Microbial Activity in Conventional and Organic Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero F.V. Carneiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial activity in soils under conventional and organic agricultural system management regimes. Soil samples were collected from plots under conventional management (CNV, organic management (ORG and native vegetation (AVN. Soil microbial activity and biomass was significantly greater in ORG compared with CNV. Soil bulk density decreased three years after adoption of organic system. Soil organic carbon (SOC was higher in the ORG than in the CNV. The soil under organic agricultural system presents higher microbial activity and biomass and lower bulk density than the conventional agricultural system.

  4. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry, histopathology and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Kamat, Sharad; Puranik, R S; Puranik, Surekha; Saraf, Suma P; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2014-03-01

    Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Thirty patients having large periapical radiolucency that do not heal successfully with routine endodontic therapy in relation to either maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth were selected for the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were obtained and provisional diagnosis of the apical areas were made. Endodontic surgery was performed to enable histopathogical investigation. The histopathological interpretation was done to arrive at a final diagnosis and selected questionable granulomas were subjected for cytokeratin (CK-14) stain. The histopathological profile of lesions consisted of 66.66% periapical granulomas, 10% cysts, 6.67% abscess and 16.67% granulomas with cystic potential. The radiographic and histopathologic correlation was found in only 30% of these cases. Strong CK-14 expression was observed in all five cases of

  5. Digital hilar tomography. Comparison with conventional technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, C.B.; Braunschweig, R.; Teufl, F.; Kaiser, W.; Claussen, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the following study was to compare conventional hilar tomography and digital hilar tomography. 20 patients were examined both with conventional and digital hilar tomography using the same tomographic technique and the identical exposure dose. All patients underwent computed tomography of the chest as a golden standard. The digital technique, especially the edge-enhanced image version, showed superior image quality. ROC-analysis by 4 readers found equal diagnostic performance without any statistical difference. Digital hilar tomography shows a superior and constant image quality and lowers the rate of re-exposure. Therefore, digital hilar tomography is the preferable method. (orig.) [de

  6. Shaping ability of the conventional nickel-titanium and reciprocating nickel-titanium file systems: a comparative study using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Young-Hye; Bae, Kwang-Shik; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Lee, WooCheol; Shon, Won-Jun; Chang, Seok Woo

    2014-08-01

    This study used micro-computed tomographic imaging to compare the shaping ability of Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany), a conventional nickel-titanium file system, and Reciproc (VDW), a reciprocating file system morphologically similar to Mtwo. Root canal shaping was performed on the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals of extracted maxillary molars. In the RR group (n = 15), Reciproc was used in a reciprocating motion (150° counterclockwise/30° clockwise, 300 rpm); in the MR group, Mtwo was used in a reciprocating motion (150° clockwise/30° counterclockwise, 300 rpm); and in the MC group, Mtwo was used in a continuous rotating motion (300 rpm). Micro-computed tomographic images taken before and after canal shaping were used to analyze canal volume change and the degree of transportation at the cervical, middle, and apical levels. The time required for canal shaping was recorded. Afterward, each file was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups in the time for canal shaping or canal volume change (P > .05). Transportation values of the RR and MR groups were not significantly different at any level. However, the transportation value of the MC group was significantly higher than both the RR and MR groups at the cervical and apical levels (P file deformation was observed for 1 file in group RR (1/15), 3 files in group MR (3/15), and 5 files in group MC (5/15). In terms of shaping ability, Mtwo used in a reciprocating motion was not significantly different from the Reciproc system. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital mammography in a screening programme and its implications for pathology: a comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Most studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with conventional screen-film mammography (SFM) have been radiology-based. The pathological implications of FFDM have received little attention in the literature, especially in the context of screening programmes. The primary objective of this retrospective study is to compare FFDM with SFM in a population-based screening programme with regard to a number of pathological parameters.

  8. Radiosurgical fistulotomy; an alternative to conventional procedure in fistula in ano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2003-01-01

    Most surgeons continue to prefer the classic lay open technique [fistulotomy] as the gold standard of treatment in anal fistula. In this randomized study, a comparison is made between conventional fistulotomy and fistulotomy performed by a radio frequency device. One hundred patients of low anal fistula posted for fistulotomy were randomized prospectively to either a conventional or radio frequency technique. Parameters measured included time taken for the procedure, amount of blood loss, postoperative pain, return to work, and recurrence rate. The patient demographic was comparable in 2 groups. The radio frequency fistulotomy was quicker as compared to a conventional one [22 versus 37 minutes, p = 0.001], amount of bleeding was significantly less [47 ml versus 134 ml, p = 0.002], and hospital stay was less when patient was operated by radio frequency method [37 hours versus 56 hours in conventional method, p = 0.001]. The postoperative pain in the first 24 hours was more in conventional group [2 to 5 versus 0 to 3 on visual analogue scale]. The patients from radio frequency group resumed their duties early with a reduced healing period of the wounds [47 versus 64 days, p = 0.01]. The recurrence or failure rates were comparable in the radio frequency and conventional groups [2% versus 6%]. Fistulotomy procedure using a radio frequency technique has significant advantages over a conventional procedure with regard to operation time, blood loss, return to normal activity, and healing time of the wound.

  9. Clinical outcomes for patients finished with the SureSmile™ method compared with conventional fixed orthodontic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Timothy J.; Roberts, W. Eugene; Hartsfield, James K.; Eckert, George J.; Snyder, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Utilize American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) cast/radiographic evaluation (CRE) to compare a series of 63 consecutive patients, finished with manual wire bending (conventional) treatment, vs a subsequent series of 69 consecutive patients, finished by the same orthodontist using the SureSmile™ (SS) method. Materials and Methods Records of 132 nonextraction patients were scored by a calibrated examiner blinded to treatment mode. Age and discrepancy index (DI) between groups were compared by t-tests. A chi-square test was used to compare for differences in sex and whether the patient was treated using braces only (no orthopedic correction). Analysis of covariance tested for differences in CRE outcomes and treatment times, with sex and DI included as covariates. A logarithmic transformation of CRE outcomes and treatment times was used because their distributions were skewed. Significance was defined as P space closure; however, second-order root angulation (RA) was inferior. Conclusion SS patients were treated in less time to better CRE scores for first-order rotation (AR) and interproximal space closure (IC) but on the average, malocclusions were less complex and second order root alignment was inferior, compared with patients finished with manual wire bending. PMID:21261488

  10. A 2-year RSA study of the Vanguard CR total knee system: A randomized controlled trial comparing patient-specific positioning guides with conventional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhrn, Frank-David; Van Leeuwen, Justin; Tsukanaka, Masako; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2018-05-09

    Background and purpose - There is some concern regarding the revision rate of the Vanguard CR TKA in 1 registry, and the literature is ambiguous about the efficacy of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of the cemented Vanguard CR Total Knee using 2 different surgical techniques. Our hypothesis was that there is no difference in migration when implanting the Vanguard CR with either PSPGs or conventional technique. We hereby present a randomized controlled trial of 2-year follow-up with radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients and methods - 40 TKAs were performed between 2011 and 2013 with either PSPGs or the conventional technique and 22 of these were investigated with RSA. Results - The PSPG (8 knees) and the conventional (14 knees) groups had a mean maximum total point motion (MTPM) (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.48-1.18) vs. 0.70 (0.43-0.97) mm, 1.03 (0.60-1.43) vs. 0.86 (0.53-1.19), and 1.46 (1.07-1.85) vs. 0.80 (0.52-1.43) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively (p = 0.1). 5 implants had either an MTPM >1.6 mm at 12 months and/or a migration of more than 0.2 mm between 1- and 2-year follow-ups. 2 of these also had a peripheral subsidence of more than 0.6 mm at 2 years. Interpretation - 5 implants (3 in the PSPG group) were found to be at risk of later aseptic loosening. The PSPG group continuously migrated between 12 and 24 months. The conventional group had an initial high migration between postoperative and 3 months, but seemed more stable after 1 year. Although the difference was not statistically significant, we think the migration in the PSPG group is of some concern.

  11. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  12. Laser diagnodent: a comparative study with other diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, Reugma Rego

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of the Diagnodent equipment (Kavo Company, Germany) for the occlusal caries detection was dane through the comparison with other conventional diagnostic techniques, such as visual inspection, intra-oral micro camera and digital X-ray. The effectiveness of the equipment in the detection of hidden caries and its viability as a diagnosis method for caries in their initial stage was also studied. Fifty eight permanent molars and premolars teeth from patients with age between 6 and 30 years were studied. The obtained results indicated that the conventional methods employed for the caries diagnosis are unable to detect the carious lesion in its initial stage. The Diagnodent equipment has this capability to detect caries presenting a flawless surface, specially the hidden caries, allowing the dentist to decide between a preventive ar a conservative procedure. The main advantage of the Diagnodent is to be an objective method, compared to the visual and radiographic ones, that are dependent on the professional interpretation. The Diagnodent is, therefore, a promising alternative as an objective and standardized diagnosis method for the final diagnostic. (author)

  13. Strain elastography of abnormal axillary nodes in breast cancer patients does not improve diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional ultrasound alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Mi; Fornage, Bruno D; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Yang, Wei Tse

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of strain elastography (SE) alone and in combination with gray-scale ultrasound in the diagnosis of benign versus metastatic disease for abnormal axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic disease on conventional ultrasound who underwent SE of the suspicious node before ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were included in this study. On conventional ultrasound, the long- and short-axis diameters, long-axis-to-short-axis ratio, cortical echogenicity, thickness, and evenness were documented. The nodal vascularity was assessed on power Doppler imaging. Elastograms were evaluated for the percentage of black (hard) areas in the lymph node, and the SE-ultrasound size ratio was calculated. Two readers assessed the images independently and then in consensus in cases of disagreement. ROC AUCs were calculated for conventional ultrasound, SE, and both methods combined. Interreader reliability was assessed using kappa statistics. A total of 101 patients with 104 nodes were examined; 35 nodes were benign, and 69 had metastases. SE alone showed a significantly lower AUC (62%) than did conventional ultrasound (92%) (pultrasound and the AUC of the combination of conventional ultrasound and SE (93%) (p=0.16). Interreader reliability was moderate for all variables (κ≥0.60) except the SE-ultrasound size ratio (κ=0.35). Added SE does not improve the diagnostic ability of conventional ultrasound when evaluating abnormal axillary lymph nodes.

  14. Conventional Vs Digital Impressions: Acceptability, Treatment Comfort and Stress Among Young Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Alessandro; Beretta, Matteo; Luongo, Giuseppe; Mangano, Carlo; Mangano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare patients' acceptability, comfort and stress with conventional and digital impressions. Thirty young orthodontic patients (15 males and 15 females) who had no previous experience of impressions were enrolled in this study. Conventional impressions for orthodontic study models of the dental arches were taken using an alginate impression material (Hydrogum ® , Zhermack Spa, Badia Polesine, Rovigo, Italy). Fifteen days later, digital impressions of both arches were acquired using an intraoral scanner (CS3600 ® , Carestream Dental, Rochester, NY, USA). Immediately after impression taking, patients' acceptability, comfort and stress were measured using two questionnaires and the State anxiety scale. Data showed no difference in terms of anxiety and stress; however, patients preferred the use of digital impressions systems instead of conventional impression techniques. Alginate impressions resulted as fast as digital impressions. Digital impressions resulted the most accepted and comfortable impression technique in young orthodontic patients, when compared to conventional techniques.

  15. Conventional Vs Digital Impressions: Acceptability, Treatment Comfort and Stress Among Young Orthodontic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Alessandro; Beretta, Matteo; Luongo, Giuseppe; Mangano, Carlo; Mangano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare patients’ acceptability, comfort and stress with conventional and digital impressions. Materials and Methods: Thirty young orthodontic patients (15 males and 15 females) who had no previous experience of impressions were enrolled in this study. Conventional impressions for orthodontic study models of the dental arches were taken using an alginate impression material (Hydrogum®, Zhermack Spa, Badia Polesine, Rovigo, Italy). Fifteen days later, digital impressions of both arches were acquired using an intraoral scanner (CS3600®, Carestream Dental, Rochester, NY, USA). Immediately after impression taking, patients’ acceptability, comfort and stress were measured using two questionnaires and the State anxiety scale. Results: Data showed no difference in terms of anxiety and stress; however, patients preferred the use of digital impressions systems instead of conventional impression techniques. Alginate impressions resulted as fast as digital impressions. Conclusions: Digital impressions resulted the most accepted and comfortable impression technique in young orthodontic patients, when compared to conventional techniques. PMID:29492177

  16. Increased immunogenicity of the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine compared to a conventional subunit vaccine in elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, R.; Pozzi, T.; Montomoli, E.; Fragapane, E.; Senatore, F.; Minutello, M.; Podda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Three-hundred and eight outpatient elderly subjects (≥ 65 years) were randomly assigned to receive the MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (FLUAD; n = 204) or a conventional subunit influenza vaccine (AGRIPPAL S1; n = 104) in order to compare the safety and immunogenicity of the two vaccines. Although mild pain at the injection site was reported more frequently by subjects immunised with the adjuvanted vaccine, both vaccines were shown to be safe and well tolerated. The adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic as indicated by higher post-immunisation geometric mean titres (GMTs) and by higher proportions of subjects with post-immunisation ≥ four fold increases of antibody titres or subjects with ≥ 1/160 post-immunisation HI titres. These differences, statistically significant for all three strains after immunisation, indicated that, by addition of the MF59 adjuvant emulsion, conventional subunit influenza antigens acquire an enhanced immunogenicity without any clinically significant increase of their reactogenicity

  17. Study on the Impact Characteristics of Coherent Supersonic Jet and Conventional Supersonic Jet in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Cheng, Ting; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Wu, Xuetao

    2018-02-01

    Supersonic oxygen-supplying technologies, including the coherent supersonic jet and the conventional supersonic jet, are now widely applied in electric arc furnace steelmaking processes to increase the bath stirring, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the impact characteristics of the two supersonic jets. In the present study, by integrating theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, a hybrid model was developed and modified to calculate the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets. The computational fluid dynamics results were validated against water model experiments. The results show that the lance height has significant influence on the jet penetration depth and jet impact zone volume. The penetration depth decreases with increasing lance height, whereas the jet impact zone volume initially increases and then decreases with increasing lance height. In addition, the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent supersonic jet are larger than those of the conventional supersonic jet at the same lance height, which illustrates the advantages of the coherent supersonic jet in delivering great amounts of oxygen to liquid melt with a better stirring effect compared to the conventional supersonic jet. A newly defined parameter, the k value, reflects the velocity attenuation and the potential core length of the main supersonic jet. Finally, a hybrid model and its modifications can well predict the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets.

  18. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  19. Comparison of conventional and cadmium-zinc-telluride single-photon emission computed tomography for analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: an exploratory study in normal databases for different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masaru; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Shibutani, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in thallium-201-chloride (thallium-201) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans evaluated by conventional anger-type single-photon emission computed tomography (conventional SPECT) versus cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT (CZT SPECT) imaging in normal databases for different ethnic groups. MPI scans from 81 consecutive Japanese patients were examined using conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT and analyzed with the pre-installed quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) software. We compared the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) for the two SPECT devices. For a normal MPI reference, we usually use Japanese databases for MPI created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, which can be used with conventional SPECT but not with CZT SPECT. In this study, we used new Japanese normal databases constructed in our institution to compare conventional and CZT SPECT. Compared with conventional SPECT, CZT SPECT showed lower SSS (p < 0.001), SRS (p = 0.001), and SDS (p = 0.189) using the pre-installed SPECT database. In contrast, CZT SPECT showed no significant difference from conventional SPECT in QPS analysis using the normal databases from our institution. Myocardial perfusion analyses by CZT SPECT should be evaluated using normal databases based on the ethnic group being evaluated.

  20. Comparing the etiology and treatment of skin fissure in traditional and conventional medicine; a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jedkareh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry skin is a common problem which affects wound healing, severity of other skin diseases and quality of life of people. One of its undesirable effects is fissure that is a cutaneous condition in which there is a linear loss of epidermis and dermis with sharply defined, nearly vertical walls. In the present study, we have investigated the etiology of the disease and its treatments in conventional medicine and Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Two traditional medicine references, current scientific data bases and medicinal texts were explored with the selected keywords such as "sheqaq-e-poosti", "skin fissure" and "dry skin" to find the etiology and treatment of skin fissure. From the view point of both conventional medicine and ITM, dry skin is the cause of skin fissure and some causes of dry skin are similar. In conventional medicine, moisturizers are mainly used for treatment of dry skin; while in ITM some herbs, oils and other natural remedies have been used. A topical dosage form which was called "qeirooti", a mixture of wax and oil, was used to treat skin fissure in ITM. It comprised of oily ingredients that acted as occlusives and also some herbal components that directly improved dry skin (similar to moisturizers. Components efficacy of traditional dosage forms for treatment of dry skin lead us to study about formulation of “qeirooti” for treatment of dry skin.

  1. Shear bond strength and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with conventional acid-etch and self-etch primer systems: An in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Shirazi, Sajjad; Sharghi, Reza; Shirazi, Samaneh; Moghimi, Mahsan; Shahrbaf, Shirin

    2016-02-01

    Different in-vitro studies have reported various results regarding shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets when SEP technique is compared to conventional system. This in-vivo study was designed to compare the effect of conventional acid-etching and self-etching primer adhesive (SEP) systems on SBS and debonding characteristics of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. 120 intact first maxillary and mandibular premolars of 30 orthodontic patients were selected and bonded with metal and ceramic brackets using conventional acid-etch or self-etch primer system. The bonded brackets were incorporated into the wire during the study period to simulate the real orthodontic treatment condition. The teeth were extracted and debonded after 30 days. The SBS, debonding characteristics and adhesive remnant indices (ARI) were determined in all groups. The mean SBS of metal brackets was 10.63±1.42 MPa in conventional and 9.38±1.53 MPa in SEP system, (P=0.004). No statistically significant difference was noted between conventional and SEP systems in ceramic brackets. The frequency of 1, 2 and 3 ARI scores and debonding within the adhesive were the most common among all groups. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding ARI or failure mode of debonded specimens in different brackets or bonding systems. The SBS of metal brackets bonded using conventional system was significantly higher than SEP system, although the SBS of SEP system was clinically acceptable. No significant difference was found between conventional and SEP systems used with ceramic brackets. Total SBS of metal brackets was significantly higher than ceramic brackets. Due to adequate SBS of SEP system in bonding the metal brackets, it can be used as an alternative for conventional system. Shear bond strength, Orthodontic brackets, Adhesive remnant index, self-etch.

  2. The Biomedicine Convention as an object and a stimulus for comparative research in the European Journal of Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Herman

    2008-09-01

    The European Association for Health Law has ambitious objectives. Two of them are "to encourage and facilitate co-operation among health lawyers throughout Europe" and "to encourage and support the development of health law in European and international relations". Comparative legal research will be an important means to reach these objectives. In this contribution the author takes a closer look at this Convention as an object but also as a stimulus for comparative research in health law. To this end relevant articles have been analyzed that have been published in this journal from its creation in 1994 until the end of 2007.

  3. A comparative study on life cycle assessment of micro and macro components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    their smaller dimensional scale. So performing of LCA for micro products is equally important as it is for macro products. Keeping this motivation in mind, current paper systematically performs the LCA of a micro Socket used in hearing aids. The analysis makes a guide line about how to use the conventional...... knowledge about LCA and tools for the efficient LCA analysis of the micro parts. A comparative study is made in the paper by comparing two different sockets of hearing aid and it shows well how to make a comparative study for LCAwhen the manufacturer makes a new product to replace an old one. Another...

  4. Magnetic resonance dacryocystography: comparison between conventional surface coils and microscopic coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Junior, Luiz de; Wolosker, Angela Maria Borri; Borri, Maria Lucia; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo; Hartmann, Luiz Guilherme de Carvalho; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Castro, Claudio Campi de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging has been utilized in the evaluation of the lacrimal apparatus with some advantages over conventional dacryocystography. The present study was aimed at acquiring high resolution images utilizing microscopic coils for evaluating typical structures of the lacrimal apparatus as compared with the findings observed with conventional surface coils. Materials and methods: Five asymptomatic volunteers with no history of epiphora were submitted to high-field magnetic resonance imaging with microscopic and conventional surface coils, and STIR sequence after instillation of saline solution. The definition of normal anatomic structures of lacrimal apparatuses was compared utilizing conventional and microscopic surface coils. Based on a consensual scoring system, the mean values for each structure were calculated by two observers. Results: In 90% of cases, higher scores were attributed to images acquired with the microscopic coil. On average, a 1.17 point increase was observed in the scoring of anatomic structures imaged with the microscopic coil. Additionally, a subjective improvement was observed in the signal-to-noise ratio with the microscopic coil. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance dacryocystography with microscopic coils is the appropriate method for evaluating the lacrimal apparatus, providing images with better quality as compared with those acquired with conventional surface coils. (author)

  5. Adjuvant Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy After Resection for Pancreatic Cancer Using Coaxial Catheter-Port System Compared with Conventional System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Aya; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Sho, Masayuki; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Masada, Tetsuya; Sato, Takeshi; Marugami, Nagaaki; Anai, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Kanno, Masatoshi; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2016-01-01

    PurposePrevious reports have shown the effectiveness of adjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in pancreatic cancer. However, percutaneous catheter placement is technically difficult after pancreatic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of HAIC using a coaxial technique compared with conventional technique for postoperative pancreatic cancer.Materials and Methods93 consecutive patients who received percutaneous catheter-port system placement after pancreatectomy were enrolled. In 58 patients from March 2006 to August 2010 (Group A), a conventional technique with a 5-Fr indwelling catheter was used and in 35 patients from September 2010 to September 2012 (Group B), a coaxial technique with a 2.7-Fr coaxial catheter was used.ResultsThe overall technical success rates were 97.1 % in Group B and 86.2 % in Group A. In cases with arterial tortuousness and stenosis, the success rate was significantly higher in Group B (91.7 vs. 53.8 %; P = 0.046). Fluoroscopic and total procedure times were significantly shorter in Group B: 14.7 versus 26.7 min (P = 0.001) and 64.8 versus 80.7 min (P = 0.0051), respectively. No differences were seen in the complication rate. The 1 year liver metastasis rates were 9.9 % using the conventional system and 9.1 % using the coaxial system (P = 0.678). The overall median survival time was 44 months. There was no difference in the survival period between two systems (P = 0.312).ConclusionsThe coaxial technique is useful for catheter placement after pancreatectomy, achieving a high success rate and reducing fluoroscopic and procedure times, while maintaining the safety and efficacy for adjuvant HAIC in pancreatic cancer.

  6. Adjuvant Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy After Resection for Pancreatic Cancer Using Coaxial Catheter-Port System Compared with Conventional System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Aya; Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sho, Masayuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery (Japan); Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Masada, Tetsuya; Sato, Takeshi; Marugami, Nagaaki [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Anai, Hiroshi [Nara City Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sakaguchi, Hiroshi [Nara Prefectural Western Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kanno, Masatoshi [Nara Medical University, Oncology Center (Japan); Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Nakajima, Yoshiyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery (Japan); Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    PurposePrevious reports have shown the effectiveness of adjuvant hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in pancreatic cancer. However, percutaneous catheter placement is technically difficult after pancreatic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of HAIC using a coaxial technique compared with conventional technique for postoperative pancreatic cancer.Materials and Methods93 consecutive patients who received percutaneous catheter-port system placement after pancreatectomy were enrolled. In 58 patients from March 2006 to August 2010 (Group A), a conventional technique with a 5-Fr indwelling catheter was used and in 35 patients from September 2010 to September 2012 (Group B), a coaxial technique with a 2.7-Fr coaxial catheter was used.ResultsThe overall technical success rates were 97.1 % in Group B and 86.2 % in Group A. In cases with arterial tortuousness and stenosis, the success rate was significantly higher in Group B (91.7 vs. 53.8 %; P = 0.046). Fluoroscopic and total procedure times were significantly shorter in Group B: 14.7 versus 26.7 min (P = 0.001) and 64.8 versus 80.7 min (P = 0.0051), respectively. No differences were seen in the complication rate. The 1 year liver metastasis rates were 9.9 % using the conventional system and 9.1 % using the coaxial system (P = 0.678). The overall median survival time was 44 months. There was no difference in the survival period between two systems (P = 0.312).ConclusionsThe coaxial technique is useful for catheter placement after pancreatectomy, achieving a high success rate and reducing fluoroscopic and procedure times, while maintaining the safety and efficacy for adjuvant HAIC in pancreatic cancer.

  7. Investigation of Industrialised Building System Performance in Comparison to Conventional Construction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional construction methods are still widely practised, although many researches have indicated that this method is less effective compared to the IBS construction method. The existence of the IBS has added to the many techniques within the construction industry. This study is aimed at making comparisons between the two construction approaches. Case studies were conducted at four sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Two projects were IBS-based while the remaining two deployed the conventional method of construction. Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the IBS approach has more to offer compared to the conventional method. Among these advantages are shorter construction periods, reduced overall costs, less labour needs, better site conditions and the production of higher quality components.

  8. Split-mouth comparison of the accuracy of computer-generated and conventional surgical guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Nathaniel E; Kennedy, Kelly; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have shown that implant placement is highly predictable with computer-generated surgical guides; however, the reliability of these guides has not been compared to that of conventional guides clinically. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of reproducing planned implant positions with computer-generated and conventional surgical guides using a split-mouth design. Ten patients received two implants each in symmetric locations. All implants were planned virtually using a software program and information from cone beam computed tomographic scans taken with scan appliances in place. Patients were randomly selected for computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)-guided implant placement on their right or left side. Conventional guides were used on the contralateral side. Patients underwent operative cone beam computed tomography postoperatively. Planned and actual implant positions were compared using three-dimensional analyses capable of measuring volume overlap as well as differences in angles and coronal and apical positions. Results were compared using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance and were further analyzed using a Bartlett test for unequal variance (α = .05). Implants placed with CAD/CAM guides were closer to the planned positions in all eight categories examined. However, statistically significant differences were shown only for coronal horizontal distances. It was also shown that CAD/CAM guides had less variability than conventional guides, which was statistically significant for apical distance. Implants placed using CAD/CAM surgical guides provided greater accuracy in a lateral direction than conventional guides. In addition, CAD/CAM guides were more consistent in their deviation from the planned locations than conventional guides.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Diagnosis of Puerperal Breast Abscess After Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Augmentation Mammoplasty: Compared with Other Conventional Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Long, Miaomiao; Wang, Junping; Liu, Ning; Ge, Xihong; Hu, Zhandong; Shen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Puerperal breast abscess after polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty can induce breast auto-inflation resulting in serious consequences. Mammography, ultrasound, and conventional MRI are poor at detecting related PAAG abnormality histologically. We evaluated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the quantitative analysis of puerperal PAAG abscess after augmentation mammoplasty. This was a retrospective study, and a waiver for informed consent was granted. Sixteen puerperal women with breast discomfort underwent conventional breast non-enhanced MRI and axial DWI using a 3T MR scanner. Qualitative analysis of the signal intensity on DWI and conventional sequences was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the affected and contralateral normal PAAG cysts were measured quantitatively. Paired t test was used to evaluate whether there was significant difference. Both affected and normal PAAG cysts showed equal signal intensity on conventional T1WI and fat saturation T2WI, which were not helpful in detecting puerperal PAAG abscess. However, the affected PAAG cysts had a significantly decreased ADC value of 1.477 ± 0.332 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s and showed obvious hypo-intensity on the ADC map and increased signal intensity on DWI compared with the ADC value of 2.775 ± 0.233 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s of the contralateral normal PAAG cysts. DWI and quantitative measurement of ADC values are of great value for the diagnosis of puerperal PAAG abscess. Standardized MRI should be suggested to these puerperal women with breast discomfort or just for the purpose of check up. DWI should be selected as the essential MRI sequence.

  10. An Analysis of The Islamic and Conventional Banking Profitability in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmad Tawfiq Abusharbeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An Analysis of the Islamic and Conventional Banking Profitability in Palestine. The research paper examines the performance of profitability of Islamic banks against conventional banks for the period of 2005 to 2010. Two alternative measurements of banking profitability such as Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA are used to examine whether there is any differences of profit rate between Islamic, local and foreign conventional banks. The study concludes that Islamic banks generally provide the similar profit rate compared to local banks, however Islamic banks provide lower profit rate compared to foreign banks. Finally the findings also suggest that there is no statistical significant difference in mean return between the Islamic banks, local and foreign banks in Palestine. The study recommends the critical needs for Islamic regulation in order to improve the role of Islamic banking industry in Palestine.

  11. A feasibility study of using conventional jaws to deliver IMRT plans in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbok; Verhey, Lynn J; Xia Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using conventional jaws to deliver inverse planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for patients with prostate cancer. For ten patients, each had one three-dimensional conformal plan (3D plan) and seven inverse IMRT plans using direct aperture optimization. For IMRT plans using conventional jaws (JO plans), the number of apertures per beam angle was set from two to seven while three apertures per beam angle were set for the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) plans. To evaluate each planning method, we compared average dose volume histograms (DVH), the conformal index (COIN), total number of segments and total number of monitor units. Among the JO plans with the number of apertures per beam angle varying from two to seven, no difference was observed in the average DVHs, and the plan conformal index became saturated after four apertures per beam angle. Subsequently, JO plans with four apertures per beam angle (JO-4A) were compared with 3D and MLC plans. Based on the average DVHs, no difference was found among 3D, JO-4A and MLC plans with regard to the planning target volume and rectum, but the DVHs for the bladder and penile bulb were significantly better with inverse IMRT plans than those with 3D plans. When compared with the plan conformity, the average COIN values for 3D, JO-4A and MLC plans were 0.61 ± 0.07, 0.73 ± 0.05 and 0.83 ± 0.05, respectively. In conclusion, inverse IMRT plans using conventional jaws are clinically feasible, achieving better plan quality than 3D-CRT plans

  12. Resistance to Sliding in Clear and Metallic Damon 3 and Conventional Edgewise Brackets: an In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Golfeshan, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Yoones; Mehrzad, Jabraiel

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Frictional forces are considered as important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement. It is claimed that self-ligating brackets reduce the frictional forces. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the resistance to sliding in metallic and clear Damon brackets with the conventional brackets in a wet condition. Materials and Method The samples included 4 types of brackets; metallic and clear Damon brackets and metallic and clear conventional brackets (10 brackets in each group). In this study, stainless steel wires sized 0.019×0.025 were employed and the operator’s saliva was used to simulate the conditions of oral cavity. The tidy-modified design was used for simulation of sliding movement. The resistance to sliding and static frictional forces was measured by employing Testometric machine and load cell. Results The mean (±SD) of resistance to sliding was 194.88 (±26.65) and 226.62 (±39.9) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets, while these values were 187.81(±27.84) and 191.17(±66.68) g for the clear and metallic conventional brackets, respectively. Static frictional forces were 206.4(±42.45) and 210.38(±15.89) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets and 220.63(±49.29) and 215.13(±62.38) g in the clear and metallic conventional brackets. According to two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was observed between the two bracket materials (clear and metal) and the two types of bracket (self-ligating versus conventional) regarding resistance to sliding (p= 0.17 and p= 0.23, respectively) and static frictional forces (p= 0.55 and p= 0.96, respectively). Conclusion Neither the type of bracket materials nor their type of ligation made difference in resistance to sliding and static friction. PMID:26106630

  13. Resistance to Sliding in Clear and Metallic Damon 3 and Conventional Edgewise Brackets: an In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Golfeshan, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Yoones; Mehrzad, Jabraiel

    2015-03-01

    Frictional forces are considered as important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement. It is claimed that self-ligating brackets reduce the frictional forces. The aim of this study was to compare the resistance to sliding in metallic and clear Damon brackets with the conventional brackets in a wet condition. The samples included 4 types of brackets; metallic and clear Damon brackets and metallic and clear conventional brackets (10 brackets in each group). In this study, stainless steel wires sized 0.019×0.025 were employed and the operator's saliva was used to simulate the conditions of oral cavity. The tidy-modified design was used for simulation of sliding movement. The resistance to sliding and static frictional forces was measured by employing Testometric machine and load cell. The mean (±SD) of resistance to sliding was 194.88 (±26.65) and 226.62 (±39.9) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets, while these values were 187.81(±27.84) and 191.17(±66.68) g for the clear and metallic conventional brackets, respectively. Static frictional forces were 206.4(±42.45) and 210.38(±15.89) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets and 220.63(±49.29) and 215.13(±62.38) g in the clear and metallic conventional brackets. According to two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was observed between the two bracket materials (clear and metal) and the two types of bracket (self-ligating versus conventional) regarding resistance to sliding (p= 0.17 and p= 0.23, respectively) and static frictional forces (p= 0.55 and p= 0.96, respectively). Neither the type of bracket materials nor their type of ligation made difference in resistance to sliding and static friction.

  14. An experiment on rider stability while mounting: Comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, D A M; Platteel, S; Lovegrove, G R

    2017-08-01

    Pedelecs, popular among elderly cyclists, are associated with a higher injury risk than conventional bicycles. About 17% of these injuries are due to falls while (dis)mounting. Using instrumented bicycles, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to the stability of self-chosen mounting methods in four user groups: 30-45 versus 65+ years of age and males versus females. Mounting stability on pedelecs was compared with that on conventional bicycles, in controlled experimental setting (task in a fenced off parking lot) but also in real traffic conditions (traffic light turns green). Two mounting phases were differentiated: phase 1 as the transition from 'earth bound' to 'balance' and phase 2 as the acceleration to achieve harmonized cycling. Stability was operationalised in terms of the duration of these phases: the shorter their duration, the higher the stability. Pedelecs were shown to be less stable in phase 1 than conventional bicycles, irrespective of user group. For all user groups, only in phase 2 the advantages of electrical support kicked in. Results obtained in traffic conditions confirmed the patterns obtained in the controlled setting, with as only difference a lower speed in traffic conditions, which held for both mounting phases and bicycle types. Also measures of physical limitations due to low muscle strength were shown only to be compensated for by pedal support in phase 2 and not in phase 1. Further, mounting characteristics affected pedelec stability in phase 1 and not in phase 2. Higher stability was associated with a) starting while seated and b) using the pedal to push off. Although, these mounting characteristics were confounded with age, gender, and muscle strength, the pattern of results still suggest certain mounting techniques to be more beneficial for pedelecs. The results further illustrate the importance of a deeper understanding of the interactions of bicycle types and user groups on critical manoeuvres and their potential

  15. Prototype electronic stethoscope vs. conventional stethoscope for auscultation of heart sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmenson, Daniel A; Heath, Janae K; Ball, Stephanie A; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Baker, Elisabeth M; Yeh, Daniel D; Bittner, Edward A; Eikermann, Matthias; Lee, Jarone

    2014-08-01

    In an effort to decrease the spread of hospital-acquired infections, many hospitals currently use disposable plastic stethoscopes in patient rooms. As an alternative, this study examines a prototype electronic stethoscope that does not break the isolation barrier between clinician and patient and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of the stethoscope exam. This study aimed to investigate whether the new prototype electronic stethoscope improved auscultation of heart sounds compared to the standard conventional isolation stethoscope. In a controlled, non-blinded, cross-over study, clinicians were randomized to identify heart sounds with both the prototype electronic stethoscope and a conventional stethoscope. The primary outcome was the score on a 10-question heart sound identification test. In total, 41 clinicians completed the study. Subjects performed significantly better in the identification of heart sounds when using the prototype electronic stethoscope (median = 9 [7-10] vs. 8 [6-9] points, p value prototype electronic stethoscope. Clinicians using a new prototype electronic stethoscope achieved greater accuracy in identification of heart sounds and also universally favoured the new device, compared to the conventional stethoscope.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  17. A multi-center randomized controlled trial to compare a self-ligating bracket with a conventional bracket in a UK population: Part 1: Treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dywer, Lian; Littlewood, Simon J; Rahman, Shahla; Spencer, R James; Barber, Sophy K; Russell, Joanne S

    2016-01-01

    To use a two-arm parallel trial to compare treatment efficiency between a self-ligating and a conventional preadjusted edgewise appliance system. A prospective multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in three hospital orthodontic departments. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive treatment with either a self-ligating (3M SmartClip) or conventional (3M Victory) preadjusted edgewise appliance bracket system using a computer-generated random sequence concealed in opaque envelopes, with stratification for operator and center. Two operators followed a standardized protocol regarding bracket bonding procedure and archwire sequence. Efficiency of each ligation system was assessed by comparing the duration of treatment (months), total number of appointments (scheduled and emergency visits), and number of bracket bond failures. One hundred thirty-eight subjects (mean age 14 years 11 months) were enrolled in the study, of which 135 subjects (97.8%) completed treatment. The mean treatment time and number of visits were 25.12 months and 19.97 visits in the SmartClip group and 25.80 months and 20.37 visits in the Victory group. The overall bond failure rate was 6.6% for the SmartClip and 7.2% for Victory, with a similar debond distribution between the two appliances. No significant differences were found between the bracket systems in any of the outcome measures. No serious harm was observed from either bracket system. There was no clinically significant difference in treatment efficiency between treatment with a self-ligating bracket system and a conventional ligation system.

  18. Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles: A probabilistic analysis and projection across market segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Geng; Inderbitzin, Alessandro; Bening, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    While electric vehicles (EV) can perform better than conventional vehicles from an environmental standpoint, consumers perceive them to be more expensive due to their higher capital cost. Recent studies calculated the total cost of ownership (TCO) to evaluate the complete cost for the consumer, focusing on individual vehicle classes, powertrain technologies, or use cases. To provide a comprehensive overview, we built a probabilistic simulation model broad enough to capture most of a national market. Our findings indicate that the comparative cost efficiency of EV increases with the consumer's driving distance and is higher for small than for large vehicles. However, our sensitivity analysis shows that the exact TCO is subject to the development of vehicle and operating costs and thus uncertain. Although the TCO of electric vehicles may become close to or even lower than that of conventional vehicles by 2025, our findings add evidence to past studies showing that the TCO does not reflect how consumers make their purchase decision today. Based on these findings, we discuss policy measures that educate consumers about the TCO of different vehicle types based on their individual preferences. In addition, measures improving the charging infrastructure and further decreasing battery cost are discussed. - Highlights: • Calculates the total cost of ownership across competing vehicle technologies. • Uses Monte Carlo simulation to analyse distributions and probabilities of outcomes. • Contains a comprehensive assessment across the main vehicle classes and use cases. • Indicates that cost efficiency of technology depends on vehicle class and use case. • Derives specific policy measures to facilitate electric vehicle diffusion

  19. Comparison of single-port and conventional laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Rosenstock, Steffen; Bulut, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    with conventional laparoscopy and 12 with SP surgery. RESULTS: Patients' characteristics were in general comparable, but patients in the conventional laparoscopy-group had a significantly higher American Society of Anesthesiologists-score. The operative time was slightly shorter in the conventional laparoscopy...

  20. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT compared to conventional imaging modalities in pediatric primary bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Stege, Claudia; Kaspers, Gertjan [VU Medical Centre, Divisions of Paediatric Oncology/Haematology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cross, Siobhan; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Oncology, Sydney (Australia); Onikul, Ella [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia); Graf, Nicole [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Pathology, Sydney (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Imaging, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-04-15

    F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful in adults with primary bone tumors. Limited published data exist in children. To compare hybrid FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with conventional imaging (CI) modalities in detecting malignant lesions, predicting response to chemotherapy and diagnosing physeal involvement in pediatric primary bone tumors. Retrospective analysis of PET/CT and CI reports with histopathology or follow-up > 6 months as reference standard. Response parameters and physeal involvement at diagnosis were compared to histopathology. A total of 314 lesions were detected in 86 scans. Excluding lung lesions, PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity than CI (83%, 98% and 78%, 97%, respectively). In lung lesions, PET/CT had higher specificity than CI (96% compared to 87%) but lower sensitivity (80% compared to 93%). Higher initial SUV{sub max} and greater SUV{sub max} reduction on PET/CT after chemotherapy predicted a good response. Change in tumor size on MRI did not predict response. Both PET/CT and MRI were very sensitive but of low specificity in predicting physeal tumor involvement. PET/CT appears more accurate than CI in detecting malignant lesions in childhood primary bone tumors, excluding lung lesions. It seems better than MRI at predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. (orig.)

  1. The eco-driving effect of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-driving is attractive to the public, not only users of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs but also users of electric vehicles (EVs have interest in eco-driving. In this context, a quantitative evaluation of eco-driving effect of EVs was conducted using a chassis dynamometer (C/D with an “eco-driving test mode.” This mode comprised four speed patterns selected from fifty-two real-world driving datasets collected during an eco-driving test-ride event. The four patterns had the same travel distance (5.2 km, but showed varying eco-driving achievement levels. Three ICEVs, one HEV and two EVs were tested using a C/D. Good linear relationships were found between the eco-driving achievement level and electric or fuel consumption rate of all vehicles. The reduction of CO2 emissions was also estimated. The CO2-reduction rates of the four conventional (including hybrid vehicles were 10.9%–12.6%, while those of two types of EVs were 11.7%–18.4%. These results indicate that the eco-driving tips for conventional vehicles are effective to not only ICEVs and HEVs but also EVs. Furthermore, EVs have a higher potential of eco-driving effect than ICEVs and HEVs if EVs could maintain high energy conversion efficiency at low load range. This study is intended to support the importance of the dissemination of tools like the intelligent speed adaptation (ISA to obey the regulation speed in real time. In the future, also in the development and dissemination of automated driving systems, the viewpoint of achieving the traveling purpose with less kinetic energy would be important.

  2. ELVIS: Comparing Electric and Conventional Vehicle Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Making the transition from conventional combustion vehicles (CVs) to electric vehicles (EVs) requires the users to be comfortable with the limited range of EVs. We present a system named ELVIS that enables a direct comparison of energy/fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and travel-time between CVs...

  3. A Comparative Study on Fatigue Life Optimization of the Intersection between a Longitudinal and a Webframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk-Sørensen, Martin

    1996-01-01

    to improve the design. A new improved slot for the longitudinal intersection in the web plate is found on the basis of a shape optimization of the conventional slot. The new slot has an unique shape (tongue form) resulting in a stress relaxation around the slot. Both the conventional and the new slot...... structure were analyzed by FEM followed by fatigue life calculations and subsequently compared. The overall expected fatigue life for the shape optimized slot will increase by approximately 12 %. The results were compared with an another study concerning a slot for a T-longitudinal....

  4. Study on Flexural Behaviour of Ternary Blended Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete Beam with Conventional RCC Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshaline Seles, M.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    The conventional concrete when used for structures having dense congested reinforcement, the problems such as external compaction and vibration needs special attention. In such case, the self compacting concrete (SCC) which has the properties like flow ability, passing and filling ability would be an obvious answer. All those SCC flow behavior was governed by EFNARC specifications. In present study, the combination type of SCC was prepared by replacing cement with silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK) along with optimum dosages of chemical admixtures. From the fresh property test, cube compressive strength and cylinder split tensile strength, optimum ternary mix was obtained. In order to study the flexural behavior, the optimum ternary mix was taken in which beam specimens of size 1200 mm x 100 mm x 200 mm was designed as singly reinforced section according to IS: 456-2000, Limit state method. Finally the comparative experimental analysis was made between conventional RCC and SCC beams of same grade in terms of flexural strength namely yield load & ultimate load, load- deflection curve, crack size and pattern respectively.

  5. Comparative study of a novel liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravitational loop heat pipe against the conventional gravitational straight and loop heat pipes – Part I: Conceptual development and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Jingchun; He, Wei; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Xudong; Tan, Junyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravity-assisted loop heat pipe. • Comparative study of the thermal performance of three heat pipes were conducted. • A dedicated steady-state thermal model of three heat pipes were developed. • Optimum operational settings of the new loop heat pipe were recommended. • The new loop heat pipe could achieve a significantly enhanced heat transfer effect. - Abstract: Aim of the paper is to investigate the thermal performance of a novel liquid–vapour separator incorporated gravity-assisted loop heat pipe (GALHP) (T1), against a conventional GALHP (T2) and a gravitational straight heat pipe (T3), from the conceptual and theoretical aspects. This involved a dedicated conceptual formation, thermo-fluid analyses, and computer modelling and results discussion. The innovative feature of the new GALHP lies in the integration of a dedicated liquid–vapour separator on top of its evaporator section, which removes the potential entrainment between the heat pipe liquid and vapour flows and meanwhile, resolves the inherent ‘dry-out’ problem exhibited in the conventional GALHP. Based on this recognised novelty, a dedicated steady-state thermal model covering the mass continuity, energy conservation and Darcy equations was established. The model was operated at different sets of conditions, thus generating the temperature/pressure contours of the vapour and liquid flows at the evaporator section, the overall thermal resistance, the effective thermal conductivity, and the flow resistances across entire loop. Comparison among these results led to determination of the optimum operational settings of the new GALHP and assessment of the heat-transfer enhancement rate of the new GALHP against the conventional heat pipes. It was suggested that the overall thermal resistance of the three heat pipes (T1, T2, and T3) were 0.10 °C/W, 0.49 °C/W and 0.22 °C/W, while their effective thermal conductivities were

  6. Conventional and serological detection of Fasciolosis in ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determined seasonal prevalence of fasciolosis and compare between its conventional diagnosis and serological identification in ruminants slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, northeastern Nigeria. Nine hundred samples each of faeces and blood; that is 300 each from cattle, sheep and goats was ...

  7. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  8. A comparative evaluation of pain and anxiety levels in 2 different anesthesia techniques: locoregional anesthesia using conventional syringe versus intraosseous anesthesia using a computer-controlled system (Quicksleeper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Senem; Yaltirik, Mehmet; Kirli, Irem; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anxiety and pain levels during anesthesia and efficacy of Quicksleeper intraosseous (IO) injection system, which delivers computer-controlled IO anesthesia and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in impacted mandibular third molars. Forty subjects with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars randomly received IO injection or conventional IANB at 2 successive appointments. The subjects received 1.8 mL 2% articaine. IO injection has many advantages, such as enabling painless anesthesia with less soft tissue numbness and quick onset of anesthesia as well as lingual and palatal anesthesia with single needle penetration. Although IO injection is a useful technique commonly used during various treatments in dentistry, the duration of injection takes longer than conventional techniques, there is a possibility of obstruction at the needle tip, and, the duration of the anesthetic effect is inadequate for prolonged surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods of obtaining complete-arch dental impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Ender, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Digital impression systems have undergone significant development in recent years, but few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo, particularly compared with conventional impression techniques. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the precision of conventional and digital methods for complete-arch impressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Complete-arch impressions were obtained using 5 conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsilox...

  10. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2016-05-24

    To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (pgrupos, sendo que o G1 (n=16) continha as ampolas e o G2 (n=16), os frascos-ampola. As apresentações convencionais foram distribuídas em dois grupos, a saber G3 (n=16) com as ampolas e G4 (n=16) com os frascos-ampola. As ampolas e os frascos-ampolas eram abertos e tinham seu conteúdo aspirado. Os frascos vazios eram, então, acondicionados em sacos plásticos estéreis e enviados para análise quanto à carga microbiana (bactérias e fungos), bem como para o teste de esterilidade. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste χ2 com correção Yates com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Os grupos G1 e G2 não apresentaram crescimento bacteriano quando comparado aos grupos convencionais (pgrupos. O uso de embalagens estéreis (sterile pack) diminui a carga microbiana dos frascos de envasamentos, o que diminuiria a chance de exposição a uma potencial contaminação da solução anestésica.

  11. Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Kosher (Shechita) and conventional slaughter techniques on shear force, drip and cooking loss of beef. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... force values for meat samples from cattle slaughtered by the Kosher method compared to those from cattle slaughtered by the conventional slaughter method.

  12. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  13. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak

    2008-07-01

    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  14. Comparison of piezosurgery and conventional rotative instruments in direct sinus lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delilbasi, Cagri; Gurler, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of Piezosurgery and conventional rotative instruments in direct sinus lifting procedure. Twenty-three patients requiring direct sinus lifting were enrolled. The osteotomy and sinus membrane elevation were performed either with Piezosurgery tips or rotative diamond burs and manual membrane elevators. Time elapsed between bony window opening and completion of membrane elevation (duration), incidence of membrane perforation, visibility of the operation site, postoperative pain, swelling, sleeping, eating, phonetics, daily routine, and missed work as well as patient's expectation before and experience after the operation were evaluated. There was no significant difference between Piezosurgery and conventional groups regarding incidence of membrane perforation, duration, and operation site visibility as well as patient's expectation before and experience after the operation (P > 0.05). However, there were significantly more pain and swelling in the conventional group compared with the Piezosurgery group (P ≤ 0.05). Sinus lifting procedure performed with Piezosurgery causes less pain and swelling postoperatively compared with conventional technique. Patients' daily life activities and experience about the operation are not affected from the surgical technique.

  15. FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation: comparative experiment with a conventional piezo hydrophone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruijn, D. de

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of a TPD FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation. In particularly a comparison with a conventional piezo hydrophone system is discussed. ©2003 Copyright SPIE

  16. SU-F-T-511: Feasibility Study of Using Flattening-Filter-Free Photon Beams to Deliver Conventional Flat Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, N; Lebron, S; Yan, G; Li, J; Liu, C; Lu, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Various dosimetric benefits such as increased dose rate, and reduced leakage and out of field dose has led to the growth of FFF technology in the clinic. In this study, we concentrate on investigating the feasibility of using flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams to deliver conventional flat beams (CFB), since completely getting rid of the flattening-filter module from the gantry head can not only simplify the gantry design but also decrease the workload on machine maintain and quality assurance. Methods: The sliding window based IMRT technique was utilized to generate the CFB from the FFF beam for various beam configurations on the Elekta Versa HD. The flat beam reproducibility and MU efficiency were compared for each beam configuration among FFF planning, delivery and CFB planning. Results: Compared to the CFB plan, the 3%3mm passing rates of the FFF beams from both measurement and plan are 100% and 95%(or better) for 15×15 cm 2 or smaller field size and for any field size greater than 15×15 cm 2 at 10 cm depth, respectively. The largest discrepancy is about 5% and typically appears at the field shoulder area. The MU increase average was 80% for FFF compared to CFB, however has a minimal impact on treatment delivery time. Conclusion: The ability to deliver conventional flat treatments is not absent when operating in FFF mode. With proper TPS manipulation and beam modulation, FFF mode can achieve reasonable flat profiles and comparable dose coverage as CFB does for various conventional treatment techniques, such as four field box, or long spine treatment techniques. The ability to deliver most clinical treatments from the same treatment unit, will allow for less quality assurance as well as maintenance, and completely eliminate the need for the flattening filter on modern linacs.

  17. SU-F-T-511: Feasibility Study of Using Flattening-Filter-Free Photon Beams to Deliver Conventional Flat Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, N; Lebron, S; Yan, G; Li, J; Liu, C; Lu, B [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Various dosimetric benefits such as increased dose rate, and reduced leakage and out of field dose has led to the growth of FFF technology in the clinic. In this study, we concentrate on investigating the feasibility of using flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams to deliver conventional flat beams (CFB), since completely getting rid of the flattening-filter module from the gantry head can not only simplify the gantry design but also decrease the workload on machine maintain and quality assurance. Methods: The sliding window based IMRT technique was utilized to generate the CFB from the FFF beam for various beam configurations on the Elekta Versa HD. The flat beam reproducibility and MU efficiency were compared for each beam configuration among FFF planning, delivery and CFB planning. Results: Compared to the CFB plan, the 3%3mm passing rates of the FFF beams from both measurement and plan are 100% and 95%(or better) for 15×15 cm{sup 2} or smaller field size and for any field size greater than 15×15 cm{sup 2}at 10 cm depth, respectively. The largest discrepancy is about 5% and typically appears at the field shoulder area. The MU increase average was 80% for FFF compared to CFB, however has a minimal impact on treatment delivery time. Conclusion: The ability to deliver conventional flat treatments is not absent when operating in FFF mode. With proper TPS manipulation and beam modulation, FFF mode can achieve reasonable flat profiles and comparable dose coverage as CFB does for various conventional treatment techniques, such as four field box, or long spine treatment techniques. The ability to deliver most clinical treatments from the same treatment unit, will allow for less quality assurance as well as maintenance, and completely eliminate the need for the flattening filter on modern linacs.

  18. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  19. A Comparative Health Risk Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have identified hazardous substances in electronic cigarette (EC liquids and emissions, there is limited information about the health risks of using ECs. Methods: In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA health risk assessment model and findings of a literature review were used to determine and profile hazards. Focus was put on the toxicants reported in the literature on conventional cigarette (CC smoke that most strongly associated with adverse health effects. To evaluate their health risks, dose-response relationships and standard-use conditions were used to estimate average hazard exposures and to calculate the overall health risks of ECs and CCs, benchmarked against international guideline levels for each hazard. Results: Four hazards (acrolein, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol and cadmium reported in EC emissions and seven hazards (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, cadmium, CO, 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN reported in CC emissions had maximum exposure levels higher than the guideline levels. Two hazards (acrolein, propylene glycol in EC emissions and five hazards (acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, cadmium, NNN in CC emissions had average exposure levels higher than the guideline levels. Conclusions: Based on the conditions of use, ECs should be a safer nicotine-delivery product than CCs.

  20. Meniscal tears: comparison of half-Fourier technique and conventional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana, Wael; Maeseneer, Michel de; Machiels, Freddy; Ridder, Filip de; Osteaux, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether half-Fourier MR image acquisition technique can provide similar information to that of conventional MR acquisition technique for evaluation of meniscal tears. Materials and methods: We studied 101 menisci in 52 patients who were referred for evaluation of meniscal tears. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained for all patients by using proton density and T2-weighted SE sequences on a 1-T clinical system. The half-Fourier technique and conventional technique were used for all patients. All other imaging parameters were identical for both sequences (TR/TE=2400/20,70; 3 mm slice thickness; 200x256 matrix; field of view, 200; one signal acquired). Both sets of images were filmed with standard window and level settings. Images were randomised and interpreted independently by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Images were also subjectively assessed for image quality using a five-point grading scale. Results: On half-Fourier images, Reader 1 interpreted 23 menisci as torn, compared to 28 for Reader 2. On conventional images, Reader 1 interpreted 24 menisci as torn, compared to 26 for Reader 2. Agreement between interpretation of the conventional and that of the half-Fourier images was 99% for Reader 1, and 98% for Reader 2. Agreement between readers for the half-Fourier images was 95%, and for the conventional images 96%. No statistically significant difference was found in the subjective evaluation of image quality between the conventional and half-Fourier images. Conclusion: The half-Fourier acquisition technique compares favourably with the conventional technique for the evaluation of meniscal tears

  1. Laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy versus conventional laparoscopic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhui; Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Cai, Chen; Liu, Bing; Yang, Qing; Sun, Yinghao

    2013-06-01

    To assess the surgical efficacy and potential advantages of laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy (LESS-AD) compared with conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy (CL-AD) based on published literature. An online systematic search in electronic databasesM including Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, as well as manual bibliography searches were performed. All studies that compared LESS-AD with CL-AD were included. The outcome measures were the patient demographics, tumor size, blood loss, operative time, time to resumption of oral intake, hospital stay, postoperative pain, cosmesis satisfaction score, rates of complication, conversion, and transfusion. A meta-analysis of the results was conducted. A total of 443 patients were included: 171 patients in the LESS-AD group and 272 patients in the CL-AD group (nine studies). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the demographic parameters expect for lesion size (age: P=0.24; sex: P=0.35; body mass index: P=0.79; laterality: P=0.76; size: P=0.002). There was no significant difference in estimated blood loss, time to oral intake resumption, and length of stay between the two groups. The LESS-AD patients had a significantly lower postoperative visual analog pain score compared with the CL-AD group, but a longer operative time was noted. Both groups had a comparable cosmetic satisfaction score. The two groups had a comparable rate of complication, conversion, and transfusion. In early experience, LESS-AD appears to be a safe and feasible alternative to its conventional laparoscopic counterpart with decreased postoperative pain noted, albeit with a longer operative time. As a promising and emerging minimally invasive technique, however, the current evidence has not verified other potential advantages (ie, cosmesis, recovery time, convalescence, port-related complications, etc.) of LESS-AD.

  2. Gaming and Conventional Exercises for Improvement of Arm Function After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottink, Anke I R; Prange, Gerdienke B; Krabben, Thijs; Rietman, Johan S; Buurke, Jaap H

    2014-06-01

    The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality and/or computerized gaming exercises, may be useful to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. The objective of the present randomized controlled pilot study was to compare the effect of reach training using a target group specific-designed rehabilitation game to time-matched standardized conventional reach training on arm function after stroke. Twenty chronic stroke patients were randomized to either the rehabilitation game group or the conventional training group. Both groups received three arm training sessions of 30 minutes each week, during a period of 6 weeks. Arm (the upper extremity part of Fugl-Meyer [FM] assessment) and hand (the Action Research Arm [ARA] test) functions were tested 1 week before (T0) and 1 week after (T1) training. A follow-up measurement was performed at 1 month after T1 (T2). ARA and FM scores improved significantly within both groups. Post hoc comparisons revealed significant increases in test scores between T0 and T1 and between T0 and T2 for both ARA and FM, but not for changes from T1 to T2. There were no significant differences between both groups for either clinical test. The present randomized controlled pilot study showed that both arm and hand function improved as much after training with a rehabilitation game as after time-matched conventional training.

  3. Dosimetry study on the conventional and three dimensional conformal radiation treatment planning protocols for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yong; He Yuxiang; Han Shukui; Wu Hao; Gong Jian; Xu Bo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dose distribution of clinical target volume (CTV), in normal tissues and organs for patients with rectal cancer on the conventional radiotherapy (2D) and three dimension- al conformal radiation treatment (3DCRT). Methods: The CT image data of 36 rectal cancer patients treated with 3DCRT were studied. The CTV, small bowel, colon, bladder, pelvic bone marrow, and femoral head and neck were contoured on consecutive axial slices of CT images. Two 3DCRT and three conventional treatment planning protocols were simulated using three dimensional treatment planning system (CMS Focus 2.31), were defined as 3D-3, 3D-4, 2D-2, 2D-3, 2D-4. The difference of five treatment planning protocols on the CTV and normal structure by analysis of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were compared. Results: The D 95 and V 95 of these five protocols all exceeded 97%. The conformity index(CI) of 3D was obviously larger than that of 2D protocol. The dose inhomogeneity(DI) in 4 DCRT was less than that of 3 DCRT. The 3D as compared with the 2D, significantly reduced the mean dose of 45 Gy to the small bowel and colon. The 3D-3 as compared with the 2D-3, the 3D-4 as compared with the 2D-4, the mean dose of small bowel and colon was reduced by 28.5% and 25.7%, respectively. The 3D-3 as compared with the 2D-2, the 3D-3 as compared with the 2D-3 and the 3D4 as compared with the 2D-4, the percentage volume of small bowel and colon which received 45 Gy was reduced by 80.8% , 51.1% and 54.7% , respectively. Either the mean dose, or the percentage volume receiving 35 Gy and 45 Gy to the pelvic bone and bladder, the 3D planning protocols had advanage over the 2D planning protocols. The V 45 of bladder in 2D-2 planning proto- col was the highest in all planning protocols, exceeding 98%, but the highest V 45 of bladder was only 50% in the other planning protocols. Conclusions: Even though the difference in pelvic CTV of rectal cancer patients between the conventional radiotherapy and 3

  4. Digital Versus Conventional Impressions in Fixed Prosthodontics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlholm, Pekka; Sipilä, Kirsi; Vallittu, Pekka; Jakonen, Minna; Kotiranta, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of possible benefits and accuracy of digital impression techniques vs. conventional impression techniques. Reports of digital impression techniques versus conventional impression techniques were systematically searched for in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science. A combination of controlled vocabulary, free-text words, and well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria guided the search. Digital impression accuracy is at the same level as conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression accuracy is clinically acceptable. In full-arch impressions, conventional impression methods resulted in better accuracy compared to digital impressions. Digital impression techniques are a clinically acceptable alternative to conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short FDPs. For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression systems also result in clinically acceptable fit. Digital impression techniques are faster and can shorten the operation time. Based on this study, the conventional impression technique is still recommended for full-arch impressions. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Bubble vs conventional continuous positive airway pressure for prevention of extubation failure in preterm very low birth weight infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sucheta; Thukral, Anu; Sankar, M Jeeva; Sreenivas, V; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of bubble and conventional nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preventing extubation failure (EF) in preterm infants. Infants of gestation ≤32 wk and birth weight <1500 g, ready for initial extubation within first wk of life were randomly allocated to either bubble (n = 16) or conventional (n = 16) CPAP. A standardized protocol was used for extubation. Bubble CPAP was delivered by Fischer and Paykel equipment using short binasal prongs and conventional CPAP was delivered by a ventilator using Argyle short binasal prongs. CPAP was initiated at a pressure of 4-6 cm of H(2)O and FiO(2) of 0.4-0.5 and adjusted to maintain normal saturation (90-93%) and comfortable breathing. Primary outcome was EF, defined as need for mechanical ventilation within 72 h of extubation. Baseline characteristics including birth weight (g; 1027 ± 243 vs. 1018 ± 227; p = 0.83), gestation (wk; 28.7 ± 1.8 vs. 28.4 ± 1.6; p = 0.30), infants <28 wk gestation (6 vs. 7, p = 0.72) were comparable between the two groups. Respiratory distress syndrome was the indication for ventilation in 13 (81%) and 14 (87%) infants on bubble CPAP and conventional CPAP groups respectively. (p = 0.99). There was no difference in the EF rates between the bubble (n = 4) and conventional CPAP (n = 9) groups. (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.20-1.2; p = 0.14). Median time to extubation failure was also comparable between the two groups (h; median [range]: 29 [14-49] vs. 17 [7-28]; p = 0.35). The possibility that bubble CPAP may be associated with reduced EF as suggested in this pilot study requires further investigation in an adequately powered multicentric study.

  6. Study of Defect Sizing in Carbon Steel Butt Welds using Conventional Ultrasonic Technique and Phased Array Ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Noorhazleena Azaman; Mohd Yusnisyam Mohd Yusoff

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a proven reliable method which is able to detect and measure the size of defects in butt welds with acceptable tolerance. Recent advancement of technology has introduced a computerized technique which is phased array. Phased array employs focal law that enable focusing and steering of beam at the active aperture axis. This enables one line scanning but covering the whole weld volume as compared to conventional technique which employs aster scan and multiple probes to completely cover the whole weld volume. Phased array also gives multiple data view which assist the interpreter. This paper is about the study of these two techniques and technical analysis of comparison between the two. The conventional technique is performed using GE USM GO with 4 MHz 45 degrees shear wave probe. The phased array technique uses OLYMPUS OMNISCAN MX2 with 5L64 linear array probe with 16 elements aperture and 55 degrees wedge emitting shear wave into the specimen. Sensitivity of both techniques are based on 1.5 mm Side Drilled Hole. The results are compared and analysis such as defect sizing and defect type determination are performed. (author)

  7. Comparing the use of virtual and conventional light microscopy in practical sessions: Virtual reality in Tabuk University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman F.A. Foad, MD

    2017-04-01

    We randomly assigned two groups of second-year medical students from the University of Tabuk in KSA to use either conventional light or virtual microscopy practical sessions. The students' perceptions were assessed by written and practical exams. Students in the virtual microscopy group performed better than those in the light microscopy group in both practical and written exams, as reflected by their more-uniform performance and less-scattered grades. The virtual microscopy group had the advantage of optional online off-campus access to study materials, which they spent an average of 2.5 h reviewing. Virtual microscopy is a valid educational tool that can augment conventional microscopy in pathology practical sessions, and its application is convenient for both students and staff.

  8. Conventional renal angiography versus renal digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the study of renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essinger, A.; Morsier, B. de; Narbel, M.; Raimondi, S.

    1988-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis comparing conventional renal angiography, IV and IA DSA and spot film cameras has been made in order to quantify the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques in screening for renal artery stenosis. DSA is the best modality of imaging, using very little films, easy to archive, with a spatial resolution inferior to conventional angiography but partially compensated by contrast resolution. The surface dose per image using a 512/512 matrix is two thirds less than a conventional film, giving thus an acceptable dose as long as technical personnel is well trained and thus the number of exposures is kept low. Spot film camera, due to its excellent spatial resolution, its low radiation dose and its low price, can also be used as a screening procedure but requires an arterial injection. DSA has furthermore the advantage of quantifying renal artery stenosis making future percutaneous transluminal angioplasty easier

  9. Cost comparison of dry-type and conventional cooling systems for representative nuclear generating plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, J.P.; Cecil, E.A.; Young, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of studies comparing the use of dry-type cooling towers with conventional cooling methods for representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants. The studies were based on the hypothetical use of dry-type cooling towers for three nuclear power plants now under construction which were designed and are being built to use conventional cooling methods. One of the plants is located in the northeastern United States, one in the Southeast and one in the West. The report also presents the results of comparisons based on a hypothetical plant at a typical eastern United States site. The three electric utilities which participated in these studies have furnished actual construction cost information for the conventional cooling systems being constructed, and the authors have made construction estimates for economically optimum dry cooling systems which might have been built in place of the conventional cooling systems being constructed. The report compares the physical and operating characteristics of dry-type and conventional cooling systems as well as the relative economics of the different cooling methods. The effect of dry cooling on the bus-bar cost of power has been computed for the three selected plants and for the typical eastern plant

  10. Comparative study of the characteristics of Ni films deposited on SiO2/Si(100) by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingpeng; Qiu Hong; Chen Xiaobai; Wu Ping; Tian Yue

    2008-01-01

    Ni films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrates at 300 K and 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering and conventional sputtering. The films deposited at 300 K mainly have a [110] crystalline orientation in the growing direction whereas those deposited at 573 K grow with a [111] crystalline orientation in the growing direction. The film prepared only at 300 K by oblique-angle sputtering grows with a weakly preferential orientation along the incidence direction of the sputtered Ni atoms. All the films grow with thin columnar grains perpendicular to the substrate surface. The grain size of the films sputter-deposited obliquely is larger than that of the films sputter-deposited conventionally. The grain size of the Ni film does not change markedly with the deposition temperature. The film deposited at 573 K by oblique-angle sputtering has the highest saturation magnetization. For the conventional sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film deposited at 573 K is larger than that of the film deposited at 300 K. However, for the oblique-angle sputtering, the coercivity of the Ni film is independent of the deposition temperature. All the Ni films exhibit an isotropic magnetization characteristic in the film plane

  11. A prospective study of cognitive functions following conventional radiotherapy for supratentorial gliomas in young adults: 4-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigliani, Maria-Claudia; Sichez, Nicole; Poisson, Michel; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of limited field conventional cerebral radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive functions of adults. Methods and Materials: A prospective neuropsychological study was performed on 17 patients who underwent conventional limited field RT for a low-grade glioma or for a good-prognosis anaplastic glioma. Results were compared with 14 control patients with low-grade gliomas who did not receive radiotherapy. Results: A transient significant decrease of performances for the Reaction Time test was observed at 6 months in the irradiated group with return to baseline values 12 months post-RT. Subsequently, no other significant changes were observed over a 48-month follow-up period in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Nonetheless, when the scores of each patient were considered over time instead of the mean values of the group, one irradiated patient (5.8%) experienced progressive deterioration while two irradiated patients (11.7%) experienced long-lasting improvement. Individual changes did not occur in the control group. Conclusion: This study suggests that a transient early delayed drop of neuropsychological performances at 6 months is frequent following limited field conventional RT, but the risk of long-term cognitive dysfunction after irradiation is low, at least in the first 4 years after RT and when it is administered alone in young adults

  12. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J

    2018-01-01

    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  13. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...

  14. Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423

  15. Comparison of conventional versus Hybrid knife peroral endoscopic myotomy methods for esophageal achalasia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaowei; Gong, Wei; Deng, Zhiliang; Zhou, Jieqiong; Ren, Yutang; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyu; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been developed to treat achalasia as a novel less invasive modality. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of conventional knife versus Hybrid knife (HK) during POEM procedure. Between June 2012 and July 2014, 31 patients underwent POEM using HK in our department (HK group), and 36 patients underwent POEM using conventional method (injection needle and triangular tip [TT] knife, TT group). Procedure-related parameters, symptom relief, adverse events were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in the age, sex and other baseline characteristics between the two groups. The mean procedural time was significantly shorter in HK group than TT group (53.0 ± 17.2 vs. 67.6 ± 28.4 min, p = 0.015). The mean frequency of devices exchange was 4.7 ± 1.7 in HK group and 10.9 ± 1.8 in TT group (p = 0.000). No serious adverse events occurred postoperatively in both groups. At one-year follow-up, a total of 94% treatment success was achieved in all patients (93.5% in HK group and 94.4% in TT group, p = 0.877). HK in POEM can shorten the procedural time, and achieve similar treatment success compared to conventional TT knife.

  16. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  17. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  18. Marginal accuracy of nickel chromium copings fabricated by conventional and accelerated casting procedures, produced with ringless and metal ring investment procedures: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Deepa; Shetty, Y Bharath; Miranda, Glynis Anita; Prabhu, M Bharath; Karkera, Reshma

    2015-01-01

    Conventional investing and casting techniques are time-consuming and usually requires 2-4 h for completion. Accelerated nonstandard, casting techniques have been reported to achieve similar quality results in significantly less time, namely, in 30-40 min. During casting, it is essential to achieve compensation for the shrinkage of solidifying alloy by investment expansion. The metal casting ring restricts the thermal expansion of investment because the thermal expansion of the ring is lesser than that of the investment. The use of casting ring was challenged with the introduction of the ringless technique. A total of 40 test samples of nickel chromium (Ni-Cr) cast copings were obtained from the patterns fabricated using inlay casting wax. The 20 wax patterns were invested using metal ring and 20 wax patterns were invested using the ringless investment system. Of both the groups, 10 samples underwent conventional casting, and the other 10 underwent accelerated casting. The patterns were casted using the induction casting technique. All the test samples of cast copings were evaluated for vertical marginal gaps at four points on the die employing a stereo optical microscope. The vertical marginal discrepancy data obtained were tabulated. Mean and standard deviations were obtained. Vertical discrepancies were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significantly different. The data obtained were found to be very highly significant (P cast copings fabricated with the conventional casting using ringless investment system showed significantly better marginal fit than that of cast copings fabricated from conventional and accelerated casting with metal ring investment and accelerated casting using ringless investment since those copings had shown the least vertical marginal discrepancies among the four methods evaluated in this study.

  19. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  20. Comparison of several plant nutrient elements in conventionally and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic citrus production has been increasing recently in Turkey. In this study, we compared several nutri-elements concentrations of organically (ORG) and conventionally (CON) grown citrus orchards in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The samples included Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu L.) and Washington ...

  1. Comparison of several plant nutrient elements in conventionally and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Organic citrus production has been increasing recently in Turkey. In this study, we compared several nutri-elements concentrations of organically (ORG) and conventionally (CON) grown citrus orchards in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The samples included Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu L.) and.

  2. Comparison of microleakage between flowable nanocomposite, flowable Composite and Conventional sealant in fissure sealant therapy of the permanent teeth: an in- vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Maleki Kambakhsh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Novel dental materials including nanocomposites have been introduced in recent years. It is claimed that they have superior properties such as high esthetic., low wear, increased filler content resulting in better mechanical properties, and releasing ions i.e. fluoride and amorphous calcium phosphate that are important for enamel remineralization. Considering these features, if they have retention and microleakage rates comparable with conventional sealants, these materials can be appropriate alternatives to conventional resin sealants in future. The current study aimed at comparing . microleakage of a flowable nanocomposite, a flowable composite , and a conventional sealant in fissure sealant therapy of the permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: First of all ,42 extracted sound human maxillary first premolars were collected and were randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Then the teeth were embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Occlusal fissures of the samples were cleaned using explorer, enameloplasty with ¼ round diamond bur and water/air spray was done. The prepared surfaces were etched using 36% phosphoric acid gel for 15s, rinsed and dried. Bonding agent was placed in the pits and fissures, cured for 10s after thinning with air. In the first, second , and the third group conventional sealant, flowable composite , and flowable nanocomposite were placed, respectively