WorldWideScience

Sample records for study air disaster

  1. Urinary uranium and kidney function parameters in professional assistance workers in the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bijlsma (Joost); P. Slottje (Pauline); A.C. Huizink (Anja); J.W.R. Twisk (Jos); G.B. van der Voet (Gijsbert); F.A. de Wolff (Frederik); F. Vanhaecke (Frank); L. Moens (Luc); T. Smid (Tjabe)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess long-term health effects in professional assistance workers involved in the 1992 air disaster in Amsterdam. As part of ESADA indications of nephrotoxicity due to exposure to uranium from the balance

  2. Urinary uranium and kidney function parameters in professional assistance workers in the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Joost A.; Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; de Wolff, Frederik A.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Moens, Luc; Smid, Tjabe

    2008-01-01

    The Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess long-term health effects in professional assistance workers involved in the 1992 air disaster in Amsterdam. As part of ESADA indications of nephrotoxicity due to exposure to uranium from the balance weights of the crashed

  3. Evaluating the experiences with an Information and Referral Center (IRC) following a large air crash disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.L.; Drogendijk, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: To evaluate the use of, and experiences with a ‘one-stop-shop’ website for information and referral for bereaved people following an air crash disaster. Background: On July 17, 2014 the disaster of Flight MH17 (Malaysia Airlines) took place above Eastern Ukraine. None of the 298

  4. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sterett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  5. Study on disaster waste around Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Extreme difficulties exists in Fukushima Prefecture in disposing of waste generated from the tsunami disaster (hereinafter referred to as disaster waste) and contaminated with radioactive material released from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Although the waste should be treated according to the level of radioactivity, there were only air dose rates and radionuclide analyses of soil due to monitoring around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and there had been no information on the radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste. The radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste was investigated by sampling measurement and in-situ Ge measurement at 20 temporary disaster waste storages in Fukushima Prefecture excluding the evacuation zone and 'deliberate evacuation zone.' JNES carried out tins investigation upon a request from die Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The investigation revealed that the measured radioactivity concentrations of the disaster waste lumps were enveloped within the soil monitoring readings in Fukushima Prefecture and also within a correlated curve between the air dose rates obtained from air dose rate readings around the disaster waste and the radioactivity concentrations of it. Based on the results of this study, JNES compiled a manual on measurement technique for contaminated disaster waste. (author)

  6. Study on disaster waste around Fukushima Daiichi NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Extreme difficulties exists in Fukushima Prefecture in disposing of waste generated from the tsunami disaster (hereinafter referred to as disaster waste) and contaminated with radioactive material released from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Although the waste should be treated according to the level of radioactivity, there were only air dose rates and radionuclide analyses of soil due to monitoring around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and there had been no information on the radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste. The radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste was investigated by sampling measurement and in-situ Ge measurement at 20 temporary disaster waste storages in Fukushima Prefecture excluding the evacuation zone and 'deliberate evacuation zone.' JNES carried out tins investigation upon a request from die Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The investigation revealed that the measured radioactivity concentrations of the disaster waste lumps were enveloped within the soil monitoring readings in Fukushima Prefecture and also within a correlated curve between the air dose rates obtained from air dose rate readings around the disaster waste and the radioactivity concentrations of it. Based on the results of this study, JNES compiled a manual on measurement technique for contaminated disaster waste. (author)

  7. Bridging international relations and disaster studies: the case of disaster-conflict scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Simon

    2018-01-01

    International relations and disaster studies have much to gain by thinking critically about their respective theoretical and epistemological assumptions. Yet, few studies to date have sought to assess the potential value of linking these two disciplines. This paper begins to address this shortfall by examining the relationship between disasters and conflict as a research sphere that intersects international relations and disaster studies. Through an analysis of whether or not disasters contribute to intra-national and international conflict, this paper not only provides a review of the state of the art, but also serves to invite scholars to reflect on related concepts from other fields to strengthen their own approaches to the study of disasters in an international setting. An evaluation of the conceptual and theoretical contributions of each subject area provides useful heuristics for the development of disaster-conflict scholarship and encourages alternative modes of knowledge production through interdisciplinarity. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  8. Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-disaster in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: A case study ... Aero-disaster in Nigeria is posing a serious problem to government, the public and relatives of victims, ..... which was recorded in one of our victim's relation, ... this communication.

  9. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  10. World Trade Center disaster and sensitization to subsequent life stress: A longitudinal study of disaster responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Kotov, Roman; Schechter, Clyde B; Bromet, Evelyn; Gonzalez, Adam; Vujanovic, Anka; Pietrzak, Robert H; Crane, Michael; Kaplan, Julia; Moline, Jacqueline; Southwick, Steven M; Feder, Adriana; Udasin, Iris; Reissman, Dori B; Luft, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the role of World Trade Center (WTC) disaster exposure (hours spent working on the site, dust cloud exposure, and losing friend/loved one) in exacerbating the effects of post-disaster life stress on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and overall functioning among WTC responders. Participants were 18,896 responders (8466 police officers and 10,430 non-traditional responders) participating in the WTC Health Program who completed an initial examination between July, 2002 and April, 2010 and were reassessed an average of two years later. Among police responders, there was a significant interaction, such that the effect of post-disaster life stress on later PTSD symptoms and overall functioning was stronger among police responders who had greater WTC disaster exposure (β's=.029 and .054, respectively, for PTSD symptoms and overall functioning). This moderating effect was absent in non-traditional responders. Across both groups, post-disaster life stress also consistently was related to the dependent variables in a more robust manner than WTC exposure. The present findings suggest that WTC exposure may compound post-disaster life stress, thereby resulting in a more chronic course of PTSD symptoms and reduced functioning among police responders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospital disaster emergency preparedness: A study of Onandjokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored disaster emergency preparedness at Onandjokwe Lutheran Hospital in Northern Namibia. It utilized quantitative and qualitative research methods, using a self-administered questionnaire, semi-structured key informant interviews, and a hospital disaster plan checklist. A stratified sample of 120 ...

  12. Profile of elementary school science teacher instruction in disaster risk reduction: case study of volcano disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianto; Prabowo; Wasis

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the profile of science' teacher instruction in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as a feature of instructional quality, on students’ learning experiences. A qualitative study was done to observe teacher activities in teaching of disaster preparedness. Science teacher and 14 students at grade 4 of SDN (elementary school) Kiyaran 2 are involved as the subject of this study. Teacher’ instruction was coded with regard to preparation, action, and evaluation using observation sheets and documentation. Data analysis results showed a positive significant effect of the readiness during preparation on learning process of disaster risk reduction and an indirect effect of teacher’ action on students’ learning experiences. There is a lack of teaching materials about volcano disaster in the elementary school. Teacher found difficulties on evaluation of student achievement in disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of DRR in uphold science teachers’ education. Items of teachers’ skill in preparing of DRR may be used to offer model of concrete instruction situation during university workshop for maintain teacher education.

  13. Religiosity, Gender, and Natural Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Disaster-Stricken Regions in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Jahangiri, Katayoun; Khani Jazani, Reza

    2018-06-01

    While religiosity is emerging as one of the more important subjects in disaster management, identifying gender differences in using religion as a coping method has attracted very little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of religiosity on disaster-affected women and men in the setting of Iran. A field-based investigation using a qualitative approach was carried out to achieve the study's purpose. Data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with 25 participants who had been damaged by recent disasters. Two themes, negative and positive effects of religiosity, and five categories were extracted from the data. Women may be influenced by religion more than men, and thus, they can play key roles in strengthening the positive effects of religiosity.

  14. Innovation Learning: Audio Visual and Outdoor Study to Enhance Student's Understanding of Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, M. Hafizul; Maryani, Enok; Ruhimat, Mamat

    2017-01-01

    Education is functioned to prepare human to compete in overcoming various challenges. One of challenge faced by Indonesian nation is natural disaster. The effective method to reduce the risk of natural disaster (disaster mitigation) is by enhancing understanding of disaster in each individual. Aceh Tsunami Museum (ATM) is one of important site which is build to remember the big disaster event which happened in 2004 in Aceh and as disaster learning source. This study is aimed to find out the...

  15. Health management in past disasters in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2014-06-01

    Background: Disaster management is relied on prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations in right time and place. In this study researchers intended to explore passed experiences of health disaster management. Method: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis methods. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and other documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18interviews, field notes and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis reactive management was emerged as main theme. It was included some categories such as ‘exposure shock’, ‘non deliberative relief’, ‘lack of comprehensive health disaster plan’, ‘lack of preparedness’, and ‘poor coordination in health service delivery’ and contextual factors. Discussion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals' and non-professionals' emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services, and aggravates the damages.

  16. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  17. Rotorcraft Use in Disaster Relief and Mass Casualty Incidents - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Disaster Relief and Mass 6. Performing Organization Code C asuallty Incidents- C ase Studies 8._P rfo minOr ani ati nR porNo 7. Author (s) 8...disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape promoting the need for and the use of rotorcraft and heliports in disaster relief. 17...disaster prepaLedness ageicies for use in the integration of local helicopter assets into the disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape

  18. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  19. The impact of disasters on small business disaster planning: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T

    2007-12-01

    A major flood in 1997 forced the evacuation of Grand Forks, North Dakota and caused damage of USD 1 billion. Despite this recent disaster there is only marginal evidence of an increase in disaster recovery planning by businesses that experienced the flood. This finding is consistent with the results of other business-related disaster research. Statistical tests of survey results from 2003 indicate that there is a significantly higher rate of disaster recovery planning in businesses started since the 1997 flood than in businesses started before the flood and still in business. Such an outcome indicates a need for public policy actions emphasizing the importance of disaster planning. Improved disaster planning is an aid to business recovery and the results demonstrate the need for more widespread efforts to improve disaster recovery planning on the part of smaller businesses, even in areas that have recently experienced disasters.

  20. Air quality in developing world disaster and conflict zones--the case of post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary E; Rappaport, Ann

    2014-10-15

    Data on air quality are remarkably limited in the poorest of the world's countries. This is especially true for post-conflict and disaster zones, where international relief efforts focus largely on more salient public health challenges such as water and sanitation, infectious diseases, and housing. Using post-earthquake Haiti as the example case, this commentary explores air quality challenges in the developing world, highlighting concerns related to infrastructure damage from post-conflict and disaster settings. We contend that there is a growing and presently unmet need for further research and attention from the global health community to address these issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Disaster waste management in Italy: Analysis of recent case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Francesco; Amato, Alessia; Balducci, Susanna; Magi Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Beolchini, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    The geomorphology of the Italian territory causes the incidence of many disasters like earthquakes and floods, with the consequent production of large volumes of waste. The management of such huge flows, produced in a very short time, may have a high impact on the whole emergency response. Moreover, historical data related to disaster waste management are often not easily accessible; on the other hand, the availability of data concerning previous events could support the emergency managers, that have to take a decision in a very short time. In this context, the present paper analyses four relevant recent case studies in Italy, dealing with disaster waste management after geologic and hydrologic natural events. Significant differences have been observed in the quantity and types of generated wastes, and, also, in the management approach. Such differences are mainly associated with the kind of disaster (i.e. earthquake vs. flood), to the geographical location (i.e. internal vs. coastal area), to the urbanisation level (i.e. industrial vs. urban). The study allowed the identification of both strengths and weaknesses of the applied waste management strategies, that represent "lessons to learn" for future scenarios. Even though it deals with Italian case studies, this manuscript may have a high impact also at international level, making available for the first-time emergency waste management data, that are considered an indispensable support for decision makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Management in Disasters in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Disaster  management  relies  on  the  prediction  of  problems  and  providing necessary preparations at the right time and place. In this study, researchers intended to explore previous experiences of health disaster management. Materials and Methods: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants  were  selected  purposefully  and  data  were  collected  through  interviews, observation, and relevant documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18 interviews, field notes, and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis, “reactive management” was emerged as the main theme. It included some categories such as “exposure shock,” “nondeliberative relief,” “lack of comprehensive health disaster plan,” “lack of preparedness,” and “poor coordination in health service delivery” as well as contextual factors. Conclusion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals and nonprofessionals’ emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services and aggravate the damages

  3. Risk Management and Disaster Recovery in Public Libraries in South Australia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diane L.; Evans, Nina; Kaeding, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a study of risk management in public libraries. The focus of the research was to determine whether the libraries had a risk management and disaster plan for major disasters. Method: A qualitative study was done to investigate risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South…

  4. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  5. Geographical patterns and disasters management : case study of Alexandra Township / O.M. Mere

    OpenAIRE

    Mere, Oniccah Monimang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study is to explore Geographic patterns and Disasters Management in the context of Alexandra Township situated in the Johannesburg Metro. The research evaluates if the Disaster Management Unit in Johannesburg municipality is prepared in terms of policies, community campaigns on flood disasters as well as forming organizations that will assist in times of disaster. It also refers to other South African townships with regard to where most affected townships are l...

  6. Flash flood disasters analysis and evaluation: a case study of Yiyang County in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Qing; Qin, Tao; Lei, Xiaohui

    2018-03-01

    Global climate change leads to the more extreme precipitation and more flash flood disasters, which is a serious threat to the mountain inhabitants. To prevent flash flood disasters, China started flash flood disaster control planning and other projects from 2006. Among those measures, non-engineering measures are effective and economical. This paper introduced the framework of flash flood disaster analysis and evaluation in China, followed by a case study of Yiyang County.

  7. Enhancing Saarc Disaster Management: A Comparative Study With Asean Coordinating Centre For Humanitarian Assistance On Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDMA National Disaster Management Authority NDMO National Disaster Management Organization NIDM National...disaster management authorities. National Disaster Management Authority ( NDMA ) has envisaged the role of the army in relief, recovery, management of

  8. DISASTER REGIME CHARACTER: A STUDY OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AT MERAPI VOLCANO ERUPTION IN SLEMAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Dian Paramita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses how the existence of the character occurred in one of disaster management phases which is an emergency response. In addition, it aims to discuss and see the relationship between authority institutions in the disaster management which are Kesbanglinmas & PB Kab. Sleman, Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Centre (MDMC, and Merapi Circle Information Network (JALIN MERAPI. This research uses qualitative method. The data about the policy and survivor handling are got through interviews with representatives from Pakem, Turi, and Cangkringan. They are head of sub districts, head of villages, and head of country-sides. The findings of this research show that the disaster regime character is fatalist-individualist and the authority relation is substitution (acts as a substitute. Therefore, humanity-based point of view is important to see the risk. It will empower the capacity of government institutions. The last, involving civil society (CSO is also significant to streamline the role of disaster management regime guide. Therefore, the synergy between government and CSO will easily be achieved to implement Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM. CSO is the government’s partner to reduce disaster.

  9. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the

  10. Study on regional stratagem for coal mine disasters control and prevention in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.; Lei, Y. [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    A regional strategy study was aimed at coal mine disaster control and prevention, which deepens and enriches the macro-strategy of coal mine disaster control and prevention, and provides an important support for the rapid and healthy development of China's regional coal industry. The country was divided into 4 regions: Northeast, North, South and Xinqing. In view of the regional status of coal mine disasters, the regulation and development trend of regional coal mine disasters was analysed, the outstanding problems and key factors were identified, and general thoughts on regional coal mine disaster control and prevention are put forward. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster ris...

  12. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kamp, Irene; van der Velden, Peter G; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; van Loon, Jeanne; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik

    2006-06-01

    Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792 residents, passers-by, and rescue workers, who were involved in and/or affected by the disaster and were > or =18 years of age. At least 30% of those affected by the disaster reported serious physical and mental health problems 2-3 weeks after the explosion. Compared with reference values in the general Dutch population, high scores were found for somatic symptoms, sleeping problems, and restrictions in daily functioning due to physical and mental problems, such as anxiety, depression, and feelings of insufficiency. The strength of these differences varied between groups, based on the level of involvement and the level of being affected. Results indicate that the fireworks disaster had a substantial impact on the health of those affected by the disaster. The health impact was most pronounced for residents and passers-by and also for rescue workers living in the affected area, but to a lesser degree. Physical and mental health problems were strongly associated with the shocking experiences during and shortly after the disaster.

  13. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.; Lanaras, Ch.; Baltsavias, E.; Cho, K.; Remondino, F.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two approaches namely change detection based on SAR data and co-registration of optical and SAR satellite images. With respect to SAR data, our efforts are subdivided into three parts: (1) initial coarse change detection for entire area, (2) flood area detection, and (3) linearfeature change detection. The investigations are based on pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images. In (1), two pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are accurately co-registered and radiometrically calibrated. Data are fused in a false-color image that provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifying areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. However, a bunch of inevitable false alarms appear within the scene caused by speckle, temporal decorrelation, co-registration inaccuracy and so on. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X data are used to extract the flood area by using thresholding and morphological approaches. The validated result indicates that using SAR data combining with suitable morphological approaches is a quick and effective way to detect flood area. Except for usage of SAR data, the false-color image composed of optical images are also used to detect flood area for further exploration in this part. In (3), Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image of pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images not only to suppress false alarms of irregular-features, but also to enhance the change signals of linear-features (e.g. buildings

  14. The study of disaster situation awareness based on volunteered geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiansheng; Chen, Zi; Li, Shengming; Luo, Nianxue

    2015-12-01

    As the development of Web 2.0, the social media like microblog, blogs and social network have supplied a bunch of information with locations (Volunteered Geographical Information, VGI).Recent years many cases have shown that, if disaster happened, the cyber citizens will get together very quickly and share the disaster information, this results a bunch of volunteered geographical information about disaster situation which is very valuable for disaster response if this VGIs are used efficiently and properly. This project will take typhoon disaster as case study. In this paper, we study the relations between weibo messages and the real typhoon situation, we proposed an analysis framework for mine the relations between weibo messages distribution and physical space. We found that the number of the weibo messages, key words frequency and spatial temporary distribution of the messages have strong relations with the disaster spread in the real world, and this research results can improve our disaster situation awareness in the future. The achievement of the study will give a method for typhoon disaster situation awareness based on VGI from the bottom up, and will locate the disaster spot and evolution quickly which is very important for disaster response and recover.

  15. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kamp, Irene; van der Velden, Peter G.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Roorda, Jan; van Loon, Jeanne; Kleber, Rolf J.; Gersons, Bertold B. R.; Lebret, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792

  16. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Irene van; Velden, P.G. van der; Stellato, R.K.; Roorda, J.; Loon, J. van; Kleber, R.J.; Gersons, B.B.R.; Lebret, E.

    Objectives: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792

  17. Physical and mental health shortly after a disaster: first results from the Enschede firework disaster study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Irene van; Velden, Peter G van der; Stellato, Rebecca K; Roorda, Jan; Loon, Jeanne van; Kleber, Rolf J; Gersons, Bertold B R; Lebret, Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Two to three weeks after the explosion of a fireworks storage facility in a residential area (May 2000, Enschede, The Netherlands) we assessed the self-reported physical and mental health among those affected by the disaster. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3792

  18. Community Cognition Investigation and Research on Tourists Disaster of Mountain Tourism-taking Taibai Moutain as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Jian-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study focus on the community cognition to disasters of tourism taking the disasters frequently happens in Taibai Mountains as the case. The research covers people’s cognition in tourist destination, which is closely related to the development and the economy in tourism. The age, education, occupation, income and the degree of relation to the tourism are also the important factors. The cognition of the community is the disasters influence, the disasters avoidance, the disasters ...

  19. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  20. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21). No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health. PMID:28534840

  1. A statistical study of weather-related disasters. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.; Bouwman, A.; Petersen, A.; Ligtvoet, W.

    2012-07-15

    Disasters such as floods, storms, heatwaves and droughts may have serious implications for human health and the economic development of countries. One of the main findings of this report is that disaster burdens are dominated by economic and demographic developments, rather than climate change. Furthermore, disaster burden appears to be spread unequally over rich and poor countries. In Chapter 2 the background of the three regions used throughout this report is described: OECD, BRIICS (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa and remaining countries. Furthermore, an overview of the disaster databases is given, along with definitions of disaster terminology. The statistical treatment of trends in disaster data is shortly exemplified. Chapter 3 gives on overview of the results for disaster burden and trends therein on a global scale. Results are split-up as for different disaster types. In Chapters 4 and 5 the same analysis is performed, but now split-up for three regions. In Chapter 4, disaster burdens are quantified, while analyses of trends in disaster burdens are given in Chapter 5. Here, the analyses are confined to weather-related disaster events only. In Chapter 6 the trend patterns found in Chapter 5, are explained as far as possible. Here, changes in wealth, changes in population, the role of climate change and changes due to adaptation are treated in separate sections. Chapter 7 shortly deals with communicational aspects of disasters: the attribution of individual disasters to climate change and results in the literature which are contradictory to results presented here. Chapters 3 through 7 deal with historical data on disaster burden. In the subsequent Chapters 8 and 9 the future of disaster burden will be dealt with. Chapter 8 gives a short overview of the future of disasters as presented in the literature. In Chapter 9 a PBL case study for flooding on a global scale is given, with predictions for people at risk and economic losses at

  2. Evaluation of Regional Vulnerability to Disasters by People of Ishikawa, Japan: A Cross Sectional Study Using National Health Insurance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiu, Makoto; Morisaki, Yuma; Takayama, Junichi; Yanagihara, Kiyoko; Nishino, Tatsuya; Sagae, Masahiko; Hirako, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    The 2013 Partial Amendment of the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law mandated that a roster of vulnerable persons during disasters be created, and further development of evacuation support is expected. In this study, the number of vulnerable people living in target analytical areas are identified in terms of neighborhood units by using the National Health Insurance Database to create a realistic and efficient evacuation support plan. Later, after considering the “vulnerability” of an area to earthquake disaster damage, a quantitative evaluation of the state of the disaster is performed using a principle component analysis that further divided the analytical target areas into neighborhood units to make a detailed determination of the number of disaster-vulnerable persons, the severity of the disaster, etc. The results of the disaster evaluation performed after considering the vulnerability of an area are that 628 disaster-vulnerable persons live in areas with a relatively higher disaster evaluation value. PMID:29534021

  3. Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian experience: genesis, reform and transformation. ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ... Key words: disaster management, drought, pre-disaster action, post-disaster action, hazards, disaster, Ethiopian disaster management system, Ethiopia.

  4. School District Information Technology Disaster Recovery Planning: An Explanatory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shaun L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite research and practitioner articles outlining the importance information technology disaster plans (ITDRPs) to organizational success, barriers have impeded the process of disaster preparation for Burlington County New Jersey school districts. The purpose of this explanatory qualitative case study was to understand how technology leader…

  5. Prospective cohort study into post-disaster benzodiazepine use demonstrated only short-term increase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Benzodiazepines are typically prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, two complaints often reported after disasters. Benzodiazepines can cause mental or physical dependence, especially when taken for a long time. This study aims at evaluating benzodiazepine use in a disaster-stricken

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after Exposure to Two Fire Disasters : Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loey, Nancy E.; van de Schoot, Rens; Faber, Albertus W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated traumatic stress symptoms in severely burned survivors of two fire disasters and two comparison groups of patients with "non-disaster" burn injuries, as well as risk factors associated with acute and chronic stress symptoms. Patients were admitted to one out of eight burn

  7. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  8. Disaster Governance for Community Resilience in Coastal Towns: Chilean Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Paula; Quintana, Carolina

    2017-09-14

    This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance-redundancy, diversity, and overlap-were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32) and uses given to specific sites (e.g., for refuge, sanitary purposes and medical attention) were mapped. Content and GIS analyses (Directional Distribution and Kernel Density Index) were used to explore the dispersion and concentration of institutions and uses in each town. Disaster Governance was found to be highly influenced by decisions taken during regional, urban, and emergency planning. Governance is better in towns of higher order in the communal hierarchical structure. Most of the emergency institutions were found to be located in central and urban areas, which, in turn, assures more redundancy, overlap, and diversity in governance in the event of a tsunami. Lack of flexibility of emergency plans also limits governance in rural and indigenous areas. While the spatial relationships found in this study indicate that urban sectors have better Disaster Governance than rural and indigenous sectors, the influence of resource availability after tsunamis, the role and responsibility of different levels of governments, and the politics of disaster also play an important role in Disaster Governance for determining Community Resilience. These findings shed light on emergency planning and aspects of the Disaster Management cycle.

  9. THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR CHAIN DISASTER THEORY AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Management approaches are of paramount importance in the built environment. Efficient management approaches ensure timely project completions and consequently lead to economic growth. However, there are also challenges within the construction industry that could lead to disastrous effects and to significant death tolls. In this article, the Construction Sector Chain Disaster Theory (CSCDT is presented. This theory mirrors the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone. In light of CSCDT, a limited number of past accidents within the global construction industry will be investigated with respect to the building blocks of the theory and in view of inadequate management practices that have made positive contributions to triggering disasters. The identified shortcomings will enable a more comprehensive approach to management in favor of disaster minimization in the construction sector.

  10. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-05-19

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  11. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Leppold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (<2500 g at birth and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation at birth were compared pre- and post-disaster, and regression models were conducted to assess for associations between these outcomes and evacuation and food avoidance. A total of 1101 live singleton births were included. There were no increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21. No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  12. BRIDGING THE STRATEGIC TO OPERATIONAL GAP: AIR MOBILTY IN NATURAL DISASTER RELIEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    adequate resources are tasked for the operation. Disaster relief, by nature, is not afforded the same luxury as a traditional military operation... exclusion zone around the plant. The establishment of the exclusion zone substantially hindered operations into Sendai, the nearest mobility-capable...additional infrastructure consideration for the airspace was the nuclear exclusion zone. Ultimately, aircraft and surface vessels, unless specifically

  13. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  14. A study on interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community applied on disaster education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruljigaljig, T.; Huang, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    This study development interface for Mobile Application (App) use cloud technology, Web 2.0 and online community of technology to build the Environmental-Geological Disaster Network(EDN). The interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community is developed as a teaching tool, which bases on the open data released by Central Geological Survey. The APP can through Augmented Reality technology to potential hazards position through the camera lens, the real show in real-world environment. The interaction with experts in the community to improve the general public awareness of disaster. Training people to record the occurrence of geological disasters precursor, thereby awakened their to natural disaster consciousness and attention.General users obtain real-time information during travel, mountaineering and teaching process. Using App platform to upload and represent the environmental geological disaster data collected by themselves. It is expected that by public joint the open platform can accumulate environmental geological disaster data effectively, quickly, extensively and correctly. The most important thing of this study is rooting the concept of disaster prevention, reduction, and avoidance through public participation.

  15. Nurses' requirements for relief and casualty support in disasters: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekooei Moghaddam, Mahmoud; Saeed, Sara; Khanjani, Narges; Arab, Mansour

    2014-04-01

    Nurses are among the most important groups engaged in casualty support, regardless of the cause, and they are one of the largest care groups involved in disasters. Consequently, these workers should gain proper support and skills to enable effective, timely, responsible and ethical emergency responses. In this study, we investigated the needs of nurses for proper casualty support in disasters, to facilitate better planning for disaster management. This was a qualitative content analysis study. Interviews were performed with 23 nurses, at educational hospitals and the Faculty of Nursing at Kerman Medical University, who had a minimum of five years working experience and assisted in an earthquake disaster. Intensity and snowball sampling were performed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and coded into main themes and subthemes. Four major themes emerged from the data; 1) psychological support, 2) appropriate clinical skills education, 3) appropriate disaster management, supervision and programming, and 4) the establishment of ready for action groups and emergency sites. The participants' comments highlighted the necessity of training nurses for special skills including emotion management, triage and crush syndrome, and to support nurses' families, provide security, and act according to predefined programs in disasters. There are a wide range of requirements for disaster aid. Proper aid worker selection, frequent and continuous administration of workshops and drills, and cooperation and alignment of different governmental and private organizations are among the suggested initiatives.

  16. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  17. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  18. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  19. Development of a Disaster Information Visualization Dashboard: A Case Study of Three Typhoons in Taiwan in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Ray; Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Huang, Kuei-Chin; Hsieh, Ching-En

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate disaster response and enhance the effectiveness of disaster prevention and relief, people and emergency response personnel should be able to rapidly acquire and understand information when disasters occur. However, in existing disaster platforms information is typically presented in text tables, static charts, and maps with points. These formats do not make it easy for users to understand the overall situation. Therefore, this study converts data into human-readable charts by using data visualization techniques, and builds a disaster information dashboard that is concise, attractive and flexible. This information dashboard integrates temporally and spatially correlated data, disaster statistics according to category and county, lists of disasters, and any other relevant information. The graphs are animated and interactive. The dashboard allows users to filter the data according to their needs and thus to assimilate the information more rapidly. In this study, we applied the information dashboard to the analysis of landslides during three typhoon events in 2016: Typhoon Nepartak, Typhoon Meranti and Typhoon Megi. According to the statistical results in the dashboard, the order of frequency of the disaster categories in all three events combined was rock fall, roadbed loss, slope slump, road blockage and debris flow. Disasters occurred mainly in the areas that received the most rainfall. Typhoons Nepartak and Meranti mainly affected Taitung, and Typhoon Megi mainly affected Kaohsiung. The towns Xiulin, Fengbin, Fenglin and Guangfu in Hualian County were all issued with debris flow warnings in all three typhoon events. The disaster information dashboard developed in this study allows the user to rapidly assess the overall disaster situation. It clearly and concisely reveals interactions between time, space and disaster type, and also provides comprehensive details about the disaster. The dashboard provides a foundation for future disaster visualization

  20. Disaster at a University: A Case Study in Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyagari, Ramakrishna; Tyks, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Security and disaster training is identified as a top Information Technology (IT) required skill that needs to be taught in Information Systems (IS) curriculums. Accordingly, information security and privacy have become core concepts in information system education. Providing IT security on a shoestring budget is always difficult and many small…

  1. The response to September 11: a disaster case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Michael A; Levy-Carrick, Nomi C; Crowley, Laura; Barnhart, Stephanie; Dudas, Melissa; Onuoha, Uchechukwu; Globina, Yelena; Haile, Winta; Shukla, Gauri; Ozbay, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The response to 9/11 continues into its 14th year. The World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP), a long-term monitoring and treatment program now funded by the Zadroga Act of 2010, includes >60,000 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster responders and community members ("survivors"). The aim of this review is to identify several elements that have had a critical impact on the evolution of the WTC response and, directly or indirectly, the health of the WTC-exposed population. It further explores post-disaster monitoring efforts, recent scientific findings from the WTCHP, and some implications of this experience for ongoing and future environmental disaster response. Transparency and responsiveness, site safety and worker training, assessment of acute and chronic exposure, and development of clinical expertise are interconnected elements determining efficacy of disaster response. Even in a relatively well-resourced environment, challenges regarding allocation of appropriate attention to vulnerable populations and integration of treatment response to significant medical and mental health comorbidities remain areas of ongoing programmatic development. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. All rights reserved.

  2. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  3. Iranian nurses' experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-11-01

    Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.

  4. Posttraumatic stress in aging World War II survivors after a fireworks disaster: a controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsen, Inge; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Boers, Maarten

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of cumulative trauma and whether traumatized individuals are more vulnerable. In 2000, a fireworks disaster created the possibility to examine this issue among World War II survivors who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Between 1998 and 2000 posttraumatic stress increased in disaster exposed respondents as opposed to the control group. War-related reexperiencing and avoidance also increased. The strongest increase occurred in disaster-exposed respondents who had low levels of wartime stress and a slight decrease occurred in those who had high wartime exposure. This unique controlled observation suggests that disasters do increase the levels of posttraumatic stress, and that reactivation of previous traumatic events generally occurs. However, the vulnerability hypothesis was not supported.

  5. Disaster Governance for Community Resilience in Coastal Towns: Chilean Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villagra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance—redundancy, diversity, and overlap—were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32 and uses given to specific sites (e.g., for refuge, sanitary purposes and medical attention were mapped. Content and GIS analyses (Directional Distribution and Kernel Density Index were used to explore the dispersion and concentration of institutions and uses in each town. Disaster Governance was found to be highly influenced by decisions taken during regional, urban, and emergency planning. Governance is better in towns of higher order in the communal hierarchical structure. Most of the emergency institutions were found to be located in central and urban areas, which, in turn, assures more redundancy, overlap, and diversity in governance in the event of a tsunami. Lack of flexibility of emergency plans also limits governance in rural and indigenous areas. While the spatial relationships found in this study indicate that urban sectors have better Disaster Governance than rural and indigenous sectors, the influence of resource availability after tsunamis, the role and responsibility of different levels of governments, and the politics of disaster also play an important role in Disaster Governance for determining Community Resilience. These findings shed light on emergency planning and aspects of the Disaster Management cycle.

  6. Leveraging Social Media Data to Understand Disaster Resilience: A Case Study of Hurricane Isaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.

  7. Novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory for critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ya-ling; Liang, Zhuo; Yao, Tian-ming; Sun, Jing-yang; Liang, Ming; Huo, Yu; Wang, Geng; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Liang, Yan-chun; Meng, Wei-hong

    2012-03-01

    Natural disasters have been frequent in recent years. Effective treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease following natural disasters is an unsolved problem. We aimed to develop a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory (Mini Mobile Cath Lab) to provide emergency interventional services for patients with critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters. A feasibility study was performed by testing the Mini Mobile Cath Lab on dogs with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) model in a hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area. The Mini Mobile Cath Lab was transported to the hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area by truck. Coronary angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed on six dogs with STEMI model. The transportation and transformation of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab were monitored and its functioning was evaluated through the results of animal experiments. The Mini Mobile Cath Lab could be transported by truck at an average speed of 80 km/h on mountain roads during daytime in the winter, under conditions of light snow (-15°C to -20°C/-68°F to -59°F). The average time required to prepare the Mini Mobile Cath Lab after transportation, in a wetland area, was 30 minutes. Coronary angiography, and primary PCI were performed successfully. This preliminary feasibility study of the use of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab for emergency interventional treatment of dogs with STEMI indicated that it may perform well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters.

  8. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  9. Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response: a qualitative study of the Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Buce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Peller, Jennifer; Kitto, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response have not yet been developed. The aims of this study were to identify the non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response and training for disaster response and to explore the barriers and facilitators to interprofessional practice in surgical teams responding to disasters. Twenty health professionals, with prior experience in natural disaster response or education, participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. A qualitative matrix analysis design was used to thematically analyze the data. Non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response identified in this study included skills for austere environments, cognitive strategies and interprofessional skills. Skills for austere environments were physical self-care including survival skills, psychological self-care, flexibility, adaptability, innovation and improvisation. Cognitive strategies identified in this study were "big picture" thinking, situational awareness, critical thinking, problem solving and creativity. Interprofessional attributes include communication, team-player, sense of humor, cultural competency and conflict resolution skills. "Interprofessionalism" in disaster teams also emerged as a key factor in this study and incorporated elements of effective teamwork, clear leadership, role adjustment and conflict resolution. The majority of participants held the belief that surgeons needed training in non-technical skills in order to achieve best practice in disaster response. Surgeons considerring becoming involved in disaster management should be trained in these skills, and these skills should be incorporated into disaster preparation courses with an interprofessional focus.

  10. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Post- and peritraumatic stress in disaster survivors: an explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Examination of existing research on posttraumatic adjustment after disasters suggests that survivors’ posttraumatic stress levels might be better understood by investigating the influence of the characteristics of the event experienced on how people thought and felt, during the event as well as afterwards. Objective : To compare survivors’ perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions across different types of disasters. Additionally, to investigate individual and event characteristics. Design : In a European multi-centre study, 102 survivors of different disasters terror attack, flood, fire and collapse of a building were interviewed about their responses during the event. Survivors’ perceived posttraumatic stress levels were assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Peritraumatic emotional stress and risk perception were rated retrospectively. Influences of individual characteristics, such as socio-demographic data, and event characteristics, such as time and exposure factors, on post- and peritraumatic outcomes were analyzed. Results : Levels of reported post- and peritraumatic outcomes differed significantly between types of disasters. Type of disaster was a significant predictor of all three outcome variables but the factors gender, education, time since event, injuries and fatalities were only significant for certain outcomes. Conclusion : Results support the hypothesis that there are differences in perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions after experiencing different types of disasters. However, it should be noted that these findings were not only explained by the type of disaster itself but also by individual and event characteristics. As the study followed an explorative approach, further research paths are discussed to better understand the relationships between variables.

  12. a Study of Co-Planing Technology of Spaceborne, Airborne and Ground Remote Sensing Detecting Resource, Driven by Disaster Emergency Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F.; Chen, H.; Tu, K.; Wen, Q.; He, J.; Gu, X.; Wang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Facing the monitoring needs of emergency responses to major disasters, combining the disaster information acquired at the first time after the disaster and the dynamic simulation result of the disaster chain evolution process, the overall plan for coordinated planning of spaceborne, airborne and ground observation resources have been designed. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of major disaster observation tasks, the key technologies of spaceborne, airborne and ground collaborative observation project are studied. For different disaster response levels, the corresponding workflow tasks are designed. On the basis of satisfying different types of disaster monitoring demands, the existing multi-satellite collaborative observation planning algorithms are compared, analyzed, and optimized.

  13. Hospital Nurses' Competencies in Disaster Situations: A Qualitative Study in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sandra M; Witt, Regina R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction Hospital nurses play a key role in the aftermath of the occurrence of disasters and need specific competencies to work in these situations. From a global perspective, few models exist that focus on disaster nursing. This study aimed to identify hospital nurses' competencies in disaster situations. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was developed using focus groups as a method of data collection. Three meetings were held from June through September 2012 with nurses who worked at a hospital used as reference for disaster situations in the South of Brazil. Thematic analysis of collected data generated the competencies. For statement standardization, a format consistent with a verb, a noun, and a complement was adopted. The group validated 17 competencies, which were organized according to the phases of emergency management described by the World Health Organization (WHO) and classified in domain areas of management, health care, communication, and education. The competencies identified in this study can contribute to the education and practice of nurses in the hospital ambience, strengthening its capacity to face disaster situations.

  14. Nonclinical core competencies and effects of interprofessional teamwork in disaster and emergency response training and practice: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon

    2013-08-01

    To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).

  15. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions about disaster preparedness and response in Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Seher Deniz; Larson, Eric Edwin; Yüksel, Serpil; Altun Uğraş, Gülay

    2015-04-01

    Although the awareness of disasters has increased among nurses, the concept of disaster preparedness and response has not been sufficiently explored with undergraduate nursing students. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the perceptions of students regarding disaster preparedness and response that live in different earthquake-prone cities; Istanbul, Turkey and Miyazaki, Japan. A cross-sectional study employing seven questions was conducted in a final group of 1053 nursing students from Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan. Most study respondents were female, aged 18-22 years, with a high proportion of second year students in both cities. Istanbul's students had more knowledge about disaster preparedness and response in relation to age and year of university, showing statistically significant differences. Istanbul's highest rated responses to disaster characteristics were on structural elements and injuries/deaths, while Miyazaki's was "unpredictable/sudden/disorganized". Respondents in Istanbul identified earthquakes as the disaster most likely to occur, while respondents in Miyazaki identified typhoon/hurricane. Study participants responded that they could provide caregiver roles during a disaster event rather than triage or managerial roles as disaster responders. Disaster characteristics were not described by one third of the students. Of the two-thirds that were described, most were of events that were highly predictable because of their frequencies in the given areas. Universities need to target and then focus on high-risk factors in their areas and have disaster plans for students who can provide triage and managerial nursing roles as disaster responders. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. A study for disaster prevention in the case of the underground fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    There are three categories of possible disaster or hazard in workings where diesel equipment are operating. 1) Disasters by exhaust pollutants: The equipment specially designed for underground use are strongly recommended. Workings using diesel equipment should be properly ventilated all the time to maintain the gas concentration bellow the permissible level. The fume diluter is recommended as the most practical after treatment device in Korean mines. 2) Underground fire: The main cause of diesel fire is over heated engine and spillage of hydraulic liquid. Therefore, protecting the over heat of engine, using fire resistive hydraulic liquid and high flash point fuel is requested. Fuel and the other oils are recommended to be stored at surface. To protect the smoke return in case of underground fire, the ventilation velocity must be kept more than 1.5m/sec. The fire smoke starts to return on 1.5m/sec and stops to return on 2.0m/sec. The fire smoke flows through upper half of the tunnel and it`s temperature is 10 degrees higher than ventilation air flow. For taking an immediate measure on fire, keeping the updated simulation is essential matter. 3) Other disasters. (author). 9 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. A study based on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    It consists of three chapters that the first chapter is the important policy issues to be confirmed after the Fukushima nuclear disaster, the second about Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant, and the third other problems. The first chapter discussed that 1) was it necessary for us to revise the nuclear regulation system for recovering of trust on nuclear safety?, 2) an approach to solve high level radioactive waste disposal sites, 3) the government gave the suitable decisions on the basis of conclusions of authorities for security of nuclear power, and 4) expecting for construction of nuclear safety regulation system. The second chapter stated on Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant; 1) actions for security control measures, and 2) Shizuoka prefecture's affairs. The third, 1) verification of the unanticipated situation and importance of empowerment faculty and sensitivity in practice, 2) the trend of public opinion on reopening of nuclear power plant, 3) it is necessary to pay special attention to issues expected for nuclear safety regulation system in Japan, and 4) importance of approach to the trend of public opinion. (S.Y.)

  18. Psychotropic medication use among adolescent disaster survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Veen, P.M.H. ten

    2004-01-01

    Background: We study the health consequences of a fire disaster which took place on January 1st, 2001, in Volendam, the Netherlands. The fire occurred in a discotheque where about 300 youngsters were celebrating new year’ eve. 14 youngsters were killed and about 200 injured. Next to the threat,to

  19. Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information : Case studies of Netherlands and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghawana, T. (T.); Kaur, A. (A.); Neuvel, J.M.M. (J.M.M.); Ziatanova, Z. (Z.)

    2014-01-01

    Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XL-8, 147-154, 2014www.int-arch-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/XL-8/147/2014/doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-8-147-2014Integrated flood disaster management and spatial information: Case studies ofNetherlands and IndiaS. Zlatanova1, T.

  20. Disaster and subsequent health care utilization: a longitudinal study among victims, their family members, and control subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, C.J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.M.; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of disasters on primary healthcare utilization is largely unknown. Moreover, it is often overlooked how disaster affects those closest to the primary victims, their family members. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the long-term effects of a catastrophic

  1. Incorporating transportation network modeling tools within transportation economic impact studies of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportation system disruption due to a disaster results in "ripple effects" throughout the entire transportation system of a metropolitan region. Many researchers have focused on the economic costs of transportation system disruptions in transportation-related industries, specifïcally within commerce and logistics, in the assessment of the regional economic costs. However, the foundation of an assessment of the regional economic costs of a disaster needs to include the evaluation of consumer surplus in addition to the direct cost for reconstruction of the regional transportation system. The objective of this study is to propose a method to estimate the regional consumer surplus based on indirect economic costs of a disaster on intermodal transportation systems in the context of diverting vehicles and trains. The computational methods used to assess the regional indirect economic costs sustained by the highway and railroad system can utilize readily available state departments of transportation (DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs traffic models allowing prioritization of regional recovery plans after a disaster and strengthening of infrastructure before a disaster. Hurricane Katrina is one of the most devastating hurricanes in the history of the United States. Due to the significance of Hurricane Katrina, a case study is presented to evaluate consumer surplus in the Gulf Coast Region of Mississippi. Results from the case study indicate the costs of rerouting and congestion delays in the regional highway system and the rent costs of right-of-way in the regional railroad system are major factors of the indirect costs in the consumer surplus.

  2. Efficacy of insurance for organisational disaster recovery: case study of the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2017-04-01

    Insurance is widely acknowledged to be an important component of an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. Yet, little analysis exists of how well current commercial insurance policies and practices support organisational recovery in the wake of a major disaster. This exploratory qualitative research, supported by some quantitative survey data, evaluated the efficacy of commercial insurance following the sequence of earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. The study found that, generally, the commercial insurance sector performed adequately, given the complexity of the events. However, there are a number of ways in which insurers could improve their operations to increase the efficacy of commercial insurance cover and to assist organisational recovery following a disaster. The most notable of these are: (i) better wording of policies; (ii) the availability of sector-specific policies; (iii) the enhancement of claims assessment systems; and (iv) risk-based policy pricing to incentivise risk reduction measures. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  3. Case Study of Resilient Baton Rouge: Applying Depression Collaborative Care and Community Planning to Disaster Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Keegan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing behavioral health impacts of major disasters is a priority of increasing national attention, but there are limited examples of implementation strategies to guide new disaster responses. We provide a case study of an effort being applied in response to the 2016 Great Flood in Baton Rouge. Methods: Resilient Baton Rouge was designed to support recovery after major flooding by building local capacity to implement an expanded model of depression collaborative care for adults, coupled with identifying and responding to local priorities and assets for recovery. For a descriptive, initial evaluation, we coupled analysis of documents and process notes with descriptive surveys of participants in initial training and orientation, including preliminary comparisons among licensed and non-licensed participants to identify training priorities. Results: We expanded local behavioral health service delivery capacity through subgrants to four agencies, provision of training tailored to licensed and non-licensed providers and development of advisory councils and partnerships with grassroots and government agencies. We also undertook initial efforts to enhance national collaboration around post-disaster resilience. Conclusion: Our partnered processes and lessons learned may be applicable to other communities that aim to promote resilience, as well as planning for and responding to post-disaster behavioral health needs.

  4. Hospital Administration and Nursing Leadership in Disasters: An Exploratory Study Using Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Deruggiero, Katherine; Losinski, Sarah; Barnett, Daniel

    Strong leadership is critical in disaster situations when "patient surge" challenges a hospital's capacity to respond and normally acceptable patterns of care are disrupted. Activation of the emergency operations plan triggers an incident command system structure for leadership decision making. Yet, implementation of the emergency operations plan and incident command system protocols is ultimately subject to nursing and hospital leadership at the service- and unit level. The results of these service-/unit-based leadership decisions have the potential to directly impact staff and patient safety, quality of care, and ultimately, patient outcomes. Despite the critical nature of these events, nurse leaders and administrators receive little education regarding leadership and decision making during disaster events. The purpose of this study is to identify essential competencies of nursing and hospital administrators' leadership during disaster events. An integrative mixed-methods design combining qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used. Five focus groups were conducted with nurse leaders and hospital administrators at a large urban hospital in the Northeastern United States in a collaborative group process to generate relevant leadership competencies. Concept Systems Incorporated was used to sort, prioritize, and analyze the data (http://conceptsystemsinc.com/). The results suggest that participants' institutional knowledge (of existing resources, communications, processes) and prior disaster experience increase leadership competence.

  5. Integrating Global Open Geo-Information for Major Disaster Assessment: A Case Study of the Myanmar Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suju Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Major disasters typically impact large areas, cause considerable damages, and result in significant human and economic losses. The timely and accurate estimation of impacts and damages is essential to better understand disaster conditions and to support emergency response operations. Geo-information drawn from various sources at multi spatial-temporal scales can be used for disaster assessments through a synthesis of hazard, exposure, and post disaster information based on pertinent approaches. Along with the increased availability of open sourced data and cooperation initiatives, more global scale geo-information, including global land cover datasets, has been produced and can be integrated with other information for disaster dynamic damage assessment (e.g., impact estimation immediately after a disaster occurs, physical damage assessment during the emergency response stage, and comprehensive assessment following an emergency response. Residential areas and arable lands affected by the flood disaster occurring from July to August 2015 in Myanmar were assessed based on satellite images, GlobeLand30 data, and other global open sourced information as a study case. The results show that integrating global open geo-information could serve as a practical and efficient means of assessing damage resulting from major disasters worldwide, especially at the early emergency response stage.

  6. Personal factors affecting ethical performance in healthcare workers during disasters and mass casualty incidents in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehrzad; Fadavi, Mohsen; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Borhani, Fariba

    2017-09-01

    In emergencies and disasters, ethics are affected by both personal and organizational factors. Given the lack of organizational ethical guidelines in the disaster management system in Iran, the present study was conducted to explain the personal factors affecting ethics and ethical behaviors among disaster healthcare workers. The present qualitative inquiry was conducted using conventional content analysis to analyze the data collected from 21 in-depth unstructured interviews with healthcare workers with an experience of attending one or more fields of disaster. According to the data collected, personal factors can be classified into five major categories, including personal characteristics such as age and gender, personal values, threshold of tolerance, personal knowledge and reflective thinking. Without ethical guidelines, healthcare workers are intensely affected by the emotional climate of the event and guided by their beliefs. A combination of personal characteristics, competences and expertise thus form the basis of ethical conduct in disaster healthcare workers.

  7. Exploring Civil Drone Accidents and Incidents to Help Prevent Potential Air Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Wild

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recent alleged “drone” collision with a British Airways Airbus A320 at Heathrow Airport highlighted the need to understand civil Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS accidents and incidents (events. This understanding will facilitate improvements in safety by ensuring efforts are focused to reduce the greatest risks. One hundred and fifty two RPAS events were analyzed. The data was collected from a 10-year period (2006 to 2015. Results show that, in contrast to commercial air transportation (CAT, RPAS events have a significantly different distribution when categorized by occurrence type, phase of flight, and safety issue. Specifically, it was found that RPAS operations are more likely to experience (1 loss of control in-flight, (2 events during takeoff and in cruise, and (3 equipment problems. It was shown that technology issues, not human factors, are the key contributor in RPAS events. This is a significant finding, as it is contrary to the industry view which has held for the past quarter of a century that human factors are the key contributor (which is still the case for CAT. Regulators should therefore look at technologies and not focus solely on operators.

  8. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  9. Disaster management in flash floods in Leh (Ladakh: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6% and foreigners (10.2%. Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army′s immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal

  10. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  11. Longitudinal effects of disaster-related experiences on mental health among Fukushima nuclear plant workers: The Fukushima NEWS Project Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, A; Tanigawa, T; Charvat, H; Wada, H; Shigemura, J; Kawachi, I

    2017-08-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Energy Workers' Support (NEWS) Project Study previously showed that experiences related to the Fukushima nuclear disaster on 11 March 2011 had a great impact on psychological states, including post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) and general psychological distress (GPD), among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers. To determine the causal relationship between disaster-related experiences and levels of psychological states, we conducted a 3-year longitudinal study from 2011 to 2014. PTSR and GPD of the nuclear plant workers were assessed by annual questionnaires conducted from 2011 to 2014. The present study included a total of 1417 workers who provided an assessment at baseline (2011). A total of 4160 observations were used in the present analysis. The relationship between disaster-related experiences and psychological states over time was analysed using mixed-effects logistic regression models. A declining influence of disaster-related experiences on PTSR over time was found. However, the impact on PTSR remained significantly elevated even 3 years after the disaster in several categories of exposure including the experience of life-threatening danger, experiences of discrimination, the witnessing of plant explosion, the death of a colleague and home evacuation. The associations between GPD and disaster-related experiences showed similar effects. The effects of disaster-related experiences on psychological states among the nuclear plant workers reduced over time, but remained significantly high even 3 years after the event.

  12. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  13. Development and simulation of the air-jack for emergency like a huge disaster; Kyujoyo eajakki no kaihatsu to sono simyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa.; Ogata, Yuji.; Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashizume, Kiyoshi.; Nishida, Kenjiro. [Nippon Kayaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    When a disaster is so huge like Kobe earthquake, every energy line is killed. Even if we want to help the sufferers, we have no energy to move machines to help them. As collapsed houses are very heavy, we need machines to remove collapsed stuff. Explosives include a lot of energy in themselves. So, an air-jack which has explosives inside was developed to remove collapsed stuff on suffered people. A simple air-jack was made and tested. One concrete block, 50cm x 50cm x 50cm, was lifted by the simple air-jack. A simulation of lifting the concrete block was carried out with a programme ANSYS on the super computer. (author)

  14. Exploring staff willingness to attend work during a disaster: a study of nurses employed in four Australian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Paul; Cusack, Lynette; Ranse, Jamie; Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie; Kako, Mayumi; Woodman, Richard J; Mitchell, Belinda; Bahnisch, Laura; Hammad, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Much of the literature about emergency nurses willingness to work during disasters has been from a non-Australian perspective. Despite the many recent disasters, little is known of Australian nurse's willingness to participate in disaster response. This paper presents findings from a study that explored nurses willingness to attend work during a disaster and the factors that influenced this decision. Data were collected consecutively using a combination of focus group and interview methods. Participants in this study, registered nurses from emergency departments, were recruited through convenience sampling from four hospitals in Australia. Participant narrative was electronically recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The participants for both the focus groups and interviews compromised a mix of ages, genders and years of experience as emergency nurses from across four jurisdictions within Australia. Three major themes that influenced willingness emerged with a number of subthemes. Theme one reflected the uncertainty of the situation such as the type of disaster. The second theme surrounded the preparedness of the workplace, emergency nurse and colleagues, and the third theme considered personal and professional choice based on home and work circumstances and responsibilities. The decision to attend work or not during a disaster, includes a number of complex personal, work-related and professional factors that can change, depending on the type of disaster, preparedness of the work environment and the emergency nurses' personal responsibilities at that time. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  16. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  17. Use of social media and e-Government in disasters: 2016 Louisiana floods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Daniel

    The case study analyzes the use of social media as a component of disaster response during and after the Louisiana Floods of August 2016. The study analyzes the survey responses of thirty social media users on a series of questions regarding social networks they regularly used during the flooding events, the extent to which users contacted government agencies via those networks, other uses of social media connected with the disaster, and whether social media served as a primary means of communication during cell carrier service interruptions. The results of this study show that there was a correlation between service disruption and increased use of social media as a means of communication. Additionally, the survey showed that social media networks have been utilized for a wide range of purposes during disasters, including locating family and loved ones, requesting help, disseminating information, and psychosocial interaction. Finally, a majority of respondents did not use social media to contact government agencies, and a number of respondents rated federal government engagement through social media as either dissatisfactory or were neutral on the question.

  18. Effectiveness of Backup and Disaster Recovery in Cloud : A Comparative study on Disk and Cloud based Backup and Disaster Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveti, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Context: Definitive information is what makes enterprises in the contemporary world continuously move up the ladder in today’s world. Hence they need to be always up to date with the latest advancements. A key point in the enterprise structure is Backup and Disaster Recovery, DR system and this has very high scope for development since it can be integrated with a lot of our daily requirements. On account of this, it has a lot of applicability in future for development of technology. Due to th...

  19. Evaluation of diseases survelliance studies after flood disaster in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Akgün

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the contagious diseases surveillance studies after the flood disaster between 31.10.2006 and 02.11.2006 in Batman province. After flood disaster, there had been taken some measures about water sanitation, immunization and organization of the health services and the public education issues.Super chlorination procedure had been applied to drinking water in the city center. The free chlorine levels of 890 water specimens from different areas of the province had been measured and the results were between 0.3 to 0.8 ppm. A random 359 specimens were tested biologically and chemically and they have been found eligible to use. Health units of the municipality had been provided with adequate tetanus vaccine in order to inoculate the persons who had been wounded. Children without adequate childhood vaccinations and immunizations were encouraged to complete their vaccinations in the closest dispensaries. A structural questionnaire had been applied with the aim of collecting data about potential contagious diseases in the area. For the following two weeks after the disaster, 0.6 % of the residents were observed to have gastroenteritis. However, the EPI Curve of the gastroenteritis cases do not show a potential epidemic in the province. Active surveillance system which applies by visiting households is important for taking essential preventive measures; besides, early detecting of potential contagious diseases.

  20. Post-Disaster Business Recovery and Sustainable Development: A Study of 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Business sectors are essential for community prosperity, and thus it is important to investigate the recovery of businesses after disasters. However, current studies on business recovery after natural disasters are limited, particularly a lack of empirical observations in developing countries. Our observations of the patterns and transformations of small businesses in the recovery process after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China can bridge this gap and provide a valuable contribution to academia. We conducted research through a four-year longitudinal study to track small business recovery in Beichuan County since 2014. Field observations, repeat photography, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The operating status, business type, and spatiotemporal changes of small businesses in the new business district, Banaqia, were demonstrated. Overall, less than 50% of the planned shops were occupied and in operation, and this figure keeps declining from 2014 to 2017. Catering, garments, and souvenirs are the primary business types, but they show individual patterns in terms of sustainable development and spatial configuration. The results help to inform the development of recovery policies following disasters in developing countries.

  1. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Institutions in Disaster Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo-Man Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Religion in Korea has been shaped by its followers to a degree, but the role of religion in Korea has been largely unexamined. This study examines the role of religion and the incorporation of religious beliefs and institutions in the field of disaster management. In doing so, the study examines how three religions—Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism—operate in Korea, in particular in terms of both care-oriented management and mitigation-oriented management approaches. While utilizing descriptive research as a methodology, policy measures have been suggested with the support of theological perspectives. Despite some difficulties in making a generalization, the major finding is that religion has a role to play in supplementing care-oriented management, with mitigation-oriented management approaches, by better grasping the nature of a disaster and its effective management while responding to regional culture. In addition, the Ministry of Public Safety and Security, local governments, and other government institutions must play new roles in incorporating religion in disaster management.

  2. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  3. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-01-01

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  4. Ethical and deontological aspects of media coverage in technological disasters: case study of the Santiago de Compostela railway accident (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ALMENARA LORENZO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the ethical-deontological aspects in media coverage of technological disasters, taking as case subject the most important railway accident in Spain of the last 40 years, which took place on the 24 of July 2013 in Santiago de Compostela. To do so, in first place, it presents a systematic review of Spanish selfregulation of journalistic documents related to the coverage of accidents, disasters, in particular technological disasters. Secondly, an analysis of text and photograph is carried out taking as examples four of the most influential online newspapers amongst the Spanish and Galician public media. The results allow us to confirm that deontological transgressions occurred to some extent in all the digital media studied, both in photographs and text. Lastly, a proposal is included with guidelines for a better coverage of technological disasters, using as a reference the findings of previous analysis.

  5. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  6. A longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their predictors in rescue workers after a firework factory disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Elklit; Gudmundsdottir, Drifa

    2014-01-01

    This is a follow up study on rescue workers participating in the primary rescue during and immediately after the explosion of a firework factory. We aimed to estimate the possible PTSD prevalence at five and 18 months post disaster, determining if the level of PTSD symptoms at 18 months could be predicted from factors measured at five months. We included measures of posttraumatic symptoms, social support, locus of control and demographic questions. The possible PTSD prevalence rose from 1.6% (n = 465) at five months post disaster to 3.1% (n = 130) at 18 months. A hierarchical linear regression predicted 59% of PTSD symptoms variance at 18 months post disaster. In the final regression, somatization explained the greatest part of the symptom variance (42%), followed by locus of control (29%) and major life events prior to and right after the disaster (23%). Rescue workers seemed to be relatively robust to traumatic exposure: The prevalence of possible PTSD in our study was even lower than previous studies, probably because of the less severe consequences of the disaster studied. Furthermore, we found that PTSD symptom level at 18 months post disaster was highly predicted by psychological factors, particularly by somatization. However, further investigations of traumatic responding are required in this population.

  7. Challenges of Female Nurses in Disasters: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Pourvakhshoori

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Many factors affect the services delivered by female nurses. The results of this study showed that the specific needs of female nurses, who are the main body of Iranian nurses, could maximize their performance and minimize their psychological and emotional damages.

  8. Portland cement concrete air content study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-20

    This study took the analysis of Portland cement concrete air content. Based on the information gathered, this study hold the results were : 1) air-entrained concrete was more durable than non-air entrained concrete all other factors being equal; 2) A...

  9. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  10. Kesiapan Institusi Lokal dalam Menghadapi Bencana Tsunami: Studi Kasus Kelurahan Air Manis dan Kelurahan Purus, Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirul Anam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aceh Tsunami’s in 2004 has a significant impact on Indonesia disaster management. Shifting of disaster management paradigm has directed to proactive preparedness that is involving some stakeholders including local institution like villages. At any level, the preparedness for the tsunami disaster of a government institution has been studied, including local government. However, in the lower level of local government such as villages have few of studies about that. Villages are institutions that deal directly with local communities. Therefore, the description of the preparedness/readiness of local institutions is needed. This study aims to give an overview of the readiness of local institutions in the face of the tsunami disaster by cases in the Air Manis Urban Village and Purus Village. Both of urban villages are located in the coastal area of Padang City which is one of the areas with high tsunami risk. This study uses descriptive qualitative approach, by using a primary data collection through in-depth interview with the key informant and secondary data collection through documents related to disaster management in Padang City. The local institution preparedness in both areas is identified through physical and non-physical aspects related to tsunami risk reduction. The results of the study showed that physically and non-physically Purus Village has better readiness compared to Air Manis Village. However, from the non-physical aspects of TRANTIB-PB and KSB as a representation of the involvement of local institutions in disaster management, it is still necessary to improve the governance in order not to become a mere formality. These two urban villages as a tourism destination are not considered in disaster management.

  11. Lack of perceived social support among immigrants after a disaster: comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogendijk, Annelieke N.; van der Velden, Peter G.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Disaster research suggests that immigrant groups who are affected by a disaster receive less emotional support than their native counterparts. However, it is unclear to what extent these differences can be attributed to post-disaster mental health problems or whether they were present before the

  12. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  13. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Gisela; Gibbs, Lisa; MacDougall, Colin

    2015-06-01

    Disasters have a significant impact on mental health that may be mitigated by promoting resilience. This study explores the lay perspective on public health interventions that have the potential to facilitate resilience of adults who experience a natural disaster. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months post-disaster between June 2011 and January 2012 with 19 people who experienced the 2010/11 Victorian floods. Twenty lay witness statements from people who presented to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission were also selected for analysis. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretive and comparative content analysis to develop an understanding of disaster resilience interventions in an ecological framework. The participants identified resilience focused interventions such as information that help individuals manage emotions and make effective decisions and plans, or enable access to resources; face-to-face communication strategies such as public events that restore or create new social connections; rebuilding of community capacity through coordination of volunteers and donations and policies that manage disaster risk. Disaster recovery interventions designed within an ecological model can promote a comprehensive integrated systems approach to support resilience in affected populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Disaster Preparedness activities in Havana: the study of the Community leaders´ Perception of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Gaeta Carrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk reduction and build resilience in order to prevent some disasters require not just well coordinated authorities, a sound legislation and strong institutions. It is also vital to involve the local communities in preventive measures. The design of community training and community based preparedness activities is not ofen planned properly and is done without enough information, leading to a breakdown in the intervention. Based on personal and group interviews and a survey, this study performs an exploration of community leaders´ perceptions about risks in Havana that strengthens or constrains preventive measures and enhance or not response capacities. information that helps to design capacity building activities at studied community.

  15. Acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression after exposure to the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show disaster: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Brundin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute distress-that is, clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression-and to identify predictors of each in a sample of people who witnessed a fatal aircraft collision at the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show. Air Show attendees (N = 157) were recruited by advertisements in the local media and completed an Internet-administered battery of questionnaires. Based on previously established cut-offs, 22 percent respondents had clinically significant PTSS and 24 percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Clinically significant symptoms were associated with posttrauma impairment in social and occupational functioning. Acute distress was associated with several variables, including aspects of Air Show trauma exposure, severity of prior trauma exposure, low posttrauma social support (ie, negative responses by others), indices of poor coping (eg, intolerance of uncertainty, rumination about the trauma), and elevated scores on anxiety sensitivity, the personality trait of absorption, and dissociative tendencies. Results suggest that clinically significant acute distress is common in the aftermath of witnessed trauma. The statistical predictors (correlates) of acute distress were generally consistent with the results of studies of other forms of trauma. People with elevated scores on theoretical vulnerability factors (eg, elevated anxiety sensitivity) were particularly likely to develop acute distress.

  16. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  17. Salient Public Beliefs Underlying Disaster Preparedness Behaviors: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mehdi; Ardalan, Ali; Akbarisari, Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Elmi, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Given the increasing importance of disaster preparedness in Tehran, the capital of Iran, interventions encouraging disaster preparedness behavior (DPB) are needed. This study was conducted to show how an elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about DPB and provide recommendations for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a semi-structured elicitation questionnaire was conducted with 132 heads of households from 22 districts in Tehran, Iran. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), six open-ended questions were used to record the opinion of people about DPB: advantages of engaging in DPB; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it difficult. Content analysis showed the categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. The three most frequently mentioned advantages obtained from inhabitants of Tehran were health outcomes (eg, it helps us to save our lives, it provides basic needs, and it protects us until relief workers arrive); other salient advantages were mentioned (eg, helps family reunification). The main disadvantage was preparedness anxiety. Family members were the most frequently mentioned social referent when people were asked who might approve or disapprove of their DPB. The two main circumstances perceived to obstruct DPB included not having enough knowledge or enough time. The results of this qualitative study suggest that interventions to encourage DPB among Tehran inhabitants should address: perceived consequences of DPB on health and other factors beyond health; barriers of not having enough knowledge and time perceived to hinder DPB; and social approval. More accurate research on salient beliefs with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of Tehran inhabitants is necessary. Research with other

  18. Research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Liles, Brandi D; Tett, Robert P; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the development of community-based and clinical interventions to assist children and adolescents after a disaster has become an international priority. Clinicians and researchers have begun to scientifically evaluate these interventions despite challenging conditions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress. This scientifically rigorous analysis used standards for methodological rigor of psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to examine 29 intervention studies. This analysis revealed that further refinement of methodology is needed to determine if certain intervention approaches are superior to other approaches and if they provide benefit beyond natural recovery. Most studies (93.1%) clearly described the interventions being tested or used manuals to guide application and most (89.7%) used standardized instruments to measure outcomes, and many used random assignment (69.0%) and provided assessor training (65.5%). Fewer studies used blinded assessment (44.8%) or measured treatment adherence (48.3%), and sample size in most studies (82.8%) was not adequate to detect small effects generally expected when comparing two active interventions. Moreover, it is unclear what constitutes meaningful change in relation to treatment especially for the numerous interventions administered to children in the general population. Overall, the results are inconclusive about which children, what settings, and what approaches are most likely to be beneficial. © 2014.

  19. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning

  20. Air Quality Case Studies Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes that many metropolitan areas are struggling with how to respond adequately to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), particu...

  1. Assessing local resilience to typhoon disasters: A case study in Nansha, Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    Building communities’ resilience to natural weather hazards requires the appropriate assessment of such capabilities. The resilience of a community is affected not only by social, economic, and infrastructural factors but also by natural factors (including both site characteristics and the intensity and frequency of events). To date, studies of natural factors have tended to draw on annual censuses and to use aggregated data, thus allowing only a limited understanding of site-specific hot or cold spots of resilience. To improve this situation, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of resilience to typhoon disasters in Nansha district, Guangzhou, China. We measured disaster resilience on 1×1-km grid units with respect to socioeconomic and infrastructural dimensions using a set of variables and also estimated natural factors in a detailed manner with a meteorological modeling tool, the Weather Research and Forecast model. We selected typhoon samples over the past 10 years, simulated the maximum typhoon-borne strong winds and precipitation of each sample, and predicted the wind speed and precipitation volume at the 100-year return-level on the basis of extreme value analysis. As a result, a composite resilience index was devised by combining factors in different domains using factor analysis coupled with the analytic hierarchy process. Resilience mapping using this composite resilience index allows local governments and planners to identify potential hot or cold spots of resilience and the dominant factors in particular locations, thereby assisting them in making more rational site-specific measures to improve local resilience to future typhoon disasters. PMID:29522526

  2. Assessing local resilience to typhoon disasters: A case study in Nansha, Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinglu; Huang, Bo; Li, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    Building communities' resilience to natural weather hazards requires the appropriate assessment of such capabilities. The resilience of a community is affected not only by social, economic, and infrastructural factors but also by natural factors (including both site characteristics and the intensity and frequency of events). To date, studies of natural factors have tended to draw on annual censuses and to use aggregated data, thus allowing only a limited understanding of site-specific hot or cold spots of resilience. To improve this situation, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of resilience to typhoon disasters in Nansha district, Guangzhou, China. We measured disaster resilience on 1×1-km grid units with respect to socioeconomic and infrastructural dimensions using a set of variables and also estimated natural factors in a detailed manner with a meteorological modeling tool, the Weather Research and Forecast model. We selected typhoon samples over the past 10 years, simulated the maximum typhoon-borne strong winds and precipitation of each sample, and predicted the wind speed and precipitation volume at the 100-year return-level on the basis of extreme value analysis. As a result, a composite resilience index was devised by combining factors in different domains using factor analysis coupled with the analytic hierarchy process. Resilience mapping using this composite resilience index allows local governments and planners to identify potential hot or cold spots of resilience and the dominant factors in particular locations, thereby assisting them in making more rational site-specific measures to improve local resilience to future typhoon disasters.

  3. Mass fatality management following the South Asian tsunami disaster: case studies in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W Morgan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following natural disasters, mismanagement of the dead has consequences for the psychological well-being of survivors. However, no technical guidelines currently exist for managing mass fatalities following large natural disasters. Existing methods of mass fatality management are not directly transferable as they are designed for transport accidents and acts of terrorism. Furthermore, no information is currently available about post-disaster management of the dead following previous large natural disasters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After the tsunami disaster on 26 December 2004, we conducted three descriptive case studies to systematically document how the dead were managed in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. We considered the following parameters: body recovery and storage, identification, disposal of human remains, and health risks from dead bodies. We used participant observations as members of post-tsunami response teams, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants, and collected information from published and unpublished documents. Refrigeration for preserving human remains was not available soon enough after the disaster, necessitating the use of other methods such as dry ice or temporary burial. No country had sufficient forensic capacity to identify thousands of victims. Rapid decomposition made visual identification almost impossible after 24-48 h. In Thailand, most forensic identification was made using dental and fingerprint data. Few victims were identified from DNA. Lack of national or local mass fatality plans further limited the quality and timeliness of response, a problem which was exacerbated by the absence of practical field guidelines or an international agency providing technical support. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency response should not add to the distress of affected communities by inappropriately disposing of the victims. The rights of survivors to see their dead treated with dignity and respect requires

  4. Flood disaster and protection measures in Turkey Case Study: May 1998 flood disaster at North Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurer, Ibrahim; Ozguier, Hamza

    2004-01-01

    Due to geographical location, geology, and topography, Turkey undergoes three main types of natural disasters related to gravity flows; floods, landslides, and snow avalanches. Flooding is second important natural hazard after earthquakes with 18 floods and 23 deaths per year, on average. During 20-21 May 1998, the rainfall which was equal to about four times of long-term mean annual rainfall total of north western Black Sea geographical region of Turkey affected 35.000 m 2 , damaged 1300 km highway, 600 km roads to the villages, and 60 km railway. After the recession of the flood waters, the field survey done proved that 12 highway bridges, 91 small bridges on village roads and 6900 highway culverts, 13.800 m retaining wall and about 500 houses were severely damaged. During the last five years, with the loans and credits provided by World Bank, a series of flood protection structures were designed and built for the rehabilitation of the region. Mostly concentrating on non-structural flood protection studies, a work programme has been drafted in this framework to develop flood management and to reduce or eliminate long-term risk and damage to people and their property from natural hazards and their effects. In this case study, the factors causing the flood disaster are given, and the flood event is analyzed from hydrologic and morphologic points of view. Also the different types of the flood protection measures are exemplified and the experience gained in controlling the flood damages is presented.(Author)

  5. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing wetlands for disaster risk reduction: A case study of the eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A. Belle

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the knowledge and practice of a nature-based solution to reduce disaster risks of drought, veld fires and floods using wetlands in the eastern Free State, South Africa. A mixed research method approach was used to collect primary data using three data collection tools, namely questionnaires, interviews and field observations. Ninety-five wetlands under communal and private ownership as well as a few in protected areas were sampled, with their users completing questionnaires. The study showed that communal wetlands were more degraded, while wetlands in protected areas and in private commercial farms were in a good ecological state. An extensive literature review reveals that healthy wetlands are effective buffers in reducing disaster risks such as drought, veld fires and floods which are recurrent in the study area. Therefore, through better land-use and management practices, backed by education and awareness, wetlands could be good instruments to mitigate recurrent natural hazards in the agriculturally dominated eastern Free State in South Africa.

  7. Humanitarism and Disaster Governance in Indonesia: Case Study: Merapi Eruption in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Gita Srikandini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that humanitarian action in the aftermath of disaster could be explained with the concept of disaster governance. Humanitarian action has been defined as any action to minimize human suffering wherever it is found without considering any state boundaries. Its goal is to make the affected person to be resilient in the aftermath of disaster. This paper elaborates the principle of disaster governance including the concept of humanitarianism, the development of humanitarian enterprise, and the issue of coordination within the chaotic coordination after disaster. Second, it examines the concept of disaster governance as a model of network. Later, through those both tools, the case of Merapi Eruption in 2010 will be put into context.

  8. Study of Earthquake Disaster Prediction System of Langfang city Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Dian; Li, Pan; Zhang, YunHui; Zhang, RuoFei

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, according to the status of China’s need to improve the ability of earthquake disaster prevention, this paper puts forward the implementation plan of earthquake disaster prediction system of Langfang city based on GIS. Based on the GIS spatial database, coordinate transformation technology, GIS spatial analysis technology and PHP development technology, the seismic damage factor algorithm is used to predict the damage of the city under different intensity earthquake disaster conditions. The earthquake disaster prediction system of Langfang city is based on the B / S system architecture. Degree and spatial distribution and two-dimensional visualization display, comprehensive query analysis and efficient auxiliary decision-making function to determine the weak earthquake in the city and rapid warning. The system has realized the transformation of the city’s earthquake disaster reduction work from static planning to dynamic management, and improved the city’s earthquake and disaster prevention capability.

  9. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Swedish Electric Power Policy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gündüz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The future of climate and sustainable energy are interrelated. Speaking of one without mentioning the other is quite difficult. The increasing number of natural disasters pose a great threat to the electric power supply security in any part of the world. Sweden has been one of the countries that have suffered from unacceptably long blackouts. The tremendous outcomes of the power interruptions have made the field of the economic worth of electric power reliability a popular area of interest among researchers. Nature has been the number one enemy against the supply security of the electricity. This paper introduces a recent and thorough electric power reliability analysis of Sweden and focuses on the country’s struggle against climate change-related natural disasters via updating the country’s electric power policy to improve its service quality. The paper highlights the Gudrun storm of 2005 as a case study to demonstrate the severe impacts of extreme weather events on the energy systems. The economic damage of the storm on the electric power service calculated to be around 3 billion euros.

  10. Modelling Individual Evacuation Decisions during Natural Disasters: A Case Study of Volcanic Crisis in Merapi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the size of human populations increases, so does the severity of the impacts of natural disasters. This is partly because more people are now occupying areas which are susceptible to hazardous natural events, hence, evacuation is needed when such events occur. Evacuation can be the most important action to minimise the impact of any disaster, but in many cases there are always people who are reluctant to leave. This paper describes an agent-based model (ABM of evacuation decisions, focusing on the emergence of reluctant people in times of crisis and using Merapi, Indonesia as a case study. The individual evacuation decision model is influenced by several factors formulated from a literature review and survey. We categorised the factors influencing evacuation decisions into two opposing forces, namely, the driving factors to leave (evacuate versus those to stay, to formulate the model. The evacuation decision (to stay/leave of an agent is based on an evaluation of the strength of these driving factors using threshold-based rules. This ABM was utilised with a synthetic population from census microdata, in which everyone is characterised by the decision rule. Three scenarios with varying parameters are examined to calibrate the model. Validations were conducted using a retrodictive approach by performing spatial and temporal comparisons between the outputs of simulation and the real data. We present the results of the simulations and discuss the outcomes to conclude with the most plausible scenario.

  11. A longitudinal comparative study of the physical and mental health problems of affected residents of the firework disaster Enschede, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L; Velden, P.G. van der; Stellato, R.K.; Dusseldorp, A.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Kleber, R.J.; Lebret, E.

    Objectives: After the firework disaster in Enschede, The Netherlands, on 13 May 2000, a longitudinal health study was carried out. Study questions were: (1) did the health status change over this period; and (2) how is the health status 18months after the disaster compared with controls? Study

  12. A longitudinal comparative study of the physical and mental health problems of affected residents of the firework disaster Enschede, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; van der Velden, P. G.; Stellato, R. K.; Dusseldorp, A.; Gersons, B. P. R.; Kleber, R. J.; Lebret, E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After the firework disaster in Enschede, The Netherlands, on 13 May 2000, a longitudinal health study was carried out. Study questions were: (1) did the health status change over this period; and (2) how is the health status 18 months after the disaster compared with controls? STUDY

  13. Environmental, Disaster and Crisis Management Strategies: Interdisciplinarity and Synergy in Postgraduate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Efthymis; Andreadakis, Emmanouil; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Antoniou, Varvara; Kapourani, Eleni; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-04-01

    , admitted students come, in a large percentage, from services and authorities involved in environmental, disaster and crisis management issues (for example fire service, police, armed forces, ministries, local administration etc) apart from graduate students continuing their studies. An added value of the program has been observed the development of a critical mass of personnel of these organizations and young scientists with increased connectivity, extending from simple acquaintance to cooperation and trust and synergy development of the services themselves. This is a promising condition for a more effective risk and emergency management in a context of ethical and responsible practices. The curriculum comprises live or online lectures, asynchronous education with exercises and essay writing, seminars on tools such as related GIS and SPSS applications, and applied field exercises on both scientific and emergency management subjects. The program completed the second year of function, and was upgraded after internal and external evaluation, to adjust to new fields, ideas and challenges and include students' suggestions. More than one hundred students have graduated so far, and another 350 are currently attending. The program, which originally available in Greek, is going to be available in English starting September 2017, and is open for applications, and presented at: http://www.edcm.edu.gr

  14. Risk assessment of intake of foods and soil, and air radiation dose after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaga, Aiichiro; Yoneda, Minoru; Ikegami, Maiko

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment of soil contaminated with radionuclides, due to the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant after the earthquake on March 11, 2011, was carried out by considering consumption of the contaminated food. The exposure routes were set as food intake, ingestion and inhalation of soil particles, and external radiation from the ground. As a result, exposures by ingestion, and inhalation of soil particles were negligible, and exposure by food intake and external exposure from the ground were comparatively large. This study shows air dose by the accident should be under 0.2 μSv/hour in order to control the radiation dose with consumption of food under 1 μSv/year. (author)

  15. Comparative study of the congenital anomalies before and after Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaprjanov, Z.; Porjazova, E.; Djambazova, S.; Hubavenska, I.; Velichkova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was a comparative examination of the congenital anomalies before and directly after the Chernobyl disaster in the early and later periods of time. For the study post mortem material of the Department of general and clinical pathology at the Medical University of Plovdiv was used. Eight hundred seventy eight cases of newborns with congenital anomalies for a 24-year period (1981-2004) were reviewed. The number of the congenital anomalies was compared quantitatively in general and in systems. Equal 5-year intervals of time were compared to a control 5-year period before the Chernobyl accident. The data were statistically processed using different statistical methods. The comparative study of the number of the congenital anomalies did not show a statistically significant increase in relation to the nuclear accident

  16. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  17. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF OPENSTREETMAP DATA AFTER NATURAL DISASTERS: A CASE STUDY OF HAITI UNDER HURRICANE MATTHEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI has been widely adopted as an alternative for authoritative geographic information in disaster management considering its up-to-date data. OpenStreetMap, in particular, is now aiming at crisis mapping for humanitarian purpose. This paper illustrated that natural disaster played an essential role in updating OpenStreetMap data after Haiti was hit by Hurricane Matthew in October, 2016. Spatial-temporal analysis of updated OSM data was conducted in this paper. Correlation of features was also studied to figure out whether updates of data were coincidence or the results of the hurricane. Spatial pattern matched the damaged areas and temporal changes fitted the time when disaster occurred. High level of correlation values of features were recorded when hurricane occurred, suggesting that updates in data were led by the hurricane.

  18. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Openstreetmap Data after Natural Disasters: a Case Study of Haiti Under Hurricane Matthew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Li, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been widely adopted as an alternative for authoritative geographic information in disaster management considering its up-to-date data. OpenStreetMap, in particular, is now aiming at crisis mapping for humanitarian purpose. This paper illustrated that natural disaster played an essential role in updating OpenStreetMap data after Haiti was hit by Hurricane Matthew in October, 2016. Spatial-temporal analysis of updated OSM data was conducted in this paper. Correlation of features was also studied to figure out whether updates of data were coincidence or the results of the hurricane. Spatial pattern matched the damaged areas and temporal changes fitted the time when disaster occurred. High level of correlation values of features were recorded when hurricane occurred, suggesting that updates in data were led by the hurricane.

  19. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Study of Elementary School Seachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Teachers, as adult authority figures and people with whom students spend a majority of their day, can play a major role in the lives of children in a disaster-prone community.…

  20. The effect of a severe disaster on the mental health of adolescents: A controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Crone, M.R.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Disasters greatly affect the mental health of children and adolescents, but quantification of such effects is difficult. Using prospective predisaster and postdisaster data for affected and control populations, we aimed to assess the effects of a severe disaster on the mental health and

  1. Feasibility Study on the Satellite Rainfall Data for Prediction of Sediment- Related Disaster by the Japanese Prediction Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Osanai, N.; Okazumi, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the sediment-related disaster prediction method which based ground gauged rainfall-data, currently practiced in Japan was coupled with satellite rainfall data and applied to domestic large-scale sediment-related disasters. The study confirmed the feasibility of this integrated method. In Asia, large-scale sediment-related disasters which can sweep away an entire settlement occur frequently. Leyte Island suffered from a huge landslide in 2004, and Typhoon Molakot in 2009 caused huge landslides in Taiwan. In the event of these sediment-related disasters, immediate responses by central and local governments are crucial in crisis management. In general, there are not enough rainfall gauge stations in developing countries. Therefore national and local governments have little information to determine the risk level of water induced disasters in their service areas. In the Japanese methodology, a criterion is set by combining two indices: the short-term rainfall index and long-term rainfall index. The short-term rainfall index is defined as the 60-minute total rainfall; the long-term rainfall index as the soil-water index, which is an estimation of the retention status of fallen rainfall in soil. In July 2009, a high-density sediment related disaster, or a debris flow, occurred in Hofu City of Yamaguchi Prefecture, in the western region of Japan. This event was calculated by the Japanese standard methodology, and then analyzed for its feasibility. Hourly satellite based rainfall has underestimates compared with ground based rainfall data. Long-term index correlates with each other. Therefore, this study confirmed that it is possible to deliver information on the risk level of sediment-related disasters such as shallow landslides and debris flows. The prediction method tested in this study is expected to assist for timely emergency responses to rainfall-induced natural disasters in sparsely gauged areas. As the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Plan

  2. Disaster Concept at Different Educational Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Gafa, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Disasters cover allthe events that damage both humans and their living environment. The disasters whichstem from nature are called natural disasters while those which stem from humankind,are called human disasters. Since humans constantly encounter such events at differenttimes, places and in different forms, it is inevitable that they will be affectedby them. Thus, one wonders what people understand the concept of disaster tobe. The aim of this study is to identify the students from all the ...

  3. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  4. When ageing and disasters collide: Lessons from 16 international case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.; Plouffe, L.; Gorr, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen case studies examined the impact of various natural disasters and conflict-related emergencies on older people, the strengths and gaps in emergency planning, response and recovery, and the contributions older people made to their families and communities. Case examples were chosen from both developed and developing countries. Older persons suffered disproportionate impacts in several cases. Regardless of the country's level of prosperity, those most affected tended to be economically disadvantaged, disabled or frail, women, socially isolated, or caregivers of family members. Emergency responders were often not aware of distinct needs or abilities of older persons and not equipped to respond appropriately. The best emergency practices recognised and included specific needs within mainstream efforts and integrated older persons in community planning, response and recovery activities. This paper presents the 'lessons learned' from these case studies and makes the case for greater attention to this segment of the population in emergency management. (authors)

  5. The impact of recurrent disasters on mental health: a study on seasonal floods in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tim R; Joshi, Pooran C; Kleber, Rolf J; Komproe, Ivan H

    2013-06-01

    Very little is known on the impact of recurrent disasters on mental health. Aim The present study examines the immediate impact of a recurrent flood on mental health and functioning among an affected population in the rural district of Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India, compared with a population in the same region that is not affected by floods. The study compared 318 affected respondents with 308 individuals who were not affected by floods. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Psychological and physical functioning was assessed by using the Short Form-12 (SF-12). The affected group showed large to very large differences with the comparison group on symptoms of anxiety (D = .92) and depression (D = 1.22). The affected group scored significantly lower on psychological and physical functioning than the comparison group (respectively D = .33 and D = .80). However, hierarchical linear regressions showed no significant relationship between mental health and the domains of functioning in the affected group, whereas mental health and the domains of functioning were significantly related in the comparison group. This study found a large negative impact of the recurrent floods on mental health outcomes and psychological and physical functioning. However, in a context with recurrent floods, disaster mental health status is not a relevant predictor of functioning. The findings suggest that the observed mental health status and impaired functioning in this context are also outcomes of another mechanism: Both outcomes are likely to be related to the erosion of the social and environmental and material context. As such, the findings refer to a need to implement psychosocial context-oriented interventions to address the erosion of the context rather than specific mental health interventions.

  6. Ethical Considerations of Triage Following Natural Disasters: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tiktin, Efrat

    2017-07-01

    Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the various considerations taken into account when designing the ethical-clinical policy of field hospitals. The discussion focuses on three applications: the decision to include an intensive care unit, the decision to include obstetrics and neonatal units, and the treatment policy for compound fractures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  8. Depressive symptoms following natural disaster in Korea: psychometric properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungkun; Cho, Yongrae

    2017-11-28

    Depressive symptoms have been recognized as one of the most frequent complaints among natural disaster survivors. One of the most frequently used self-report measures of depressive symptoms is the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the CES-D in a sample of natural disaster survivors. Thus, the present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a Korean language version of the CES-D (KCES-D) for natural disaster survivors. We utilized two archived datasets collected independently for two different periods in 2008 in the same region of Korea (n = 192 for sample 1; n = 148 for sample 2). Participants were survivors of torrential rains in the mid-eastern region of the Korean peninsula. For analysis, Samples 1 and 2 were merged (N = 340). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the one-factor model, the four-factor model, and the bi-factor models, as well as the second-order factor model. Composite reliability was computed to examine the internal consistency of the KCES-D total and subscale scores. Finally, Pearson's r was computed to examine the relationship between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The four-factor model provided the best fit to the data among the alternatives. The KCES-D showed adequate internal consistency, except for the 'interpersonal difficulties' subscale. Also regarding concurrent validity, weak to moderate positive correlations were observed between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The results support the four-factor model and indicate that the KCES-D has adequate psychometric properties for natural disaster survivors. If these findings are further confirmed, the KCES-D can be used as a useful, rapid, and inexpensive screening tool for assessing depressive symptoms in natural disaster survivors.

  9. Meta-evaluation of published studies on evaluation of health disaster preparedness exercises through a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhbardsiri, Hojjat; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmoud; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-01

    Exercise evaluation is one of the most important steps and sometimes neglected in designing and taking exercises, in this stage of exercise, it systematically identifying, gathering, and interpreting related information to indicate how an exercise has fulfilled its objectives. The present study aimed to assess the most important evaluation techniques applied in evaluating health exercises for emergencies and disasters. This was meta-evaluation study through a systematic review. In this research, we searched papers based on specific and relevant keywords in research databases including ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Wiley, Google Scholar, and Persian database such as ISC and SID. The search keywords and strategies are followed; "simulation," "practice," "drill," "exercise," "instrument," "tool," "questionnaire," " measurement," "checklist," "scale," "test," "inventory," "battery," "evaluation," "assessment," "appraisal," "emergency," "disaster," "cricise," "hazard," "catastrophe,: "hospital", "prehospital," "health centers," "treatment centers," were used in combination with Boolean operators OR and AND. The research findings indicate that there are different techniques and methods for data collection to evaluate performance exercises of health centers and affiliated organizations in disasters and emergencies including debriefing inventories, self-report, questionnaire, interview, observation, shooting video, and photographing, electronic equipment which can be individually or collectively used depending on exercise objectives or purposes. Taking exercise in the health sector is one of the important steps in preparation and implementation of disaster risk management programs. This study can be thus utilized to improve preparedness of different sectors of health system according to the latest available evaluation techniques and methods for better implementation of disaster exercise evaluation stages.

  10. Topics of Disasters in Scientific Outputs of Medical Sciences: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aghalari

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Although, there were scientific articles dedicated to emergencies, disasters and accidents, such topics were limited. Therefore, it seems necessary to take appropriate measures aimed at greater attention to the needs of national and regional medical scientists.

  11. Examining the impacts of disaster resettlement from a livelihood perspective: a case study of Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuesong; Kapucu, Naim

    2018-04-01

    Disaster resettlement, as a mitigation and preparedness measure, entails significant economic, physical, and social impacts, which continue to challenge understanding of recovery from major events, especially regarding the extent of the context and environmental efforts to rebuild livelihoods. Based on a case study of Qinling Mountains, China, this research investigates the effects of disaster resettlement from a livelihoods perspective. Methodologically, it proposes a framework that combines the pressure-state-response framework and the sustainable livelihoods approach, and it employs a structural equation model to examine how specific factors affect disaster resettlement. The results indicate that conflicts may occur during and after resettlement owing to the difference or disparity between the concerns of resettled peasants and those of the government. Consequently, the risks related to livelihoods need to be taken seriously. Effective risk communication is critical to bridge the gap between different stakeholders. The paper concludes with some practical and policy recommendations. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  12. Design Charrette as Methodology for Post-Disaster Participatory Reconstruction: Observations from a Case Study in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a growing body of literature on post-disaster participatory reconstruction, a shared understanding on a participatory approach is insufficient. A design charrette is a participatory planning that is particularly suitable for situations in which multidisciplinary professionals and non-professional stakeholders collaborate to accomplish target tasks in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of design charrette as a methodology in the context of post-disaster reconstruction in Japan. This will be achieved through a participatory observation on a design charrette in Minamisoma City, Japan, after the Fukushima accident. The charrette includes the participation of multiple stakeholders in intercultural, intergenerational and interdisciplinary exchanges. The contributions and constraints of the charrette are analyzed on the basis of the authors’ observation, and a strategy to improve post-disaster reconstruction charrette is thereby proposed. This study shows that the charrette is a useful method for communication and collaboration in the post-disaster context. Furthermore, it also demonstrates that assuring the participation of all key stakeholders, improving the training of participants and introducing resource analysis during the charrette’s preparatory stage are the essential conditions for the legitimacy and policy compliance of the final result.

  13. IDRL in Italy: A Study on Strengthening Legal Preparedness for International Disaster Response

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (hereinafter the IDRL Guidelines) and to the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines (HNSG). The analysis seeks to point out solutions (mostly legislative ones) that may contribute to enhancing international coo...

  14. Reducing Vulnerability and Building Resilience in the Post-Disaster Context: A Case Study of the 2006 Yogyakarta Earthquake Recovery Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Joakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the human and economic costs of natural disaster events have dramatically increased over the past three decades, governments, researchers and humanitarian agencies have increasingly focused on reducing disaster impacts and increasing the resilience of individuals, households and communities. Recent disaster recovery efforts have focused on implementing a holistic social-ecological disaster risk reduction approach popularized through post-2004 tsunami recovery programs under the mantra of ‘building back better’. Although this approach has been increasingly adopted by various government and humanitarian organizations to describe their recovery and reconstruction activities, defining what is meant by ‘better’ and measuring ‘better’ as an outcome has been difficult to conceptualize and operationalize. In order to rectify this gap in the literature, the Post-Disaster Sustainable Livelihoods, Resilience and Vulnerability framework (PD-SLRV was developed for the purposes of analyzing, evaluating and monitoring disaster recovery using the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and sustainable livelihoods.Using the 2006 Yogyakarta, Indonesia earthquake as a case study, this paper will explore how the concepts of vulnerability, resilience and sustainable livelihoods inform the disaster recovery process, the nature of the relationship between these concepts as well as their usefulness in evaluating disaster recovery efforts. Through a detailed analysis of the various vulnerabilities and resiliencies that exist within recovering communities, the complex and dynamic nature of resilience and vulnerability is revealed, indicating a multifaceted relationship dependent on scale, context and place.

  15. Using Significant Geologic Hazards and Disasters to Focus Geoethics Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Ethics education since classical times has involved the consideration of stories, parables, myths, fables, allegories and histories. These are the ancient equivalents of case studies. Modern case studies are used in applied-ethics courses in law, engineering, business, and science. When used in a geoscience course, geoethical case studies can enrich a student's understanding of the relationships between issues of geoscience, engineering, sociology, business, public policy and law - all with an ethical dimension. Perhaps more importantly, real cases affected real people. Students develop a strong empathetic connection to the people involved, enhancing students' drive to understand the interconnected layers of the cases. Students might begin to appreciate that geoscientists can help to avoid or alleviate human suffering -- that their careers can have meaning and purpose beyond simply earning a paycheck. Geologic disasters in which losses could have been predicted, avoided or minimized are quite effective as cases. Coupling a "disaster" case with a comparable "hazard" case is particularly effective. For example, there are many places along the San Andreas Fault in California where [1] significant coseismic displacement has occurred during historical times, [2] structures that are still inhabited were built along or across active traces prior to the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act in 1971, and [3] inhabited structures have been built legally since 1971 within a few tens of feet of active traces. The question students confront is whether society ought to allow habitable structures to be built very near to a major active fault. This topic allows students to work with issues of law, history, seismology, seismic site response, crustal deformation adjacent to active faults, building codes and, ultimately, ethics. Similar progressions can be developed for other major geologic hazards, both natural and man-made, such as floods, landslides, erosion along rivers and

  16. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  17. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  18. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A.; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA—and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort—MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology. PMID:27741981

  19. [Effects of psychological distress due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami, Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disasters on psychiatric symptoms in patients with mental disorders: observational studies in Tochigi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Shiro; Inoue, Koju; Inoue, Kana; Sato, Kazushige; Saito, Harumichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Suzuki, Yohei; Miyata, Yoshihumi; Kuramochi, Motoki; Kikuchi, Senichiro; Shioda, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kishi, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 11, 2011 severely damaged a widespread region of northeastern Japan. Consequently, the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant experienced a level seven 3 reactors melted down, which released a large amount of radioactive materials into the air. Due to the structural damage and radiation leaks, the victims are facing prolonged psychological distress. Eighty-two subjects with mental disorders who made their initial visit during the first 4 months after the earthquake and one hundred and ninety-four subjects with mental disorders who had been admitted during the first one year after the earthquake to the Jichi Medical University Hospital, which is located at the edge of the disaster-stricken region, were recruited for this study. Enrolled participants were assessed according to ICD-10. A questionnaire survey was employed to evaluate the severity of psychological distress and total amount of damage. The conditions of 22% of the outpatients had been worsened by the psychological distress related to the earthquake. Seven percent of the patients who had been hospitalized showed marked exacerbations due to the psychological distress associated with the disaster. It is of note that the exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms due to the disaster was evident among patients with mental disorders who lived even at the edge of the disaster area (i. e., subject to an earthquake intensity of 5 upper and 150 km from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant). The results suggest that the close follow-up of disaster victims with mental disorders is of critical importance.

  20. The results of the research and studies concerning the information about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landahl, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The studies conducted by the National Board of Psychological Defence after the Chernobyl nuclear accident concern questions of great importance about crisis information. The Chernobyl fallout created problems for the mass media and the authorities. Both lacked individual preparedness. The knowledge necessary to face strong demands for information from the public was lacking. A sign of this lack of knowledge and experience was shown when individual journalists - contrary to their usual behaviour - uncritically accepted the sometimes ambiguous information coming from the central authorities. For the authorities it was very much the same. The expert authority, the National Institute for Radiation Protection, had quite a lot of know-how, but no resources for such extensive information as the situation required. Significant problems must be solved concerning the cooperation between central and regional authorities. Direct contacts must be established so that both types of authorities do not learn through mass media what has been decided. The wordings of the messages conveyed in such critical situations must be a matter of more concern. Facts known by the authorities must be presented in a way comprehensible to the public. Technical terms and units must be used with great care. Negative information must of course be presented but measures should be taken to countermand the negative effect. A special responsibility should rest with the school system. The difficulties of informing the public after the Chernobyl disaster were still more emphasized by the study of how the brochure After Chernobyl was received

  1. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  2. Where Land and River Meet: A Study of Disaster at the Riparian Zone of Majuli Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Avijit

    2016-04-01

    Situated on the River Brahmaputra in the Indian state of Assam, and inscribed as a Cultural Heritage site by the UNESCO, Majuli, one of the largest and most populated riverine islands in the world has for long been considered a cultural and spiritual capital of Assam. Shankerdeb, the famous 15th century social and religious reformer of Assam started the Vaishnavite cult in this island, and to this date, it is the center of Vaishnavite Hinduism in India. However, in 1950, a powerful earthquake struck the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam, turning this life giving river into a harbinger of disaster for the island. Post-earthquake, the river has been flooding and eroding the riverbank at an alarming rate. Preliminary studies have shown that between one-third to two-third area of original land has been lost to the river. This has caused a large number of its 167,304 persons to become migrants in their own land. Clearly, a human tragedy is unfolding at the site where land and river meet. The present study is an attempt to quantify this human tragedy by using Remote Sensing images and techniques to find out the exact extent of damage done by the river and to qualify the tragedy by finding out the impact of riverbank erosion on the culture, society, and economy of the island through fieldwork and primary survey.

  3. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  4. The implementation of local wisdom in reducing natural disaster risk: a case study from West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfadrim, Z.; Toyoda, Y.; Kanegae, H.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce some local wisdoms in West Sumatra and propose their challenges that modern values have degraded its knowledge. In a contemporary context, traditional stories (written and oral stories) still relevant to be used and internalized in disaster risk reduction. Traditional knowledge or local wisdom is a system of knowledge derived from long experienced process in the past, adopted and handed over to next generation through evolutionary process. Indigenous or traditional knowledge can be practiced in understanding the nature of natural disaster, to propose the best action in mitigation, to respond in emergency phase, and to suggest more option for recovery process based on previous experience. The paper based on four weeks field research in west Sumatra which is known with their natural hazards due to its geographical location. In the beginning, this paper discusses the nature of local wisdom and how it can be matched in disaster management, then continues to the specific case how the traditional stories in West Sumatera can be internalized and integrated with contemporary disaster risk reduction. This paper proves that local wisdom can be useful as an effective instrument to deal with natural disaster or natural hazard.

  5. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  6. Post-disaster resettlement, development and change: a case study of the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S Ali; Asgary, Ali; Eftekhari, A R; Levy, Jason

    2006-12-01

    Planned and involuntary resettlement after natural disasters has been a major policy in post-disaster reconstruction in developing countries over the past few decades. Studies show that resettlement can result in significant adverse impacts on the resettled population. Conversely, a well-planned and managed resettlement process can produce positive long-term development outcomes. This article presents the results of a case study undertaken 11 years after the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran. During the reconstruction period, a policy of involuntary planned resettlement was pursued extensively. The socioeconomic changes that occurred as a consequence of this policy of involuntary resettlement are analysed. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey that involved a sample of 194 relocated households (grouped into a settlement that later became a town). The paper shows that relocated families face difficult socioeconomic challenges after relocation and regrouping. This is especially true with respect to employment, income, the empowerment of women and lifestyle issues.

  7. IMPROVING THE INTEROPERABILITY OF DISASTER MODELS: A CASE STUDY OF PROPOSING FIREML FOR FOREST FIRE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new standardized data format named Fire Markup Language (FireML, extended by the Geography Markup Language (GML of OGC, to elaborate upon the fire hazard model. The proposed FireML is able to standardize the input and output documents of a fire model for effectively communicating with different disaster management systems to ensure a good interoperability. To demonstrate the usage of FireML and testify its feasibility, an adopted forest fire spread model being compatible with FireML is described. And a 3DGIS disaster management system is developed to simulate the dynamic procedure of forest fire spread with the defined FireML documents. The proposed approach will enlighten ones who work on other disaster models' standardization work.

  8. Improving the Interoperability of Disaster Models: a Case Study of Proposing Fireml for Forest Fire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Wang, F.; Meng, Q.; Li, Z.; Liu, B.; Zheng, X.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a new standardized data format named Fire Markup Language (FireML), extended by the Geography Markup Language (GML) of OGC, to elaborate upon the fire hazard model. The proposed FireML is able to standardize the input and output documents of a fire model for effectively communicating with different disaster management systems to ensure a good interoperability. To demonstrate the usage of FireML and testify its feasibility, an adopted forest fire spread model being compatible with FireML is described. And a 3DGIS disaster management system is developed to simulate the dynamic procedure of forest fire spread with the defined FireML documents. The proposed approach will enlighten ones who work on other disaster models' standardization work.

  9. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE – A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himayatullah KHAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explains the various concepts used in disastermanagement. The concepts explained include: Disaster, Hazard,Vulnerability, Capacity, Risk and Disaster Management Cycle. In addition tothe terminologies, the study also seeks to explain various types of disasters.

  10. Approaches to Post-disaster Environmental Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farrokhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environment and its ecosystems are affected by various natural and man-made disasters. The environmental management in disasters tries to protect ecosystems, sustain development, reduce disaster risk, and adapt to or decrease the impact of climate change. This study aimed to investigate the impact of disasters on the environment and methods of reducing these effects. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, UNEP, SID, and Magiran databases using keywords of “environment”, “disasters”, “recovery”, and “lessons learned” from 1999 to 2015. Results: Decrease in surface and groundwater resources, pollution of water resources, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, air pollution and extinction of animal species are among post-disaster environmental damages. As a result of such changes in the environment and ecosystem, water shortage and drought, loss of vegetation, and food insecurity will ensue. Due to these destructive incidents, the people’s ability to provide necessary resources for living decreases and their very lives are threatened. Consequently, they are forced to immigrate to save their lives. Conclusion: Environmental recovery is one of the effective strategies for achieving sustainable development. In this regard, public and private organizations as well as international ones and people should work together. Responsible organizations, the stakeholders at different levels, and the public must be trained in this area and introduced to the latest international standards. Rules and policies should be reviewed and revised in accordance with today’s needs and international standards.

  11. GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: a case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong; Shaw, Rajib; Chantry, Guillaume; Norton, John

    2009-03-01

    Linking community knowledge with modern techniques to record and analyse risk related data is one way of engaging and mobilising community capacity. This paper discusses the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) at the local level and the need for integrating modern technology and indigenous knowledge into disaster management. It suggests a way to mobilise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The paper also analyses the current vulnerability of two communes by correlating hazard risk and loss/damage caused by disasters and the contribution that domestic risk maps in the community can make to reduce this risk. The disadvantages, advantages and lessons learned from the GIS flood risk mapping project are presented through the case study of the Quang Tho Commune in Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam.

  12. Economic development and natural disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in

  13. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  14. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Moreno, M.A.; Tafuri, V.; Cussto, G.S.; Adler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  15. Bank Solutions Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity: A Case Study for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Steve; Crossler, Robert; Midha, Vishal; Wallace, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (DR/BC) planning is an issue that students will likely come in contact with as they enter industry. Many different fields require this knowledge, whether employees are advising a company implementing a new DR/BC program, auditing a company's existing program, or implementing and/or serving as a key…

  16. Social organizational stressors and post-disaster mental health disturbances : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, P.G.; Bosmans, M.W.G.; Bogaerts, S.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Social organizational stressors are well-known predictors of mental health disturbances (MHD). However, to what extent these stressors predict post-disaster MHD among employed victims hardly received scientific attention and is clearly understudied. For this purpose we examined to what extent these

  17. Impact of a Technological Disaster on Young Children: A Five-Year Postdisaster Multiinformant Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Frits; Smit, Cees; Morren, Mattijn; Roorda, Jan; Yzermans, Joris

    2009-01-01

    Children exposed to a technological disaster during an understudied part of the lifespan, preschool age and early middle childhood, were assessed in a 5-year follow-up regarding mental health problems, anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and posttraumatic stress

  18. Impact of a technological disaster on young children: a five-year postdisaster multiinformant study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, F.; Smit, C.; Morren, M.; Roorda, J.; Yzermans, J.

    2009-01-01

    Children exposed to a technological disaster during an understudied part of the lifespan, preschool age and early middle childhood, were assessed in a 5-year follow-up regarding mental health problems, anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and posttraumatic stress

  19. The issues and challenges of disaster managements: a case study of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar-ul-Islam; Anjum, G.A.; Shahzad, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is prone to floods, earthquakes, droughts and cyclonic storms, floods are by far most frequent hazard and can have devastating effects. With the swelling of the rivers, heavy flooding occurs mostly in the bet lands where great destructions occur to lives and livelihoods. Punjab, North Western Frontier Province and some parts of Sind are also frequently hit by floods. Pakistan also suffers from frequent earthquakes of small and medium magnitudes. The period 1975-2001 records 14 cyclones. The coastal areas of Sind are most vulnerable. The economic losses are heavy with over 75,000 houses destroyed and crops and agricultural land inundation. The provincial governments and the local administration provide relief in calamities. The role of federal government is to assist in terms of resource gaps. There is no disaster management policy except for the National Disaster Plan prepared by Emergency Relief Cell (ERC). However respective plans and planning in the bar and bet lands have been suggested so that challenges of disasters can be controlled. At community levels Citizen Community Boards (CCBs) can play their considerable role to challenges of disasters at union council, tehsil and district level. (author)

  20. A Qualitative Study of Paramedic Duty to Treat During Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Burkle, Frederick; Gebbie, Kristine; Ford, David; Bensimon, Cécile

    2018-04-10

    Disasters place unprecedented demands on emergency medical services and can test paramedics personal commitment as health care professionals. Despite this challenge, guidelines and codes of ethics are largely silent on the issue, providing little to no guidance on what is expected of paramedics or how they ought to approach their duty to treat in the face of risk. The objective of this research is to explore how paramedics view their duty to treat during disasters. The authors employed qualitative methods to gather Australian paramedic perspectives. Our findings suggest that paramedic decisions around duty to treat will largely depend on individual perception of risk and competing obligations. A code of ethics for paramedics would be useful, but ultimately each paramedic will interpret these suggested guidelines based on individual values and the situational context. Coming to an understanding of the legal issues involved and the ethical-social expectations in advance of a disaster may assist paramedics to respond willingly and appropriately. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 6).

  1. Living with disasters: social capital for disaster governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes; Cook, Brian; Thomsen, Dana C; Munro, Paul G; Smith, Timothy F; Gallina, John

    2017-10-24

    This paper explores how social networks and bonds within and across organisations shape disaster operations and strategies. Local government disaster training exercises serve as a window through which to view these relations, and 'social capital' is used as an analytic for making sense of the human relations at the core of disaster management operations. These elements help to expose and substantiate the often intangible relations that compose the culture that exists, and that is shaped by preparations for disasters. The study reveals how this social capital has been generated through personal interactions, which are shared among disaster managers across different organisations and across 'levels' within those organisations. Recognition of these 'group resources' has significant implications for disaster management in which conducive social relations have become paramount. The paper concludes that socio-cultural relations, as well as a people-centred approach to preparations, appear to be effective means of readying for, and ultimately responding to, disasters. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  2. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-07-19

    To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants' demographic factors, living situations and working environments. We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees' intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. A silver lining in strife torn camps of Bodoland, Assam: a case study intersecting gender, disaster, and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiswatya Shankar Das

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 40-year-old, Muslim woman, educated up to class IV, homemaker by profession, hailing from a lower socioeconomic background of Chirang district of Assam was referred to medical camp, with symptoms of reduced interest in daily activities, increased tension, fearfulness, with decreased amount of sleep and appetite. Psychiatric social work assessment showed that she had a frictional and conflicting relationship with her husband. Due to which her quality of life was compromised. On further assessment it was found that the client was having moderate level of functioning. Impact of Event Scale score suggested cutoff for a probable diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, consider consulting a mental health professional. The client was referred to a psychiatrist for further assessment and treatment, and she was diagnosed as PTSD. Later individual, marital, and group interventions were provided and moderate improvement in terms of self-esteem, reducing anxiety, and enhancing coping mechanism. The present case study prompts us to look at the intersection of mental health, disaster, and gender. Disasters have been taking place since time immemorial and will continue to occur. A significant percentage of survivors develop profound, debilitating posttraumatic stress reactions requiring extended mental health intervention. These extreme stress reactions include fear and irrational behaviour, shock, immobilisation, withdrawal, denial and intrusive thoughts, hyper-vigilance, easy startle, insomnia, decreased attention and concentration, and psycho-physiological reactions. The social work professionals have long been involved with disaster relief work, both at individual and community level.

  4. Winged messengers of disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The work of the Soviet ecologists, led by A.I. Il'enko, on birds in the southern Urals area, site of the nuclear disaster in 1958, is discussed. The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in birds, food chains in a large running-water lake, bird migration patterns, and nest conservatism of ducks have been studied. It is pointed out that the existence of migratory species among contaminated species of the southern Urals provides an opportunity for observers in the West to test the truth about the 1958 nuclear disaster in the southern Urals. It is felt that the reports discussed here corroborate the author's original statement that the Urals nuclear disaster involved nuclear waste rather than a major reactor accident. (U.K.)

  5. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  6. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  7. An attempt to implement tools to support examination of community-based activities for disaster mitigation: A case study in Toyokawa city, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karashima, Kazuki; Ohgai, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Japan is a country with a high risk for earthquake disasters. The measures used to promote structures' seismic safety, such as reconstruction, widening narrow roads, and the response capacities to deal with huge earthquakes are important. Techniques to support the examination of countermeasures to huge earthquakes are required. To improve this capability, the authors developed tools to: (1) evaluate fire-spread risk, (2) evaluate the difficulty of emergency response and evacuation, and (3) evaluate capacities of neighborhood communities for disaster mitigation. The usefulness of the tools was clarified by the demonstration experiments of previous studies. The next step was implementation of the tools in community-based activities for disaster mitigation. This study aimed to clarify the usability and problems of implementing the tools in community-based activities. The tools were used at several workshops in actual community-based activities for disaster mitigation for one year. After the last workshop, interviews and a questionnaire were conducted on municipal staff and consultant staff. The results found that the tools visually showed the fire-spread risk, the difficulty of evacuation under current conditions and after improvements, and the effects of each disaster mitigation activity. The users could easily explore the draft plans to promote seismic safety of urban structures and response capabilities. The tools were positively incorporated into some community-based activities for disaster mitigation. Thus, the tools have the possibility of successful use at continuing community-based activities and the possibility of implementing the tools will be promoted.

  8. The effects of living environment on disaster workers: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Masanori; Harada, Nahoko; Shigemura, Jun; Dobashi, Kosuke; Yoshiga, Makiko; Esaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Tanichi, Masaaki; Yoshino, Aihide; Shimizu, Kunio

    2016-10-21

    Defense Force workers engaged in disaster relief activities might suffer from strong psychological stress due to the tasks that they had been involved. We evaluated how living environments, work environments, and individual factors psychologically affect those who engaged in disaster relief activities. Data generated with 1506 personnel engaged in the Great East Japan Earthquake relief activity were analyzed. Those who scored ≥25 points on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were allocated into the high post-traumatic stress response (high-PTSR) group, and the high general psychological distress (high-GPD) group, respectively. The multiple logistic regression analysis extracted living environment (camping within the shelter sites) as the significant risk factor for both high-PTSR (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI 2.04-5.64, p living environment in which they can keep an appropriate distance from the victims.

  9. Institutional Capacity for Natural Disasters: Methodology for Case Studies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    environmental management • DRR strategies intergrated with climate change adaptation • Food security for resilience • Protection of critical public...increasingly devastating disasters, which can threaten the productivity of wealthy countries or regions within countries, while also weighing down poor... productive than the national average, then more money will be spent on DRR to protect them and their contribution to the economy/tax base. If they are a drain

  10. Understanding the Outcome in the Chinese Changjiang Disaster in 2015: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Gao, Jie; Du, Juan; Wang, Haiyan; Jiang, Jianxin; Wang, Zhengguo

    2017-02-01

    Rescue after a maritime disaster remains a great challenge in emergency medicine. We performed an overview of rescue efforts among the victims in the sunken cruise ship Eastern Star in the 2015 Changjiang River marine disaster, as well as possible preventive measures in maritime transport situations. The rescue records of 454 victims of the sunken ship were analyzed retrospectively. Their demographic data, rescue effects, accident inducement, and injury disposition were reviewed. A thorough analysis from the point of view of maritime traffic safety was also performed. Of the 454 victims, 442 (97.36%) were killed and only 12 (2.64%) survived. The survivors were classified based on their gender, rescue type, and rescue spot as follows: male (91.67%), female (8.33%); tourists (50.00%), and ship staff (50.00%), after the breakdown of the rescue spot in Jianli, Hubei province, China. The survivors were saved only during the initial 17 h after the disaster. The survivors suffering from somato- and psychotrauma were urgently treated for limb injuries, infections of the upper respiratory tract and lungs, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, and acute traumatic stress. This incident was the most severe maritime disaster since the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, due to the large number of elderly victims, fast overturning speed, and severe weather. Emergency rescue requires more automated and intelligent systems for maritime safety. An increased focus must be placed on public welfare and ethics, with the goal of influencing more prosocial behavior rather than the pursuit of profit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing Disasters Using Pressure Dependent Demand Analysis – Case Study of Shirpur Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Mulay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most essential component for sustaining lives of humans and other living creatures. Supplying potable water with adequate residual pressure is a fundamental responsibility of city administration, which they do during normal conditions. But sometimes, abnormal conditions are formed resulting pressure deficient conditions during the daily operations of water distribution networks. These are caused due to common occurrences such as pump failure, pipe bursts, and isolation of major pipes from the system for planned maintenance work and excessive firefighting demands. Total water stop conditions may arise, when the major source supplying water to the city fails in natural disaster such as floods, Tsunami, earthquake or manmade disaster such as terrorist attack. Unlike the pipe failure, longer time is required for restoring water in case of source failure condition. In such situations, the quantity of water is generally decreased and the water distribution systems (WDS may not be able to satisfy all consumers’ demands. In this context, the assumption that all demands are fully satisfied regardless of the pressure in the system becomes unreasonable. A realistic behavior of the network performance can only be attained by considering demands to be pressure dependent. This paper aims to describe how pressure dependent demand analysis is useful for the simulation of disaster scenario due to source failure of the Shirpur town. The simulation of failure scenario is carried out using WaterGEMs software. The paper also aims to prepare the action plans for the recovery of water supply in such crisis conditions.

  12. Psychological distress of rescue workers eight and one-half years after professional involvement in the Amsterdam air disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Anke B.; Bramsen, Inge; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Huizink, Anja C.; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe; van der Ploeg, Henk M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined specific and general psychological distress 8.5 years following the 1992 cargo aircraft crash in Amsterdam. Participants included 334 occupationally exposed fire fighters and 834 occupationally exposed police officers compared with reference groups of 194 fire fighters and 634

  13. Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    K 0 -Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster

  15. Chronicle of an announced disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanssay, B. de.

    1993-01-01

    Sociology of disasters is a global approach of situations of disasters. It is an analysis of behaviours and social dynamics used by a community to answer to it. Sociology studied different phases of these situations in a chronological and thematic way. It studies a social context, tries to find risk perceptions and then possibilities of populations to answer to a emergency situation. A concrete example is studied with the disastrous inundation happened in the south of France, the 22 September 1992

  16. Ecological disaster in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wray, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    Six million barrels of oil are going up in smoke each day in Kuwait, dumping 3.7 million pounds of toxic gases, soot, and smoke - including cancer-causing compounds - into the air each hour. This paper reports that the prognosis for the situation is dim. Even as specialized firefighting companies from the United States and Canada began arriving in Kuwait in March, oil officials there predicted dousing the fires would take at least two years and pumping up oil production to pre-war levels would take between five and 10 years. An oil well fire is a disaster. The effect on the ozone, the ecology, the marine life is massive. We aren't even breathing air here, we're just breathing smog

  17. Study Of The Risks Arising From Natural Disasters And Hazards On Urban And Intercity Motorways By Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELİCE, Yavuz

    2015-04-01

    , signaling caused malfunctions and risks), fire or explosion etc.- In this study, with FMEA method, risk analysis of the urban and intercity motorways against natural disasters and hazards have been performed and found solutions were brought against these risks. Keywords: Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA), Pareto Analyses (PA), Highways, Risk Management.

  18. Community-based livelihood management in relations to natural disaster - A study on Teknaf (coastal) area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, R.

    2017-06-01

    Teknaf is an Upazila under Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh, it’s a coastal area with strong influenced by the Naaf river estuary of the Bay of Bengal. The study outlines the major livelihood groups or community in the area. It was observed that the livelihoods are severely affected by climatic and non-climatic changes. For example, the increased salinity of both soil and water has seriously affected all livelihood resources, in particular agriculture, fishery, livestock and forestry. The increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters - floods and cyclones, has made it difficult for the local people to secure their livelihood. In addition to natural factors, several anthropogenic factors remain the major form of vulnerability for the farmers, fishers and other livelihood sections of the society. This study was an exploratory research with questionnaire survey by random sampling, focus group discussion, and review secondary data. The study observed that the local people have evolved many local adaptive practices to deal with the difficult climatic conditions. Outcome of the study is capacity building of the community with in their available resource; combined crop and fish culture need to encourage; control excessive collection of Natural resources like marine fish, forest tree, alternative income generating activities for farmers & fisherman at lean season and disaster situation need to start.

  19. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ARZIMAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a “Field” in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed. Keywords: Field organization, disaster, medical team, DMAT

  20. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Suksamran, C.; Sirinuntavid, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  1. Medical Requirements During a Natural Disaster: A Case Study on WhatsApp Chats Among Medical Personnel During the 2015 Nepal Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Moumita; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Arnab; Bandyopadhyay, Somprakash; Singh, Ravikant

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore a log of WhatsApp messages exchanged among members of the health care group Doctors For You (DFY) while they were providing medical relief in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquake in April 2015. Our motivation was to identify medical resource requirements during a disaster in order to help government agencies and other responding organizations to be better prepared in any upcoming disaster. A large set of WhatsApp (WhatsApp Inc, Mountain View, CA) messages exchanged among DFY members during the Nepal earthquake was collected and analyzed to identify the medical resource requirements during different phases of relief operations. The study revealed detailed phase-wise requirements for various types of medical resources, including medicines, medical equipment, and medical personnel. The data also reflected some of the problems faced by the medical relief workers in the earthquake-affected region. The insights from this study may help not only the Nepalese government, but also authorities in other earthquake-prone regions of the world to better prepare for similar disasters in the future. Moreover, real-time analysis of such online data during a disaster would aid decision-makers in dynamically formulating resource-mapping strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:652-655).

  2. Making Sense of Chernobyl Nine Years After: TV News Reception Study of the Environmental Disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettenranta, Soilikki

    1999-12-31

    This thesis begins by describing how high-technology risks like nuclear power plant explosions intrude into people`s everyday consciousness through television news. It problematises the failure of the traditional concepts in the social sciences to measure the consequences of sense making of nuclear risks and examines the distinction between the concepts of risk communication and crisis information. The Chernobyl disaster is presented and its consequences for media research discussed. Media coverage of disasters is examined in detail. The research paradigm is considered from the epistemological and ontological distinctions and qualitative methods versus quantitative ones are discussed. The interview methodology is discussed and profile descriptions given of the fifteen respondents. These includes lay people, authorities and experts, and representatives of the media. The data are examined from an ontological approach, using constructivism as the research framework. The ontological analysis is based on the application of Heidegger`s existentiales as a scientific instrument. The epistemological approach is discussed by proceeding from Heidegger to Habermas` theory of the communicative action. Finally, the thesis concludes with a discussion of the theoretical basis and methods used. 264 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Making Sense of Chernobyl Nine Years After: TV News Reception Study of the Environmental Disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettenranta, Soilikki

    1998-12-31

    This thesis begins by describing how high-technology risks like nuclear power plant explosions intrude into people`s everyday consciousness through television news. It problematises the failure of the traditional concepts in the social sciences to measure the consequences of sense making of nuclear risks and examines the distinction between the concepts of risk communication and crisis information. The Chernobyl disaster is presented and its consequences for media research discussed. Media coverage of disasters is examined in detail. The research paradigm is considered from the epistemological and ontological distinctions and qualitative methods versus quantitative ones are discussed. The interview methodology is discussed and profile descriptions given of the fifteen respondents. These includes lay people, authorities and experts, and representatives of the media. The data are examined from an ontological approach, using constructivism as the research framework. The ontological analysis is based on the application of Heidegger`s existentiales as a scientific instrument. The epistemological approach is discussed by proceeding from Heidegger to Habermas` theory of the communicative action. Finally, the thesis concludes with a discussion of the theoretical basis and methods used. 264 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Impact on Primary Care Access Post-Disaster: A Case Study From the Rockaway Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rishi K; Bocour, Angelica; Kumar, Supriya; Guclu, Hasan; Potter, Margaret; Shah, Tanya B

    2016-06-01

    Assess Hurricane Sandy's impact on primary care providers' services in the Rockaways. In-person surveys were conducted in 2014. A list of 46 health care sites in the area of interest was compiled and each site was called to offer participation in our survey. Respondents included physicians and practice administrators who remained familiar with Sandy-related operational challenges. Of the 40 sites that opted in, most had been in their current location for more than 10 years (73%) and were a small practice (1 or 2 physicians) before Hurricane Sandy (75%). All but 2 (95%) had to temporarily close or relocate. All sites experienced electrical problems that impacted landline, fax, and Internet. Less than one-quarter (n = 9) reported having a plan for continuity of services before Hurricane Sandy, and 43% reported having a plan poststorm. The majority (80%) did not report coordinating with other primary care stakeholders or receiving support from government agencies during the Sandy response. Hurricane Sandy significantly disrupted access to primary care in the Rockaways. Severe impact to site operations and infrastructure forced many practices to relocate. Greater emergency response and recovery planning is needed, including with government agencies, to minimize disruptions of access to primary care during disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:492-495).

  5. Towards a politics of disaster response: presidential disaster instructions in China, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Chen, Chunliang

    2018-04-01

    China's disaster management system contains no law-based presidential disaster declarations; however, the national leader's instructions (pishi in Chinese) play a similar role to disaster declarations, which increase the intensity of disaster relief. This raises the question of what affects presidential disaster instructions within an authoritarian regime. This research shows that China's disaster politics depend on a crisis threshold system for operation and that the public and social features of disasters are at the core of this system. China's political cycle has no significant impact on disaster politics. A change in the emergency management system has a significant bearing on presidential disaster instructions, reflecting the strong influence of the concept of rule of law and benefiting the sustainable development of the emergency management system. In terms of disaster politics research, unlocking the black box of China's disaster politics and increasing the number of comparative political studies will benefit the development of empirical and theoretical study. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  6. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing. PMID:27763525

  7. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ting Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  8. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-10-17

    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term "Big Data", which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  9. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  10. Natural Disasters, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in China―An Empirical Study Using Provincial Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital instead of physical capital. Geological disasters did not trigger local economic growth from 1999–2011. Generally, natural disasters overall had no significant impact on economic growth from 1985–1998. Thus, human capital reinvestment should be the aim in managing recoveries, and it should be used to regenerate the local economy based on long-term sustainable development.

  11. Damage Assessment and Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Places in a Disaster and Post-Disaster Event - a Case Study of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafadari, A.; Philip, G.; Jennings, R.

    2017-08-01

    In recent decades, and in response to an increased focus on disastrous events ranging from armed conflict to natural events that impact cultural heritage, there is a need for methodologies and approaches to better manage the effects of disaster on cultural heritage. This paper presents the approaches used in the development of a Historic Environment Record (HER) for Syria. It describes the requirements and methodologies used for systematic emergency recording and assessment of cultural heritage. It also presents the type of information needed to record in the aftermath of disaster to assess the scale of damage and destruction. Started as a project at Durham University, the database is now being developed as part of the EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa) project. The core dataset incorporates information and data from archaeological surveys undertaken in Syria by research projects in recent decades and began life as a development of the Shirīn initiative1. The focus of this project is to provide a tool not only for the recording and inventory of sites and monuments, but also to record damage and threats, their causes, and assess their magnitude. It will also record and measure the significance in order to be able to prioritize emergency and preservation responses. The database aims to set procedures for carrying out systematic rapid condition assessment (to record damage) and risk assessment (to record threat and level of risk) of heritage places, on the basis of both on the ground and remote assessment. Given the large number of heritage properties damaged by conflict, the implementation of rapid assessment methods to quickly identify and record level of damage and condition is essential, as it will provide the evidence to support effective prioritization of efforts and resources, and decisions on the appropriate levels of intervention and methods of treatment. The predefined data entry categories, use of a data standard, and

  12. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE PLACES IN A DISASTER AND POST-DISASTER EVENT – A CASE STUDY OF SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vafadari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, and in response to an increased focus on disastrous events ranging from armed conflict to natural events that impact cultural heritage, there is a need for methodologies and approaches to better manage the effects of disaster on cultural heritage. This paper presents the approaches used in the development of a Historic Environment Record (HER for Syria. It describes the requirements and methodologies used for systematic emergency recording and assessment of cultural heritage. It also presents the type of information needed to record in the aftermath of disaster to assess the scale of damage and destruction. Started as a project at Durham University, the database is now being developed as part of the EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa project. The core dataset incorporates information and data from archaeological surveys undertaken in Syria by research projects in recent decades and began life as a development of the Shirīn initiative1. The focus of this project is to provide a tool not only for the recording and inventory of sites and monuments, but also to record damage and threats, their causes, and assess their magnitude. It will also record and measure the significance in order to be able to prioritize emergency and preservation responses. The database aims to set procedures for carrying out systematic rapid condition assessment (to record damage and risk assessment (to record threat and level of risk of heritage places, on the basis of both on the ground and remote assessment. Given the large number of heritage properties damaged by conflict, the implementation of rapid assessment methods to quickly identify and record level of damage and condition is essential, as it will provide the evidence to support effective prioritization of efforts and resources, and decisions on the appropriate levels of intervention and methods of treatment. The predefined data entry categories, use of a data

  13. Estimating Post-Emergency Fertility Among Disaster-Affected Adolescents: Findings From a Case-Control Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Mari; Suhardan, Suhardan; Danila Danila, Damsyik; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to retrospectively estimate adolescent fertility rates before and after a large-scale natural disaster. A case-control study was conducted in Aceh Province, Indonesia, 2 years after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. The age-specific fertility rates of 15-19-year-old-women (ASFR 15-19) was estimated each year from 2004 to 2006 by creating hypothetical age cohorts. The results were compared with data from the closest edition of the Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS). The pre-disaster ASFR 15-19 (4.4% in 2004) was not significantly different from the 2002-2003 IDHS data (P=0.49), whereas the post-disaster ASFR 15-19 (1.1% in 2005-2006) was significantly lower than the provincial estimation in the 2007 IDHS (Pfertility estimation, however, we suggest excluding data from the 40-week period preceding the disaster, because the data may be biased by excess mortality in childbearing mothers and newborn babies in the disaster.

  14. Psychological impact of nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behere, Prakash B.; Chougule, Kaveri N.; Syyed, S.

    2017-01-01

    There are major Nuclear Power plant disasters in world, one was Chernobyl, Ukraine 1986, and other was Fukushima, Japan 2011. There are many studies, which are evidence based to demonstrate short and long terms consequences of nuclear plant disasters. The psychological consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing serious illness like cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and safai workers are the highest risk groups. It is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment

  15. Experimental studies of the air hybrid engine charging operation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H; Ma, T; Lee, CY

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, theoretical and modelling studies have been carried out on the feasibility and potential of novel mild air hybrid engine concepts based on production components. These mild air hybrid concepts are able to convert vehicle brake energy into pneumatic energy in the form of compressed air stored in the air tank. The compressed air can then be used to crank-start the engine by either injecting and expanding in the cylinder or driving a production air starter. Thus, the reg...

  16. Sustainability and vulnerability: Understanding the anomaly from disaster perspectives. Case study: Glagaharjo Village in Mount Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depari, C. D. A.

    2017-06-01

    In its concern for human safety, the Government’s policy to relocate those living in disaster prone areas is twofold: it is perceptibly profound yet socially cataclysmic. This anomaly, created by the contradiction between the need for sustainability and the fact of vulnerability, could be found in the case of Mount Merapi. Communities living in the hazardous zone of Merapi, particularly those in Glagaharjo Village, are acknowledged for their persistent rejection of relocation programs despite their high exposure to the catastrophic impacts of eruptions. To mitigate the impacts, a safe and conducive dwelling place which considers the characteristics of these affected communities must be encouraged. This research adopts a consensus method towards responses obtained through a Likert scale-questionnaire and measured with a statistical program. Prior this process, theoretical reviews toward the concept of place attachment, place dependence and place identity was established in order to determine the research variables for the questionnaire.

  17. Ultrastructural study of the effect of air pollution by SO2 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with excessive mortality during air pollution disasters such as ... epithelium. It is suggested that this synergistic effect is due to the carbon particles adsorbing. SO2 ... in refrigeration plants, fruit processing, manufacturing .... concentration range was absorbed on the nasal mucosa [29 ...

  18. Rapid Offline-Online Post-Disaster Landslide Mapping Tool: A case study from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Derron, Marc-Henri; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2016-04-01

    One of the crucial components of post disaster management is the efficient mapping of impacted areas. Here we present a tool designed to map landslides and affected objects after the earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal as well as for intense rainfall impact. Because internet is not available in many rural areas of Nepal, we developed an offline-online prototype based on Open-Source WebGIS technologies to make data on hazard impacts, including damaged infrastructure, landslides or flooding events available to authorities and the general public. This mobile application was designed as a low-cost, rapid and participatory method for recording impacts from hazard events. It is possible to record such events offline and upload them through a server, where internet connection is available. This application allows user authentication, image capturing, and information collation such as geolocation, event description, interactive mapping and finally storing all the data in the server for further analysis and visualisation. This application can be accessed by a mobile phone (Android) or a tablet as a hybrid version for both offline and online versions. The offline version has an interactive-offline map function which allows users to upload satellites image in order to improve ground truthing interpretation. After geolocation, the user can start mapping and then save recorded data into Geojson-TXT files that can be easily uploaded to the server whenever internet is available. This prototype was tested specifically for a rapid assessment of landslides and relevant land use characteristics such as roads, forest area, rivers in the Phewa Lake watershed near Pokhara, Nepal where a large number landslides were activated or reactivated after the 2015 monsoon season. More than 60 landslides were recorded during two days of field trip. Besides, it is possible to use this application for any other kind of hazard event like flood, avalanche, etc. Keywords: Offline, Online, Open source, Web

  19. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  20. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  1. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  2. Disaster response team FAST skills training with a portable ultrasound simulator compared to traditional training: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between

  3. How to Improve Fault Tolerance in Disaster Predictions: A Case Study about Flash Floods Using IoT, ML and Real Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquim, Gustavo; Filho, Geraldo P R; Jalali, Roozbeh; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W; Ueyama, Jó

    2018-03-19

    The rise in the number and intensity of natural disasters is a serious problem that affects the whole world. The consequences of these disasters are significantly worse when they occur in urban districts because of the casualties and extent of the damage to goods and property that is caused. Until now feasible methods of dealing with this have included the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for data collection and machine-learning (ML) techniques for forecasting natural disasters. However, there have recently been some promising new innovations in technology which have supplemented the task of monitoring the environment and carrying out the forecasting. One of these schemes involves adopting IP-based (Internet Protocol) sensor networks, by using emerging patterns for IoT. In light of this, in this study, an attempt has been made to set out and describe the results achieved by SENDI (System for dEtecting and forecasting Natural Disasters based on IoT). SENDI is a fault-tolerant system based on IoT, ML and WSN for the detection and forecasting of natural disasters and the issuing of alerts. The system was modeled by means of ns-3 and data collected by a real-world WSN installed in the town of São Carlos - Brazil, which carries out the data collection from rivers in the region. The fault-tolerance is embedded in the system by anticipating the risk of communication breakdowns and the destruction of the nodes during disasters. It operates by adding intelligence to the nodes to carry out the data distribution and forecasting, even in extreme situations. A case study is also included for flash flood forecasting and this makes use of the ns-3 SENDI model and data collected by WSN.

  4. How to Improve Fault Tolerance in Disaster Predictions: A Case Study about Flash Floods Using IoT, ML and Real Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquim, Gustavo; Filho, Geraldo P. R.; Pessin, Gustavo; Pazzi, Richard W.

    2018-01-01

    The rise in the number and intensity of natural disasters is a serious problem that affects the whole world. The consequences of these disasters are significantly worse when they occur in urban districts because of the casualties and extent of the damage to goods and property that is caused. Until now feasible methods of dealing with this have included the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for data collection and machine-learning (ML) techniques for forecasting natural disasters. However, there have recently been some promising new innovations in technology which have supplemented the task of monitoring the environment and carrying out the forecasting. One of these schemes involves adopting IP-based (Internet Protocol) sensor networks, by using emerging patterns for IoT. In light of this, in this study, an attempt has been made to set out and describe the results achieved by SENDI (System for dEtecting and forecasting Natural Disasters based on IoT). SENDI is a fault-tolerant system based on IoT, ML and WSN for the detection and forecasting of natural disasters and the issuing of alerts. The system was modeled by means of ns-3 and data collected by a real-world WSN installed in the town of São Carlos - Brazil, which carries out the data collection from rivers in the region. The fault-tolerance is embedded in the system by anticipating the risk of communication breakdowns and the destruction of the nodes during disasters. It operates by adding intelligence to the nodes to carry out the data distribution and forecasting, even in extreme situations. A case study is also included for flash flood forecasting and this makes use of the ns-3 SENDI model and data collected by WSN. PMID:29562657

  5. How to Improve Fault Tolerance in Disaster Predictions: A Case Study about Flash Floods Using IoT, ML and Real Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Furquim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rise in the number and intensity of natural disasters is a serious problem that affects the whole world. The consequences of these disasters are significantly worse when they occur in urban districts because of the casualties and extent of the damage to goods and property that is caused. Until now feasible methods of dealing with this have included the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs for data collection and machine-learning (ML techniques for forecasting natural disasters. However, there have recently been some promising new innovations in technology which have supplemented the task of monitoring the environment and carrying out the forecasting. One of these schemes involves adopting IP-based (Internet Protocol sensor networks, by using emerging patterns for IoT. In light of this, in this study, an attempt has been made to set out and describe the results achieved by SENDI (System for dEtecting and forecasting Natural Disasters based on IoT. SENDI is a fault-tolerant system based on IoT, ML and WSN for the detection and forecasting of natural disasters and the issuing of alerts. The system was modeled by means of ns-3 and data collected by a real-world WSN installed in the town of São Carlos - Brazil, which carries out the data collection from rivers in the region. The fault-tolerance is embedded in the system by anticipating the risk of communication breakdowns and the destruction of the nodes during disasters. It operates by adding intelligence to the nodes to carry out the data distribution and forecasting, even in extreme situations. A case study is also included for flash flood forecasting and this makes use of the ns-3 SENDI model and data collected by WSN.

  6. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  7. Emergency treatment of splenic injury in a novel mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter following disaster: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in natural disasters in recent years, which leads to a great number of injuries and deaths. It still remains an unsolved problem to treat patients with vascular injury of solid organs effectively following natural disasters, but on-spot emergency interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has been highly recommended to cure serious vascular injury of solid organs nowadays. Spleen is the most vulnerable abdominal organ, severe arterial hemorrhage of which can cause death if untreated timely. In this research, we aimed to study the possibility of performing emergency surgical intervention in mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter for splenic injury in the case of natural disasters. Methods First, the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter was unfolded in the field, and then disinfection and preoperative preparation were performed immediately. Eight large animal models of splenic injury were created, and angiograms were performed using a digital subtraction angiography machine in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter, and then the hemostatic embolizations of injured splenic artery were performed following the established convention of rapid intervention therapy. The operating time was recorded, and the survival condition and postoperative complications were observed for two weeks. Results and discussion The average time of unfolding the shelter, and performing disinfection and preoperative preparation was 33 ± 7 min. The number of colonies in the sterilized shelter body was 86 ± 13 cfu/m3. The average TAE time was 31 ± 7 min. All the hemostatic embolizations of splenic injury were performed successfully in the mobile minimally invasive interventional shelter during the operation. A pseudoaneurysm was found in an animal model using angiography two weeks after the operation. The primary clinical success rate of embolization was 87.5%. The two-week survival rate in

  8. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disaster Reintegration Model: A Qualitative Analysis on Developing Korean Disaster Mental Health Support Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to describe the mental health problems experienced by Korean disaster survivors, using a qualitative research method to provide empirical resources for effective disaster mental health support in Korea. Participants were 16 adults or elderly adults who experienced one or more disasters at least 12 months ago recruited via theoretical sampling. Participants underwent in-depth individual interviews on their disaster experiences, which were recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis, which followed Strauss and Corbin’s (1998 Grounded theory. After open coding, participants’ experiences were categorized into 130 codes, 43 sub-categories and 17 categories. The categories were further analyzed in a paradigm model, conditional model and the Disaster Reintegration Model, which proposed potentially effective mental health recovery strategies for disaster survivors, health providers and administrators. To provide effective assistance for mental health recovery of disaster survivors, both personal and public resilience should be promoted while considering both cultural and spiritual elements.

  10. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  11. The Effect of the Japan 2011 Disaster on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Stocks Worldwide: An Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferstl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This event study investigates the impact of the Japanese nuclear disaster in Fukushima-Daiichi on the daily stock prices of French, German, Japanese, and U.S. nuclear utility and alternative energy firms. Hypotheses regarding the (cumulative abnormal returns based on a three-factor model are analyzed through joint tests by multivariate regression models and bootstrapping. Our results show significant abnormal returns for Japanese nuclear utility firms during the one-week event window and the subsequent four-week post-event window. Furthermore, while French and German nuclear utility and alternative energy stocks exhibit significant abnormal returns during the event window, we cannot confirm abnormal returns for U.S. stocks.

  12. Natural disaster and mental health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Fujii, Senta; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Edwards, Glen

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on disaster mental health in relation to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons and cyclones throughout Asia. Articles reviewed show that disaster psychiatry in Asia is beginning to emerge from and leave behind the stigma attached to mental health. The emergence of the acceptance of disaster mental health throughout Asia can be attributed in part to the acceptance of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This has allowed greater involvement of mental health professionals in providing ongoing support to survivors of natural disasters as well as providing greater opportunities for further research. Also, articles reviewed in the present paper commonly suggested the need for using standardized diagnostic tools for PTSD to appropriately interpret the discrepancy of results among studies. The importance of post-disaster support services and cultural differences is highlighted.

  13. How assessment and evaluation is interlinked with disaster governance? A case of the Tohoku Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The linkage of governance, disaster management and policy are not well established both in terms of conceptual basis and practices and require more in-depth analysis for better disaster management and governance (disaster governance). The weak linkage may prevent effective disaster management. The 2011 Tohoku Disaster posed many governance-related challenges, including processes or institutions of disaster management or decision-making. Especially, the analysis of the challenges turns out that many of core problems are interlinked with assessment and evaluation. The research problems the paper addresses are two-fold given the existing studies and practices: First, there is few conceptual foundation for linking disaster management and governance especially in light of assessment and evaluation. Second, while assessment or evaluation lends to be taken for panted at practices, few analytical research or discussions exist about how it is interlinked with disaster governance. This paper aims at filling in the above gap and attempts to elucidate analytically the linkage of assessment and evaluation with disaster governance through a case of the 2011 Tohoku Disaster in Japan for better disaster governance and actionable policies. (author)

  14. Lifestyle-related factors that explain disaster-induced changes in socioeconomic status and poor subjective health: a cross-sectional study from the Fukushima health management survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nagai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES and lifestyle-related factors are determinants of subjective health. However, changes in SES are inevitable in times of natural disaster, while lifestyle-related factors remain modifiable. The aim of this study was to use a cross-sectional approach to examine lifestyle-related factors that may attenuate the negative impact of disaster-induced changes in SES on poor subjective health. Methods We analyzed 33,350 men and women aged 20–64 years who were living in evacuation zones due to the radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan. Disaster-induced changes in SES were defined by living arrangements and working conditions. Using Poisson regression analysis adjusted for confounders (model 1 and lifestyle-related factors as intermediate variables (model 2, we compared the prevalence ratios (PRs of poor subjective health of participants who did not undergo disaster-induced changes in SES (did not become unemployed, income did not decrease, and living in relative’s home/own home with that of participants who did undergo disaster-induced changes in SES (became unemployed, decreased income, or lived in an evacuation shelter, temporary housing, or rental housing/apartment. We calculated the percentage of excess risks explained by lifestyle-related factors as follows: ((PRmodel 1 − PRmodel 2/(PRmodel 1–1 × 100. Results Disaster-induced changes in SES were significantly associated with poor subjective health. The PRs (95% CIs among participants who underwent disaster-induced changes in SES were 2.02 (1.81–2.24 for men and 1.80 (1.65–1.97 for women. After adjusting for lifestyle-related factors, we found that the PRs in men and women were remarkably attenuated, decreasing to 1.56 (1.40–1.73 and 1.43 (1.31–1.55, respectively. Controlling for lifestyle-related factors resulted in PR attenuation by 45.1% (men and 46.3% (women. Satisfaction of sleep and participation in recreation and community

  15. Effects of radon in indoor air studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon is an odorless, tasteless and colourless radioactive noble gas that enters indoor air from the ground. Radon causes lung cancer. A committee set up to evaluate the health risks of chemical substances has been drafting a report on radon, which will compile the major research findings on the lung cancer risk posed by radon. Animal tests have shown that even small doses of radon can cause lung cancer. Smokers seem to contract radon-induced lung cancer more readily than non-smokers. Because research findings have been conflicting, however, it is not known exactly how high the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon exposure really is. Several major research projects are under way to obtain increasingly accurate risk assessments. An on-going European joint project brings together several studies - some already finished, some still being worked on. In this way it will be possible to get more accurate risk assessments than from individual studies. In order to prevent lung cancer, it is important to continue the work of determining and reducing radon connects and to combat smoking. (orig.)

  16. MVERT: common solutions for technological disasters--a study on cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Walter O.; Allred, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Most Idaho communities are not prepared to handle a hazardous materials incident and must rely on resources outside of their jurisdiction for assistance. Idaho has established four Regional Response Teams (RRT) to help the communities. The teams are located in the northern, north-central, south-western and south-eastern parts of the state. The south-central area is served by a team from Boise or Pocatello. Response from either team requires nearly four hours of travel time. After analyzing the problems of time and distance, six counties from south-central Idaho have agreed to provide a team to function as an RRT during the initial phases of an incident. This organization is unprecedented because it consists of members from law enforcement, local fire protection organizations, emergency medical personnel, and local government agencies who will share personnel, equipment, resources, and training. The Magic Valley Emergency Response Team (MVERT) is locally funded and self- governed. MVERT has received support from the Idaho Bureau of Hazardous Materials, State Bureau of Disaster Services, Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, Idaho Emergency Services Training and Idaho State Police. MVERT is not limited to hazardous materials incidents and can respond to any emergency requiring specialized training and equipment.

  17. Microtremor Study of Site Effect for Disaster Mitigation and Geotechnical Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Sabrianto; Altin Massinai, Muh.; Syamsuddin

    2018-03-01

    Makassar city have relatively lower earthquake vulnerability compared to other regions in Indonesia, however detailed mapping related to seismic wave amplification needs to be done in the interest of geotechnical, regional planning and disaster mitigation. It is generally known that the magnitude of the damage during the occurrence of earthquakes or tremor occur periodically is influenced by the dynamic characteristics of the building as a function of seismic wave amplification. The degree of seismic wave amplification depends on several factors, including the thickness of the sediment layer, the level of compaction and the geological age factor. The purpose of this research is to investigate seismic vulnerability in Makassar by using spectral comparison through microtremor measurement. There are several of the approaches that can be done and microtremor is the easiest and cheapest method to understand these dynamic characteristics without causing damage effects. Spectra comparison technique used was popular by Nakamura, which is comparison technique of horizontal component noise spectra and the vertical component in sediment areas (H/V spectra). Results from seismic vulnerability index (SVI) distribution maps show values ranging from 0, 14 - 158, 31. In general, the eastern part of the city of Makassar near from coastal areas is more vulnerable to damage especially earthquakes or periodic earth tremor with certain dominant frequency compared with the western part of Makassar City.

  18. The nuclear disaster management system in Taiwan: a case study of the third (Maanshan) nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yung-Nane

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of the nuclear disaster management system in Taiwan via a review of the third (Maanshan) nuclear power plant. In doing so, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan on 11 March 2011 is reviewed and compared with the situation in Taiwan. The latter's nuclear disaster management system is examined with respect to three key variables: information; mobilisation; and inter-organisational cooperation. In-depth interviews with 10 policy stakeholders with different backgrounds serve as the research method. The results point up the need for improvement in all dimensions. In addition, they highlight three principal problems with the nuclear disaster management system: (i) it might not be possible to provide first-hand nuclear disaster information immediately to the communities surrounding the Maanshan facility in Pingtung County, southern Taiwan; (ii) the availability of medical resources for treating radiation in Hengchun Township is limited; and (iii) the inter-organisational relationships for addressing nuclear disasters need to be strengthened. Hence, cooperation among related organisations is necessary. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  19. The Role of Education on Disaster Preparedness: Case Study of 2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes on Thailand's Andaman Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya Muttarak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how well residents of the Andaman coast in Phang Nga province, Thailand, are prepared for earthquakes and tsunami. It is hypothesized that formal education can promote disaster preparedness because education enhances individual cognitive and learning skills, as well as access to information. A survey was conducted of 557 households in the areas that received tsunami warnings following the Indian Ocean earthquakes on 11 April 2012. Interviews were carried out during the period of numerous aftershocks, which put residents in the region on high alert. The respondents were asked what emergency preparedness measures they had taken following the 11 April earthquakes. Using the partial proportional odds model, the paper investigates determinants of personal disaster preparedness measured as the number of preparedness actions taken. Controlling for village effects, we find that formal education, measured at the individual, household, and community levels, has a positive relationship with taking preparedness measures. For the survey group without past disaster experience, the education level of household members is positively related to disaster preparedness. The findings also show that disaster-related training is most effective for individuals with high educational attainment. Furthermore, living in a community with a higher proportion of women who have at least a secondary education increases the likelihood of disaster preparedness. In conclusion, we found that formal education can increase disaster preparedness and reduce vulnerability to natural hazards.

  20. Report on achievements in research and development in Sunshine Project - Hydrogen energy. Studies on prevention of hydrogen explosion disasters (Fiscal 1974 through fiscal 1983); 1974 - 1983 nendo suiso no bakuhatsu saigai boshi no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    Experimental studies have been performed on prevention of hydrogen explosion disasters in attempting practical use of hydrogen energy. Regarding the prevention of disasters caused by high-pressure hydrogen, elucidation was made on causes of the fire, and estimation expression was introduced on size of fire caused by ignition. Measurements were also made on explosion limit and explosion pressure of low-temperature hydrogen gas. Furthermore, a flame arrester for hydrogen was developed. In studies on prevention of explosion of liquefied hydrogen, investigations were given on physical and chemical natures of a system mixed with air and oxygen, and on explosion causing sensitivity against impact to have elucidate danger of impurities in liquefied hydrogen. An experiment verified the effectiveness of carbon dioxide or powder extinguishing agent in the case of liquefied hydrogen fire. With regard to metal hydrides, elucidation was given on their ignitability in atmosphere and danger of dust explosion. In addition, it was made clear that containers may break down due to rise in internal pressure as a result of temperature rise, whereas safety valves were discussed, and models were decided. (NEDO)

  1. The use of geographical information systems for disaster risk reduction strategies: a case study of Volcan de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, O.

    Contemporary disaster risk management requires the analysis of vulnerability and hazard exposure, which is imperative at Volcan de Colima (VdC), Mexico, due to the predicted, large-magnitude eruption forecast to occur before 2025. The methods used to gauge social vulnerability included the development and application of proxies to census records, the undertaking of a building vulnerability survey and the spatial mapping of civil and emergency infrastructure. Hazard exposure was assessed using primary modelling of laharic events and the digitalisation of secondary data sources detailing the modelled extent of pyroclastic flows and tephra deposition associated with a large-magnitude (VEI 5) eruption at VdC. The undertaking and analysis of a risk perception survey of the population enabled an understanding of the cognitive behaviour of residents towards the volcanic risk. In comparison to the published hazard map, the GIS analysis highlighted an underestimation of lahar hazard on the western flank of VdC and the regional tephra hazard. Vulnerability analysis identified three communities where social deprivation is relatively high, and those with significant elderly and transient populations near the volcano. Furthermore, recognition of the possibility of an eruption in the near future was found to be low across the study region. These results also contributed to the analysis of emergency management procedures and the preparedness of the regional authorities. This multidisciplinary research programme demonstrates the success of applying a GIS platform to varied integrative spatial and temporal analysis. Furthermore, ascertaining the impact of future activity at VdC upon its surrounding populations permits the evaluation of emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction strategies.

  2. Excess mortality due to indirect health effects of the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Leppold, Claire; Gilmour, Stuart; Ochi, Sae; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kana; Inoue, Manami; Kato, Shigeaki; Shibuya, Kenji; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Evidence on the indirect health impacts of disasters is limited. We assessed the excess mortality risk associated with the indirect health impacts of the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster) in Fukushima, Japan. The mortality rates in Soma and Minamisoma cities in Fukushima from 2006 to 2015 were calculated using vital statistics and resident registrations. We investigated the excess mortality risk, defined as the increased mortality risk between postdisaster and predisaster after excluding direct deaths attributed to the physical force of the disaster. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of mortality after adjusting for city, age and year. There were 6163 and 6125 predisaster and postdisaster deaths, respectively. The postdisaster mortality risk was significantly higher in the first month following the disaster (March 2011) than in the same month during the predisaster period (March 2006-2010). RRs among men and women were 2.64 (95% CI 2.16 to 3.24) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.99 to 3.03), respectively, demonstrating excess mortality risk due to the indirect health effects of the disaster. Age-specific subgroup analyses revealed a significantly higher mortality risk in women aged ≥85 years in the third month of the disaster compared with predisaster baseline, with an RR (95% CI) of 1.73 (1.23 to 2.44). Indirect health impacts are most severe in the first month of the disaster. Early public health support, especially for the elderly, can be an important factor for reducing the indirect health effects of a disaster. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Social media and disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; Hawthorne, Joshua; Perreault, Mildred F; Park, Eun Hae; Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Halliwell, Michael R; Turner McGowen, Sarah E; Davis, Rachel; Vaid, Shivani; McElderry, Jonathan A; Griffith, Stanford A

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012-13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research. © 2014 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  4. Study of containment air cooler capacity in steam air environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.; Mohan, N.; Bhawal, R.N.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The air coolers are provided for controlling the temperature in the reactor building during normal operation. These air coolers also serve as the main heat sink for the removal of energy from high enthalpy air-steam mixture expected in reactor building under accident conditions. A subroutine COOLER has been developed to estimate the heat removal rate of the air coolers at high temperature and steam conditions. The subroutine COOLER has been attached with the code PACSR (post accident containment system response) used for containment pressure temperature calculation. The subroutine was validated using design parameters at normal operating condition. A study was done to estimate the heat removal rate for some postulated accident conditions. The study reveals that, under accident conditions, the heat removal rate of air coolers increases several times compared with normal operating conditions

  5. Risk Perception as the Quantitative Parameter of Ethics and Responsibility in Disaster Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro

    2014-05-01

    Intensity of impacts of natural disasters is increasing with climate and ecological changes spread. Frequency of disasters is increasing, and recurrence of catastrophes characterizing by essential spatial heterogeneity. Distribution of losses is fundamentally non-linear and reflects complex interrelation of natural, social and environmental factor in the changing world on multi scale range. We faced with new types of risks, which require a comprehensive security concept. Modern understanding of complex security, and complex risk management require analysis of all natural and social phenomena, involvement of all available data, constructing of advanced analytical tools, and transformation of our perception of risk and security issues. Traditional deterministic models used for risk analysis are difficult applicable for analysis of social issues, as well as for analysis of multi scale multi-physics phenomena quantification. Also parametric methods are not absolutely effective because the system analyzed is essentially non-ergodic. The stochastic models of risk analysis are applicable for quantitative analysis of human behavior and risk perception. In framework of risk analysis models the risk perception issues were described. Risk is presented as the superposition of distribution (f(x,y)) and damage functions (p(x,y)): P →δΣ x,yf(x,y)p(x,y). As it was shown risk perception essentially influents to the damage function. Basing on the prospect theory and decision making under uncertainty on cognitive bias and handling of risk, modification of damage function is proposed: p(x,y|α(t)). Modified damage function includes an awareness function α(t), which is the system of risk perception function (rp) and function of education and log-term experience (c) as: α(t) → (c - rp). Education function c(t) describes the trend of education and experience. Risk perception function rp reflects security concept of human behavior, is the basis for prediction of socio-economic and

  6. Mental and social health in disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Elsass, Peter; Berliner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a study of important themes in relation to the Sphere standards of psycho-social interventions in disasters.......The article presents a study of important themes in relation to the Sphere standards of psycho-social interventions in disasters....

  7. The impact of disasters: long term effects on health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, J.; Donker, G.; Vasterman, P.

    2004-01-01

    Disasters occur more often since the world gets overpopulated, air traffic is busier, terrorists are operating worldwide and therefore, risks are increasing. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency major disasters in the USA have been increasing in frequency, form fewer than 25 per year

  8. Sabuk Janur: tools to move community participation in reducing natural disasters and environment (case study at Lawu mount slope in Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, E.; Purnomo, S. H.; Komariah; Wibowo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Globalization in general both traditional values and local knowledge that exist in a society, but this is different in the community of mountain slope lawu on the Java Island precisely in Karanganyar regency of Central Java is still maintained local cultural values to maintain sustainability Springs. This is a foothold for cheaper the benefits of community culture that play an important role in environmental conservation and social solidarity to cope with natural disasters and the environment. The research method used is qualitative with explanatory case study approach. The results showed that the Myth of Sabuk Janur proved able to build public awareness in preserving the environment and overcoming natural disasters and the environment. The high level of community participation in every development is evident from every stage of community participation in a program. Where the solidarity of social visible in all conditions, namely social solidarity in the nature of the in-celebration and the nature of overcoming the disaster that befall. The preservation of local cultural values is still done because of the existence of the identity of local communities. This is because the integration of national value and local potential becomes a prerequisite in every development plan. Thus the cultural approach is an effective strategy in solving the problems exist in an area, especially in overcoming natural disasters and the environment.

  9. A Credibility-Based Chance-Constrained Transfer Point Location Model for the Relief Logistics Design (Case Study: Earthquake Disaster on Region 1 of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohamadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of natural disaster inflicts irreparable injuries and symptoms on humans. In such conditions, affected people are waiting for medical services and relief commodities. Thus, quick reaction of medical services and relief commodities supply play important roles in improving natural disaster management. In this paper, a multi-objective non-linear credibility-based fuzzy mathematical programming model under uncertainty conditions is presented, which considers two vital needs in disaster time including medical services and relief commodities through location of hospitals, transfer points, and location routing of relief depots. The proposed model approaches reality by considering time, cost, failures probability in routes, and parameters uncertainty. The problem is first linearized and then global criterion method is applied for solving the multi objective model. Moreover, to illustrate model efficiency, a case study is performed on region 1 of Tehran city for earthquake disaster. Results demonstrate that if Decision-makers want to meet uncertainty with lowered risk, they have to choose a high minimum constraint feasibility degree even though the objective function will be worse.

  10. Experimental study on air cleaning effect of clean air heat pump and its impact on ventilation requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Sheng, Ying; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) which combined a desiccant wheel with a heat pump for both air cleaning and HVAC of buildings. The experiment was conducted in a field lab at four different outdoor air supply rates with and without air cleaning by CAHP....... Both sensory assessments of perceived air quality and chemical measurements of TVOC concentrations were conducted for evaluating the air cleaning performance of the CAHP. The results of experiment showed that running the CAHP improved significantly perceived air quality. At 2 L/s per person of outdoor...... air supply rate with operating the CAHP, the air quality was equivalent to the value at the higher outdoor air supply rate of 10 L/s per person without running CAHP. The TVOC measurements observed over 92% of efficiency on removal of indoor air VOCs and no VOCs accumulation on the desiccant wheel...

  11. Experimental Setup For Study of Drop Deformation In Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study for study of deformation of drops in air flow is considered. Experimental setup includes a module for obtaining the drops, an air flow system and measuring system. Module for formation of drops is in the form of vertically arranged dropper with capillary with the possibility of formation of fixed drops. Air flow supply system comprises an air pump coupled conduit through a regulating valve with a cylindrical pipe, installed coaxially with dropper. The measuring system includes the video camera located with possibility of visualization of drop and the Pitot gage for measurement of flow rate of air located in the output section of branch pipe. This experimental setup allows to provide reliable and informative results of the investigation of deformation of drops in the air flow.

  12. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Goncalves, L.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  13. Clean indoor air increases physical independence : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, M.C.L.; Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Clean indoor air enhances health. In a pilot study, we examined whether a good indoor air quality increases the activity potential of older persons with chronic lung disease. Five older persons were studied while performing kitchen activities. Body movement and heart rate were monitored.

  14. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  15. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  16. Disaster in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...... contextualise this withdrawal in the US government’s general turn to austerity in response to the economic crisis of the 1970s. My account couples the notion of disaster with that of economic crisis on the one hand and structural violence on the other to examine disasters as a specific problem for social...

  17. Records and Information Disaster Preparedness in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the availability of rules and regulations governing access to and use of records; threats to records management; disaster response plan; extent to which organizations are committed in four major stages of disaster management in organizations in Uganda. In gathering the data, structured questionnaire ...

  18. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  19. Study of the air fluorescence by AIRFLY

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 190, May (2009), s. 266-271 ISSN 0920-5632. [Cosmic Ray International Seminar 2008. Malfa, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : air fluorescence * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  20. Post-disaster recovery: a case study of human resource deployment in the health sector in post-conflict Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Katherine P; Budosan, Boris

    2011-02-01

    A professional understanding of disasters, paired with the need for health service development, can provide opportunities for the recovery and improvement of the health sector. Investment in training capacity ranks among the top priorities of a recovering health sector. The recovery and development of primary healthcare delivery systems has been implemented by various international and local health players in the aftermath of conflicts around the world. However, human resource development in the post-conflict environment has not been evaluated and/or published appropriately in the medical literature. In this retrospective, descriptive study, the authors describe the strategy and evaluate the effectiveness of a field-based training program for primary healthcare doctors implemented by the US-based international non-governmental organization, the International Medical Corps, after the conflict in Kosovo in 1999. A six-month, comprehensive education and training program on primary healthcare issues was delivered to 134 Kosovar primary healthcare physicians in 10 Kosovo municipalities in 1999 and 2000. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The qualitative methods included open-ended, semi-structured, key informant interviews, structured focus groups, and unstructured participant observations. The quantitative method was multiple-choice knowledge tests. The education and training program proved to be culturally appropriate and well-accepted by local communities. The program met its overall objective to refresh the knowledge of primary care doctors on various primary healthcare issues and set the stage for further strengthening and development of primary health services and their required human resources in Kosovo. The comprehensive education and training of primary healthcare doctors in Kosovo was a feasible, much appreciated, and effective intervention implemented in a difficult post-conflict environment. This training was one of the early steps in the

  1. The prevalence of ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rico disaster study. The role of culture in psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Canino, G; Rubio-Stipec, M; Bravo, M

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents one of the few epidemiological studies of a popular category of distress, ataques de nervios (attacks of nerves), in the cross-cultural psychiatric literature. As part of a major study of the psychological consequences of the 1985 floods and mudslides which caused considerable damage and death in Puerto Rico, a question was added to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement concerning ataques de nervios. This additional item provided the opportunity to carry out the first study of this important Puerto Rican popular category of distress using a representative, community-based sample. This paper addresses several key questions about ataques de nervios which come from previous psychiatric and anthropological literatures concerning the social correlates of who experiences an ataque de nervios and the relationship of ataques to social distress and psychiatric disorder. People who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and formerly married. They were also more likely to meet criteria for anxiety and depressive disorders than those who had not experienced an ataque. The picture that emerges from our analyses is that those who suffer from a combination of social disadvantage, psychiatric disorder, and poor perceived health are more likely to experience an ataque de nervios.

  2. UNDERSTANDING RESIDENT’ ACTIVITY SYSTEM-IMPROVING QUALITY LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF DOME POST DISASTER SETTLEMENT IN NGELEPEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAM Rachma Marcillia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available House is not only functioning as a place for shelter, but also for accommodating personal and social activities of its inhabitants. Unfortunately in post quake disaster dome houses Ngelepen, Yogyakarta, the majority of the early settlers must change their behavior and habits that they used to do in their previous environment to adjust the new settlement. These happened because dome housing did not facilitate some activities whether personal or social activities within the house, therefore the activities extended to the outside of the house or even the surrounding environment. This study aims to understand the system activities on the dome house settlement Yogyakarta. In order to get detailed description, quantitative as well as qualitative approach was done through observation of the activities type, when and where the activities conducted. Data collection was done by continuous place centered behavior mapping to know how the occupants use and accommodate their behavior in certain time and specific place. The results of this study showed that daily activities on weekdays and holidays conducted by different group; children, adult and elderly, at different areas and for different type of activities in certain times. The pathways and courtyard of the house mostly used for domestic household activities and leisure as an extension of the social interaction space. In understanding the system activities that occurred, it is expected that this study can contribute to improve the quality of life of people live in a relocation settlement.

  3. Disaster forensics understanding root cause and complex causality

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to uncover the root causes of natural and man-made disasters by going beyond the typical reports and case studies conducted post-disaster. It opens the black box of disasters by presenting ‘forensic analysis approaches’ to disasters, thereby revealing the complex causality that characterizes them and explaining how and why hazards do, or do not, become disasters. This yields ‘systemic’ strategies for managing disasters. Recently the global threat landscape has seen the emergence of high impact, low probability events. Events like Hurricane Katrina, the Great Japan Earthquake and tsunami, Hurricane Sandy, Super Typhoon Haiyan, global terrorist activities have become the new norm. Extreme events challenge our understanding regarding the interdependencies and complexity of the disaster aetiology and are often referred to as Black Swans. Between 2002 and 2011, there were 4130 disasters recorded that resulted from natural hazards around the world. In these, 1,117,527 people perished and a mi...

  4. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  5. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  6. A comparative study: The spatial organization of pre and post disaster house in traditional cultured area; study case: Core house project in Kasongan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Vicky

    2017-11-01

    This study involves revealing the spatial organization typology differences between pre and post disaster houses through core house project in Kasongan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The goal is to gain understanding of the way of traditional cultured people re-shaping their space and environment after disaster reconstruction through the core house and find the factors that determine the form. The study has been done by comparing and analyzing the spatial properties and functions between both objects using justified graph technique which is one of the basic methodology that able to identify how people are organized in space. Upon the comparison and analysis of these aspects, it appears that the old house size has impact toward significant changes of the spatial properties also the dwellers put physical factor over culture when evaluating the present house. Through these findings, this study highlights that spatial organization of traditional house has temporal spatial value and the core house concept had influenced the changes of the local spatial behaviour and their perception of their house standard.

  7. Indoor Air Quality and Student Performance [and Case Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This report examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) affects a child's ability to learn and provides several case studies of schools that have successfully addressed their indoor air problems, the lessons learned from that experience, and what long-term practices and policies emerged from the effort. The report covers the effects from…

  8. Respirators: Air Purifying, Self-Study, Course 40723

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Respirators: Air Purifying Self-Study (COURSE 40723) is designed for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) workers, support services subcontractors, and other LANL subcontractors who work under the LANL Respiratory Protection Program (RPP). This course also meets the air-purifying respirators (APRs) retraining requirement.

  9. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  10. Disaster preparation in kidney transplant recipients: a questionnaire-based cohort study from a large United States transplant center
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharief, Shimi; Freitas, Daniel; Adey, Deborah; Wiley, James

    2018-04-01

    Few quantitative assessments have assessed disaster preparation in kidney transplant patients. This is a survey-based assessment of disaster preparedness of 200 patients at the University of California San Francisco, USA. Patients answered questionnaires assessing their level of preparedness as well as barriers to preparation. Preparedness was scored based on response to 7 questions. Univariate analyses compared participant characteristics extracted from the medical chart against three tertiles of preparedness: low (scores 0 - 2), medium (scores 3 - 4), and high (scores 5 - 7). California counties were coded and mapped by average preparedness scores. Only 30% of patients were highly prepared for disasters. Participants were prepared with available medication for 2 weeks (78.5%) and least prepared in having a medical ID bracelet (13%). Significant minorities of patients (40% of patients or more) were unprepared with lists of medications, important phone numbers and disaster kits. Preparedness was not associated with demographic and clinical characteristics. Monterey County was the most prepared of the 31 California counties sampled (score of 4.25 out of 7). All patients should be educated regarding disaster preparation. County and medical services should collaborate to address specialized populations in general preparedness planning.
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  11. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disaster waste management: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

  13. Studies on ultraviolet inactivation of air-borne microorganisms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shin-ichi; Doi, Hitoshi; Yamayoshi, Takao; Nunoura, Masako; Tatsumi, Noriyuki.

    1989-01-01

    UV(254nm) inactivation of air-borne bacteria in an air-controlling apparatus was studied. The appratus was composed of a chamber for vaporizing a bacterial suspension and an irradiation duct equipped with an UV lamp(GL-30). The bacterial which passed through the irradiation duct impinged on a petri dish by an air slit sampler. Selected bacteria for the experiment were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Sarcina lutea and Bacillus subtilis(spores). The apparatus was useful for the study of the susceptibility of air-borne bacteria to UV radiation. UV dose necessary to inhibit colony formation in 90% of individual bacteria in the controlled air was as low as 27 to 35% of the dose required for the agar plate method. (author)

  14. A Framework for Disaster Vulnerability in a Small Island in the Southwest Pacific: A Case Study of Emae Island, Vanuatu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Jackson; Karen McNamara; Bradd Witt

    2017-01-01

    The societal costs of disasters around the world are continuing to increase and Pacific Island countries are considered some of the most vulnerable.This is primarily due to a combination of high hazard exposure coupled with a range of social,economic,physical,and political vulnerabilities.This article contributes to the growing body of work that aims to understand the causal factors of disaster vulnerability,but with a specific focus on small island developing states.The article first develops a framework for understanding disaster vulnerability,drawing on extensive literature and the well-established Methods for the Improvement of Vulnerability in Europe (MOVE) framework,and second,applies this adapted framework using empirically-derived data from fieldwork on Emae Island,Vanuatu to provide a working understanding of the causal elements of disaster vulnerability.Drawn from a significant body of scholarship at the time,the MOVE framework was primarily developed as a heuristic tool in which disaster vulnerability is considered to be a function of exposure,susceptibility (socially,economically,physically,culturally,environmentally,institutionally),and a lack of resilience.We posit that this adapted framework for small islands should also include historical susceptibility,and we prefer livelihood resilience (as capabilities,social capital,knowledge,participation,and human rights) over lack of resilience.We maintain that understanding disaster vulnerability holistically,which is inclusive of both strengths and drawbacks,is crucial to ensure that limited resources can target the causal factors that produce vulnerability and help safeguard and improve livelihoods in both the short and long term.

  15. Ethical problems in an era where disasters have become a part of daily life: A qualitative study of healthcare workers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civaner, M Murat; Vatansever, Kevser; Pala, Kayihan

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people. Considering the limited scope of studies on ethical challenges within disaster settings, we set upon conducting a qualitative study among local HCWs. Our study was conducted in six cities of Turkey, a country where disasters are frequent, including armed conflict, terrorist attacks and a massive influx of refugees. In-depth interviews were carried out with a total of 31 HCWs working with various backgrounds and experience. Data analysis was done concurrently with ongoing interviews. Several fundamental elements currently hinder ethics in relief work. Attitudes of public authorities, politicians and relief organizations, the mismanagement of impromptu humanitarian action and relief and the media's mindset create ethical problems on the macro-level such as discrimination, unjust resource allocation and violation of personal rights, and can also directly cause or facilitate the emergence of problems on the micro-level. An important component which prevents humanitarian action towards victims is insufficient competence. The duty to care during epidemics and armed conflicts becomes controversial. Many participants defend a paternalistic approach related to autonomy. Confidentiality and privacy are either neglected or cannot be secured. Intervention in factors on the macro-level could have a significant effect in problem prevention. Improving guidelines and professional codes as well as

  16. Ethical problems in an era where disasters have become a part of daily life: A qualitative study of healthcare workers in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people. Considering the limited scope of studies on ethical challenges within disaster settings, we set upon conducting a qualitative study among local HCWs. Methods Our study was conducted in six cities of Turkey, a country where disasters are frequent, including armed conflict, terrorist attacks and a massive influx of refugees. In-depth interviews were carried out with a total of 31 HCWs working with various backgrounds and experience. Data analysis was done concurrently with ongoing interviews. Results Several fundamental elements currently hinder ethics in relief work. Attitudes of public authorities, politicians and relief organizations, the mismanagement of impromptu humanitarian action and relief and the media's mindset create ethical problems on the macro-level such as discrimination, unjust resource allocation and violation of personal rights, and can also directly cause or facilitate the emergence of problems on the micro-level. An important component which prevents humanitarian action towards victims is insufficient competence. The duty to care during epidemics and armed conflicts becomes controversial. Many participants defend a paternalistic approach related to autonomy. Confidentiality and privacy are either neglected or cannot be secured. Conclusion Intervention in factors on the macro-level could have a significant effect in problem prevention. Improving

  17. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  18. Disaster mitigation: initial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.

  19. [Experimental study on spectra of compressed air microwave plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Xi; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Wang, Qiang; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2013-03-01

    Using a microwave plasma generator, compressed air microwave plasma was excited under 1 - 5 atm pressures. Under different pressures and different incident microwave power, the emission spectra of compressed air microwave plasma were studied with a spectra measuring system. The results show that continuum is significant at atmospheric pressure and the characteristic will be weakened as the pressure increases. The band spectra intensity will be reduced with the falling of the incident microwave power and the band spectra were still significant. The experimental results are valuable to studying the characteristics of compressed air microwave plasma and the generating conditions of NO active groups.

  20. [Constructing ecological security patterns in mountain areas based on geological disaster sensitivity: A case study in Yuxi City, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Guo, Xiao Nan; Hu, Yi Na; Liu, Yan Xu

    2017-02-01

    As one of the key topics in the research of landscape ecology, regional ecological security patterns can effectively promote regional sustainable development and terrestrial ecological barriers construction. It is extremely important for middle Yunnan, with frequent disasters and fragile ecolo-gical environment, to construct ecological security patterns so as to effectively avoid the geological disasters, maintain ecosystem health, and promote the coordinated development of regional ecological system and social economic system. Taking Yuxi City as a case study area, this study firstly estimated the ecosystem services importance of water conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release, soil conservation, and biodiversity according to the basal characteristics of regional ecological environment, and then identified ecological sources in consideration of the quality of integrated ecosystem services and single types. Secondly, the resistance surface based on land use types was modified by the sensitivity of regional geological disasters. Lastly, the ecological corridors were identified using minimum cumulative resistance model, and as a result, the ecological security pattern of Yuxi City was constructed. The results showed that there were 81 patches for ecological sources in Yuxi City, accounting for 38.4% of the total area, and overlaying 75.2% of nature protection areas. The ecological sources were mainly distributed in the western mountainous areas as well as eastern water areas of the city. The length of ecological corridors was 1642.04 km, presenting a spatial pattern of one vertical and three horizontals, and extending along river valleys and fault basins with high vegetation coverage. This paper constructed ecological security patterns in mountainous areas aiming at the characteristics of geological disasters, providing spatial guidance for development and conservation decision-making in mountain areas.

  1. An introduction to neglected disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.

  2. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  3. The Lavelle Affair: An Air Force Case Study in Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    THE LAVELLE AFFAIR: AN AIR FORCE CASE STUDY IN ETHICS BY KRISTINA ELLIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF... ethical transgressions. As such, the story of General Lavelle’s wartime command experiences became a case study in ethics and integrity within Air...1 1 THE LIFE AND CAREER OF GENERAL LAVELLE 8 1 VIETNAM 14 2 CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS 25 2 ETHICAL

  4. Statistical analysis of natural disasters and related losses

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarenko, VF

    2014-01-01

    The study of disaster statistics and disaster occurrence is a complicated interdisciplinary field involving the interplay of new theoretical findings from several scientific fields like mathematics, physics, and computer science. Statistical studies on the mode of occurrence of natural disasters largely rely on fundamental findings in the statistics of rare events, which were derived in the 20th century. With regard to natural disasters, it is not so much the fact that the importance of this problem for mankind was recognized during the last third of the 20th century - the myths one encounters in ancient civilizations show that the problem of disasters has always been recognized - rather, it is the fact that mankind now possesses the necessary theoretical and practical tools to effectively study natural disasters, which in turn supports effective, major practical measures to minimize their impact. All the above factors have resulted in considerable progress in natural disaster research. Substantial accrued ma...

  5. Disaster and primary health care utilization: a 4 year follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, T.; Yzermans, J.; Kerssens, J.; Veen, P. ten

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although crucial for the management of the post-disaster phase, the impact of disasters on primary health care utilization is largely unknown. Often, pre-disaster base-line data is lacking. The current study quantified primary health care utilization after a major fire disaster in The

  6. Disaster-related fatalities among US citizens traveling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Bouslough, David; Proano, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    To describe the locations and risk of death associated with natural disaster fatalities for US citizens traveling abroad. A retrospective database review of US citizen disaster deaths occurring worldwide. None. Information on fatalities due to disasters was abstracted from the US Department of State Web site reporting deaths of US citizens abroad by non-natural causes from October 2002 through June 2012. The main outcome measures were the frequency of disaster deaths and countries where disasters occurred. Descriptive statistics and rates were used to evaluate the study data. There were 7,963 total non-natural deaths of US citizens traveling abroad during the study period. Of these, 163 (2.0 percent) were disaster-related deaths, involving 19 disaster events in 15 countries. Only two disaster-related events resulted in more than two deaths of US travelers-the 2010 earthquake in Haiti causing 121 fatalities (74.2 percent of disaster deaths), and the 2004 tsunami in Thailand causing 22 fatalities (13.5 percent of disaster deaths). The approximate annual mean death rate for US citizen travelers as a result of disaster events is 0.27 deaths/1 million travelers, compared with 1.4 deaths/1 million residents due to disaster annually within the United States. The risk of disaster-related fatality is low for US citizens traveling abroad. Although disaster-related death among travelers is unpredictable, during a period of almost 10 years, there was only one reported death due to disaster in the five countries most frequently visited by US travelers. Further investigation may identify population-, seasonal-, country-, or location-specific risks from which prevention strategies can be developed.

  7. An Example of City Disaster Plan in the Context of Integrated Disaster Management with Un sufficient Legal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepekci, D.

    2007-01-01

    Disaster management of a city, in coherent, stable and true manner, were realized by understanding and organizing of the disaster plan. When we consider the earthquake hazard of Marmara Region, it was investigated by the scientific studies how -a world city- Istanbul were effected this earthquake. When we consider the scientific data and we take a base the current legal structure of our country, the aim of the disaster plan is to provide the fist and emergency aid for the citizens when the destructive earthquake were occurred and effected the general life. This disaster plan includes base of the coordination and helping each other of the activity which all institution and organizations will do during possible disaster. The aims of making of plan is to provide the cooperation and collaboration between before the disaster and to act urgently during the disaster, and to provide the following necessary activity. This necessary activity as main headlines are; the providing of communication and transportation; regulation of traffic; rescue; emergency medical aid, to transportation patient and injured people to the hospitals; to put out fire; to provide security and public order; eating, dressing, heating and lighting studies; to provide temporary housing; the burial of dead citizens; to remove wreckage; to repair and to re-provide the electrical, water and canalization construction. In this study, it will mainly be presented Istanbul city disaster plan. Disaster plan of this city were produced by the intensive and sacrificial efforts with Turkish legal system. After that, disaster plan must updated as soon as possible. However government must regulate current legal system ( or the body of current law) related disaster plan. City disaster plan, which even construct well, include only the operations after the disaster. Before disaster, methods of preventive precaution against the disaster must add the plan with applicable legal system

  8. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.C.; Selte, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM 1 0), while the associations with SO 2 and NO 2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  9. A Retrospective and Prospective Follow-up Study of Psychological Distress in the Danwon High School Survivors of the Sewol Ferry Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Nam, Hee Sun; Kim, Hak Beom; Chung, Unsun; Lee, So Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-03-01

    We monitored a group of students from Danwon High School who survived the Sewol ferry disaster for 27 months to examine the course of their psychological symptoms. We performed a chart review at the Danwon High School Mental Health Center at the following time points (T): 9 months (T1), 12 months (T2), and 15 months (T3) after the disaster. Additionally, we performed a follow-up review at 27 months (T4). Subjects completed the 'State' section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessment, the Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms, and the Inventory of Complicated Grief. Data from the 32 subjects who completed all four assessments were used in the statistical analyses. Scores of psychological variables tended to increase until T2 and then slowly decreased until T4. The severity of anxiety and complicated grief symptoms changed significantly over time, but the severity of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not. We found that the symptoms of anxiety and complicated grief reported by Sewol ferry survivors from Danwon High School were exacerbated at the first anniversary of the disaster, but these symptoms subsided after the students graduated from high school.

  10. Historical analysis of rainfall-triggered rockfalls: the case study of the disaster of the ancient hydrothermal Sclafani Spa (Madonie Mts, northern-central Sicily, Italy) in 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Antonio; Bova, Patrizia; Esposito, Giuseppe; Giuffré, Ignazio; Monteleone, Salvatore

    2017-12-01

    In 1851, the region of Sicily experienced many rainstorm-induced landslides. On 13 March 1851, a rainstorm brought about a severe rockfall disaster near the small town of Sclafani (Madonie Mountains, northern-central Sicily, Italy). Rocks detached from the carbonate crest of Mt Sclafani (813 m above sea level) and fell downslope, causing the collapse of the ancient hydrothermal spa (about 430 m above sea level) and burying it. Fortunately, there were no injuries or victims. Given its geological, geomorphological and tectonic features, the calcareous-dolomitic and carbonate-siliciclastic relief of Mt Sclafani is extremely prone to landsliding. This study combines the findings of detailed geological and geomorphological field surveys and of a critical review of documentary data. A thorough analysis of documentary sources and historical maps made it possible to identify the location (previously unknown) of the ancient spa. The rockfall dynamics was reconstructed by comparing field reconnaissance data and documentary sources. The 1851 event reconstruction is an example of the application of an integrated methodological approach, which can yield a propaedeutic, yet meaningful picture of a natural disaster, paving the way for further research (e.g. slope failure susceptibility, future land-use planning, protection of thermal springs and mitigation of the impact of similar disasters in this area). Indeed, the intensification of extreme weather events, caused by global warming induced by climate change, has increased the risk of recurrence of a catastrophic event, like that of the ancient Sclafani spa, which is always a potential threat.

  11. Disaster Risk Reduction through school learners’ awareness and preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani S. Rambau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007 initiated a campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and document reviews was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods, fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and disasters is vital and must be expanded.

  12. Innovative shelter for disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.A.; Akkerman, M.S.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Brouwer, E.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters cause tremendous material and immaterial damage to people and their habitat. During the first days after the disaster the victims have to be provided with food, shelter, security, health care and registration. For sheltering, depending on the local circumstances, tents are often used for a

  13. The capacity building of disaster management in Bojonegoro regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbandono, P.; Prastyawan, A.; Gamaputra, G.

    2018-01-01

    East Java is a disaster-prone area. Head of the National Disaster Management Agency, Syamsul Maarif (2012) states that “East Java is a disaster supermarket area. Referring to Act Number 24 Year 2007 Concerning Disaster Management, disaster prevention activities are a series of activities undertaken as an effort to eliminate and/or reduce the threat of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 6).The disaster mitigation is a series of efforts to reduce disaster risk, through physical development and awareness and capacity building in the face of disaster (Article 1, paragraph 9). In 2009, the Provincial Government of East Java has been established Regional Disaster Management Agency and complete it through Local Regulation of East Java Province Number 3 Year 2010. This research was conducted in Bojonegoro. This study described the capacity building disaster handling and used descriptive research with qualitative approach. It focused on the capacity building for community preparedness in the face of. This study showed the vulnerability of regions and populations to threats flood and drought in could be physical, social and/or economical. The aims of the capacity building for the individuals and organizations are to be used effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the goals of the individuals and organizations.

  14. Analysis of air temperature and relative humidity: study of microclimates

    OpenAIRE

    Elis Dener Lima Alves; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the variability of climate elements in time and space is fundamental to the knowledge of the dynamics of microclimate. Thus, the objective was to analyze the variability of air temperature and relative humidity on the Cuiabá campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, and, through the clustering technique, to analyze the formation of groups to propose a zoning microclimate in the area study. To this end, collection data of air temperature and relative humidity at 15 points ...

  15. Studies of urban climates and air pollution in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.; Hertig, J.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to an assessment of the factors that are responsible for urban climate change, this paper describes climatological studies and peculiarities of some Swiss cities. Although these cities are small, urban air pollution presents a real problem for urban planning. This is a result of the narow street canyons, the high traffic concentration and the complex topography, which favors air stagnation during anticyclonic weather conditions

  16. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  17. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS-an international project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudik Claudia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4 to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children positions, and 5 to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone.

  18. Bioventing and air sparging: a field research study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.J.; Armstrong, J.E.; Hardisty, P.E.; Dupont, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted at Gulf Canada Resources' Strachan Gas Plant in Alberta, in which bioventing and air sparging were used individually and in combination to remediate a free-phase natural gas condensate plume estimated to cover approximately 65,000 m 2 . The condensate was composed of light hydrocarbons. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and total xylenes (BTEX) made up a large portion of the dissolved plume. The objectives of the bioventing program were to: (1) study the use of biodegradation respiration rates and hydrocarbon vapour concentrations as indicators of soil clean-up progress, (2) study the effectiveness of bioventing during winter operations, (3) assess the degree of soil clean-up achievable through bioventing, and (4) evaluate the economics of bioventing. It was shown that bioventing is an economical in-situ remediation technique, costing about $10/m 3 . Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater table to remove dissolved phased contaminants in-situ. The objectives of the air sparging program were to: (1) determine the zone of influence achievable through air sparging, (2) assess bioventing for treating hydrocarbon vapours introduced into the unsaturated zone during sparging, and (3) evaluate hydrocarbon mass removal effectiveness due to volatilization and biodegradation. It was shown that 90 per cent of the saturated zone hydrocarbon mass was removed during eight months of air sparging. 11 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  19. Fear based Education or Curiosity based Education as an Example of Earthquake and Natural Disaster Education: Results of Statistical Study in Primary Schools in Istanbul-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, T.; Ozcep, F.

    2012-04-01

    Natural disaster reduction focuses on the urgent need for prevention activities to reduce loss of life, damage to property, infrastructure and environment, and the social and economic disruption caused by natural hazards. One of the most important factors in reduction of the potential damage of earthquakes is trained manpower. To understanding the causes of earthquakes and other natural phenomena (landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, etc.) is one of the pre-conditions to show a conscious behavior. The aim of the study is to analysis and to investigate, how earthquakes and other natural phenomena are perceived by the students and the possible consequences of this perception, and their effects of reducing earthquake damage. One of the crucial questions is that is our education system fear or curiosity based education system? Effects of the damages due to earthquakes have led to look like a fear subject. In fact, due to the results of the effects, the earthquakes are perceived scary phenomena. In the first stage of the project, the learning (or perception) levels of earthquakes and other natural disasters for the students of primary school are investigated with a survey. Aim of this survey study of earthquakes and other natural phenomena is that have the students fear based or curiosity based approaching to the earthquakes and other natural events. In the second stage of the project, the path obtained by the survey are evaluated with the statistical point of approach. A questionnaire associated with earthquakes and natural disasters are applied to primary school students (that total number of them is approximately 700 pupils) to measure the curiosity and/or fear levels. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to natural disasters. The questions are: "What is the Earthquake ?", "What is power behind earthquake?", "What is the mental response during the earthquake ?", "Did we take lesson from earthquake's results ?", "Are you afraid of earthquake

  20. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, The Sahel: The "Shore" of Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan J.

    1974-01-01

    Sahel is the Arabic word for "shore" and is applied to the Southern belt of the Sahara Desert now undergoing a severe drought. This article describes the lifestyle of a Tuareg herder as he and his family fight for survival. Discussion questions and possible solution to the problems are provided in the case study. (Author/DE)

  1. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective

  2. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  3. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government’s...... disaster management efforts in Denmark, while the brunt of the political blame in Sweden occurred more than a year after the Tsunami.......This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...

  4. Conceptual study on air ingress mitigation for VHTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang H.; Kim, Eung Soo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Important factors that affect air-ingress process in the VHTRs were investigated and identified. ► Two air ingress mitigation concepts were developed using a root-cause analysis. ► These concepts were validated using computational fluid dynamic method. ► In-vessel helium injection and ex-vessel enclosure concept will mitigate air-ingress effectively. - Abstract: An air ingress accident following a postulated pipe break is considered a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) safety. Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures. Under extreme circumstances and without mitigation features this accident may lead to exothermic chemical reactions between graphite and oxygen depending on the accident scenario and the design. Under extreme circumstances (beyond design basis), a loss of structural integrity may occur in some core structures and lead to elevated release of radiological inventory for the fuel matrix. This paper discusses various air ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs that would prevent core damage even in the most extreme scenarios. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air ingress accident using root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air ingress mitigation ideas were conceived and developed. Among them, two concepts were finally evaluated as effective candidates. One concept is to inject helium directly into the lower plenum (direct in-vessel injection); the other concept is to enclose the reactor with a non-pressure boundary with an opening at the bottom (ex-vessel enclosure). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods were used to evaluate these concepts for proof of these principles. Results indicate that both concepts can effectively suppress air

  5. Conceptual study on air ingress mitigation for VHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang H., E-mail: Chang.Oh@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3870 (United States); Kim, Eung Soo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 559 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Important factors that affect air-ingress process in the VHTRs were investigated and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two air ingress mitigation concepts were developed using a root-cause analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These concepts were validated using computational fluid dynamic method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-vessel helium injection and ex-vessel enclosure concept will mitigate air-ingress effectively. - Abstract: An air ingress accident following a postulated pipe break is considered a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) safety. Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structures. Under extreme circumstances and without mitigation features this accident may lead to exothermic chemical reactions between graphite and oxygen depending on the accident scenario and the design. Under extreme circumstances (beyond design basis), a loss of structural integrity may occur in some core structures and lead to elevated release of radiological inventory for the fuel matrix. This paper discusses various air ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs that would prevent core damage even in the most extreme scenarios. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air ingress accident using root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air ingress mitigation ideas were conceived and developed. Among them, two concepts were finally evaluated as effective candidates. One concept is to inject helium directly into the lower plenum (direct in-vessel injection); the other concept is to enclose the reactor with a non-pressure boundary with an opening at the bottom (ex-vessel enclosure). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods were used to evaluate these concepts

  6. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  7. Factors influencing disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Emergency nurses are expected to provide required nursing services by using their professional expertise to reduce the risk posed by disasters. Thus, emergency nurses' disaster nursing core competencies are essential for coping with disasters. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify factors influencing the disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses. A survey was conducted among 231 emergency nurses working in 12 hospitals in South Korea. Data were collected on disaster-related experience, attitude, knowledge, and disaster nursing core competencies by means of a questionnaire. In multiple regression analysis, disaster-related experience exerted the strongest influence on disaster nursing core competencies, followed by disaster-related knowledge. The explanatory power of these factors was 25.6%, which was statistically significant (F=12.189, pcompetencies of emergency nurses could be improved through education and training programs that enhance their disaster preparedness. The nursing profession needs to participate actively in the development of disaster nursing education and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Local communities and health disaster management in the mining sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cronjé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities throughout the Southern African Development Community (SADC have impacted on the health and safety of mining communities for many decades. Despite the economic contribution of mining to surrounding communities, a huge amount of social and environmental harm is associated with the industry. In this regard, mining companies have, on the one hand, contributed toward improved social development by providing jobs, paying taxes and earning foreign exchange. On the other hand, they have been linked publicly to poor labour conditions, corruption, pollution incidents, health and safety failings, as well as disrespect of human rights. The objectives of this study are to give an overview of social and natural factors relating to health disasters in selected communities in the mining environment. Regarding the findings, this paper focuses on the social and natural factors involved in the creation of health disasters. The social factors include poverty, unemployment, poor housing and infrastructure, prostitution and a high influx of unaccompanied migrant labour. Major health issues in this regard, which will be highlighted, are the extraordinary high incidence rate of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections, addiction and mental illness. The environmental (natural threats to health that will be discussed in the study are harmful particles in the air and water, excessive noise and overcrowded and unhygienic living conditions. In conclusion, the paper also finds that communities need to be ‘fenced in’ in terms of health disaster management instead of being excluded. Specific recommendations to mining companies to reduce health and safety disasters will be made to conclude the paper.

  9. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  10. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  11. The Great Scottish Housing Disaster: The Impacts of Feudalism, Modernism, Energy Efficiency and Vapour Barriers on Indoor Air Quality, Asthma and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Howieson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents 30 years of research into the arena of housing and health. It brings together the conclusions of three books and the findings of multiple research papers undertaken by the author and published by medical, engineering and social policy journals. This work aims to highlight the links and connections between the diverse arenas of urban form, building design, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, respiratory medicine and immunology, all within the socio-economic framework of a small damp country on the fringe of northern Europe.

  12. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  13. Operation Unified Response: A Case Study of the Military’s Role in Foreign Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    disease danger was exacerbated by the introduction of cholera into post-earthquake Haiti, likely by Nepalese United Nation aiel workers, which caused... Mexico ," MSNBC; 5 September 2007.· U.S. Agency for International Development Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Fact Sheet #25, Fiscal Year...March 2011. 29 47 Matt Gutman, "Haiti: As Cholera Spreads, Frustration Builds," ABC News; 18 November 2010. 48 LTC James Ware (US Army, Retired

  14. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters. PMID:22761603

  15. Why a disaster is not just normal business ramped up: Disaster response among ED nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen S; Arbon, Paul; Gebbie, Kristine; Hutton, Alison

    2017-11-15

    The emergency department (ED) is a familiar place for the emergency nurse who spends their working days inside it. A disaster threatens that familiarity and creates changes that make working in the ED during a disaster response different from the everyday experience of working in the ED. This research reports on an aspect of the findings from a larger study about the experience of working as a nurse in the ED during a disaster response. Thirteen nurses from 8 different countries were interviewed about their experience. The findings from this research demonstrate that a disaster event leads to a chain reaction of changes in process, space and practice. Nurses' respond to the news of a disaster event with shock and disbelief. The ED may change as a result of the event requiring nurses to work in an altered environment or a completely different setting. These changes provoke nurses to alter their behaviour and practice and reflect on the experience after the response. Emergency nurses have a high likelihood of participating in disaster response and as such should be adequately prepared. This highlights how disaster response is different and leads to recommendations to enhance training for emergency nurses which will better prepare them Disasterresponse is not normal business ramped up. There are a number of challenges and changes that should be considered when preparing emergency nurses for the realities of disaster response. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of air breathing rockets. 3: Supersonic mode combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, G.; Chinzel, N.; Kudo, K.; Murakami, A.; Komuro, T.; Ishii, S.

    An experimental study was made on supersonic mode combustors of an air breathing rocket engine. Supersonic streams of room-temperature air and hot fuel-rich rocket exhaust were coaxially mixed and burned in a concially diverging duct of 2 deg half-angle. The effect of air inlet Mach number and excess air ratio was investigated. Axial wall pressure distribution was measured to calculate one dimensional change of Mach number and stagnation temperature. Calculated results showed that supersonic combustion occurred in the duct. At the exit of the duct, gas sampling and Pitot pressure measurement was made, from which radial distributions of various properties were deduced. The distribution of mass fraction of elements from rocket exhaust showed poor mixing performance in the supersonic mode combustors compared with the previously investigated cylindrical subsonic mode combustors. Secondary combustion efficiency correlated well with the centerline mixing parameter, but not with Annushkin's non-dimensional combustor length. No major effect of air inlet Mach number or excess air ratio was seen within the range of conditions under which the experiment was conducted.

  17. STUDY ON LANDSLIDE DISASTER EXTRACTION METHOD BASED ON SPACEBORNE SAR REMOTE SENSING IMAGES – TAKE ALOS PALSAR FOR AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, sequence ALOS PALSAR data and airborne SAR data of L-band from June 5, 2008 to September 8, 2015 are used. Based on the research of SAR data preprocessing and core algorithms, such as geocode, registration, filtering, unwrapping and baseline estimation, the improved Goldstein filtering algorithm and the branch-cut path tracking algorithm are used to unwrap the phase. The DEM and surface deformation information of the experimental area were extracted. Combining SAR-specific geometry and differential interferometry, on the basis of composite analysis of multi-source images, a method of detecting landslide disaster combining coherence of SAR image is developed, which makes up for the deficiency of single SAR and optical remote sensing acquisition ability. Especially in bad weather and abnormal climate areas, the speed of disaster emergency and the accuracy of extraction are improved. It is found that the deformation in this area is greatly affected by faults, and there is a tendency of uplift in the southeast plain and western mountainous area, while in the southwest part of the mountain area there is a tendency to sink. This research result provides a basis for decision-making for local disaster prevention and control.

  18. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  19. Performance of air sparging systems -- A review of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.; Brown, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In situ air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in Groundwater and saturated zone soil. Recently, some questions have been raised regarding the effectiveness of air sparging. To address these questions the results of 21 sparging case studies have been compiled to shed light on how well air sparging achieves permanent reduction in groundwater contaminant concentrations. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system

  20. Natural disasters and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Acute effect of ambient air pollution on stroke mortality in the China air pollution and health effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhang, Yuhao; Yang, Chunxue; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Xiaohui; Kan, Haidong

    2013-04-01

    There have been no multicity studies on the acute effects of air pollution on stroke mortality in China. This study was undertaken to examine the associations between daily stroke mortality and outdoor air pollution (particulate matter air pollution with daily stroke mortality. Air pollution was associated with daily stroke mortality in 8 Chinese cities. In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 μg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of particulate matter air pollution and risk of stroke mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in China, or even in other developing countries, to report the acute effect of air pollution on stroke mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effect of air pollution on stroke for high-exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  2. Economic and technical feasibility study of compressed air storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The results of a study of the economic and technical feasibility of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are presented. The study, which concentrated primarily on the application of underground air storage with combustion turbines, consisted of two phases. In the first phase a general assessment of the technical alternatives, economic characteristics and the institutional constraints associated with underground storage of compressed air for utility peaking application was carried out. The goal of this assessment was to identify potential barrier problems and to define the incentive for the implementation of compressed air storage. In the second phase, the general conclusions of the assessment were tested by carrying out the conceptual design of a CAES plant at two specific sites, and a program of further work indicated by the assessment study was formulated. The conceptual design of a CAES plant employing storage in an aquifer and that of a plant employing storage in a conventionally excavated cavern employing a water leg to maintain constant pressure are shown. Recommendations for further work, as well as directions of future turbo-machinery development, are made. It is concluded that compressed air storage is technically feasible for off-peak energy storage, and, depending on site conditions, CAES plants may be favored over simple cycle turbine plants to meet peak demands. (LCL)

  3. The Gulf of Mexico air quality study: An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Section 328 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the EPA to promulgate a rule establishing air pollution control requirements for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) sources. Congress exempted Gulf of Mexico OCS sources west of 87.5 degrees longitude (near the border of Alabama and Florida) pending the results of a ''three year'' study conducted by the Department of Interior (DOI) - Minerals Management Service (MMS). The study required an examination of the impacts of emissions from OCS activities in such areas that fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for either ozone or nitrogen dioxide. This paper reviews the MMS Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Study's (GMAQS) emission inventory development, historical ozone episode modeling, field sampling, and preliminary photochemical modeling results. Industry has developed a standardized spreadsheet to calculate emissions and a software package to allow operators to figure out the cost to control OCS sources for NO x and VOCs under the EPA's OCS Air Regulations (40 CFR Part 55). Cost estimates are provided for various regulatory scenarios currently being reviewed by the EPA and MMS

  4. Report on the state of radiation contamination in disaster waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Sasaki, Satoru; Yamada, Norikazu; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-09-01

    Fukushima Prefecture faces extreme difficulties in disposing of waste generated from the tsunami disaster (hereinafter referred to as disaster waste) and contaminated with radioactive material released from the crippled Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. Although the waste should be treated according to the level of radioactivity, there are only air dose rates and radionuclide analyses of soil due to monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station and there has been no information on the radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste. The radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste was investigated by sampling measurement and in-situ Ge measurement at 20 temporary disaster waste storages in Fukushima Prefecture excluding the evacuation zone and 'deliberate evacuation zone.' JNES carried out this investigation upon a request from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. The investigation revealed that the measured radioactivity concentrations of the disaster waste lumps were enveloped within the soil monitoring readings in Fukushima Prefecture and also within a correlated curve between the air dose rates obtained from air dose rate readings around the disaster waste and the radioactivity concentrations of it. With these correlation curves, the radioactivity concentration of the disaster waste is estimated to be less than 8,000 Bq/kg at almost all places in the affected area excluding the evacuation zone and 'deliberate evacuation zone.' Measurements by in-situ Ge showed that the radioactivity of the disaster waste which had been expected to be more than 8,000 Bq/kg was less than 8,000 Bq/kg. (author)

  5. Study of electric discharges between moving electrodes in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Pichugin, Yu. P.; Telegin, V. G.; Telegin, G. G.

    2011-01-01

    A barrier electric discharge excited between a fixed electrode and a rotating electrode covered with a dielectric layer in atmospheric-pressure air is studied experimentally. A distinctive feature of this type of discharge is that it operates at a constant voltage between the electrodes. An advantage of the proposed method for plasma generation in the boundary layer of the rotating electrode (e.g., for studying the influence of plasma on air flows) is the variety of forms of the discharge and conditions for its initiation, simplicity of the design of the discharge system, and ease of its practical implementation

  6. Study of electric discharges between moving electrodes in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V.; Pichugin, Yu. P.; Telegin, V. G.; Telegin, G. G. [Chuvash State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    A barrier electric discharge excited between a fixed electrode and a rotating electrode covered with a dielectric layer in atmospheric-pressure air is studied experimentally. A distinctive feature of this type of discharge is that it operates at a constant voltage between the electrodes. An advantage of the proposed method for plasma generation in the boundary layer of the rotating electrode (e.g., for studying the influence of plasma on air flows) is the variety of forms of the discharge and conditions for its initiation, simplicity of the design of the discharge system, and ease of its practical implementation.

  7. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  8. Studies on air ingress for pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.L.; Oh, C.H.; Merrill, B.J.; Petti, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been considered a critical event for helium-cooled pebbled bed reactors. Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken air will enter the core through the break and then by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and graphite pebbles. Thus, without any mitigating features a LOCA will lead to an air ingress event. The INEEL is studying such an event with two well-respected light water reactor transient response codes: RELAP5/ATHENA and MELCOR. To study the degree of graphite oxidation occurring due to an air ingress event, a MELCOR model of a reference pebble bed design was constructed. A modified version of MELCOR developed at INEEL, which includes graphite oxidation capabilities, and molecular diffusion of air into helium was used for these calculations. Results show that the lower reflector graphite consumes all of the oxygen before reaching the core. The results also show a long time delay between the time that the depressurization phase of the accident is over and the time that natural circulation air through the core occurs. (author)

  9. Motor vehicle-related air toxics study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Section 202 (1)(1) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended (Section 206 of the Clean Air Act Amendments) (CAAA) of 1990 added paragraph (1) to Section 202 of the (CAA), directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complete a study by May 15, 1992 of the need for, and feasibility of, controlling emissions of toxic air pollutants which are unregulated under the Act and associated with motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels. The report has been prepared in response to Section 202 (1)(1). Specific pollutants or pollutant categories which are discussed in the report include benezene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, diesel particulate matter, gasoline particulate matter, and gasoline vapors as well as certain of the metals and motor vehicle-related pollutants identified in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. The focus of the report is on carcinogenic risk. The study attempts to summarize what is known about motor vehicle-related air toxics and to present all significant scientific opinion on each issue

  10. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.

    1999-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  11. Effectiveness of microinsurance during and after a disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at the effectiveness of microinsurance services during and after a disaster and at disaster management as an effective tool for community betterment. A detailed review has been done on available research and case studies. Unfortunately, underdeveloped countries suffer due to a lack of finances during and after a disaster. Developed countries are usually not ready for any disaster at government and public levels. A disaster affected country will also be keen for financial help from donor agencies and other counties. Microinsurance would be very helpful during any disaster to overcome the financial needs at the community level. Microinsurance is a practice that can share the financial liability with the affected population during a disaster. There is no trend in Pakistan for community based microinsurance for certain reasons, although there are very good examples available for review in the region. These include microinsurance services based on community microinsurance models such as SEWA (Gujarat, Weather-Index-based insurance (Ethiopia and Crop insurance against typhoons (Philippine. These have played a vital role in disaster risk transfer during and after disasters. This study will identify the implementation and outcome of microinsurance in Pakistan during a disaster and understand how much beneficial microinsurance would be for the betterment and recovery of affective community on an urgent basis.

  12. Coping with Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or friends. On-going stress from the secondary effects of disaster, such as temporarily living elsewhere, loss of friends and social networks, loss of personal property, parental unemployment, and costs ...

  13. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  14. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  15. Disaster Distress Helpline: Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + SAMHSA.gov Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...

  16. Disaster Distress Helpline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + SAMHSA.gov Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...

  17. Optimism following a tornado disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Rose, Jason P; Windschitl, Paul D; Smith, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Effects of exposure to a severe weather disaster on perceived future vulnerability were assessed in college students, local residents contacted through random-digit dialing, and community residents of affected versus unaffected neighborhoods. Students and community residents reported being less vulnerable than their peers at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the disaster. In Studies 1 and 2, absolute risk estimates were more optimistic with time, whereas comparative vulnerability was stable. Residents of affected neighborhoods (Study 3), surprisingly, reported less comparative vulnerability and lower "gut-level" numerical likelihood estimates at 6 months, but later their estimates resembled the unaffected residents. Likelihood estimates (10%-12%), however, exceeded the 1% risk calculated by storm experts, and gut-level versus statistical-level estimates were more optimistic. Although people believed they had approximately a 1-in-10 chance of injury from future tornadoes (i.e., an overestimate), they thought their risk was lower than peers.

  18. The neurobiological role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in recovery from trauma. Longitudinal brain imaging study among survivors of the South Korean subway disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kim, Jieun E; Yoon, Sujung J; Hwang, Jaeuk; Bae, Sujin; Kim, Dajung J

    2011-07-01

    A multiwave longitudinal neuroimaging study in a cohort of direct survivors of a South Korean subway disaster, most of whom recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder 5 years after trauma, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the brain correlates of recovery from a severe psychological trauma. To investigate region-specific brain mobilization during successful recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder by assessing cortical thickness multiple times from early after trauma to recovery, and to examine whether a brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism was associated with this brain mobilization. Five-year follow-up case-control study conducted from 2003-2007. Seoul National University and Hospital. Thirty psychologically traumatized disaster survivors and 36 age- and sex-matched control group members recruited from the disaster registry and local community, respectively, who contributed 156 high-resolution brain magnetic resonance images during 3 waves of assessments. Cerebral cortical thickness measured in high-resolution anatomic magnetic resonance images using a validated cortical thickness analysis tool and its prospective changes from early after trauma to recovery in trauma-exposed individuals and controls. Trauma-exposed individuals had greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortical (DLPFC) thickness 1.42 years after trauma (right DLPFC, 5.4%; left superior frontal cortex, 5.8%; and left inferior frontal cortex, 5.3% [all clusters, P ≤ .01]) relative to controls. Thicknesses gradually normalized over time during recovery. We found a positive linear trend, with trauma-exposed individuals with a valine/valine genotype having the greatest DLPFC cortical thickness, followed by those with a methionine genotype and controls (P < .001 for trend). Greater DLPFC thickness was associated with greater posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reductions and better recovery. The DLPFC region might play an important role in psychological recovery from a

  19. Department of Defense Road Ahead for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    response to the flood in Pakistan: "According to the [National Disaster Management Authority] NDMA , unusually heavy rainfall and flooding in late July...Widespread flooding affected 82 ofPakistan’s 122 districts, according to the NDMA . As a result, more than 12 million people required humanitarian...MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MEDCAPS Medical Civic Assistance Programs MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit NDMA National Disaster Management

  20. Health Sector Coordination in Disasters: Barriers & Facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.

  1. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  2. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  3. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gunhui

    2017-04-01

    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  4. Do community- and individual-level social relationships contribute to the mental health of disaster survivors?: A multilevel prospective study after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Hase, Akihiro; Sato, Yukihiro; Koyama, Shihoko; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Disasters greatly threaten the health and lives of people all over the world. Japan experienced severe damage following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and some survivors continue to live in prefabricated temporary housing, built collectively in damaged areas. Previous studies have shown that social relationships in such communities have the potential to protect the mental health of disaster survivors. We examined the association between survivors' social support and social participation in 2012 and their psychological distress in 2013 using the K6 scale. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to all 15,979 households in prefabricated temporary housing in eight municipalities in Miyagi prefecture in 2012, and 19,284 adults from 9366 (58.6%) households responded. One year later, 10,880 adults responded to a follow-up survey. Multivariate multilevel linear regression analyses with multiply imputed datasets showed that survivors' psychological distress at follow-up significantly differed between communities (community-level variance [standard error] = 0.38 [0.13]). The variance was reduced to 0.25 [0.09] after considering individual demographic characteristics and psychological distress at baseline. Individual- and community-level social relationships of 7.1% and 15.8%, respectively, explained the difference. After adjusting for covariates including K6 scale at baseline, individual-level social support, community-level social support, and individual-level social participation were significantly associated with low psychological distress at follow-up (coefficients [95% confidence intervals] were: -0.54 [-0.79, -0.30]; -0.43 [-0.72, -0.14]; and -0.22 [-0.40, -0.04], respectively). Community-level social participation was not significantly associated with psychological distress. The present study showed that: 1) survivors' psychological distress varied between temporary housing communities in 2013; 2) individual- and community-level social

  5. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Epidemiology Studies and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  6. Activation of coagulation system during air travel: a crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreijer, A. J. M.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Büller, H. R.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Our aim was to ascertain whether flying leads to a hypercoagulable state. METHODS: We did a crossover study in 71 healthy volunteers (15 men, 56 women), in whom we measured markers

  7. Radon diffusion studies in air, gravel, sand, soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    Radon isotopes are practically inert and have properties of gases under conditions of geological interest. During their brief lives their atoms are capable of moving from sites of their generation. Radon diffusion studies were carried out in air, gravel, sand, soil and water using silicon diffused junction electronic detector, Alphameter-400. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials. (author)

  8. Medical rehabilitation after natural disasters: why, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq A; Gosney, James E; Reinhardt, Jan D; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan; DeLisa, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    Natural disasters can cause significant numbers of severe, disabling injuries, resulting in a public health emergency and requiring foreign assistance. However, since medical rehabilitation services are often poorly developed in disaster-affected regions and not highly prioritized by responding teams, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has historically been underemphasized in global disaster planning and response. Recent development of the specialties of "disaster medicine" and "disaster rehabilitation" has raised awareness of the critical importance of rehabilitation intervention during the immediate postdisaster emergency response. The World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has authored this report to assess the role of emergency rehabilitation intervention after natural disasters based on current scientific evidence and subject matter expert accounts. Major disabling injury types are identified, and spinal cord injury, limb amputation, and traumatic brain injury are used as case studies to exemplify the challenges to effective management of disabling injuries after disasters. Evidence on the effectiveness of disaster rehabilitation interventions is presented. The authors then summarize the current state of disaster-related research, as well as lessons learned from PRM emergency rehabilitation response in recent disasters. Resulting recommendations for greater integration of PRM services into the immediate emergency disaster response are provided. This report aims to stimulate development of research and practice in the emerging discipline of disaster rehabilitation within organizations that provide medical rehabilitation services during the postdisaster emergency response. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post Disaster Assessment with Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Florence J. Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at pdrrmcguimaras.herokuapp.com to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.

  10. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.

    2013-04-01

    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  11. CONTESTING THE MEANINGS OF DISASTER: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY ON YOGYAKARTA PEOPLE’S RESPONSES TO THE MAY 27, 2006 EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Basri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Secara geografis, Indonesia merupakan negara yang sangat berpotensi atau rawan terjadi bencana baik berupa bencana alam (natural disaster maupun bencana akibat ulah kelalaian manusia (man-made disaster. Namun sayang sekali, para akademisi dan para peneliti masih sedikit yang tertarik untuk lebih jauh mengkaji bencana utamanya dalam perpektif ilmu-ilmu sosial. Sebagai salah satu upaya memulai kajian bencana di negeri ini, thesis ini diharapkan menjadi titik awal pengembangan ilmu-ilmu sosial dalam kajian bencana. Paper ini menyimpulkan bahwa proses kontestasi pemaknaan masyarakat dalam merespon bencana gempa dipengaruhi oleh tiga aspek, yaitu agama (religious meaning, Budaya Jawa (Javanese meaning, dan penjelasan sains (scientific meaning. Walaupun ketiga aspek tersebut saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain, berdasarkan respon masyarakat Wonokromo, aspek agama sangat mendominasi pikiran mereka. Ada empat variasi pemaknaan yang didasarkan pada aspek agama, yakni bencana sebagai hukuman, cobaan, tes, dan surat cinta dari Tuhan. Respon ini secara implisit masih problematis terutama jika dikaitkan dengan masalah theodicy (problem of evil di dalam teologi dan proses pemulihan bencana karena pandangan seperti ini cenderung memojokkan korban (blaming the victims.

  12. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health.

  13. Disaster medicine. Mental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)

  14. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  15. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  16. Air dan Konflik: Studi Kasus Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hary Jocom

    2016-04-01

    / water conflict, but did not occur in the context of the community in the district Kolbano and Kualin, and other areas in the district TTS.   Keywords: Conflict, natural resources, water resources, water scarcity Cara sitasi: Jocom, H., Kameo, D.D., Utami, I., dan Kristijanto, A.I. (2016. Air dan Konflik: Studi Kasus Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan. 14(1,51-61, doi:10.14710/jil.14.1.51-61

  17. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  18. 76 FR 30749 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident... disaster: Primary Counties: Cumberland. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Adams, Dauphin, Franklin, Perry...

  19. 78 FR 52600 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Lawrence. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Beaver...

  20. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Montgomery. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Berks...

  1. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident... the disaster: Primary Counties: Philadelphia. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Bucks, Delaware...

  2. 75 FR 71486 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe... the disaster: Primary Counties: Delaware. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Chester, Montgomery...

  3. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  4. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Allegheny. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  5. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Armstrong. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  6. Natural disasters and nontuberculous mycobacteria: a recipe for increased disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Jennifer R; Bernhard, Jon N; Chan, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters.

  7. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, R.; Hoek, G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Fischer, P.; Schouten, L.J.; Jerrett, M.; Hughes, E.; Armstrong, B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives: We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and

  8. Theoretical study for solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Donggen; Zhang Xiaosong; Yin Yonggao [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new liquid regeneration equipment - solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator for liquid desiccant cooling system is put forward in this paper, which is preferable to solution regeneration in hot and moist climate in South China. The equipment can achieve liquid regeneration in lower temperature. When the solution and the air are in ''match'' state in collector/ regenerator, a match air to salt mass ratio ASMR* is found by theoretical study in which there is the largest theoretical storage capacity SC{sub max}. After two new concepts of the effective solution proportion (EPS) and the effective storage capacity (ESC) are defined, it is found by theoretical calculation that when ESP drops from 100% to 67%, ESC raises lowly, not drops and liquid outlet concentration C{sub str} {sub sol} increases from 40% to 49% in which its increment totals to 90%. All these data explain fully that air pretreatment liquid regeneration equipment enables to improve the performance of liquid desiccant cooling system. (orig.)

  9. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  10. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  11. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E

    2017-08-01

    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  12. Children's Coping in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, James R

    2014-01-01

    Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children's disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children's preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma.

  13. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction: A case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Skinner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.

  15. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  16. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  17. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  18. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  19. Training and post-disaster interventions for the psychological impacts on disaster-exposed employees: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James

    2018-02-15

    When organisations are exposed to traumatic situations, such as disasters, often staff are not prepared for the potential psychological impact which can negatively affect their wellbeing. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological interventions aimed at improving staff wellbeing during or after disasters. Four electronic literature databases were searched. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched. Fifteen articles were included. Five studies suggested that pre-disaster skills training and disaster education can improve employee confidence. Ten studies on post-disaster interventions revealed mixed findings on the effectiveness of psychological debriefing and limited evidence for cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. Pre-disaster training and education can improve employees' confidence in their ability to cope with disasters. The routine use of post-disaster psychological debriefings is not supported; further research is needed to determine if debriefing interventions could be useful in some circumstances. Further research is needed to provide more evidence on the potential positive effects of cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. More experimental studies on psychological disaster interventions are needed.

  20. Urban Risk Reduction Through Effective Disaster Management Plan-A Case Study Of Shimla City Himachal Pradesh India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Karki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By 2050 70 of the worlds population will live in urban areas. In India the urban population has increased from 217 million to 377 million in last two decades .With increasing population the associated risk and vulnerability has also increased. As cities continue to grow there is increased pressure on resources exposure of lives livelihoods and economic social and environmental assets to risk is set to increase exponentially. Recognised as one of the best cities for public services and one of the oldest Municipal Corporation in India Shimla city is situated at the traverse spur of the Central Himalayas at 31004 N to 31010 N latitude and 77005 E to 77015 E longitude at an altitude of 2397.59 m metres amsl. This paper aims at underlying the role of Shimla Municipal Corporation SMC as local government in managing disasters in the city along with effective planning and risk assessments.

  1. STUDY OF THE AIR FLOWS AROUND AN AIRPLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconescu Olivian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This material presents a stage of the designing of an airplane capable to work with low capacity engines of 2.5 and 4 cmc namely the simulation of the air flow around the fuselage and the wings. The study proves the correctness of the choice made in the wing’s positioning and of the horizontal stabilizer of the airplane’s axis,for the chosen airplane type namely acrobat.

  2. STUDY OF THE AIR FLOWS AROUND AN AIRPLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconescu Olivian

    2013-01-01

    This material presents a stage of the designing of an airplane capable to work with low capacity engines of 2.5 and 4 cmc namely the simulation of the air flow around the fuselage and the wings. The study proves the correctness of the choice made in the wing’s positioning and of the horizontal stabilizer of the airplane’s axis,for the chosen airplane type namely acrobat.

  3. Is previous disaster experience a good predictor for disaster preparedness in extreme poverty households in remote Muslim minority based community in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y

    2014-06-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.

  4. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near-Road Exposures to Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...

  5. Valdez air health study - Exposure monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Mikkelsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Valdez, Alaska there is concern about exposure of the public to benzene and other light hydrocarbons emitted during the loading of tankers from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. As part of an overall risk assessment, the Valdez Air Health Study, a personal, indoor and outdoor air sampling program patterned after EPA's TEMA Study was designed and carried out. A unique feature of the study is that, during sampling periods, SF 6 tracer was released at the terminal site to represent terminal hydrocarbon emissions to provide a basis for directly quantitating any contribution of terminal emissions to personal exposure. Sixty citizens at Valdez were selected to wear vests containing sampling equipment for 24-hour periods summer and winter. At the homes of 30 of the participants simultaneous indoor and outdoor samples for hydrocarbons and tracer were collected during the period that each participant collected personal air samples. The paper reviews the design of the program, details of the procedures used, results of the August, 1990 program and preliminary results from the February-March, 1991 program

  6. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  7. Natural disasters and economic growth: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Valckx, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using more than 750 estimates, we perform a meta-regression analysis of studies examining the relationship between economic growth per capita and natural disasters. The studies considered are very different with respect to the type of disasters considered, the sample of countries and time periods

  8. Earthquake Culture: A Significant Element in Earthquake Disaster Risk Assessment and Earthquake Disaster Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrion, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    This book chapter brings to attention the dramatic impact of large earthquake disasters on local communities and society and highlights the necessity of building and enhancing the earthquake culture. Iran was considered as a research case study and fifteen large earthquake disasters in Iran were investigated and analyzed over more than a century-time period. It was found that the earthquake culture in Iran was and is still conditioned by many factors or parameters which are not integrated and...

  9. Study on sampling conditions for the monitoring of waste air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.J.; Buetefisch, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The technical codes for radiological monitoring of the waste air released from a radwaste repository demand that sampling for determination of aerosol-borne radioactivity is to be made with a screener equipped with a suitable number of measuring probes extending over the entire cross-sectional surface of the vent. Another requirement is to ensure that the waste air stream passing through the measuring channel is representative, containing the typical, operation-induced distribution of aerosols across the surface to be scanned. The study reported was intended to determine in a scaled-down model (1:10) of a repository ventilating duct the typical spatial distribution of aerosols (3D particulate density) in order to establish information on the type of typical distributions of aerosols, to be used for optimisation of the measuring site and monitoring instruments. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Study of air pollution scavenging. Fourteenth progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.

    1976-04-01

    The field experiments were continued to estimate convective storm particulate scavenging efficiency in proximity to the St. Louis, Missouri urban-industrial complex. Complementary studies of the urban aerosol characterization, source strength, and removal processes were also studied. The 1975 field effort shifted emphasis from the immediate St. Louis area to the Alton-Wood River industrial complex. Along with the change in size and configuration of the network, there were increases in the numbers of most types of samplers. The new network yielded the following types of samples for analysis and interpretation: 1065 total rain samples from 85 sites; 68 sequential rainwater samples from 2 locations; 272 wet/dry samples from 7 locations; 216 air filter samples from 7 locations; 36 air filter samples from aircraft; and raindrop spectrometer data from 11 sites for the period 17 June-18 August. The analysis procedures require that all water samples undergo filtering for separate analyses of soluble and insoluble fractions of the elemental concentrations. This data collection effort provided a record number of samples for chemical analysis. Approximately 4000 pibals and over 370 radiosondes were released in the operational period, providing wind and thermodynamic data on 33 days. Aircraft missions were flown on 24 days, with one air tracer release of cesium on 19 July 1975. The status of the analysis of all types of data is described.

  11. The changing impact of a severe disaster on the mental health and substance misuse of adolescents : follow-up of a controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Crone, MR; Schuller, AA; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    Background. Disasters are believed to have large effects on the mental health of adolescents but the lack of prospective pre- and post-disaster data on affected and control populations have limited our knowledge on the validity of these claims. We examined the medium-term, 12 months' effects of a

  12. The changing impact of a severe disaster on the mental health and substance misuse of adolescents: follow-up of a controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Crone, M.R.; Schuller, A.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Disasters are believed to have large effects on the mental health of adolescents but the lack of prospective pre- and post-disaster data on affected and control populations have limited our knowledge on the validity of these claims. We examined the medium-term, 12 months' effects of a

  13. The changing impact of a severe disaster on the mental health and substance misuse of adolescnets: follow-up of a controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Crone, M.R.; Schuller, A.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Disasters are believed to have large effects on the mental health of adolescents but the lack of prospective pre- and post-disaster data on affected and control populations have limited our knowledge on the validity of these claims. We examined the medium-term, 12 months' effects of a

  14. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  15. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  16. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  17. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W Harville

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ] to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77% or danger (77-79%, compared to those who reported damage (69-71% or evacuation (64-68%. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68. A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  18. A Study on establishment of air preservation policy strategy in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Kyu; Yoon, Jung Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    For the air preservation and entire global environmental preservation in 21st century, it was implemented as a pre-work to maintain clean and clear air quality and to prepare a preventive air preservation policy. This study was focused on proposing the basic strategy of air preservation policy by deriving problems and evaluating actual results. 34 refs., 2 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. Assessment on air quality pattern: a case study in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, air quality problem has become a major issue in Malaysia for the past two decades, This study aims to determine the pattern of the air quality status, investigate the significant pollutant, relationship between air pollutants and API and evaluate the pattern of air pollution. Data from Putrajaya monitoring station ...

  20. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  1. Report of study 7.3: cooling and air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, F.

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the results of the study carried out by the study group 7.3 in the triennium 1997-2000. The study was focused on industrial refrigeration and air conditioning for the large building utilising natural gas. The goal of this study, carried out in collaboration of the members of study group 7.3, was to analyse the markets of industrial refrigeration and air conditioning for large buildings to identify possibilities to increase the natural gas share in these sectors. The available technology in the two sectors of the market are described in a single section, i.e. the 'State of the art of the technology'. In this section, technical characteristics, applications, performances, new developments and others topics are discussed for absorbers, gas engines, gas turbines and fuel cells. In the 'Industrial Refrigeration' section an analysis of the present global market for the industrial sector is presented. Economics, advantages and barriers to gas units compared with the electrical units are discussed. Information on existing industrial plants, possible application options and new technology developments are described as well. The 'Air conditioning for the large building' section deals with offices, hotels, commercial buildings, hospitals and shopping centres with a cooling capacity of 350 kW or higher. It appears that the use of natural gas for cooling of large buildings has been increasing during the last decade, thanks to the greater availability of natural gas and the development of new technologies. A marketing survey of gas air-conditioning was carried out in cooperation with a group of Intergas Marketing. Based on the survey, the report describes the market position of natural gas relative to electricity. It provides the strategic prospects for further developing natural gas as a competitive option for air-conditioning of large buildings using a combination of state-of-the-art technologies. It is important to highlight

  2. Tsunami-affected Scandinavian tourists: disaster exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heir, Trond; Rosendal, Susanne; Bergh-Johannesson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies.......Studies of short- and long-term mental effects of natural disasters have reported a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Less is known about disaster-exposed tourists repatriated to stable societies....

  3. Community Disasters, Psychological Trauma, and Crisis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    The current issue of International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience is focused on community disasters, the impact of trauma exposure, and crisis intervention. The articles incorporated include studies ranging from the World Trade Center disaster to Hurricane Sandy. These studies are related to public attitudes and beliefs about disease outbreaks, the impact of volunteerism following the World Trade Center attacks, alcohol misuse among police officers after Hurricane Katrina, posttraumatic stress disorder after Hurricane Sandy among those exposed to the Trade Center disaster, compassion fatigue and burnout among trauma workers, crisis interventions in Eastern Europe, and police officers' use of stress intervention services. While this scope is broad, it reflects the knowledge that has emerged since the Buffalo Creek and Chernobyl catastrophes, to the more recent Hurricane Katrina and Sandy disasters. Given the current threat environment, psychologists, social workers, and other providers need to be aware of these developments and be prepared to mitigate the impact of psychological trauma following community disasters, whether natural or man-made.

  4. Translocal disaster interventions:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2018-01-01

    The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major sender of migrants worldwide.Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investi-gates how individual migrants channelled relief to their neighbourhoods of originafter the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I argue that ...

  5. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  6. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  7. Settlement preferences in the disaster-prone areas of Brantas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Kota Lama is one of the urban villages in Malang city that has settlements along the Brantas River. Kota Lama experienced three landslides and flooding in 2015 and one in 2016. Those disasters caused the community to take action of post-disaster recovery, yet the people still choose to remain living in Kota Lama. Therefore, the study aims at determining the preferences of the citizens living in disaster-prone areas in Brantas River. The research used a factor analysis of 12 variables: 1) neighbourhood situation, 2) air condition, 3) relations between neighbours, 4) security, 5) location, 6) customs, 7) ethnic diversity, 8) the presence of social groups, 9) the community’s customs and habits, 10) proximity to the economic facilities, 11) adequate educational facilities, and 12) adequate medical/health facilities. The results show that two factors have been formed, namely Factor 1 (access) comprising variables of neighbourhood situation, air condition, relations between neighbours, location, ethnic diversity, the presence of a social group, supporting positive habits at home, close to the economic facilities, educational facilities, as well as medical facilities, and Factor 2 (assurance) consisting of customs and security.

  8. Air Force Nuclear Enterprise Organization: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    changes. To address the objectives of this study, five investigative questions ( IQ ) are posed: IQ1. What constitutes the Air Force Nuclear Enterprise...are an effective tool being used to raise the level of training. But it is not only necessary to move away from training that merely checks a box...down to an authoritative brain trust of just a few pertinent players (e.g. AFGSC/CC, HAF/A10 Director, AFNWC/CC, etc). As this study has portrayed

  9. A study on contaminant transport in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujala, Usha; Sen, Soubhadra; Subramanian, V.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In case of an accidental release of radioactive contaminant inside a well-ventilated room, the same will be transported to the different parts of the room due to the circulation of indoor air. To ensure safety of the operating personnel, it is important to identify the ideal locations for keeping the warning alarm systems. To address the problem, a detailed study is required where numerical simulation has to be supported by experimental verification. A computational methodology has already been verified for this purpose (IGC report-no.323). In this work, a study on the transport of an inert aerosol inside a well-ventilated isolated room has been carried out

  10. A Survey and Intervention Study of the Military Medics and Physicians' Knowledge about Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Disaster%军医和卫生员“三防”知识认知调查与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京生; 袁跃彬; 胡波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey and promote the military medics and doctors' knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster. Method 243 medics and 110 military physicians were surveyed firstly. And then they learned some knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster through multimedia and demonstrating. Six months later, they were surveyed again. Result Before intervention, related knowledge of the medics and doctors was deficiency( the score was 55. 3 and 50. 3 respectively). The scores of the navy were higher than the land army and the air force. All their scores were promoted significantly after intervention (P <0. 01) , education level had effects on the scores (P <0. 01). Conclusion This study demonstrates the knowledge of the medics and doctors doesn' t meet the needs of military missions, so it is necessary and urgent to improve their related knowledge to make better preparedness for the potential high - tech warfare.%目的 了解并提高部队军医和卫生员“三防”防护知识.方法 共抽样175名军医和243名卫生员,现场填写调查表和考核,一系列干预措施后重复调查和考核.结果 干预前军医和卫生员核化生防护知识均缺乏,分别得分为总成绩的55.3%和50.3%,干预后军医和卫生员成绩均显著提高(P<0.01),文化程度对军医或卫生员干预前后成绩均有显著性影响(P<0.01).结论 部队军医和卫生员“三防”知识与实际要求尚存有差距,努力提高其“三防”知识,为潜在的高技术条件下的局部战争做好军事斗争准备有重要的现实意义.

  11. Natural disaster vulnerability and human-induced pressure assessment in small islands developing states: A case study in the Union of the Comoros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, S.; Meddeb, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Comoros Islands are part of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) located in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are islands and low-lying coastal nations that face common barriers to sustainable development, including limited resources, poor economic resilience, and vulnerability to sea level rise and natural disasters. The Comoros Archipelago is made up of four islands but the present study was conducted on three islands, namely Mwali (Mohéli), Ngazidja (Grande Comore) and Dzwani (Anjouan) that are aligned in the Mozambique Channel and spread over a surface area of 1862 km2. These islands are exposed to natural disaster coupled with human-induced pressure on natural resources. The major natural disaster vulnerability has been identified by the National AdaptationProgramme of Action (NAPA, 2006) as climate change, whose likely adverse impacts on the Comoros Islands are: i) changes in rainfall patterns; ii) increases in temperature; iii) salinization of coastal aquifers as a result of salt water intrusion due to sea level rise; and iv) increased frequency of severe weather conditions (such as tropical cyclones, droughts, heavy rainfall and flooding). In addition, existing practices related to natural resources management (primarily land, forest and water management) are very poor and this failure is increasingly threatening water and food security, resulting in a decline of economic growth and standards of living within the Comoros. Human-induced pressure combined with climate change impact is the inherent vulnerabilities of these islands. The government of the Union of the Comoros is aware of the alarming nature of climate change impact and has put in place several projects aiming at implementing adaptation measures in order to help increase the resilience of the vulnerable population in the face of this threat. These projects involve strengthening institutions, policy and regulations so as to improve the management of natural resources, among other measures. The

  12. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  13. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  14. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has brought with it some forms of extreme weather events. One of such is heavy rainfall which often leads to flood. In recent times, flood disaster has been a regular occurrence destroying lives and property. This study was carried out to identify and assess contributing factors to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

  15. Himalayan/Karakoram Disaster After Disaster: The Pain Will Not Be Ending Anytime Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Are recent natural disasters in the Himalaya/Karakoram partly human-caused? Will disasters diminish or increase in frequency? Natural disasters in this region are nothing new. Earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, and debris flows have occurred in the Himalaya/Karakoram since the mountains first grew from the sea. Simply put, the Himalaya/Karakoram, being South Asia's 'water tower' and an active plate tectonic collision zone, must shed water and debris to the lowlands and the sea. When this activity occurs swiftly and with high intensity at or near human settlements, the results are often deadly. Remote sensing analysis of recent disasters coupled with demography, news accounts, and field studies indicate that there is a component of human responsibility. Two overarching human elements include (1) settlement and infrastructure encroachment into hazardous mountain areas and (2) aggravation of climate change. Both are substantially responsible--separately or together--for most of the recent tragedies. These conclusions provide the answer to when the disasters will end: not soon. Unfortunately, disasters will almost surely increase. Whether natural disasters have increased in frequency over the region's long historical record may be debated and must be researched. This expected link is a challenge to assess due to the stochastic nature of disasters and their triggering events (e.g., earthquakes and extreme weather events). While Himalayan tectonism, rock mechanics, glaciation, and climate are fundamental causes of the disasters, so are human land uses. Encroaching development into ever-hazardous zones is a paramount cause of much human tragedy. Climate change is harder to pin down specifically as a cause of some of these disasters, because some disasters are linked to rare extreme weather events and mass movements, which may be statistically but not individually attributable in part to climate change. Nevertheless, evidence supports a major role of climate

  16. Increased beta power in the bereaved families of the Sewol ferry disaster: A paradoxical compensatory phenomenon? A two-channel electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kuk-In; Shim, Miseon; Lee, Sang Min; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-11-01

    The Sewol ferry capsizing accident on South Korea's southern coast resulted in the death of 304 people, and serious bereavement problems for their families. Electroencephalography (EEG) beta frequency is associated with psychiatric symptoms, such as insomnia. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between frontal beta power, psychological symptoms, and insomnia in the bereaved families. Eighty-four family members of the Sewol ferry victims (32 men and 52 women) were recruited and their EEG was compared with that of 25 (13 men and 12 women) healthy controls. A two-channel EEG device was used to measure cortical activity in the frontal lobe. Symptom severity of insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, complicated grief, and anxiety were evaluated. The bereaved families showed a higher frontal beta power than healthy controls. Subgroup analysis showed that frontal beta power was lower in the individuals with severe insomnia than in those with normal sleep. There was a significant inverse correlation between frontal beta power and insomnia symptom in the bereaved families. This study suggests that increased beta power, reflecting the psychopathology in the bereaved families of the Sewol ferry disaster, may be a compensatory mechanism that follows complex trauma. Frontal beta power could be a potential marker indicating the severity of sleep disturbances. Our results suggest that sleep disturbance is an important symptom in family members of the Sewol ferry disaster's victims, which may be screened by EEG beta power. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. The role of social and economic context, and local knowledge for post-disaster reconstruction of high-mountain hazards: a case study from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulce Burga, María; Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Following the occurrence of an extreme event, specific and immediate actions are oriented to relieve basic needs and guarantee the subsistence of daily life. One of the priorities is focused on the reconstruction and relocation to areas away from possible hazard. However, on a long-term perspective, new contexts, concerns and priorities among the affected as well as the immigrated population foster new risk perceptions, which in many cases may include the returning or settlement in areas exposed to hazards. In Santa Teresa (Cusco, Peru), risk has been part of its history. In 1998, two very large debris flows from deglaciated areas, in January and February respectively, destroyed the old city located by the riverside of the Sacsara river; including the loss of lives, housing, loss of infrastructure and roads, electricity and water cuts, among other important losses. Today, the new city is located on a terrace above the river reach; and their current inhabitants, mainly migrants from different cities of the region of Cusco, have a different perspective of this experience. On the contrary, many of the inhabitants who experienced these events have returned to the risk areas where they lost everything, or they have settled in disaster prone areas. There is a set of factors, such as local knowledge (regarding space, economy, etc.) and new social contexts (such as the rise of tourism in risk areas, for example) that are implicit in the current narratives regarding hazard and risk. This work purposes the following questions: how does the social and economic context, as well as local knowledge influence risk perceptions? Are there any differences concerning risk perceptions between groups who decided to live in disaster prone areas and groups who are less exposed to risk? And which are the strategies within the groups regarding risk, considering how this concept is understood among them? In order to analyze these questions, this work is based on a case study in the

  18. Assessment of ecological studies examining the risk of thyroid cancer in children through radiation exposure following the nuclear power plant disaster in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blettner, M.; Jacob, P.; Kaiser, C.J.; Bertelsmann, H.; Kutschmann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies can be divided into studies with an individual database (cohort studies, case control studies) and studies with aggregate data (ecological studies). The former have the advantage that they can make use of methods based on risk models and examine dose-effect curves with due consideration to potential confounders, but the drawback of being expensive. Studies based on aggregate data can take account of large case numbers at comparatively low cost. However, ecological studies are also associated with serious methodological problems, especially when the goal is to find causal links (''ecological bias''). Thus it is well known that variations in a confounding factor (such as smoking in a study on lung cancer through radon) can invalidate the results of studies based on aggregate data. On the other hand, the only studies to have produced quantitative results on the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer through 131 I exposure during childhood in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster happen to be based on aggregate data. The purpose of the present paper is to examine problems associated with ecological studies which have already been in the focus of many studies of epidemiological methodology in terms of whether they are relevant to studies investigating connections between thyroid cancer and 131 I exposure. It also presents the results of several simulation studies which examine the degree of distortion associated with ecological analyses

  19. Deep Tunnel for Regulating Combined Sewer Overflow Pollution and Flood Disaster: A Case Study in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The DongHaoChong (DHC basin is located in the central city zone of Guangzhou City, China. Owing to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, diversion of rain and sewage is difficult. Waterlogging occurs frequently and combined sewer overflow (CSO pollution is a serious problem during the rainy season. Therefore, a deep tunnel for the DongHaoChong basin has been planned and its construction is currently underway. An urban rainstorm model for the DongHaoChong basin was developed on the basis of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM, and both the interception effect of CSO pollution and the degree of mitigation of flood were analyzed. Reasonable scenarios for the deep tunnel in terms of rainstorms with different design recurrence periods were evaluated. From the viewpoints of preventing rainstorm waterlogging disasters and protecting water quality in the region downstream of DongHaoChong River, the river flood control and drainage capacities of the region were improved to a 2-year rainstorm design recurrence period by the construction of the deep tunnel. Furthermore, the main pollutant load of the CSO is expected to be reduced by about 30%–40%.

  20. International aid and natural disasters: a pre- and post-earthquake longitudinal study of the healthcare infrastructure in Leogane, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. HIGH RISK ZONES ON FLOODS AND LANDSLIDES DISASTERS IN RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsengiyumva J.ean Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk management as an issue at stake worldwide shifts its emphases from post disaster to pre-disaster phases. Management activities required in pre-disaster phases, such as risk assessment, hazard identification, preparedness or preventive and mitigation measures needs detailed information about hazard characteristics, social, economic, structural vulnerability and capacity. That information is not usually available in many different countries, as it is the case in Rwanda. Based on the international experiences and practices, knowledge of disaster prone areas can be assumed as an alternative for detailed information acquisition, thus contributing to effective disaster risk management. Identification of disaster higher risk zones on floods and landslides, can lead to better understanding of disaster risk and putting in place measures for risk reduction. Consequently, as Rwanda is prone to natural hazards with lack of adequate information that is essential for effective disaster risk management, due to limited scientific researches; this study aims to address that gap. The results revealed that some areas of the North-Western parts of Rwanda are highly prone to floods and landslides, namely Burera, Musanze, Rulindo, Nyabihu, Ngororero and Rubavu Districts. This is aggravated by some triggering factors such as steep slopes, soil types, heavy rains, landuse Practices and others. Intensity and frequency of disaster events vary from district to district and this geographical dispersal confirms the non-spatial clustering (as confirmed by Moran’s I analysis of risks due to uneven level of Disaster vulnerabilities, coping capacities and available hazards whereby lack of normal distribution of hazards all over all Districts.

  2. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  3. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  4. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslin, S I; Wahap, N A; Han, O W

    2014-01-01

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA

  5. Risk assessment of natural disasters in the course of selection of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weicheng; Ai Guigen

    1995-01-01

    Natural disasters are calamities which bring about enormous damage to human beings and their accommodations and equipment. Based on the research of disaster risk and example study of volcanism, we tried to carry out the risk assessment of natural disasters which potentially occur in the candidate area of nuclear waste disposal by three steps of analyses, defining the most frequent occurring area of disasters, determining the parameters of risk assessment and dividing the most dangerous site and risk grades

  6. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Jun; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nomura, Soichiro; Yoshino, Aihide

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; pdisaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  7. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  8. Modelling a critical infrastructure-driven spatial database for proactive disaster management: A developing country context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Baloye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and institutionalisation of the seamless link between urban critical infrastructure and disaster management has greatly helped the developed world to establish effective disaster management processes. However, this link is conspicuously missing in developing countries, where disaster management has been more reactive than proactive. The consequence of this is typified in poor response time and uncoordinated ways in which disasters and emergency situations are handled. As is the case with many Nigerian cities, the challenges of urban development in the city of Abeokuta have limited the effectiveness of disaster and emergency first responders and managers. Using geospatial techniques, the study attempted to design and deploy a spatial database running a web-based information system to track the characteristics and distribution of critical infrastructure for effective use during disaster and emergencies, with the purpose of proactively improving disaster and emergency management processes in Abeokuta. Keywords: Disaster Management; Emergency; Critical Infrastructure; Geospatial Database; Developing Countries; Nigeria

  9. European region case study the ethos project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.

    2004-01-01

    As the worst civilian nuclear accident, the Chernobyl disaster presented the authorities first in the Soviet Union and then in the independent republics with an unprecedented problem. Strenuous and costly efforts were made to limit the effects of the accident and then to cope with the evacuation or rehabilitation as appropriate of the contaminated areas. By the mid-1990's, however, there was increasing evidence that the problems were over-taxing traditional responses. Into this context, a French team of specialists from a range of disciplines entered with a view to attempting improvements, but without preconceived ideas of what they would do or how they would do it. Beginning by listening to the people of the area of Belarus selected for the so-called ETHOS project, they discovered a profound distrust of the authorities and experts born of the perceived shortcomings of the official responses to the problems to date. They thus worked in close co-operation with the people both to identify the problems that concerned them and to develop solutions that took account of local opportunities and constraints. This interim report on a case study examining the ETHOS project is based on interviews with a wide range of people in the area of the project. It presents the problems identified by interviewees with the initial responses of the authorities and then their assessment of the ETHOS approach. The overall finding is that where public confidence has been lost in the context of an event such as the Chernobyl disaster, the authorities need to make a special effort to establish trust to a point where confidence returns. Traditional top-down responses appear to have exacerbated and reinforced the loss of confidence in this case whereas the approach of the ETHOS team appears to have succeeded in building trust to a significant degree - perhaps even to a point where there may be evidence that confidence is returning. (author)

  10. How a nuclear power plant accident influences acceptance of nuclear power: results of a longitudinal study before and after the Fukushima disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Major nuclear accidents, such as the recent accident in Fukushima, Japan, have been shown to decrease the public's acceptance of nuclear power. However, little is known about how a serious accident affects people's acceptance of nuclear power and the determinants of acceptance. We conducted a longitudinal study (N= 790) in Switzerland: one survey was done five months before and one directly after the accident in Fukushima. We assessed acceptance, perceived risks, perceived benefits, and trust related to nuclear power stations. In our model, we assumed that both benefit and risk perceptions determine acceptance of nuclear power. We further hypothesized that trust influences benefit and risk perceptions and that trust before a disaster relates to trust after a disaster. Results showed that the acceptance and perceptions of nuclear power as well as its trust were more negative after the accident. In our model, perceived benefits and risks determined the acceptance of nuclear power stations both before and after Fukushima. Trust had strong effects on perceived benefits and risks, at both times. People's trust before Fukushima strongly influenced their trust after the accident. In addition, perceived benefits before Fukushima correlated with perceived benefits after the accident. Thus, the nuclear accident did not seem to have changed the relations between the determinants of acceptance. Even after a severe accident, the public may still consider the benefits as relevant, and trust remains important for determining their risk and benefit perceptions. A discussion of the benefits of nuclear power seems most likely to affect the public's acceptance of nuclear power, even after a nuclear accident. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...... to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo...

  12. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management. Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster management rules and responses in emergency conditions. Creating appropriate tools for disaster management assessment makes it correct and precise in higher education systems using the presented conceptual model. The present model was planned so as to cover three phases which exist before, during, and after disaster. Studies were performed in one of the largest higher education centers in Tehran: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University Campus. Results showed high-risk disasters in these centers which must be taken into consideration continuously. The objective of this study was to create appropriate patterns of disaster risk management in these centers.

  13. Experimental study of photocatalytic concrete products for air purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesken, G.; Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Air quality in inner-city areas is a topic which receives much attention nowadays but in the coming years, the overall interest on this topic will become even bigger. One major concern is caused by the reduction of the limiting values given by the European Council Directive 1999/30/EC [Relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. Official Journal of the European Communities 1999, L 163/41-60] and increasing traffic rates especially for diesel powered passenger cars and freight vehicles. A promising approach for solving the problem of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is the photochemical conversion of nitrogen oxides to low concentrated nitrates due to heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) using titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as photocatalyst. A variety of products containing TiO{sub 2} are already available on the European market and their working mechanism under laboratory conditions is proven. However, there is still a lack of transforming the experimental results obtained under laboratory conditions to practical applications considering real world conditions. This paper presents the research conducted on photocatalytic concrete products with respect to the evaluation of air-purifying properties. The degradation process of nitric oxide (NO) under laboratory conditions is studied using a test setup for measuring the performance of photocatalytic active concrete products. The test setup uses the UV-A induced degradation of NO and is oriented on the ISO standard ISO 22197-1:2007. Besides the introduction of the test setup, a uniform measuring procedure is presented to the reader which allows for an evaluation and direct comparison of the performance of photocatalytic active concrete products. This kind of direct comparison was not possible so far. Furthermore, the results of a comparative study on varying photocatalytic concrete products of the European market will be discussed

  14. Spatial Durbin model analysis macroeconomic loss due to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, D. E.; Mukhtasor

    2015-03-01

    Magnitude of the damage and losses caused by natural disasters is huge for Indonesia, therefore this study aimed to analyze the effects of natural disasters for macroeconomic losses that occurred in 115 cities/districts across Java during 2012. Based on the results of previous studies it is suspected that it contains effects of spatial dependencies in this case, so that the completion of this case is performed using a regression approach to the area, namely Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The obtained significant predictor variable is population, and predictor variable with a significant weighting is the number of occurrences of disasters, i.e., disasters in the region which have an impact on other neighboring regions. Moran's I index value using the weighted Queen Contiguity also showed significant results, meaning that the incidence of disasters in the region will decrease the value of GDP in other.

  15. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  17. Academic Responses to Fukushima Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Yuko; Kamiya, Kenji; Miyatani, Rie; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Sakai, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy; Abdel-Wahab, May; Ohtsuru, Akira

    2017-03-01

    Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters. The first program concentrates on radiation disaster medicine for medical students at the Fukushima Medical University, together with a science, technology, and society module comprising various topics, such as public risk communication, psychosocial consequences of radiation anxiety, and decision making for radiation disaster. The second program is a Phoenix Leader PhD degree at the Hiroshima University, which aims to develop future leaders who can address the associated scientific, environmental, and social issues. The third program is a Joint Graduate School of Master's degree in the Division of Disaster and Radiation Medical Sciences at the Nagasaki University and Fukushima Medical University.

  18. Problems of pharmacological supply of disaster medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaev, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of pharmacological problems, being important for the disaster medicine, of theoretical and practical nature, the settlement of which would promote more efficient rendering emergency medical aid to the injured persons in the conditions of emergency situations and further expert medical care. On the example of radiation accidents there are studied methodical approaches to organization of drug prophylaxis and therapy of the injured persons in emergency situations. The authors have proved the necessity of arranging proper pharmacological supply of disaster medicine which is to settle the whole complex of scientific-applied and organizational questions relating to the competence of pharmacology and pharmacy. 17 refs

  19. Disaster healthcare system management and crisis intervention leadership in Thailand--lessons learned from the 2004 Tsunami disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Rami; Ashkenazi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Shushan, Ofer; Nakash, Guy; Leiba, Adi; Levi, Yeheskel; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    Quarantelli established criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of disaster management. The objectives of this study were to analyze the response of the healthcare system to the Tsunami disaster according to the Quarantelli principles, and to validate these principles in a scenario of a disaster due to natural hazards. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Home Front Command Medical Department sent a research team to study the response of the Thai medical system to the disaster. The analysis of the disaster management was based on Quarantelli's 10 criteria for evaluating the management of community disasters. Data were collected through personal and group interviews. The three most important elements for effective disaster management were: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership. Although pre-event preparedness was for different and smaller scenarios, medical teams repeatedly reported a better performance in hospitals that recently conducted drills. In order to increase effectiveness, disaster management response should focus on: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership.

  20. Learning from mega disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    In Tokyo building on ruins has been its sine qua non ever since the city turned into an enormous urban formation in the seventeenth century: ‘The trauma of urban collapse has been so severe for us in Japan, the inevitability of destruction and rebirth’ (Arate Isozaki 2006 ). But March 2011...... the earthquake was 45 times as great as the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake in the Tokyo area, which killed approximately 140.000 people. Even though Japan is considered one of the best-prepared countries in the world for handling major disasters the reality of a large nuclear disaster proved to be far worse than...... what was planned for. This paper presentation discusses “The Great East Japan Earthquake” of 2011 with particular focus on what happens to social relations and cultural norms, when uncertainty and crisis is something people are living through and living in....

  1. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  2. Lessons from nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    2005-01-01

    The most severe and worst of all nuclear disasters is, needless to say, the explosion of an atomic bomb. The WHO committee on the effects of nuclear war, established in 1982, concluded that the only approach to the treatment of the health effects of nuclear warfare is primary prevention, that is, the prevention of nuclear war. Nuclear disasters have also occurred in nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, causing various damage and acute anxiety among the workers and general public, but thus far the related health effects have not always been correctly evaluated. Such problems as exposed population, individual exposed dose and health risks which are associated with these evaluation efforts are discussed here. (author)

  3. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  4. STUDY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM FOR AIR HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghodbane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar energy in sunny countries, is an effective outil for compensate the lack in the energy, their benefits are not related only to its economic benefits but especially for the environmental protection, so we must find solutions to the problems of pollution. This work is a theoretical study of a solar flat plate collector ; air is used as the heat transfer fluid. In this study, we established in first step the calculation of solar radiation in various sites in Algeria (Adrar, El Oued, Bechar, Biskra and Tamanrasset. The second step is the parameters influence study of the sites and climate on the performance of our collector. The results obtained are encouraging for the use of this type in the heating in the winter, also it can be used in different kinds of drying.

  5. Air Pollution in Shanghai Studied by Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Tan, M.; Chen, J.; Jin, C.; Lin, J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper PIXE, μ-PIXE, XAFS, Moessbauer effect and radioisotope labelling method are briefly introduced. Those methods were used to study the pollution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in Shanghai. The speciation of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the PM10 and PM2.5 and different character of vehicle exhausted particles from other emission sources were studied. Source apportionment of the atmospheric lead was calculated with a combined method of lead isotope ratios and lead mass balance, along with μ-PIXE analysis of single particles and pattern recognition of the spectra. The fabricated ultrafine particles to simulate aerosol particle was used to study the translocation from alveolus into circulation across the air blood barrier

  6. Network-Centric Operations Case Study: Air-to-Air Combat With and Without Link 16

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Daniel; Hollywood, John; Kingston, Gina; Signori, David

    2005-01-01

    ...) Operational Special Project. In this exercise, the capabilities of F-15 air superiority aircraft equipped with voice-only communications were compared with F-15s equipped with voice and JTIDS Link 16 data link communications...

  7. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  8. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  9. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  10. Mental Health and Social Networks After Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Gallagher, H Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Pattison, Philippa; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Baker, Elyse; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Forbes, David; Lusher, Dean

    2017-03-01

    Although disasters are a major cause of mental health problems and typically affect large numbers of people and communities, little is known about how social structures affect mental health after a disaster. The authors assessed the extent to which mental health outcomes after disaster are associated with social network structures. In a community-based cohort study of survivors of a major bushfire disaster, participants (N=558) were assessed for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable depression. Social networks were assessed by asking participants to nominate people with whom they felt personally close. These nominations were used to construct a social network map that showed each participant's ties to other participants they nominated and also to other participants who nominated them. This map was then analyzed for prevailing patterns of mental health outcomes. Depression risk was higher for participants who reported fewer social connections, were connected to other depressed people, or were connected to people who had left their community. PTSD risk was higher if fewer people reported being connected with the participant, if those who felt close to the participant had higher levels of property loss, or if the participant was linked to others who were themselves not interconnected. Interestingly, being connected to other people who in turn were reciprocally close to each other was associated with a lower risk of PTSD. These findings provide the first evidence of disorder-specific patterns in relation to one's social connections after disaster. Depression appears to co-occur in linked individuals, whereas PTSD risk is increased with social fragmentation. These patterns underscore the need to adopt a sociocentric perspective of postdisaster mental health in order to better understand the potential for societal interventions in the wake of disaster.

  11. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shigemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD, to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%. The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. RESULTS: For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001. PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005 and presence of preexisting illness(es (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001. Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. CONCLUSION: Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  12. Study on the air quality near vegetation along the highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, E.P.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van den Bulk, W.C.M.; Vermeulen, A.T.

    2007-08-01

    The results of downwind measurements of air quality around vegetation near a motorway are presented and discussed. The study (first ever in the Netherlands) was performed by order of the Innovation Programme Air Quality. At a carefully selected location measurements of PM and NOx were carried out downwind from a motorway in front of and (at various distances) behind a parallel orientated vegetation strip. Results are compared with synchronized data collected at a nearby location without vegetation (the 'reference' situation) and at the same distances from the motorway. Major findings are: Comparing measurements in front of and behind the vegetation strip show that the presence of vegetation tends to lower PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations immediately behind the vegetation. However, no such change is apparent in the concentrations of NO and NO2. The comparison with measurements executed without vegetation ('reference') indicate that concentration levels close to the vegetation strip are similar or somewhat higher. At a larger distance from motorway and vegetation (>30 m) NO and NO2 concentrations tend to be lower than what is observed in the reference situation. This could not be determined for PM [nl

  13. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  14. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P -1 when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables

  15. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  16. Methodology identification in mass disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ampudia García, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Major disasters in Perul ack from a treatment plan and adapt to the current reality. Were rare and limited to natural disasters such as major earthquakes, floods, torrential rains, erupting volcanoes, and so on.At first these disasters were limited to certain geographic areas ingeneral,but with the advancement of science and technology these events have soared alarming lyas rail crashes, plane crashes, car crashes going at high speed,and if we add the attacks by fundamentalist groups with car...

  17. Architectural heritage in post-disaster society: a tool for resilience in Banda Aceh after the 2004 tsunami disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Cut; Nopera Rauzi, Era

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses the role of architectural heritage as a tool for resilience in a community after a surpassing disaster. It argues that architectural heritage is not merely a passive victim needing to be rescued; rather it is also an active agent in providing resilience for survivors. It is evidence in the ways it acts as a signifier of collective memories and place identities, and a place to seek refuge in emergency time and to decide central decision during the reconstruction process. This paper explores several theories related to architectural heritage in post-disaster context and juxtaposes them in a case study of Banda Aceh after the 2004 Tsunami Disaster. The paper is based on a six-month anthropological fieldwork in 2012 in Banda Aceh after the Tsunami Disaster. During the fieldwork, 166 respondents were interviewed to gain extensive insight into the ways architecture might play a role in post-disaster reconstruction.

  18. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  19. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  20. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  1. The Complexities of Water Disaster Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens; Luu Bich, Ngoc; Man Quang, Huy

    2015-01-01

    The article argues for an interdisciplinary approach to studying the complex circumstances that turn natural hazards into disasters. It takes on the ambitious task of combining a social sciences-inspired vulnerability and adaptation analysis with a natural science-based hydrological modelling...

  2. Feasibility study on novel room air conditioner with natural cooling capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zongwei; Liu, Qiankun; Zhang, Yanqing; Zhang, Shuwei; Liu, Jiangzhen; Li, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel heat pipe combined evaporative cooling room air conditioner is constructed. • The mathematical model of the air conditioner is established. • The reliability of the model is verified by experiments. • The performance of the novel and conventional air conditioner is compared. • The applicability of the novel air conditioner in different areas is investigated. - Abstract: In order to improve the energy efficiency of room air conditioners, this paper proposed a new air conditioner that combined evaporative cooling technology, separate type heat pipe technology, and vapour compression refrigeration technology (called “combined air conditioner”). The mathematical model of the air conditioner was established and its reliability was verified by experiments. Based on the model, the simulation of the operating performance of the combined air conditioner and a conventional air conditioner was studied in typical climate regions during the cooling period, with the following results: In cold and dry areas like Shenyang, compared with the conventional air conditioner, the average cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the combined air conditioner was increased by 27.40%. As the climate gradually became warmer and humidity gradually increased, the running time of the heat pipe cooling mode was gradually reduced, and then the energy-saving effect of the combined air conditioner became worse. For example, in the hot and humid Guangzhou, the energy saving rate was only 11.81%. Therefore, it was found that the combined air conditioner had good energy-saving potential in cold and dry areas.

  3. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  4. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be prepared. Games and Activities Stop Disasters (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) - Online game to learn how to stop various disasters ... | Accessibility Videos and Players Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih. ...

  5. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12820 and 12821] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4025-DR), dated 09/ 12..., Philadelphia, Sullivan, Wyoming. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Pennsylvania: Berks...

  6. 78 FR 45282 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00058

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13669 and 13670] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 07/16/2013. Incident: Severe...: Pennsylvania: Armstrong; Blair; Cambria; Cameron; Centre; Clarion; Clinton; Elk; Forest; Greene; Indiana...

  7. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated 09/ 12.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Pennsylvania: Berks, Carbon, Centre, Chester, Clinton...

  8. Globalisation and Air Transportation Industry: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruddin, Shahrul Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation remains a large and growing industry that is central to the globalisation process. The globalisation impact on the air transportation industry remains largely focused on the airlines, while the impact on airports is rarely defined. The objective of this research is to identify the processes of globalisation that impact the air transportation industry specifically on airport development and operations that will greatly influence the changing nature of airports. A survey ques...

  9. Study of air ingress accident of an HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    Inherent properties of high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) facilitate the design of HTGRs with high degree of passive safety performances. In this context, it is very important to establish a design criteria for a passive safe function for the air ingress accident. However, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the air ingress behavior during the accident before exploring the design criteria. The present paper briefly describes major activities and results of the air ingress research in our laboratory. (author)

  10. Familiar ethical issues amplified: how members of research ethics committees describe ethical distinctions between disaster and non-disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Catherine M; Anderson, James; Boulanger, Renaud F; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Schwartz, Lisa; Hunt, Matthew

    2017-06-28

    The conduct of research in settings affected by disasters such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes is challenging, particularly when infrastructures and resources were already limited pre-disaster. However, since post-disaster research is essential to the improvement of the humanitarian response, it is important that adequate research ethics oversight be available. We aim to answer the following questions: 1) what do research ethics committee (REC) members who have reviewed research protocols to be conducted following disasters in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) perceive as the key ethical concerns associated with disaster research?, and 2) in what ways do REC members understand these concerns to be distinct from those arising in research conducted in non-crisis situations? This qualitative study was developed using interpretative description methodology; 15 interviews were conducted with REC members. Four key ethical issues were identified as presenting distinctive considerations for disaster research to be implemented in LMICs, and were described by participants as familiar research ethics issues that were amplified in these contexts. First, REC members viewed disaster research as having strong social value due to its potential for improving disaster response, but also as requiring a higher level of justification compared to other research settings. Second, they identified vulnerability as an overarching concern for disaster research ethics, and a feature that required careful and critical appraisal when assessing protocols. They noted that research participants' vulnerabilities frequently change in the aftermath of a disaster and often in unpredictable ways. Third, they identified concerns related to promoting and maintaining safety, confidentiality and data security in insecure or austere environments. Lastly, though REC members endorsed the need and usefulness of community engagement, they noted that there are significant challenges in a disaster

  11. Media framing of natural disasters in Kwazulu-Natal province: Impact of contigency plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how the media frame disaster contingency plans which include preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery of the KwaZulu-Natal province before, during and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The province has been stricken by natural disasters. Although newspapers report the disasters they fail to give details of disaster contingency plans that should be available to those who are susceptible to, and the victims of disasters. Based on a content analysis of 114 online newspaper articles between 2000 and 2013 to examine how the media framed the KZN government’s disaster contingency plans. This study concludes that the highest occurrence of disasters (71% was from 2011 onwards as compared to previous years, and most of these were associated with areas that are susceptible to floods (34%. The findings of the study highlight that the media placed an emphasis on disaster response (41% over preparedness (24% and mitigation (7%. The outcomes suggest that newspaper organisations need to appoint a designated reporter responsible for disaster management issues. This is relevant because this study conveys findings that have the potential to persuade government and newspaper organisations to collaborate and to ensure that their officials are multi-skilled and able to cover all phases of disaster management in their articles, in order for these to be understood at all levels of society. This study further adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding quality journalism that meets its objectives.

  12. A Study on health damage due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Oh, So Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    According to the domestic and foreign change in given conditions of air preservation policy, the air preservation policy in Korea should be implemented scientifically and reasonably. A gradual turnover to receptor-oriented reflecting human health and ecological effect is needed to establish and promote the air preservation policy systemically and in a long-term basis. Based on the quantified health damage of a people, air preservation policy in Korea should develop as a management policy to develop and implement an optimum management mechanism to minimized health damage of receptor. 19 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Study of air purification in the production of radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradin, J.; Desroches, J.

    1958-12-01

    As the fabrication of radio-elements takes place in almost airtight enclosures in which a frequent air renewal is required, and while taking the purification rate into account (1.000 to 5.000 m 3 /h), the authors report the study of wet purification in conjunction with dry purification through paper filters, in order to capture dusts. An apparatus has been implemented which allows high gas flow rates. A radioactive aerosol has been introduced in this apparatus and its efficiency has been measured by different means. The authors describe the instrumentation (column, aerosol generator), operation, rate adjustment, and losses. Aerosols of manganese and sodium have been used. Their particle granulometry has been determined. The authors report several types of tests [fr

  14. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Eduardo; Gras, Nuri; Andonie, Oscar; Sepulveda, Susana; Pereira, Iris

    2001-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities undertaken within the framework of this project. Sampling of different lichens species has been performed in clean areas (native forest), preparation of such samples has been done under controlled, cryogenic conditions and analysed by neutron activation analysis. Participation in an intercomparison run organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples, has also been carried out. Transplant of lichens collected in clean areas has been done in Santiago. (author)

  15. Preparedness of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Over the past decade the number of accidents and disasters has been growing around the world. In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters also affect service providers. This study aimed to evaluate the readiness of hospitals when confronted with unexpected disasters. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a simple review article, which was conducted via searching different sites, such as: Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed, using different key words such as: Disasters, Crisis, Hospital and preparedness. The relationship between the articles found in relation to our subject was investigated through the title and abstract of articles. The relationship between the articles, which were found in relation to our subject, was investigated through the title and abstract of the articles. Our search included papers published during the period between 2007 and 2015 and we only considered studies that measured the preparedness of hospitals in critical conditions. Among the 30 articles, which were found, 17 were excluded from the study due to lack of relevant data. Hence, 15 papers, which were of proper design and robust data analysis, were included in the current study. Results Hospital preparedness in disaster was evaluated in three dimensions: structural, non-structural factors and vulnerability management performance. A total of readiness of hospitals in three dimensions was mediocre. Conclusions Overall, the results derived from these studies indicated that hospital safety levels in most of the surveyed hospitals were moderate. Although the situation in hospitals is not critical, there is a need to plan and take appropriate measures to improve the safety level of the hospitals.

  16. Study of Air Quality Health Index and its Application in Seven Cities of Iran in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Poor air quality has a lot of damage on the environment and humans. Awareness of the air quality situation reduces health effects of air pollution. This study was performed with the aim of the comparative investigation of Air Quality Health Index (AQHI and its application in seven major cities of Iran in 2011. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive–analytic one. First, the required data of four criteria pollutants were taken from Department of Environment in seven major cities of Iran. The data were validated by the World Health Organization criteria. The air quality health index was measured based on the instructions and classified into low, medium, high and very high degrees according to the air quality standard tables. Results: The results demonstrate that according to air quality health index, the level of air pollution in seven major cities of Iran has been undesirable and air quality has exceeded the standard level in Ahvaz 85%, Arak73%, Tehran70%, Esfahan60%, Shiraz 47%, Tabriz 43% and, Mashhad 29% of days. Conclusion: Due to poor air quality and health consequences resulting from it, importance of Air Quality Health Index is explored in planning to control and reduce air pollution and awareness of peoples from daily status of air quality and its health effects.

  17. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  18. A survey of the practice of nurses' skills in Wenchuan earthquake disaster sites: implications for disaster training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huahua; He, Haiyan; Arbon, Paul; Zhu, Jingci

    2011-10-01

    To determine nursing skills most relevant for nurses participating in disaster response medical teams; make recommendations to enhance training of nurses who will be first responders to a disaster site; to improve the capacity of nurses to prepare and respond to severe natural disasters. Worldwide, nurses play a key role in disaster response teams at disaster sites. They are often not prepared for the challenges of dealing with mass casualties; little research exists into what basic nursing skills are required by nurses who are first responders to a disaster situation. This study assessed the most relevant disaster nursing skills of first responder nurses at the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake disaster site. Data were collected in China in 2008 using a self-designed questionnaire, with 24 participants who had been part of the medical teams that were dispatched to the disaster sites. The top three skills essential for nurses were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage. The three most frequently used skills were: debridement and dressing; observation and monitoring; intravenous insertion. The three skills performed most proficiently were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; urethral catheterization. The top three ranking skills most important for training were: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling. The core nursing skills for disaster response training are: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage; controlling specific infection; psychological crisis intervention; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; debridement and dressing; central venous catheter insertion; patient care recording. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Performance Study of Solar Air Heater Having Absorber Plate with Half-Perforated Baffles

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari, B. K.; Karwa, Rajendra; Gharai, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed mathematical model for performance prediction of a smooth duct solar air heater validated against the experimental results. Experimental study on a solar air heater having absorber plate with half-perforated baffles on the air flow side shows thermal efficiency enhancement of 28%–45% over that of the smooth duct solar air heater, which is attributed to the heat transfer enhancement (of the order of 180%–235%) due to the perforated baffles attached to the absorber...

  20. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  1. [A Literature Review of Health Effects on Workers in Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ① those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ② those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed.

  2. Children capacity in disaster risk reduction: A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mohammadinia

    2017-01-01

    capacity of community, particularly with focus on children in risk assessment, disaster risk reduction and disaster preparedness in communities are therefore much more important ever. To our best knowledge, due to scare studies in child capacity for disaster risk reduction it is necessary that researchers concentrate on further studies regarding how to use the children potential to reduce both natural and manmade disasters risk in forthcoming years.

  3. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  4. Health effects from indoor air pollution: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L E; Clarkson, J R; Chang, S N

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the health effects associated with the presence of contaminants in indoor air. Numerous agents can accumulate in public buildings, homes and automobiles as a result of ongoing activities that normally occur in these closed spaces. Ventilation is a major factor in the control of indoor air pollutants since proper movement of air can prevent or minimize the build up of compounds in buildings. The recent emphasis on energy conservation has lead to measures which economize on energy for heating and air conditioning, but which also trap pollutants within a building. Three cases of indoor air pollution were investigated. A typical investigation of indoor air pollutant problems includes the following: interviews with building occupants; history of the building with regard to maintenance, pesticide treatment, etc.; a survey of the building and ventilation; and when warranted, sampling and analysis of air. Each case presented is unique in that atypical situations caused agents to accumulate in a building or section of a building. The indoor air problems in these cases were solved by identifying and removing the source of the offending agent and/or improving the ventilation in the building.

  5. Experimental study of air evaporative cooling process using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englart Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the potential use of microporous membranes in evaporative cooling applications for air conditioning. The structure of membrane contractor and the measuring device are described. On the basis of the results of the measurements air cooling effectiveness coefficient has been determined.

  6. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction.......Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction....

  7. 78 FR 45548 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to [[Page 45549

  8. Knowledge-Based Detection and Assessment of Damaged Roads Using Post-Disaster High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Qiming; Zhao, Jianghua; Ye, Xin; Feng, Xiao; Qin, Xuebin; Yang, Xiucheng

    2015-01-01

    Road damage detection and assessment from high-resolution remote sensing image is critical for natural disaster investigation and disaster relief. In a disaster context, the pairing of pre-disaster and post-disaster road data for change detection and assessment is difficult to achieve due to the mismatch of different data sources, especially for rural areas where the pre-disaster data (i.e., remote sensing imagery or vector map) are hard to obtain. In this study, a knowledge-based method for ...

  9. Temporary disaster debris management site identification using binomial cluster analysis and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeda, Stanislaw; Mazzuchi, Thomas A; Sarkani, Shahram

    2014-04-01

    An essential component of disaster planning and preparation is the identification and selection of temporary disaster debris management sites (DMS). However, since DMS identification is a complex process involving numerous variable constraints, many regional, county and municipal jurisdictions initiate this process during the post-disaster response and recovery phases, typically a period of severely stressed resources. Hence, a pre-disaster approach in identifying the most likely sites based on the number of locational constraints would significantly contribute to disaster debris management planning. As disasters vary in their nature, location and extent, an effective approach must facilitate scalability, flexibility and adaptability to variable local requirements, while also being generalisable to other regions and geographical extents. This study demonstrates the use of binomial cluster analysis in potential DMS identification in a case study conducted in Hamilton County, Indiana. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  10. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  11. Disasters as Usual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albris, Kristoffer

    In this thesis, I explore how citizens and public institutions have adjusted to recent recurring floods in Dresden. As a riverine city, Dresden regularly experienced damaging floods throughout its history, right up until the start of the Second World War. Then something strange happened. Although...... the future as being fraught with uncertainty. This has implications both for how people understand themselves as members of society as well as for the relationship between the state and civil society. In other words, floods in Dresden have a social, political and public life. Rather than seeing disasters...

  12. Vegetation studies on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hickson, Diana E.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1988-01-01

    Vandenburg Air Force Base, located in coastal central California with an area of 98,400 ac, contains resources of considerable biological significance. Available information on the vegetation and flora of Vandenburg is summarized and new data collected in this project are presented. A bibliography of 621 references dealing with vegetation and related topics related to Vanderburg was compiled from computer and manual literature searches and a review of past studies of the base. A preliminary floristic list of 642 taxa representing 311 genera and 80 families was compiled from past studies and plants identified in the vegetation sampling conducted in this project. Fifty-two special interest plant species are known to occur or were suggested to occur. Vegetation was sampled using permanent plots and transects in all major plant communities including chaparral, Bishop pine forest, tanbark oak forest, annual grassland, oak woodland, coastal sage scrub, purple sage scrub, coastal dune scrub, coastal dunes, box elder riparian woodland, will riparian woodland, freshwater marsh, salt marsh, and seasonal wetlands. Comparison of the new vegetation data to the compostie San Diego State University data does not indicate major changes in most communities since the original study. Recommendations are made for additional studies needed to maintain and extend the environmental data base and for management actions to improve resource protection.

  13. Natural disasters and suicidal behaviours: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Kõlves, Keili E; De Leo, Diego

    2013-03-20

    Various consequences including suicidal behaviours can arise in the aftermath of natural disasters. The aim of the present review was to systematically analyse the existing literature on the potential impact of natural disasters on suicidal behaviours. A systematic search of English-language articles indexed in electronic databases was conducted. The current review covers 42 papers containing empirical analyses of the relationship between natural disasters and suicidal behaviours. In total, 19 papers analysed suicide mortality and 23 non-fatal suicidal behaviours. The effects of earthquakes on suicidal behaviours are the most frequently studied among natural disasters (n=20), followed by hurricanes (n=11). Further, there were four papers about tsunamis, three about floods, three about heat waves and drought, and one investigating the effects of multiple natural disasters. The studies show different directions in suicide mortality following natural disasters. Nevertheless, there seems to be a drop in non-fatal suicidal behaviours in the initial post-disaster period, which has been referred to as the 'honeymoon' phase. A delayed increase in suicidal behaviours has been reported in some studies. However, other factors increasing the risk of suicidal behaviours after natural disasters have been reported, such as previous and current mental health problems. Furthermore, contributing factors, such as economic conditions, should also be considered. The exclusion of non-English articles. In light of the various methodological limitations observed, there is a need for further studies using proper designs. Mental health and suicidal behaviours should continue to be monitored for several years after the disaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between serum lipid concentrations and posttraumatic stress symptoms in the bereaved after the Sewol ferry disaster: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyejin; Huh, Hyu Jung; Hwang, Jihyun; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-05-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum lipid concentrations and PTSD symptoms in the bereaved after a traumatic familial loss. Eighteen months after the Sewol ferry disaster, 107 subjects who experienced traumatic losses as a result of the accident completed a mental and medical survey as well as laboratory tests for lipid profiles. At 30 months after the trauma, a total of 64 individuals completed a follow-up psychometric survey and biochemical measurements. We performed multiple linear regression analyses, examining the association between PTSD symptoms and lipid profiles. Other potential influences on lipid profiles such as metabolic risk factors, demographic risk factors, and underlying medical history were accounted for. Participants reporting clinically significant PTSD symptoms exhibited lower serum HDL-C levels than those without PTSD symptoms. In addition, we found that the severity of PTSD symptoms and sex could explain the changes in lipid profiles independently of other possible risk factors of changes. The results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms may contribute to an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome via detrimental changes in lipid concentrations. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management to prevent metabolic syndrome in individuals who experience traumatic losses would therefore be valuable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city using neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, R.R.; Tafuri, V.; Custo, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Buenos Aires city and its surroundings, has a huge population and very dense traffic. There are many possible pollution sources that can be identified, but other characteristics such as weather and location counteract some of these sources to the benefit of the atmosphere of the city. Although several groups have been working on these subjects, there is not enough information about which elements are present in Buenos Aires air. The aim of this project is to provide information about the elemental profile of the atmosphere of the city and to evaluate and to make an interpretation of the obtained data. Both XRF and INAA are going to be used for analyzing the air filter samples with the participation of the Meteorological Service in sampling and interpretation of the results. By choosing adequate sampling sites and times, differences between day/night, week day/weekend will be looked for. The influence of non-leaded petrols will be studied. Some work on air samples was done before the beginning of this contract to settle future working conditions. Some results from this study are presented only as preliminary ones. Sampling will begin during this April at two sites with different traffic density. For both XRF and NAA suitable standards will be prepared. Medium and long lived nuclides are going to be analyzed by INAA. Plans for 1993 are given as well as possible collaboration with other groups in the country. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  16. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  17. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  18. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  19. A Typology Framework for Trade-Offs in Development and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Case Study of Typhoon Haiyan Recovery in Tacloban, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Tuhkanen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and disaster risk are deeply linked. Disasters reverse development gains; development initiatives influence the risk, vulnerability, and exposure of people, assets, and environments to disasters. Hence, knowledge of key dimensions of the potential trade-offs between development and disaster risk reduction (DRR may inform decision-making processes, goals, and initiatives in ways that have potential to address unsustainable development practices that are commonplace in countries of all economic levels. This paper presents, explores, and tests a conceptual framework for analysing the trade-offs that underpin this relationship as evidenced through policy goals, initiatives, and decision-making processes. We categorise key dimensions of relevant trade-offs into five specific dimensions: (i The aggregation of development and DRR gains and losses, (ii risk prioritisation when seeking to reduce multiple risks, (iii the equity of decision-making processes and outcomes, (iv the balancing of near- and long-term goals, and (v the distribution of power and participation. By framing key questions related to each trade-off dimension, we test the framework in the context of a major disaster recovery process in Tacloban, the Philippines, following Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda in November 2013. We consider how decision-making trade-offs can be made more visible and useful in the pursuit of transformative change in development and DRR.

  20. Enhanced change detection index for disaster response, recovery assessment and monitoring of buildings and critical facilities-A case study for Muzzaffarabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi A.; So, Emily

    2017-12-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors and a growing image archive that is frequently updated, allows the use of change detection in post-disaster recovery and monitoring for robust and rapid results. The proposed semi-automated GIS object-based method uses readily available pre-disaster GIS data and adds existing knowledge into the processing to enhance change detection. It also allows targeting specific types of changes pertaining to similar man-made objects such as buildings and critical facilities. The change detection method is based on pre/post normalized index, gradient of intensity, texture and edge similarity filters within the object and a set of training data. More emphasis is put on the building edges to capture the structural damage in quantifying change after disaster. Once the change is quantified, based on training data, the method can be used automatically to detect change in order to observe recovery over time in potentially large areas. Analysis over time can also contribute to obtaining a full picture of the recovery and development after disaster, thereby giving managers a better understanding of productive management and recovery practices. The recovery and monitoring can be analyzed using the index in zones extending from to epicentre of disaster or administrative boundaries over time.