WorldWideScience

Sample records for study supplement

  1. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  2. Supplement use and mortality: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A.; Kaluza, J.; Knoops, K.T.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is hypothesis that in relatively healthy older people supplement usage can be consider as healthy life style habit and as such can positively influence longevity. Aim of the study To determine whether supplement use was associated with all-cause mortality in the participants of the

  3. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables.

  4. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-01-01

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 ± 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 ± 0.0112) E+04 (micro)g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 ± 0.786 wt % or (1.40 ± 0.104) E+05 (micro)g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 ± 0.00406 wt % or

  5. Idaho supplementation studies : five year report : 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jody P.; Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1999-01-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  6. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  7. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  8. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mantovani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folic acid (FA supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB, preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  9. Folic acid supplementation and preterm birth: results from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Elena; Filippini, Francesca; Bortolus, Renata; Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  10. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    as a double-blind randomized controlled study in which 11 women were allocated to magnesium and 7 to placebo treatment. The treatment comprised a 48-hour intravenous magnesium/placebo infusion followed by daily oral magnesium/placebo intake until one day after delivery. Magnesium supplement increased birth....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...... unable to demonstrate any significant difference between the magnesium, placebo and control groups....

  11. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  12. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery

  13. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  14. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keturah R. Faurot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL (n = 16,415, this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively, for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%, and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%. Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31–0.52. Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  15. Study of nutritional supplements using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Rogerio Alves de Sousa; Saiki, Mitiko

    2005-01-01

    The increasing consumption of nutritional supplements among the people mainly aiming at the replacement of nutrients and minerals in the organism has led the commercialization of a great number of brands of these products. Consequently the quality control of these products is of great interest to verify if their element contents agree the values presented in labels or in the instructions for their uses. In this study the elements Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn were analyzed in multimineral supplements and vitamins samples using neutron activation analysis method. The results obtained compared with the values of the labels of nutritional supplements presented good agreement. For quality control of the analytical data, certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology were analysed. Accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated and Z score values obtained were lower than 2 indicating that the data found are within the certified values at 95% of significance level. (author)

  16. High school athletes and nutritional supplements: a study of knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, S J; Shier, N W; Koceja, D M; Ellis, N T

    1995-09-01

    Factors influencing nutritional supplement use by high school students were assessed. Comparisons were made between various groups of sports participants and non-sports participants. The Nutritional Supplement Use and Knowledge Scale was administered to 509 students. Mean supplement use score was 10.87 (SEM = 0.50, range 0-57). Mean knowledge score was 13.56 (SEM = 0.16, range 1-21). Significant relationships (p knowledge with use, and supplement use with gender. ANOVA found significant differences between supplement use by gender (p knowledge scores by sports category (p knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, knowledge, supplement use, and subscores for protein, vitamins/minerals, and carbohydrates were best discriminators of sport group membership. Greater knowledge about supplements was associated with less use; hence, education about supplements can be a deterrent to use. This study may help coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, teachers, physicians, and parents identify nutritional misconceptions held by adolescents.

  17. A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axilrod, Benjamin M.; Kline, Gordon M.

    1937-01-01

    This supplement to a NACA study issued in May 1937 entitled "A Study of Transparent Plastics for Use on Aircraft", contains two tables. These tables contain data on bursting strengths of plastics, particularly at low temperatures. Table 1 contains the values reported in a table of the original memorandum, and additional values obtained at approximately 25 C, for three samples of Acrylate resin. The second table contains data obtained for the bursting strength when one surface of the plastic was cooled to approximately -35 C.

  18. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    The placenta and the umbilical cord obtained from 18 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were investigated by light microscopy. The umbilical artery was studied by electron microscopy. 10 placentae and umbilical cords from normal pregnancies served as controls. The study was performed...... fibrosis or intervillous fibrin. Ultrastructurally, the endothelial cells of the umbilical arteries from women with pregnancy-induced hypertension showed a significant increase in the amount of dilated endoplasmic reticulum and basal laminae thickness when all 18 cases were compared with the controls....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...

  20. Study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Lozova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE This article describes the results of a study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements suggested for use in flour confectionery production. Oxidation rate of the model substance - cumene - was measured using a volumetric unit. Diagram of absorbed oxygen amount as a function of time (∆HO2 over t was built by measuring time in minutes and absorbed oxygen volume in cm3. This diagram was subsequently used to graphically determine the oxidation rate as the slope ratio of the line in specified coordinates. Afterwards, the oxidation rate was measured at a different initiation rate (different azobisisobutyronitrile solution volume, while all other parameters of the experiment remained unaltered. On the basis of the resulting data, diagrams of oxidation rate as a function of initiation rate were built for all investigated substances (both extracts and powders. The study revealed that apian products, including pollen and propolis, as well as kidney bean powder and phytosupplements (leaves of leather bergenia, lime blossom, heartsease, wild chamomile, pepper mint, bog rosemary, and elderflowers, possessed high antioxidant activity. According to the research data, the highest activity was detected in propolis  0.482·20 pollen 0.802 and powdered forms of pepper mint 1.066 leather bergenia leaves 0.937 heartsease 0.385 lime blossom 0.331 and kidney beans 0.323. Relatively lower antioxidant activity was found in powdered bog rosemary 0.242 elderflowers 0.238 and wild chamomile 0.212. (Introduction of the investigated supplements will allow inhibiting oxidation processes in the lipide fraction of foodstuffs, including flour confectionery, to ensure stability of their qualitative characteristics over a longer period.

  1. Probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan.This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases.Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use.The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.

  2. Nutritional supplement practices of professional Ugandan athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa; Makubuya, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements (NS) places athletes at great risk for inadvertent doping. Due to the paucity of data on supplement use, this study aimed to determine the proportion of Ugandan athletes using nutritional supplements and to investigate the athletes' motivation to use these supplements. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 359 professional athletes participating in individual (boxing, cycling, athletics) and team (basketball, rugby, football, netball, and volleyball) sports. The data were categorized, and a Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Of the 359 athletes, 48 (13.4%) used nutritional supplements. Carbohydrate supplements, energy drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, fish oils, and protein supplements were the most common supplements used by athletes. NS use was significantly more common among athletes who played rugby and basketball ( X 2 = 61.101, p sport for 5-10 years ( X 2 = 7.460, p = 0.024), and athletes who had attained a tertiary education ( X 2 = 33.377, p performance and health. Compared to NS use by athletes elsewhere, NS use among Ugandan athletes was low. However, determinants of athlete NS use in the current study (category of sport and duration of time spent playing the sport) are similar to those reported elsewhere.

  3. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Les G; Dalvi Tapashi B; Norkus Edward P; Jensen Christopher D; Block Gladys; McManus Jamie F; Hudes Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design...

  4. Intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma in Norwegian adults: the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although intake of multivitamin supplements is becoming increasingly popular, the relationship between intake of multivitamin supplements and incident asthma remains unclear. Prospective studies in adults with long-term follow-up are especially scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between intake of multivitamin supplements and asthma development in Norwegian adults. We followed 16 952 adult subjects from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995–1997 up to 2006–2008, who, at baseline, were free of asthma and provided information on their intake of multivitamin supplements and cod liver oil. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements or cod liver oil was defined as daily intake for ≥3 months during the year prior to baseline. Incident asthma was defined as reported new-onset asthma after the 11-year follow-up. Intake of multivitamin supplements only was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.12–2.13 after adjustment for a number of common confounding factors (model I. Similar odds ratios were found for intake of cod liver oil only and for intake of both supplements (1.59 and 1.73, respectively. Regular intake of multivitamin supplements was associated with an increased odds ratio for incident asthma in Norwegian adults.

  5. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision. Before the AREDS2 study finished, manufacturers began marketing supplements based on the study design. In AREDS2, ... Feed Connect with Us Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH Footer ...

  6. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Gavin; Lawlis, Tanya

    2017-11-01

    Protein-based sports supplements are among the more common types of nutrition supplements consumed by athletes; however, there is currently limited data investigating the knowledge, motivations and occurrence of use among the adolescent population (13-18 years). This pilot study looks to obtain initial data regarding the use of protein supplements in this population. This study investigates the understanding and occurrence of protein supplement use in 87 adolescent athletes based in an Australian capital city who compete in a variety of sports. Sources of information, regularity of use, purchasing habits, associated risk knowledge and supplement beliefs were examined using a self-reported, written questionnaire. A total of 60% (n = 52) of athletes reported using protein supplements, with a positive relationship between age and use (P supplement consumption, with the most common risk reported as 'I don't know' (22%). Coaches were found to initiate protein supplement use more than other figures in the athlete's life (50%) and were the primary source of information regarding supplements (58%). It was found that 19% of adolescent athletes obtained information about protein supplements from the Internet, and 17% of all consumers purchase their supplements online. The evident lack of knowledge regarding protein supplements demonstrates a necessity for further education of athletes, coaches and families regarding the responsible purchasing and use of protein supplements in the current landscape of sports nutrition. Future research should further explore the role of the Internet in protein supplement purchase and education. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. The Heritability of Macular Response to Supplemental Lutein and Zeaxanthin: A Classic Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Liew, S. H. Melissa; Van Kuijk, Frederik J.; Beatty, Stephen; Nolan, John M.; Spector, Tim D.; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Antioxidant supplements may reduce age-related macular degeneration (AMD) progression. The macular carotenoids are of particular interest because of their biochemical, optical, and anatomic properties. This classic twin study was designed to determine the heritability of macular pigment (MP) augmentation in response to supplemental lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z). Methods. A total of 322 healthy female twin volunteers, aged 16–50 years (mean 40 ± 8.7) was enrolled in a prospective, nonrandomized supplement study. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements using two techniques (2-wavelength fundus autofluorescence [AF] and heterochromatic flicker photometry [HFP]), and serum concentrations of L and Z, were recorded at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months following daily supplementation with 18 mg L and 2.4 mg Z for a study period of 6 months. Results. At baseline, mean MPOD was 0.44 density units (SD 0.21, range 0.04–1.25) using HFP, and 0.41 density units (SD 0.15) using AF. Serum L and Z levels were raised significantly from baseline following 3 months' supplementation (mean increase 223% and 633%, respectively, P < 0.0001 for both), with no MPOD increase. After 6 months' supplementation, a small increase in MPOD was seen (mean increase 0.025 ± 0.16, P = 0.02, using HFP). Subdivision of baseline MPOD into quartiles revealed that baseline levels made no difference to the treatment effect. Genetic factors explained 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7–45) of the variation in MPOD response. Distribution profiles of macular pigment did not change in response to supplementation. Conclusions. MPOD response to supplemental L and Z for a period of 6 months was small (an increase over baseline of 5.7% and 3.7%, measured using HFP and AF, respectively), and was moderately heritable. Further study is indicated to investigate the functional and clinical impact of supplementation with the macular carotenoids. PMID:22700713

  9. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George County to Suffolk, Virginia AGENCY: Federal... roughly parallel to the existing Route 460 corridor between Interstate 295 in Prince George County and...

  10. A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; To, Tai Lun; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2013-05-01

    The potential acute genoprotective effect of orange juice supplementation was investigated. Six healthy subjects (aged 33 to 60 years; 3 women and 3 men) were asked to drink 400 mL of commercial orange juice, which contained 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g sugar. Venous blood (2 mL) was taken before and 2 h after ingestion (test trial). A week later, the subjects were asked to repeat the trial by drinking 400 mL water with 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g glucose (control trial). Lymphocytes isolated from blood samples underwent comet assay on the day of collection. Pre- and postingestion DNA damage scores were measured in both the test and control trials. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide after 2 h of supplementation with orange juice, and no change in baseline DNA damage. There was no significant decrease in the DNA damage in lymphocytes in the control trial.

  11. [Study of vitamin D supplementation in people over 65 years in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Cécile; Guillot, Pascale; Berrut, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Most of the elderly have vitamin D deficiency, which is defined as a serum level below 30 ng/mL. To identify the characteristics of patients over 65 receiving vitamin D supplements by their primary care physician. A descriptive and transverse study was performed on patients over 65 years old admitted to Care Following at the La Croix Rouge in Nantes from September 2012 to February 2013. The criteria for vitamin D supplementation, the type (vitamin D2 or D3, continuous prescription or not, route of administration) and starting date of vitamin D supplementation were identified. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured at admission. Of 163 patients included, 44% received vitamin D supplements (n=71). The patient aged over 80 benefited more often from vitamin D supplementation (p=0.019), so did women (p=0.034), patients with fractures (p=0.05), patients with osteoporosis treatments (pvitamin D supplementation less often than the others (p=0.046). The dosage of the vitamin D was normal for 28% of patients (n=46). The prescription of vitamin D supplements to the elderly is still too scarce and should be encouraged, especially in non-bone indications.

  12. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  13. Idaho supplementation studies. Annual progress report, January 1--December 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzinger, E.J.; Plaster, K.; Hassemer, P.; Sankovich, P.

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages

  14. Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia.

  15. DHA supplementation for late onset Stargardt disease: NAT-3 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Querques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Querques1, Pascale Benlian1, Bernard Chanu2, Nicolas Leveziel1, Gabriel Coscas1, Gisele Soubrane1, Eric H Souied11Department of Ophthalmology, University of Paris XII, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, 2Department of Nutrition, University of Paris XII, Hopital Henry Mondor, Creteil, FranceBackground: We analyzed the effects of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation in patients affected with late onset Stargardt disease (STGD.Methods: DHA (840 mg/day was given to 20 STGD patients for six months. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG, was performed at inclusion day 0 (D0 and at month 6 (M6.Results: Overall, no statistical differences have been observed at M6 vs D0 as regards BCVA and mfERG (P > 0.05. Mild Improvement of BCVA and improvement of mfERG was noted in seven/40 eyes of four/20 patients. In the first patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 66 nV/deg² to 75.4 nV/deg² in the right eye (RE and 24.5 nV/deg² to 49.1 nV/deg² in the left eye (LE. The peak of the b wave improved from 122 nV/deg² to 157 nV/deg² in the RE, and 102 nV/deg² to 149 nV/deg² in the LE. In the second patient peaks of the a and b waves respectively increased from 11.8 nV/deg² to 72.1 nV/deg² and 53 nV/deg² to 185 nV/deg² in the RE. In the third patient the peak of the a wave increased from 37 nV/deg² to 43 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 31 nV/deg² to 45 nV/deg² in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 70 nV/deg² to 89 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 101 nV/deg² to 108 nV/deg² in the LE. In the fourth patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 39 nV/deg² to 42 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 40 nV/deg² to 43 nV/deg² in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 86 nV/deg² to 94 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 87 nV/deg² to 107 nV/deg² in the LE.Conclusion: DHA seems to influence some functional parameters in patients affected with

  16. A study of impact of cost-effective nutritional supplement in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rangarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis is always of concern as malnutrition predisposes to excess morbidity and mortality. Most of the nutritional supplements available in the market are expensive. We explored the possibility of improving nutrition of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis by supplementation of calories and proteins that can be given in the form of a palatable and economical gruel in this prospectively designed, open labeled study. Patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis (twice a week for a period of at least 6 months were divided into two groups. The study group was given the gruel supplement and the control group was not given the gruel supplement. Nutritional status was assessed in the study group and controls at 0 and 3 months by the following parameters: percentage body fat, mid arm muscle circumference and serum albumin. Analysis of results revealed that there was a significant decline in the protein intake at the end of the 3 rd month in the control group (P = 0.01. Other parameters did not show significant change at the end of the study period in both groups. The nutritional supplement can be assumed to have helped at least in the maintenance of protein intake over this short period and could possibly in the long run contribute to improvement of nutritional parameters.

  17. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  18. EXPERIENCE OF USING THE “DE ALEX” DIETARY SUPPLEMENT: RESULTS OF A SINGLE CENTER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Vasil’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since their first appearance and through present day, dietary supplements remain popular among customers. In medical practice, dietary supplements are used as an additional source of nutrients and biologically active compounds aimed at optimization of various types of metabolism as well as normalization and/or improvement of functional state of organs and systems.Objective: is to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a dietary supplement “De Alex” in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH.Materials and methods. The study included 35 volunteers who signed the informed consent form and received treatment at urology departments of the S.I. Spasokukotsky Municipal Clinical Hospital. The main group included 20 men, the control group included 15 men. “De Alex” dietary supplement was administered according to the following scheme: 1 tablet 3 times a day for the first 3 months, then 4 tablets a day for 2 more months. Clinical, laboratory and instrumental data were evaluated as well as validated questionnaires filled out by the patients.Results. There weren’t any allergic reactions or individual intolerance to the “De Alex”  dietary supplement in the main group. The total IPSS score decreased in all patients, and symptoms of the lower urinary tract were less pronounced. “De Alex” administration didn’t affect the levels of prostate-specific antigen and testosterone. In the studied subgroups, a moderate decrease of the prostate volume was observed. Conclusions. The “De Alex” dietary supplement has a satisfactory safety profile. In patients with BPH the supplement causes a moderate decrease of the prostate volume.

  19. Iron supplementation in Switzerland - A bi-national, descriptive and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biétry, Fabienne A; Hug, Balthasar; Reich, Oliver; Susan, Jick S; Meier, Christoph Rudolf

    2017-07-11

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world, and it is the only common nutrient deficiency in industrialised nations. It is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia. Use of iron supplementation in Switzerland has not been previously quantified in detail. We quantified use of iron supplementation from Swiss data and compared it with data from the UK. We assessed the frequency of serum ferritin and haemoglobin tests prior to newly started iron therapy to see whether use was based on documented low iron levels or blood parameters, especially in the case of parenteral iron supplementation. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of prescription iron supplementation use, and compared use of oral or parenteral iron drugs between Switzerland (CH) and the UK. We retrieved Swiss data from the Swiss Health Insurance Helsana Group, and UK data were from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The study period was 2012 to 2014. The 3-year prevalence of iron supplementation was 9.4% in Switzerland and 4.4% in the UK. Iron use increased slightly between 2012 and 2014 in both countries (CH +0.3%, UK +0.2%). Recorded parenteral iron administration was roughly a thousand times higher in Switzerland (1.9%) than in the UK in 2014. In Switzerland, iron supplements were mostly given to patients aged 20 to 49 years or older than of 80 years. In the UK, iron supplementation was less frequent in younger people, but more prevalent in the elderly. Prior to a first iron prescription, ferritin tests were done more frequently in Switzerland (oral 67.2%, parenteral 86.6%) than in the UK (oral 43.3%, parenteral 65.5%). Haemoglobin was measured before a new parenteral iron therapy rarely in Switzerland (oral 14.9%, parenteral 11.7%), but frequently in the UK (oral 77.4%, parenteral 85.6%). Iron supplementation is more common in Switzerland than in the UK, particularly parenteral iron supplementation. Haemoglobin measurements prior to a new parenteral

  20. A molecular docking study of phytochemical estrogen mimics from dietary herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Chelsea N; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a molecular docking approach to identify potential estrogen mimics or anti-estrogens in phytochemicals found in popular dietary herbal supplements. In this study, 568 phytochemicals found in 17 of the most popular herbal supplements sold in the United States were built and docked with two isoforms of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ (a total of 27 different protein crystal structures). The docking results revealed six strongly docking compounds in Echinacea, three from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), three from Gingko biloba, one from Sambucus nigra, none from maca (Lepidium meyenii), five from chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), two from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and two from Rhodiola rosea. Notably, of the most popular herbal supplements for women, there were numerous compounds that docked strongly with the estrogen receptor: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) had a total of 26 compounds strongly docking to the estrogen receptor, 15 with wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), 11 from black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), eight from muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum), eight from red clover (Trifolium pratense), three from damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca or T. diffusa), and three from dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Of possible concern were the compounds from men's herbal supplements that exhibited strong docking to the estrogen receptor: Gingko biloba had three compounds, gotu kola (Centella asiatica) had two, muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum) had eight, and Tribulus terrestris had six compounds. This molecular docking study has revealed that almost all popular herbal supplements contain phytochemical components that may bind to the human estrogen receptor and exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulation. As such, these herbal supplements may cause unwanted side effects related to estrogenic activity.

  1. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  2. Biochemical and clinical effects of Whey protein supplementation in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Boonla, Chanchai; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Kaewwilai, Lalita; Muensri, Sasipa; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Joutsa, Juho; Rinne, Juha; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2016-08-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated degenerative disorder. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is frequently found in the levodopa-treated PD patients, is associated with disease progression and is a marker of oxidative stress. Whey protein is a rich source of cysteine, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). It has been shown that supplementation with Whey protein increases glutathione synthesis and muscle strength. In this study, we conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind study (NCT01662414) to investigate the effects of undenatured Whey protein isolate supplementation for 6months on plasma glutathione, plasma amino acids, and plasma Hcy in PD patients. Clinical outcome assessments included the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and striatal L-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluorophenylalanine (FDOPA) uptake were determined before and after supplementation. 15 patients received Whey protein, and 17 received Soy protein, served as a control group. Significant increases in plasma concentration of reduced glutathione and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione were found in the Whey-supplemented patients but not in a control group. This was associated with a significant decrease of plasma levels of Hcy. The plasma levels of total glutathione were not significantly changed in either group. Plasma BCAA and essential amino acids (EAA) were significantly increased in the Whey-supplemented group only. The UPDRS and striatal FDOPA uptake in PD patients were not significantly ameliorated in either group. However, significant negative correlation was observed between the UPDRS and plasma BCAA and EAA in the pre-supplemented PD patients. This study is the first to report that Whey protein supplementation significantly increases plasma reduced glutathione, the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, BCAAs and EAAs in patients with PD, together with a concomitant significant reduction of plasma Hcy. However, there were no significant changes in

  3. Most Frequently Reported Prescription Medications and Supplements in Couples Planning Pregnancy: The LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Kristin; Flores, Katrina F; Chambers, Christina D; Weiss, Lauren A; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2018-01-01

    To identify frequently reported prescription medications and supplements among couples planning pregnancy because there is a lack of descriptive information on these agents in women and men who are trying to conceive. Five hundred one couples enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Infertility and the Environment, which took place between 2005 and 2009. Participants reported prescription medications as well as prescription and over-the-counter supplements used through interviews at study enrollment and through daily dairies during the 12-month follow-up. We identified prescription medications and supplements prospectively reported by ≥1% of women and men at baseline and from daily journal information grouped into 3-month preconception follow-up intervals while couples tried for pregnancy. The 5 most reported prescription medications among women were levothyroxine (5.8%), cetirizine (2.6%), fluticasone (2.4%), escitalopram (1.8%), and fluoxetine (1.8%) and for men were lisinopril (2.0%), mometasone (2.0%), fexofenadine (1.8%), atorvastatin (1.6%), and montelukast (1.6%). The most reported supplements were multivitamins (63.3%, 43.5%) and fish oil (13.2%, 9.4%) for women and men, respectively, and prenatal vitamins (22.0%) for women. For women during the first 3 months of follow-up, prenatal vitamins (6.0%) and antibiotics (1.2%-2.6%) were among the most frequently started medications. During the next 3 months, clomiphene (4.5%) was the most frequently initiated medication. Couples trying for pregnancy reported a variety of prescription medications and supplements, and they differed by gender. Preconception guidance should address medication and supplement use to avoid potential exposures associated with adverse reproductive and perinatal outcomes.

  4. On the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: A Systematic Review of Supplemental Instruction and Peer-Assisted Study Sessions Literature between 2001 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip; van der Meer, Jacques; Skalicky, Jane; Cowley, Kym

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI)--variously known as peer-assisted learning, peer-assisted study sessions, and other names--is a type of academic support intervention popular in higher education. In SI sessions, a senior student facilitates peer learning between undergraduates studying a high-risk course. This article presents a systematic review of…

  5. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  6. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  7. National Childcare Consumer Study: 1975. Volume IV: Supplemental Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document is the fourth and final report of a study sponsored by the Office of Child Development of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare to determine patterns of child care usage and related consumer preferences, attitudes and opinions about child care. The study was based on 4609 personal interviews conducted in 1975 from a…

  8. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D; Norkus, Edward P; Dalvi, Tapashi B; Wong, Les G; McManus, Jamie F; Hudes, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight) from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278). Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602) and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176) were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood pressure and diabetes

  9. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Les G

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, information was obtained by online questionnaires and physical examination (fasting blood, blood pressure, body weight from a convenience sample of long-term users of multiple dietary supplements manufactured by Shaklee Corporation (Multiple Supp users, n = 278. Data for non-users (No Supp users, n = 602 and multivitamin/mineral supplement users (Single Supp users, n = 176 were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES III 1988–1994. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Dietary supplements consumed on a daily basis by more than 50% of Multiple Supp users included a multivitamin/mineral, B-complex, vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, calcium with vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, lecithin, alfalfa, coenzyme Q10 with resveratrol, glucosamine, and a herbal immune supplement. The majority of women also consumed gamma linolenic acid and a probiotic supplement, whereas men also consumed zinc, garlic, saw palmetto, and a soy protein supplement. Serum nutrient concentrations generally increased with increasing dietary supplement use. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education and body mass index, greater degree of supplement use was associated with more favorable concentrations of serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as lower risk of prevalent elevated blood

  10. A Study of Supplementing Conventional Business Education with Digital Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahi, Abida; Zaka, Bilal; Sultan, Fahd

    2017-01-01

    This paper documents how the adoption of digital games by academia reshapes the current worldview by bringing the potential answers for all learning issues. The central objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which digital games can impact learning effectiveness, and to what extent these games can be used as supplementary elements…

  11. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengpiel, Verena; Bacelis, Jonas; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Devold Pay, Aase Serine; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Magnus, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2014-11-02

    Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 66,014 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 2002-2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until pregnancy week 24. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4-5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,755). The median total folate intake was 313 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 167-558) in the overall population and 530 μg/d (IQR 355-636) in the supplement users. Eighty-five percent reported any folic acid supplementation from effect of dietary folate intake or folic acid supplementation on spontaneous PTD. Preconceptional folic acid supplementation starting more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous PTD. These results require further investigation before discussing an expansion of folic acid supplementation guidelines.

  12. Study of Pre and Post Supplementation Green Tea Extracts to MDA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Goenawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High intensity exercise (HI induces oxidative stress. Running for 2400 meters is one of the simple exercise form which can be counted as HI. During HI, increase of oxygen consumption happened in muscle cell resulted in an increase of oxidant level. The aim of the study was to measure the effects of Indonesian green tea supplementation, before and after HI to the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARSMalonyldialdehyde (MDA. The subjects of study were 42 male students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran (FMUP and Faculty of Physical Exercise, Indonesia University of Education (FPOK-UPI. The subjects were divided into trained and untrained subject. Subjects were divided into groups using Astrand Harvard step test. The purpose of this test was measuring the level of VO2 max. Blood samples for MDA level were collected at 3 hours before and after high intensity aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress was induced by 2400 meters run. The result showed that green tea supplement-ation was effective to decrease MDA plasma level especially after exercise. Green tea could serve as natural antioxidant resources, which potentially can be used as potential sport supplemental drink.

  13. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Recurrent Hyperthyroidism Caused by Graves' Disease: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B; Chen, S R; Hou, X; Wang, X F; Zhao, S H; Song, J Q; Wang, Y G

    2016-09-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on recurrent hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is unclear. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of selenium supplementation therapy on recurrent Graves' disease. Forty-one patients with recurrent Graves' disease were enrolled in this study. All patients received the routine treatment using methimazole (MMI), while patients allocated to the selenium group received additional selenium therapy for 6 months. The influence of selenium supplementation on the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were assessed. The remission rate was also compared between 2 groups. There was no obvious difference in the demographic data and the levels of serum FT4, FT3, TSH, and TRAb between the 2 groups at baseline. Both FT4 and FT3 decreased more at 2 months in the selenium group than the controls, while the TSH level increased more in patients receiving selenium supplementation (pGraves' disease. Randomized trials with large number of participants are needed to validate the finding above. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  15. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  16. Scoping Study of Airlift Circulation Technologies for Supplemental Mixing in Pulse Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-07

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a scoping study to investigate supplemental technologies for supplying vertical fluid motion and enhanced mixing in Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels designed for high solids processing. The study assumed that the pulse jet mixers adequately mix and shear the bottom portion of a vessel. Given that, the primary function of a supplemental technology should be to provide mixing and shearing in the upper region of a vessel. The objective of the study was to recommend a mixing technology and configuration that could be implemented in the 8-ft test vessel located at Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE). Several mixing technologies, primarily airlift circulator (ALC) systems, were evaluated in the study. This technical report contains a review of ALC technologies, a description of the PNNL testing and accompanying results, and recommended features of an ALC system for further study.

  17. Association of dietary and supplemental iron and colorectal cancer in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Joseph H; Lesko, Samuel M; Miller, Paige E; Cross, Amanda J; Muscat, Joshua E; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; Harper, Gregory; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary iron, heme iron, and supplemental iron on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania, including 1005 incident cases and 1062 controls. Diet was assessed through a modified food frequency questionnaire that included supplement use and a meat-specific module. Cases reported intakes for the year before diagnosis, whereas controls reported intakes for the year before interview. Heme iron intake was calculated using a new heme database developed by the US National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, there were no significant associations between heme iron or total iron intake and CRC incidence. Dietary iron intake was inversely associated with CRC among women (OR Q5 vs. Q1=0.45; 95% CI=0.22-0.92), but not among men. Supplemental iron intake of more than 18 mg/day versus none was positively associated with CRC incidence (OR=2.31; 95% CI=1.48-3.59; P-trendconsumption of more than 18 mg/day of supplemental iron may increase risk for CRC.

  18. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone, E-mail: fcmorone@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Methods: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. Results: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine. (author)

  19. "Test me and treat me"--attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-07-14

    Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Qualitative focus group study. 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. A large general practice in east London. Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of "doses", "side effects" and "regular testing." Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-10-16

    Limited cutaneous synthesis due to low sun exposure and inadequate dietary intake makes vitamin D supplementation a necessity for many Canadian children. Identification of the factors associated with supplement use is necessary for public health awareness campaigns, but they have not been identified previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and the determinants of the use of vitamin D supplements among children in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2014, a representative sample of grade five students (10-11 y) in Alberta (n = 2686) was surveyed. Data on dietary intake and use of vitamin D supplements were obtained using a modified Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the key correlates of supplement use. Use of vitamin D supplements by children was 29.45 % although only 11.83 % took supplements daily. Children who resided in a metropolitan area (OR = 1.32; 95 % CI:1.06-1.65), were more physically active (2nd tertile: OR = 1.39; 95 % CI:1.09-1.78 and 3rd tertile: OR = 1.70; 95 % CI:1.33-2.16), or whose parents completed college (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI:1.05-1.74) were more likely to take vitamin D supplements. Prevalence of use was highest among those who had a high vitamin D diet and those with under/normal body weight status, although supplement use was not statistically associated with either dietary vitamin D intake or weight status. A considerable proportion of children did not take vitamin D supplements. Region of residence, physical activity level and parental education were determinants of supplement use, independent of child's gender, household income, weight status and dietary practices. We suggest prioritizing public health efforts to support strategies to make parents aware of the importance of providing the correct dose of vitamin D supplements for their children to meet dietary recommendations.

  1. Immune Cell-Supplemented Human Skin Model for Studying Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbacher, Andreas; Sohn, Kai; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Rupp, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is a niche for various fungal species which either colonize the surface of this tissue as commensals or, primarily under conditions of immunosuppression, invade the skin and cause infection. Here we present a method for generation of a human in vitro skin model supplemented with immune cells of choice. This model represents a complex yet amenable tool to study molecular mechanisms of host-fungi interactions at human skin.

  2. Leucine supplementation attenuates macrophage foam-cell formation: Studies in humans, mice, and cultured macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Rom, Oren; Hamoud, Shadi; Volkova, Nina; Hayek, Tony; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Aviram, Michael

    2018-02-05

    Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Similarly, leucine supplementation to C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) resulted in decreased cholesterol content in their harvested peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in relation with reduced cholesterol biosynthesis rate. Studies in J774A.1 murine macrophages revealed that leucine dose-dependently decreased cellular cholesterol and triglyceride mass. Macrophages treated with leucine (0.2 mM) showed attenuated uptake of very low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride biosynthesis rate, with a concurrent down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, a key enzyme catalyzing triglyceride biosynthesis in macrophages. Similar effects were observed when macrophages were treated with α-ketoisocaproate, a key leucine metabolite. Finally, both in vivo and in vitro leucine supplementation significantly improved macrophage mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The above studies, conducted in human, mice, and cultured macrophages, highlight a protective role for leucine attenuating macrophage foam-cell formation by mechanisms related to the metabolism of cholesterol, triglycerides, and energy production. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446 and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372. Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90. Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements. Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable.

  4. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtzberg Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid (FA added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6% of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00, compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97. Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49. Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses.

  5. Human Donor Milk or Formula: A Qualitative Study of Maternal Perspectives on Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Molly R; Kair, Laura R; Sipsma, Heather L; Phillipi, Carrie A; Larson, Ilse A

    2018-04-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental to maternal and child health and is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce child mortality. Pasteurized human donor milk (HDM) is increasingly provided for term newborns requiring temporary supplementation. Few studies examine maternal perspectives on supplementation of term newborns. We conducted semistructured in-person interviews with mothers of term newborns (n = 24) during postpartum hospitalization. Mothers were asked whether they had chosen or would choose to supplement with HDM versus infant formula, if medically indicated, and why. Data were gathered to saturation and analyzed inductively by consensus. Emerging semantic themes were compared between mothers who chose or would choose HDM and those who chose or would choose infant formula. Most mothers had concerns about HDM, including uncertainty regarding screening and substances passed through HDM. Experiences with prior children influenced decision-making. Mothers who chose or would choose HDM (56%, n = 14) praised it as "natural," and some felt suspicious of infant formula as "synthetic." Mothers who chose or would choose infant formula (44%, n = 10) did not know enough about HDM to choose it, and many viewed infant formula as a short-term solution to supply concerns. Mothers unanimously mistrusted online milk purchasing sources, although the majority felt positively about using a friend or family member's milk. Counseling regarding term newborn supplementation should focus on HDM education, specifically on areas of greatest concern and uncertainty such as donor selection, screening, transmission of substances, and mother's milk supply. Research is needed to assess the long-term impact of attitudes and choices on breastfeeding.

  6. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Eliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n=5 were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4 versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p<=0.10, and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p<=0.10. Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  7. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  8. Adherence to iron supplements among women receiving antenatal care at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda-cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka, Tusuubira S; Ononge, Sam; Kiondo, Paul; Namusoke, Fatuma

    2017-10-25

    Antenatal iron supplementation is a cost effective way of reducing iron deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in resource limited countries like Uganda. Poor adherence to iron supplements has limited its effectiveness in reducing maternal anaemia as evidenced by the high burden of iron deficiency anemia in Sub-saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the level of and factors associated with adherence to iron supplementation among women attending antenatal clinic at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Three hundred and seventy pregnant women were recruited in a cross sectional survey in Mulago National Referral Hospital antenatal clinic after informed consent between February and April 2014. Levels of adherence to iron supplements were assessed using visual analogue scale and factors associated collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. About 12% (11.6%) of the mothers attending the antenatal clinic adhered to iron supplements over 30 day period. Mothers who had had four or more antenatal visits prior to the survey [odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.97], had more than 2 week supply of iron supplements in the previous visit (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.02-1.09), prior health education (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.29) were more likely to adhere to iron supplements. Inadequate drug supplies and fear for side effects were the main reasons why participants missed the iron supplements. There was low adherence to iron supplements among mothers attending antenatal clinic at Mulago National Referral  Hospital. We recommend a national evaluation of adherence to iron supplements and look at ways of increasing adherence.

  9. Randomised studies of income supplementation: a lost opportunity to assess health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, J; Rodgers, A; Priest, P

    1999-11-01

    Despite the wealth of evidence linking low income to ill health, there is little information from randomised studies on how much and how quickly these risks can be reversed by improvements in income. To conduct a systematic review of randomised studies of income supplementation, with particular reference to health outcomes. Extensive searches of electronic databases and contact with previous authors. As well as searching for trials that were specifically designed to assess the effects of increased income, studies of winners and losers of lotteries were also sought: if winning is purely chance, such studies are, in effect, randomised trials of increased income. Ten relevant studies were identified, all conducted in North America, mostly in the late 1960s and 1970s. Five trials were designed to assess the effects of income supplementation on workforce participation and randomised a total of 10,000 families to 3-5 years of various combinations of minimum income guarantees and reduced tax rates. Two trials were designed to assess re-offending rates in recently released prisoners and randomised a total of 2400 people to 3-6 months of benefits. One trial was designed to assess housing allowances and randomised 3500 families to three years of income supplements. One trial assessed the health effects of 12 months of income supplementation in 54 people with severe mental illness. Finally, one study compared three groups of people who won different amounts of money in a state lottery. In all these studies the interventions resulted in increases in income of at least one fifth. However, no reliable analyses of health outcome data are available. Extensive opportunities to reliably assess the effects of increases in income on health outcomes have been missed. Such evidence might have increased the consideration of potential health effects during deliberations about policies that have major implications for income, such as taxation rates, benefit policies, and minimum wage

  10. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (Pfish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (Pfish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  11. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  12. Omega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paula Simplício da; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Brito, Patricia Dias de; Cardoso, Claudia Santos de Aguiar; Almeida, Cristiane Fonseca de; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sousa, Andrea Silvestre de

    2017-06-09

    Several studies have been focusing on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on modulation of inflammatory markers in several cardiopathies. Although immunoregulatory dysfunction has been associated to the chronic cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, there is no study examining the effects of omega-3 supplementation in these patients. We investigated the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on markers of inflammation and lipid profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients. The present study was a single-center double-blind clinical trial including patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 PUFAs capsules (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) or placebo (corn oil) during an 8-week period. Cytokines, fasting glucose, lipid, and anthropometric profiles were evaluated. Forty-two patients (23 women and 19 men) were included in the study and there were only two losses to follow-up during the 8-week period. Most of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the groups at baseline, except for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17α, and IFNγ. The omega-3 PUFAs group demonstrated greater improvements in serum triglycerides (-21.1 vs. -4.1; p = 0.05) and IL-10 levels (-10.6 vs. -35.7; p = 0.01) in comparison to controls after 8 weeks of intervention. No further differences were observed between groups. Omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may favorably affect lipid and inflammatory profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, demonstrated by a decrease in triglycerides and improvements on IL-10 concentration. Further studies examining the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are necessary. NCT01863576.

  13. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  14. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and beta-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM) with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex) and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog), and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS). The change in TFIM (20 +/- 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 +/- 6, p = 0.20), FIM-Cog (3 +/- 3 SD vs. 4 +/- 5, p = 0.41), FIM-Motor (15 +/- 11 SD vs. 20 +/- 13, p = 0.21) sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 +/- 9 SD vs. 23 +/- 9, p = 0.59), and discharge disposition (home/institution) (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60) between the vitamin C and the control groups. This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients.

  15. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  16. Influence of selenium supplementation on patients with inflammation: A pilot double blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Hessel, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of selenium supplementation on patients with inflammation receiving PN. This double-blind randomized study included 20 hospitalized patients experiencing an inflammatory process while being fed by PN, who were monitored in three stages: first 72 h (0), day 7 (1), and day 14 (2) of PN. The supplemented patients group (G+S) received 60 μg/d (0.75 μmol) of selenium as selenious acid which was added to the PN bag. The nonsupplemented group (G-S) did not receive selenium. The concentration range of 84 to 100 μg/L (1.07-1.27 μmol/L) was used as a reference of plasma selenium. The study included 20 patients (8 G+S and 12 G-S) mainly diagnosed with cancer and/or sepsis. Most of them were hospitalized in the intensive care unit and were receiving PN for clinical reasons. Plasma selenium was greater in the G+S than in the G-S (P = 0.05) in two stages (0 and 1). Since the start of assessment, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated; however, there was no statistical difference in CRP values between groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant change of glutathione peroxidase over time or between groups (P > 0.05). The selenium concentration was greater in the G+S than in the G-S, acting independently from CRP behavior. However, supplementation was not enough to reach the reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H 2 O 2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H 2 O 2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  18. Evaluation of an animation tool developed to supplement dental student study of the cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, M; McKenna, J P; Cryan, J F; Vagg, T; Toulouse, A; Downer, E J

    2017-12-30

    The structure/function of the cranial nerves is a core topic for dental students. However, due to the perceived complexity of the subject, it is often difficult for students to develop a comprehensive understanding of key concepts using textbooks and models. It is accepted that the acquisition of anatomical knowledge can be facilitated by visualisation of structures. This study aimed to develop and assess a novel cranial nerve animation as a supplemental learning aid for dental students. A multidisciplinary team of anatomists, neuroscientists and a computer scientist developed a novel animation depicting the cranial nerves. The animation was viewed by newly enrolled first-year dental students, graduate entry dental students (year 1) and dental hygiene students (year 1). A simple life scenario employing the use of the cranial nerves was developed using a cartoon-type animation with a viewing time of 3.58 minutes. The animation was developed with emphasis on a life scenario. The animation was placed online for 2 weeks with open access or viewed once in a controlled laboratory setting. Questionnaires were designed to assess the participants' attitude towards the animation and their knowledge of the cranial nerves before and after visualisation. This study was performed before the delivery of core lectures on the cranial nerves. Our findings indicate that the use of the animation can act as a supplemental tool to improve student knowledge of the cranial nerves. Indeed, data indicate that a single viewing of the animation, in addition to 2-week access to the animation, can act as a supplemental learning tool to assist student understanding of the structure and function of cranial nerves. The animation significantly enhanced the student's opinion that their cranial nerve knowledge had improved. From a qualitative point of view, the students described the animation as an enjoyable and useful supplement to reading material/lectures and indicated that the animation was a

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extract...

  20. Classification of calcium supplements through application of principal component analysis: a study by inaa and aas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of Ca supplements are available in the local markets of Pakistan. It is sometimes difficult to classify these with respect to their composition. In the present work principal component analysis (PCA) technique was applied to classify different Ca supplements on the basis of their elemental data obtained using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. The graphical representation of principal component analysis (PCA) scores utilizing intricate analytical data successfully generated four different types of Ca supplements with compatible samples grouped together. These included Ca supplements with CaCO/sub 3/as Ca source along with vitamin C, the supplements with CaCO/sub 3/ as Ca source along with vitamin D, Supplements with Ca from bone meal and supplements with chelated calcium. (author)

  1. An exploratory study evaluating the effects of macular carotenoid supplementation in various retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crosby-Nwaobi R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roxanne Crosby-Nwaobi, Philip Hykin, Tunde Peto, Sobha Sivaprasad NIHR Clinical Research Facility, NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of daily oral supplementation with Macushield (10 mg/d meso-zeaxanthin, 10 mg/d lutein, and 2 mg/d zeaxanthin on eye health in patients with retinal diseases by assessing the macular pigment (MP profile, the visual function, and the quality of life. Methods: Fifty-one patients with various retinal diseases were supplemented daily and followed up for 6 months. The MP optical density was measured using the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry and dual-wavelength autofluorescence. Visual function was evaluated by assessing the change in best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and glare sensitivity in mesopic and photopic conditions. Vision-related and general quality of life changes were determined using the National Eye Insititute- Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25 and EuroQoL-5 dimension questionnaires. Results: A statistically significant increase in the MP optical density was observed using the dual-wavelength autofluorescence (P=0.04 but not with the customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Statistically significant (P<0.05 improvements in glare sensitivity in low and medium spatial frequencies were observed at 3 months and 6 months. Ceiling effects confounded other visual function tests and quality of life changes. Conclusion: Supplementation with the three carotenoids enhances certain aspects of visual performance in retinal diseases. Keywords: macular pigment optical density, diabetes, central serous retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration

  2. Probiotic supplementation promotes calcification in Danio rerio larvae: a molecular study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Maradonna

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have been showing that dietary probiotics can exert beneficial health effects in both humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus - a component of the human gut microflora - enhances reproduction, larval development, and the biomineralization process in Danio rerio (zebrafish. The aim of this study was to identify the pathways affected by L. rhamnosus during zebrafish larval development. Our morphological and histochemical findings show that L. rhamnosus accelerates bone deposition through stimulation of the expression of key genes involved in ossification, e.g. runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2, Sp7 transcription factor (sp7, matrix Gla protein (mgp, and bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla protein (bglap as well as through inhibition of sclerostin (sost, a bone formation inhibitor. Western blot analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 3-(Mapk1 and Mapk3, which are involved in osteoblast and osteocyte differentiation, documented an increase in Mapk1 16 days post fertilization (dpf and of Mapk3 23 dpf in individuals receiving L. rhamnosus supplementation. Interestingly, a reduction of sost detected in the same individuals suggests that the probiotic may help treat bone disorders.

  3. Characteristics of Clinical Studies Used for US Food and Drug Administration Approval of High-Risk Medical Device Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sarah Y; Dhruva, Sanket S; Redberg, Rita F

    2017-08-15

    High-risk medical devices often undergo modifications, which are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through various kinds of premarket approval (PMA) supplements. There have been multiple high-profile recalls of devices approved as PMA supplements. To characterize the quality of the clinical studies and data (strength of evidence) used to support FDA approval of panel-track supplements (a type of PMA supplement pathway that is used for significant changes in a device or indication for use and always requires clinical data). Descriptive study of clinical studies supporting panel-track supplements approved by the FDA between April 19, 2006, and October 9, 2015. Panel-track supplement approval. Methodological quality of studies including randomization, blinding, type of controls, clinical vs surrogate primary end points, use of post hoc analyses, and reporting of age and sex. Eighty-three clinical studies supported the approval of 78 panel-track supplements, with 71 panel-track supplements (91%) supported by a single study. Of the 83 studies, 37 (45%) were randomized clinical trials and 25 (30%) were blinded. The median number of patients per study was 185 (interquartile range, 75-305), and the median follow-up duration was 180 days (interquartile range, 84-270 days). There were a total of 150 primary end points (mean [SD], 1.8 [1.2] per study), and 57 primary end points (38%) were compared with controls. Of primary end points with controls, 6 (11%) were retrospective controls and 51 (89%) were active controls. One hundred twenty-one primary end points (81%) were surrogate end points. Thirty-three studies (40%) did not report age and 25 (30%) did not report sex for all enrolled patients. The FDA required postapproval studies for 29 of 78 (37%) panel-track supplements. Among clinical studies used to support FDA approval of high-risk medical device modifications, fewer than half were randomized, blinded, or controlled, and most primary outcomes were

  4. Medication and supplement use in older people with and without intellectual disability: An observational, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Peklar

    Full Text Available Understanding the medication and supplement use of aging people is critical to ensuring that health service providers in primary care can optimise use of these agents. An increasing number of people with different levels of intellectual disability (ID are living in the community and becoming for the first time substantial users of primary health care services. This, however, brings new challenges that need to be addressed at the primary health care level. We quantified the use of medicines and food supplements and described the associated patterns of morbidity in the two comparable cohorts of aging population with and without intellectual disability.This research aligned participants of 50 years and over who lived in the community from two nationally representative cohorts of older people; those with ID from the Intellectual Disability Supplement (n = 238 and those without ID (n = 8,081 from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.Data showed that both medication and supplement use in the two groups was prevalent but that those with ID received more of both medications and supplements (e.g. polypharmacy was 39.0% in ID vs. 18.1% in non-ID cohort. Moreover, based on an analysis of the therapeutic groups and medications used that treatment was more intense in the ID cohort (95.8 vs. 7.0 International Non-proprietary Names per 100 participants. Supplement use was almost twice as prevalent in the ID group but substantially less diverse with only 10 types of supplements reported. Morbidity was higher in the ID group and showed a higher prevalence of neurological and mental health disorders.The results highlight that the burden of therapy management and the potential risks in those ageing with ID differs substantially from those ageing without ID. Understanding the medication and supplement use of people aging with intellectual disability (ID is critical to ensuring that health service providers in primary/ambulatory care can optimise use of these

  5. Study of dietary supplements compositions by neutron activation analysis at the VR-1 training reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Milan; Rataj, Jan; Huml, Ondrej; Sklenka, Lubomir

    2017-11-01

    The VR-1 training reactor operated by the Czech Technical University in Prague is utilized mainly for education of students and training of various reactor staff; however, R&D is also carried out at the reactor. The experimental instrumentation of the reactor can be used for the irradiation experiments and neutron activation analysis. In this paper, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is used for a study of dietary supplements containing the zinc (one of the essential trace elements for the human body). This analysis includes the dietary supplement pills of different brands; each brand is represented by several different batches of pills. All pills were irradiated together with the standard activation etalons in the vertical channel of the VR-1 reactor at the nominal power (80 W). Activated samples were investigated by the nuclear gamma-ray spectrometry technique employing the semiconductor HPGe detector. From resulting saturated activities, the amount of mineral element (Zn) in the pills was determined using the comparative NAA method. The results show clearly that the VR-1 training reactor is utilizable for neutron activation analysis experiments.

  6. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wu Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  7. Effect of a Protein Supplement on the Gut Microbiota of Endurance Athletes: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moreno-Pérez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate (n = 12 or maltodextrin (control (n = 12 for 10 weeks. Microbiota, water content, pH, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were analyzed in fecal samples, whereas malondialdehyde levels (oxidative stress marker were determined in plasma and urine. Fecal pH, water content, ammonia, and SCFA concentrations did not change, indicating that protein supplementation did not increase the presence of these fermentation-derived metabolites. Similarly, it had no impact on plasma or urine malondialdehyde levels; however, it increased the abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum and decreased the presence of health-related taxa including Roseburia, Blautia, and Bifidobacterium longum. Thus, long-term protein supplementation may have a negative impact on gut microbiota. Further research is needed to establish the impact of protein supplements on gut microbiota.

  8. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation decreases statin-related mild-to-moderate muscle symptoms: a randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlovnik, Ajda; Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Turk, Martina; Šabovič, Mišo

    2014-11-06

    Statin use is frequently associated with muscle-related symptoms. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation has yielded conflicting results in decreasing statin myopathy. Herein, we tested whether coenzyme Q10 supplementation could decrease statin-associated muscular pain in a specific group of patients with mild-to-moderate muscle symptoms. Fifty patients treated with statins and reporting muscle pain were recruited. The Q10 group (n=25) received coenzyme Q10 supplementation over a period of 30 days (50 mg twice daily), and the control group (n=25) received placebo. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire was used and blood testing was performed at inclusion in the study and after 30 days of supplementation. The intensity of muscle pain, measured as the Pain Severity Score (PSS), in the Q10 group was reduced from 3.9±0.4 to 2.9±0.4 (PPain Interference Score (PIS) after Q10 supplementation was reduced from 4.0±0.4 to 2.6±0.4 (Pstatin-related muscle symptoms in 75% of patients. The relative values of PSS and PIS significantly decreased (-33.1% and -40.3%, respectively) in the Q10 group compared to placebo group (both Pmuscle enzymes or cholesterol values were found. The present results show that coenzyme Q10 supplementation (50 mg twice daily) effectively reduced statin-related mild-to-moderate muscular symptoms, causing lower interference of statin-related muscular symptoms with daily activities.

  9. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheroz H Rabadi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional independence measure (TFIM with 23 patients with ischemic stroke not taking Vitamin C supplementation. Vitamin C 1000 mg daily was prescribed on admission to our unit mainly to patients who were undernourished (defined as significant weight loss and/or 90% or less ideal body weight for age and sex and those with pressure sores. The outcome measures were: change in the TFIM, FIM-Cognition (FIM-Cog, and FIM-Motor sub-scores, discharge disposition, and length of stay (LOS.Results: The change in TFIM (20 ± 13 standard deviation [SD] vs. 26 ± 6, p = 0.20, FIM-Cog (3 ± 3 SD vs. 4 ± 5, p = 0.41, FIM-Motor (15 ± 11 SD vs. 20 ± 13, p = 0.21 sub-scores were less in the vitamin C treated group, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Similarly, no significant differences were found in LOS (21 ± 9 SD vs. 23 ± 9, p = 0.59, and discharge disposition (home/institution (9/10 vs. 13/9, p = 0.60 between the vitamin C and the control groups.Conclusion: This study suggests vitamin C supplementation did not enhance functional recovery in undernourished ischemic stroke patients

  10. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  11. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  12. [Study of aerobic capacity in chronic hemodialized patients: effect of L-carnitine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alejandro; Torres, Rubén; Sanhueza, María Eugenia; Elgueta, Leticia; Segovia, Erico; Cano, Marcelo

    2008-04-05

    Chronic hemodialyzed patients have a low level of aerobic capacity, caused by the pathologies concomitant to renal insufficiency, according with a low level of physical activity. One of the factors that would contribute to this level of aerobic capacity is the L-carnitine deficit on skeletal muscle. However, the value of the supplementation of L-carnitine to improve the physical fitness has been controversial. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of L-carnitine on VO2 max in hemodialyzed patients. A group of 21 patients (20-50 years old) on a program of chronic hemodialysis was studied. During 12 weeks, 13 of them received L-carnitine, 7 men and 6 women, 38.8 (9.5) years old; BMI 24.2 (2.1) Kg/m2; 8 of them received placebo, 4 men and 4 women, 35.8 (11.4) years old; BMI 24.5 (5.8) Kg/m2. There was an increase in VO2 peak on L-carnitine group from 16.3 (2.8) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1) to 19.5 (3.3) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1), and the same was seen in the placebo group (increase in VO2 peak from 14.8 (3.8) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1) to 18.9 (4.8) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1)). The L-carnitine and placebo groups did not show statistical differences at the end of this study (all values above p > 0.05). In this group of patients, the intravenous supplementation of L-carnitine during 12 weeks did not have an impact on the improvement of the VO2 peak.

  13. Efficacy of Long-Term Oral Vitamin B12 Supplementation after Total Gastrectomy: Results from a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Moleiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Vitamin B12 (VB12 deficiency is a common complication after total gastrectomy which may be associated with megaloblastic anemia and potentially irreversible neurologic symptoms. Intramuscular supplementation of VB12 has been considered the standard treatment, although it is associated with high costs and patient discomfort. Patients/Methods: We performed a prospective uncontrolled study (ACTRN12614000107628 in order to evaluate the clinical and laboratory efficacy of long-term oral VB12 supplementation in patients submitted to total gastrectomy. All patients received daily oral VB12 (1 mg/day and were evaluated every 3 months (clinical and laboratory evaluation: hemoglobin, VB12, total iron, ferritin, and folate. Results: A total of 26 patients were included with a mean age of 64 years (29-79. Patients were included with a mean period of 65 months (3-309 after total gastrectomy. At inclusion time, 17/26 patients were under intramuscular VB12, and 9 had not started supplementation yet. There were normal serum VB12 levels in 25/26 patients (mean VB12 serum levels: 657 pg/mL. The mean follow-up period was 20 (8.5-28 months. During follow-up, all patients had normal VB12 levels and there was no need for intramuscular supplementation. The patient with low VB12 levels had an increase to adequate levels, which remained stable. There were no differences with statistical significance among VB12 levels at 6 (867 pg/mL, 12 (1,008 pg/mL, 18 (1,018 pg/mL, and 24 (1,061 pg/mL months. Iron and folate supplementation was necessary in 21 and 7 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Oral VB12 supplementation is effective and safe in patients who underwent total gastrectomy and should be considered the preferential form of supplementation.

  14. Effect on bone density of postoperative calcium and vitamin-D supplementation in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Erik; Westerdahl, Johan; Bergenfelz, Anders

    2009-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is associated with decreased bone density and increased fracture risk. A significant number of pHPT patients have low calcium intake and suffer from vitamin deficiency. Thus, we adopted a policy of postoperative supplements with calcium and vitamin D after parathyroid surgery. In this study, we investigated if this policy enhanced the postoperative increase in bone density. Forty-two consecutive patients (83% female) were studied. The first 21 patients received no supplements, whereas the following 21 patients received 1,000 g calcium and 800 IU hydroxy D: -vitamin daily (Ca-D group) for 1 year postoperatively. The patients were monitored with bone density and biochemistry pre- and at 1 year postoperatively. Preoperatively, the patients without vitamin D supplementation (non-Ca-D group) did neither differ in biochemistry, clinical features, nor in bone density from patients in Ca-D group. Postoperatively, there was a tendency that patients in Ca-D group increased their bone density, at all sites measured, in a greater extent than patients that did not receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In conclusion, based on our results, it is difficult to give a recommendation of vitamin D supplementation in routine use following surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Based on the present data, a calculation of sample size for a future randomized controlled trial is presented.

  15. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  16. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J.I.; Mensink, M.R.; Siebelink, A.E.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low

  17. A Pilot Study: Effects of Dietary Supplementation with α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Perilla Seed Oil on Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozo Ashida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available N-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, have been reported to have some beneficial effects in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil rich in a-linolenic acid (α-LNA, parent n-3 fatty acid, were studied in five patients with asthma. The symptoms of asthma and mean peak flow rates (PFR both early in the morning and in the evening were improved 2 weeks after dietary supplementation and the increases in PFR were significant (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by peripheral leukocytes stimulated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was significantly suppressed from 77.6 to 41.6 ng/5Xl06 cells by dietary supplementation (P<0.05. The generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 by leukocytes was also significantly suppressed from 64.0 to 38.8 ng/5x106 cells after supplementation with perilla seed oil (P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with perilla seed oil is beneficial for the treatment of asthma.

  18. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Mammina, Caterina; Thomas, Ewan; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Moro, Tatiana; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Se...

  19. Soyabean oil supplementation effects on perivascular inflammation in lungs induced by bisphenol a: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Hamid, S.; Umbreen, F.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of soyabean oil supplementation on perivascular inflammation in lungs of adult mice induced by Bisphenol A (BPA). Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with the Animal House, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from June to November 2016. Methodology:Thirty male and female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, of 10 animals each. Group A animals served as control. Group B animals were given BPA at a dose of 50 mg/Kg body weight/day. Group C animals were given BPA and soyabean oil at doses of 50 mg/Kg body weight/day and 500 mg/day, respectively. All treatments were given once daily for a period of eight weeks. Animals were dissected 24 hours after receiving the last dose. Lung tissue specimen processing and H and E staining was carried out for routine histological study. Perivascular inflammation was morphometrically graded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test with p<0.05. Results: Grade 2 inflammation was recorded in two (20%) animals and grade 3 perivascular inflammation in 80% specimens in Group B; whereas 20% specimens of Group C had grade 2 inflammation and eight (80%) showed grade 1 inflammation. None of the control animals showed any inflammation. All groups were significantly different at p<0.001. Conclusion: BPA produced perivascular inflammation and con-commitant administration of soyabean oil diet protected against it in rodent. (author)

  20. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Factors influencing dietary supplement consumption: A case study in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A consumer survey on dietary supplement consumption was carried out on 494 consumers aged 20 years and older in Chiang Mai province. The percentage of consumers who regularly consumed dietary supplements was 38.5%. Vitamins and minerals were the most consumed products, followed by functional drinks, functional foods, protein extracts, dietary fibre, cod liver oil, phytochemicals, algae products, fat absorbers, fish oils and bee products in that order. Females and participants who had recommended waistlines, had higher income, usually felt stressed or sick, and who preferred eating fruits/vegetables or routinely drank water tended to have a higher rate of consumption of dietary supplements. Participants gave priority over a product with guaranteed quality when they made decision to purchase dietary supplements, but their purchase was also influenced by the attractiveness of the product and advertisement for it.

  2. Intervention Study of Women Wrestler on the Energy Consumption and Food Supplement in Weight Reduction Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to explore the influence of energy consumption on wrestler in weight reduction phase and the intervention of food supplement on athletes. Twenty wrestlers were divided into intervention group and control group and went through weight reduction phase and food supplement by using the methods of slow weight training and weighing method to meet the entry requirements of the athlete’s weight and improve exercise capacity at the same time.

  3. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a Finnish birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John; Saari, Kaisa; Hakko, Helinä; Jokelainen, Jari; Jones, Peter; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chant, David; Isohanni, Matti

    2004-04-01

    Based on clues from epidemiology and animal experiments, low vitamin D during early life has been proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of vitamin D supplements during the first year of life and risk of developing schizophrenia. Subjects were drawn from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=9,114). During the first year of life, data were collected about the frequency and dose of vitamin D supplementation. Our primary outcome measures were schizophrenia, psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, and nonpsychotic disorders as diagnosed by age 31 years. Males and females were examined separately. In males, the use of either irregular or regular vitamin D supplements was associated with a reduced risk of schizophrenia (Risk ratio (RR)=0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.95; RR=0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.90, respectively) compared with no supplementation. In males, the use of at least 2000 IU of vitamin D was associated with a reduced risk of schizophrenia (RR=0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.95) compared to those on lower doses. There were no significant associations between either the frequency or dose of vitamin D supplements and (a) schizophrenia in females, nor with (b) nonpsychotic disorder or psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia in either males or females. Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life is associated with a reduced risk of schizophrenia in males. Preventing hypovitaminosis D during early life may reduce the incidence of schizophrenia.

  5. Omega-3 supplementation is neuroprotective to corneal nerves in dry eye disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Holly R; Naranjo Golborne, Cecilia; Downie, Laura E

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether oral, long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplementation, for 3 months, induces changes to the central corneal sub-basal nerve plexus in dry eye disease and whether nerve alterations correlate with clinical findings. This prospective, comparative study involved the final 12 participants enrolled in a randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 participants with moderate dry eye disease. Participants received either placebo (olive oil 1500 mg/day; n = 4) or ω-3 EFA supplements (~1000 mg/day eicosapentaenoic acid + ~500 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid; n = 8) for 90 days. The main outcome measure was the mean change in central corneal sub-basal plexus nerve parameters between days one and 90, quantified using in vivo confocal microscopy. Secondary outcomes included mean change in tear osmolarity, corneal dendritic cell density and basal epithelial cell density. Compared with baseline, the reduction in OSDI score and tear osmolarity at day 90 were greater in the ω-3 EFA group than the placebo group (OSDI: ω-3 EFA, mean ± SEM: -15.6 ± 2.8 vs placebo: -2.8 ± 4.1 units, t 5 = 2.6, p = 0.04; tearosmolarity: ω-3 EFA: -22.63 ± 5.7 vs placebo: -8 ± 2.7 mOsmol/L, t 9 = 2.3, p = 0.04). At day 90, corneal total nerve branch density (CTBD: 91.1 ± 8.6 vs 45.1 ± 13.4 branches/mm 2 , F 1,10 = 14, p = 0.004) and corneal nerve branch density on the main fibre (CNBD: 63.4 ± 6.5 vs 27.9 ± 11.5 branches/mm 2 , F 1,10 = 6, p = 0.03) were higher in the ω-3 EFA group compared with placebo. Relative to day 1, CNBD (branches/mm 2 ) increased at day 90 in the ω-3 EFA group (+20.0 ± 9.2, t 8 = 3.2 p = 0.01) compared with placebo (-10.8 ± 3.2). Similar changes were evident for corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL, mm/mm 2 ), which increased from baseline at day 90 in the omega-3 EFA group (+2.9 ± 1.6, t 8 = 3.4 p = 0.01) compared with placebo (-2.7 ± 0.5). There was a negative correlation between CTBD and tear osmolarity

  6. The effect of folate and vitamin B12 supplementation on homocysteine concentrations: a study in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadibakhsh N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is higher in hemodialysis (HD patients than the general population. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of high-dose folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B12 on lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in HD patients. Methods: Thirty-six HD patients at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who had been given folic acid supplements (5 mg/d for at least 3 months before, were enrolled in this clinical trial. Subjects were also checked for other inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided randomly into four groups and underwent two months of supplementation as follows: 5 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group one, 5 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group two, 15 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group three and 15 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group four. Concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intake of patients was also determined during the supplementation period.Results: Of the folic acid supplemented patients, 27.8% had normal levels of tHcy at baseline and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After the supplementation period, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group one and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups two, three and four respectively. Changes in plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 were only significant in group four; however, no significant changes were seen for serum folic acid. The percentage of subjects reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group four than in the reference group. Conclusions: Supplementation with 15 mg/d folic acid together with 1 mg/d oral vitamin B12 is more effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients.

  7. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  8. [Effect of supplementation with a single dose of vitamin D in children with cerebral palsy. Preliminary randomised controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Catalina; Meier, Martina; Witting, Scarlett; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Solano, Carlos; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have an increased risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. Although there are many studies on VD and CP, there is limited information about VD supplementation in these patients. To evaluate the effect of supplementation with a single dose of VD on the plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (25OHD) in children with CP. Prospective-randomised-controlled-trial, including 30 Chilean children (19 males) with CP, median age 9.9 years (6.2-13.5). Clinical and biochemical variables including 25OHD, were recorded (time 0 and 8 weeks). Patients were allocated to the supplemented (S) group receiving 100,000 IU oral D3 at baseline, and compared with the placebo (P) group. Among clinical features are highlighted: gastrostomy (60%), underweight (30%), bed-ridden (93.3%), antiepileptic drugs (70%), and 43.3% used VD metabolism inducing antiepileptics. Baseline biochemical measurements were normal. The 25OHD was insufficient in 4/30 and deficient in 6/30. 25OHD levels were not associated with the variables studied. Eight patients completed the study in the S group, and 10 in P group. The placebo and supplementation groups had no significant difference in baseline variables. Serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 8 weeks were normal in both groups, with no statistically significant differences. 25OHD in the P group was normal in 6/10, and insufficient+deficient in 4/10, and the S group was normal in all (8/8) (exact Fisher test P=.07). A single dose of 100,000 IU VD could normalise the concentrations of 25OHD after 8 weeks of supplementation in Children with CP, but more studies are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross‑sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A.H. Lentjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplement users (SU make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK. Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  11. Control of antioxidant supplementation through interview is not appropriate in oxidative-stress sport studies: Analytical confirmation should be required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jeronimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casuso, Rafael A; Huertas, Jesus R

    2017-01-01

    Controlling antioxidant supplementation in athletes involved in studies related to oxidative stress and muscle damage is the key to ensure results. The aim of this study was to confirm through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis whether well-trained individuals lied during a personal interview when asked if they were taking supplements with antioxidants, and how this could affect oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. A total of 94 men, well trained in endurance sports, volunteered in this study. They denied taking any antioxidant supplementation at initial interview. After a HPLC analysis, abnormal α-tocopherol concentrations were detected, probably due to a hidden antioxidant supplementation. Participants were classified into two groups: no evidence of antioxidant supplementation (NS group = α-tocopherol values antioxidant supplementation (S group = α-tocopherol values >80 nmol/mL; n = 19). Lipid peroxidation, muscle damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nonenzymatic antioxidant content were analyzed according to this classification. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test. The α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in the S group than in the NS group (MD = 725.01 ± 39.01 nmol/mL; P = 0.001). The S group showed a trend toward lower hydroperoxides than the NS group (MD = 1.19 ± 0.72 nmol/mL; P = 0.071). The S group showed significantly lower catalase activity than the NS group (MD = 0.10 ± 0.02-seg-1 mg-1; P antioxidant supplementation in a personal interview, as they showed high plasmatic α-tocopherol concentrations after HPLC verification. Catalase activity seems to be affected by high α-tocopherol plasma levels. Therefore, we strongly recommend the HPLC analysis as a necessary tool to verify the antioxidant intake and preserve results in studies linking oxidative stress and sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (pVimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. STUDY OF GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY PO CATTLE IN SUBANG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Gustiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of population and productivity of beef cattle due to low of post partus reproduction capability. Feeding at the last of pregnancy and early lactation period has not appropriate with the needs of cattle that caused this condition. Need the right strategy and technology to support that condition. Improvement of feed quality intake at the period is one attempt to increase of productivition capability. Assessment aims to determine the performance of beef cattle productivity capability through the improvement of feed quality. Research was conducted at Family Jaya livestock farmers group in Ponggang Village, Serangpanjang District, Subang Regency, and carried out from June to November 2013. Feed quality improvement by introduction feed supplementation (concentrates and UMB that is given at the last of pregnancy period and the early lactation period during 2 months before partus and 2 months after partus(flushing. While animal control / comparison fed in accordance with the habits of farmers is only given forage and agricultural waste which is not given every day. Provision of drinking water is done ad-libitum. Livestock productivity parameters measured were body weight calf; daily weight gain of cattle calf and post-partum estrus parent. Data collected were tabulated and analyzed by t-test. The study showed that cattle treated with additional feed gives a better effect on birth weight, weight gain of cattle and post-partum estrus.

  14. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer's test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer's test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as

  16. Caffeine supplementation improves countermovement jump in youth soccer players: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine ingestion in soccer performance, particularly in the countermovement jump test (CMJ. Material and methods: A total of 17 players from a U-19 amateur Spanish team participated in this pilot study. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized experimental design was used in 2 different sessions (1.5 hour per session separated by 1 week. CMJ was collected at the beginning and at the end of sessions; Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE was recorded. Players ingested caffeine or placebo at the beginning of session (minute 0 of session, providing a total of 4 mg of caffeine or a placebo per kg of body mass. Side effects from caffeine and placebo ingestions were analyzed. The effect sizes (ES were calculated using values for Cohen’s and Quantitative differences were assessed qualitatively (QA. Results: The jump height with caffeine supplementation at the beginning of training was 37.03 (±3.87 cm and at the end was 39.35 (±4.05 cm, obtaining significant improvements (p<0.05; ES: 0.56; QA: 99/1/0. Significant differences on CMJ at the end of the training session between caffeine and placebo groups were observed (39.35 [±4.05] cm vs. 36.85 [±3.15] cm; p<0.05; ES: 0.65; QA: 0/1/99. Significant differences on RPE between groups were observed. A non-significant tendency to suffer more side effects with caffeine ingestion was obtained. Conclusions: This study shows how the ingestion of 4 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an ergogenic aid to improve soccer performance. However, further studies with bigger soccer players sample would be necessary to refute the present results.

  17. “Test me and treat me”—attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Design Qualitative focus group study. Participants 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. Setting A large general practice in east London. Results Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of “doses”, “side effects” and “regular testing.” Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Conclusions Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. PMID:26173717

  18. In vitro and in vivo studies of creatine monohydrate supplementation to Duroc and Landrace pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette F.; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2007-01-01

    Duroc and Landrace pigs as well as primary myotubes from these breeds were used to investigate mechanisms behind differences in their response to creatine monohydrate (CMH). Pigs were supplemented with 0, 12.5, 25 or 50g CMH/d for 5 days (n=10 per treatment and breed). Plasma levels of creatine...... increased dose-dependently in both breeds, while muscle-creatine phosphate content increased only in the Duroc pigs. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling showed a tendency towards clustering according to CMH supplementation only among Duroc pigs, revealing a stronger response compared to Landrace pigs....... The abundance of insulin-like growth factor I and myostatin mRNA was decreased by CMH supplementation while that of type 1 IGF-receptor and creatine transporter was unaffected. Protein synthesis, increased in the myotubes from both breeds, indicating protein accretion, but no effect was observed on the m...

  19. Oral zinc supplementation for children with acute diarrhoea: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfa, Rola Abu; El Aish, Khaled I Abu; El Raai, Mohamed; El Gazaly, Nermeen; Shatat, Ahmed

    2018-02-21

    Diarrhoea causes 15% of under-5 mortality in developing countries. Zinc (Zn) stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn given with standard treatment to children with acute or moderate diarrhoea. In this quasi-unmasked, parallel-group study, we enrolled children with diarrhoea at El-Dorra Paediatric Hospital, Gaza Strip, occupied Palestinian territory. Inclusion criteria were children with more than three unformed stools in the preceding 24 h, duration of diarrhoea up to 72 h, and ability to accept oral fluids or feeds. Recruited children were assigned equally to either oral rehydration salts (control group) or oral rehydration salts plus Zn sulphate (Zn group; 10 mg for children younger than 6 months; 20 mg for children aged 6 months and older). All treatments were taken orally for 14 days. Primary outcomes were duration and frequency of diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes included changes in bodyweight, drugs side-effects, and episodes of any or severe dehydration. Data were analysed with SPSS. Outcome measures were compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test, student's t test, odds ratio, or χ 2 test. The study was approved by the ministry of health and the Helsinki Committee in the Gaza Strip. Parents of the children provided verbally informed consent before participation. We enrolled 140 children (aged 1-120 months). Duration of diarrhoea in the Zn group was shorter than in the control group (2·34 days in the Zn group vs 7·20 days in the control group; pZinc supplementation added to standard treatment with oral rehydration salts was effective and resulted in good treatment of diarrhoea. None. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Placebo in sports nutrition: a proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; de Salles Painelli, V; Gonçalves, L S; Yamaguchi, G; Mutti, T; Maciel, E; Roschel, H; Artioli, G G; Gualano, B

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise. Subsequently, participants were allocated to subgroups for analysis according to their identifications. Overall and subgroup analyses were performed using mixed-model and magnitude-based inference analyses. Caffeine improved performance vs PLA and CON (P ≤ 0.001). Correct pre- and post-exercise identification of caffeine in CAF improved exercise performance (+4.8 and +6.5%) vs CON, with slightly greater relative increases than the overall effect of caffeine (+4.1%). Performance was not different between PLA and CON within subgroups (all P > 0.05), although there was a tendency toward improved performance when participants believed they had ingested caffeine post-exercise (P = 0.06; 87% likely beneficial). Participants who correctly identified placebo in PLA showed possible harmful effects on performance compared to CON. Supplement identification appeared to influence exercise outcome and may be a source of bias in sports nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, Heather; Hershman, Dawn L; Neugut, Alfred I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Ergas, Isaac J; Strizich, Garrett; Roh, Janise M; Wilson, Allegra T; Lee, Marion; Sherman, Karen J; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described. We prospectively examined changes in use of 17 vitamin/mineral supplements in the first six months following breast cancer diagnosis among 2,596 members (28% non-white) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine demographic, clinical, and lifestyle predictors of initiation and discontinuation. Most women used vitamin/mineral supplements before (84%) and after (82%) diagnosis, with average doses far in excess of Institute of Medicine reference intakes. Over half (60.2%) reported initiating a vitamin/mineral following diagnosis, 46.3% discontinuing a vitamin/mineral, 65.6% using a vitamin/mineral continuously, and only 7.2% not using any vitamin/mineral supplement before or after diagnosis. The most commonly initiated supplements were calcium (38.2%), vitamin D (32.01%), vitamin B6 (12.3%) and magnesium (11.31%); the most commonly discontinued supplements were multivitamins (17.14%), vitamin C (15.97%) and vitamin E (45.62%). Higher education, higher intake of fruits/vegetables, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with initiation (p-values <0.05). Younger age and breast-conserving surgery were associated with discontinuation (p-values <0.05). In this large cohort of ethnically diverse breast cancer patients, high numbers of women used vitamin/mineral supplements in the 6 months following breast cancer diagnosis, often at high doses and in combination with other supplements. The immediate period after diagnosis is a critical time for clinicians to counsel women on supplement use

  2. Efficiency of Multispecies Probiotic Supplements in Bioremoval of Bisphenol A: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogand Solouki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Bisphenol A is a well-known industrial compound which is widely used in producing plastic throughout the world. Containers made with these plastics may expose people to small amounts of bisphenol A in food and water and cause adverse effects on human health. In this study, the effect of commercial probiotic formulations on reduction of bisphenol A in aqueous solution is investigated.Materials and Methods: One dose of six types of commercial mixtures of probiotic strains were added to a certain amount of bisphenol A in saline basal medium at 37°C. During a 24 h treatment with probiotics, samples were taken from the environments at different times and prepared for further analysis with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The experimental framework was set up in a way that compares formulations and determines the most efficient strains for bisphenol A reduction. In addition, the effect of peripheral conditions such as pH and temperature were also studied.Results and Conclusion: Multi-strain probiotics had an impressively high performance in bio-removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solutions. Up to 80% of bisphenol A concentration was decreased during the first hour of treatment in almost all trials. Among them, the synergy of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum strains were the most successful. On the other hand, mixture of probiotics had more persistent effect and robust binding ability than single strains. Finally, it can be expected that regular usage of probiotic supplementation with special mixture of strains can suppress the harmful effects of bisphenol A.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  3. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  4. Effects of peroral supplementation of different forms of zinc on the ruminal mucosa of goat kids – a morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Černík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the effect of supplementation of various forms of zinc on the ruminal mucosa and dimensions of ruminal papillae in 6-month-old goat kids. The experimental period lasted from weaning to slaughter (4 months. All 20 kids divided into four groups of five animals, were fed with the same feeding dose, which was different only in the quantity and form of zinc. Control group was without additional zinc supplementation (group A, the other groups were supplemented with zinc in the form of ZnO (group B, zinc in the form of chelate (group C and zinc in the form of lactate (group D. Samples for histopathological and morphometric examination were collected after the slaughter of all animals from the bottom of saccus ruminis ventralis everytime from the same place. Significant differences were reported within the comparison of the length of ruminal papillae between groups B and C (P = 0.026 and B and D (P = 0.040, within the comparison of the width of ruminal papillae between groups A and D (P = 0.020 and within the comparison of the intensity of keratinisation of the mucosa of ruminal papillae between groups A and B (P = 0.034, A and C (P = 0.038 and A and D (P = 0.001. Histopathological and morphometric examination of ruminal mucosa indicated that the ruminal papillae of kids supplemented with zinc in the form of ZnO (group B were better developed compared to the other groups. This result indicates better utilisation of the supplemented zinc in the form of ZnO.

  5. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: do vitamin and mineral supplements contribute to nutrient adequacy or excess among US infants and toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette; Hanson, Charlotte; Fox, Mary Kay; Novak, Timothy; Ziegler, Paula

    2006-01-01

    To report the prevalence of dietary supplement use in a random sample of US infants 4 to 24 months of age, and to compare demographic characteristics, usual nutrient intakes, and food patterns of supplement users and nonusers. Data from 24-hour recalls collected for the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed. Recalls included nutrient contributions from dietary supplements as well as all foods and beverages. We estimated usual energy and nutrient intakes of supplement users and nonusers, as well as the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and excess in the two groups. We also compared demographic characteristics and food patterns of supplement users and nonusers and, for supplement users, estimated the proportion of total intake provided by foods and the proportion provided by supplements. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months, including 430 vitamin and/or mineral supplement users and 2,592 nonusers. We compared means, percentile distributions, and proportions by age and supplement subgroup, and applied the Dietary Reference Intakes to assess usual nutrient intakes. We conducted regression analysis to determine which population characteristics predict the use of dietary supplements in this population. Overall, 8% of infants age 4 to 5 months received some type of dietary supplement. The prevalence of supplement use increased with age, to 19% among infants 6 to 11 months and 31% among toddlers 12 to 24 months. The vast majority of supplement users (97%) received only one type of supplement, most commonly a multivitamin and/or mineral supplement. Vitamin/mineral supplement use among infants and toddlers was associated with being a first-born child and being reported by the primary caretaker as being a picky eater. Characteristics that were independent predictors of supplement use were living in the Northeast, being male, and living in a household with fewer children. We found no significant differences between supplement

  6. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2 , PK , and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  7. Iron supplementation during pregnancy and its effects on epiphyseal growth plate of newborn rat: a histological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbreen, F.; Qamar, K.; Rehman, S.

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on epiphyseal growth plate of Sprague dawley rat pups. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH) Islamabad, from Mar 2016 to Nov 2016. Material and Methods: Eight female and two male Sprague Dawley rats, 3-4 months old were selected and divided into two groups and kept for breeding. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups. Four pregnant rats in each group. Group A1was control group and group B1 was experimental group. Iron supplementation was given once daily throughout pregnancy till the time of delivery. Iron was given to the experimental group in syrup form (Sytron syrup containing iron as sodium feredetate). Each 5ml of sytron syrup contains 27.5mg of elemental iron content1. The dose was mixed in water given to the animal. Maternal body weight (wt.) was recorded at the start and the end of experiment. As the rat pups were born, they were weighed and euthanized. Right femur of each rat pup was removed for the epiphyseal plate analysis. It was processed, embedded and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Perl's stain for histological study. Hypertrophy and proliferative zone length were histologically and statistically analyzed. Results: Height of hypertrophy and proliferative zone was measured. Mean values of the heights of two zones were taken. Heights of hypertrophy and proliferative zones were considerably decreased in group B1 as compared to groups A1. Conclusion: Indiscriminate iron supplementation to the rats throughout pregnancy without checking serum iron levels can disturb the longitudinal growth of epiphyseal plate of femur. The height of the hypertrophy zone and proliferative zone was significantly reduced in iron supplementation group as compared to the control group. (author)

  8. Real-world experiences of folic acid supplementation (5 versus 30 mg/week with methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Koh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the tolerability of methotrexate in two different regimes of folic acid (FA supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional observational cohort study on 240 RA patients with 120 patients each in 5 mg of FA weekly and 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation. There were no significant differences for side effects (14.2 versus 22.5%, P=0.523 and discontinuation of methotrexate (3.6 versus 13.3%, P=0.085. RA patients given 5 mg of FA weekly supplementation had a lower disease activity score 28 compared to 30 mg of FA weekly supplementation [3.44 (1.10 versus 3.85 (1.40, P=0.014]. FA supplementation of 5 mg per week and 30 mg per week was associated with similar tolerability of methotrexate in RA patients.

  9. Prospective study of probiotic supplementation results in immune stimulation and improvement of upper respiratory infection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial. Subjects received a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus paracasei (at least 3 × 107 colony forming units (CFU ml−1, Lactobacillus casei 431® (at least 3 × 107 CFU ml−1 and Lactobacillus fermentium PCC® (at least 3 × 106 CFU ml−1 or an identical placebo without probiotics for a 12-week study period. The consumption of probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory infection (p < 0.023 and flu-like symptoms with an oral temperature higher than 38 °C (p < 0.034 as compared to the placebo group. Subjects that consumed probiotics demonstrated a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in the serum (p < 0.001 and sIgA in the gut (p < 0.010 as compared to the placebo group and a significant higher level of serum IFN-γ (p < 0.001 and gut sIgA (p < 0.001 as compared to their baseline test results. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the serum IL-4, IL-10, IgA, IgG or IgM between the probiotics and the placebo groups. Results of this study demonstrated that probiotics were safe and effective for fighting the common cold and influenza-like respiratory infections by boosting the immune system. Keywords: Probiotics, Upper respiratory infections, Human microbiota, IFN-γ, sIgA

  10. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  11. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K K; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7(th) day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 10(7) colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  12. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  13. Progress in the study of multivitamins and minerals nutritional supplements for troops stationed in high altitude regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-qiang ZHONG; Ying LU

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are products intended to supplement and improve the diet, and they contain one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, protein and other substances) or their constituents. Supplement of vitamins and trace elements play an important role in the nutritional supplements. Supplements play a direct role in health by filling the nutritional gap and preventing diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, especially for...

  14. Lack of effect of dietary nucleotide supplementation on erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration. A study on preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopesi, Fabio; Canini, Silvana; Arioni, Cesare; Mazzella, Massimo; Gazzolo, Diego; Lantieri, Pasquale B; Bonacci, Wanda; Serra, Giovanni

    2006-06-01

    Recently we demonstrated an increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) erythrocyte concentration in rat pups subjected to nucleotide-enriched artificial feeding. The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a possible increase in 2,3-DPG concentration can also be obtained in human neonates who are fed nucleotide-enriched formula. Preterm neonates born or referred to the neonatal intensive care unit of the G. Gaslini Hospital, Genoa University, with a gestational age >30 weeks and <37 weeks were enrolled in our randomized trial. Recruitment took place within 48-72 hours from birth. Only newborns of mothers deciding not to breast-feed were eligible to be randomized for the supplemented group (FN) or non-supplemented group (RF). Breast-fed newborns were considered the control group (C). The study window (for supplementation and blood samples) was restricted to the first two weeks following birth (from the 2nd (t1) to the 16th (t2) day of life). At the end of our study, only 21 neonates were eligible for statistical analysis. The stimulating action of dietary nucleotides on 2,3-DPG concentration failed to be demonstrated; increases in 2,3-DPG concentration that were observed in newborns fed with nucleotide supplemented formula (FN) were comparable to those observed in newborns fed with regular formula (RF) and breast-fed newborns. The EC recommendation for the amount of nucleotides allowed in formula milk does not seem to be high enough to have positive effects on 2,3-DPG synthesis. Whether this possible 'pharmacological' effect can be achieved by a higher intake of ingested nucleotides and/or a change in the proportions of single nucleotides contained in milk formulas remain interesting end points to be elucidated.

  15. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  16. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  17. An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. THE STUDY OF FISH SUPPLEMENT AND BUTTERFAT SUBSTITUTE EFFECT ON EXPIRY DATE OF PROCESSED CHEESE PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIYA LOTYSH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sector of functional products has top-priority meaning – it is the most convenient and natural form of introduction and enrichment of the human organism with vitamins, mineral substances, microelements and other components. Attraction into the branch of raw materials of non-milk origin – fish supplements and substitutes of butterfat – served the basis of technology development of processed cheese products of combined content, which in accordance with acting terminology are called processed cheese products. The technology of processed cheese products allows easily regulating their content by introduction of corresponding supplement that facilitates obtainment of product with set properties and content. Inclusion of meat and fish as the raw materials in the processed cheese content results in enrichment of the product with macro- and microelements, unsaturated fatty acids, except for regulation of fatty acid content of cheese products is executed by substitution of butterfat by butterfat substitute.

  19. Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Plasma Levels in Hemodialysis Patients: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Natália A; Stenvinkel, P; Bergman, P; Qureshi, A R; Lindholm, B; Moraes, C; Stockler-Pinto, M B; Mafra, D

    2018-04-12

    Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26.1 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 , dialysis vintage 68.5 (34.2-120.7) months]. Ten patients were randomly allocated to the placebo group and 11 to the probiotic group [three capsules, totaling 9 × 10 13 colony-forming units per day of Streptococcus thermophilus (KB19), Lactobacillus acidophilus (KB27), and Bifidobacteria longum (KB31). Plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were measured by LC-MS/MS at baseline and after 3 months. While TMAO did not change after probiotic supplementation, there was a significant increase in betaine plasma levels. In contrast, the placebo group showed a significant decrease in plasma choline levels. Short-term probiotic supplementation does not appear to influence plasma TMAO levels in HD patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine whether probiotics may affect TMAO production in CKD patients.

  20. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, A L; Sohel, M; Brown, M; Jenden, D J; Ahn, C; Roch, M; Brawley, T L

    2001-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that choline deficiency, manifested in low plasma-free choline concentration and hepatic injury, may develop in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary studies have suggested lecithin or choline supplementation might lead to improved visual memory in the elderly and reverse abnormal neuropsychological development in children. We sought to determine if choline-supplemented TPN would lead to improvement in neuropsychological test scores in a group of adult, choline-deficient outpatients receiving TPN. Eleven subjects (8 males, 3 females) who received nightly TPN for more than 80% of their nutritional needs for at least 12 weeks before entry in the study were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included active drug abuse, mental retardation, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, (prothrombin time [PT] >2x control), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients were randomly assigned to receive their usual TPN regimen (n = 6, aged 34.0 +/- 12.6 years) over a 12-hour nightly infusion or their usual TPN regimen plus choline chloride (2 g) (n = 5, aged 37.3 +/- 7.3 years). The following neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and after 24 weeks of choline supplementation (or placebo): Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R, intellectual functioning), Weschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, two subtests, verbal and visual memory), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (visuospatial functioning and perceptual organization), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), Grooved Pegboard (manual dexterity and motor speed), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, rote verbal learning ability), and Trail Making Parts A & B (visual scanning, psychomotor speed and set shifting). Scores were reported in terms of standard scores including z scores and percentile ranks. Mean absolute changes in raw scores were compared between groups

  2. Laboratory studies of the degradation of chloropyrifos pesticide in soils supplemented by the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera Mesa, Margarita Maria; Penuela Mesa, Gustavo Antonio; Dominguez Gual, Maria Carolina; Mejia Zapata, Gloria Maria

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of the insecticide chloropyrifos was investigated in sterilized soil samples supplemented by the white rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Degradation rates were measured during 21-day incubation at pesticide concentrations of 0,95, 5,3, and 9,41 μ/g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed ability to biodegrade the insecticide in values of 96,3%, 82,4% and 62,2%, respectively, followed by rapid degradation at low initial concentration of chloropyrifos

  3. Supplementation with Eskimo Skin Care improves skin elasticity in women. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segger, Dörte; Matthies, Andreas; Saldeen, Tom

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the question of whether supplementation with an oral oil formulation rich in natural stable fish oil can alter skin elasticity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin roughness in healthy women. Twenty-four healthy women aged 40-60 years participated in a single-blind randomized trial for testing the effect of a proprietary oral supplement for skin nutrition (Eskimo Skin Care) on skin elasticity, TEWL, and skin roughness. Skin elasticity was measured by an optical cutometer, TEWL by a water-loss module based upon the vapour gradient principle, and skin roughness with a three-dimensional microtopography imaging system. Skin elasticity increased by 10% after 3 months of treatment with the supplement, a statistically significant increase in comparison with the control group (p=0.0298). There was a trend, though not statistically significant, towards a positive influence on the skin's barrier function. No effect on the skin roughness was observed. Eskimo Skin Care, an oral preparation rich in natural stable fish oil, can improve skin elasticity.

  4. A natural pharma standard supplement formulation to control treatment-related toxicity and oxidative stress in genitourinary cancer: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, A; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Hosoi, M; Feragalli, B; Cotellese, R; Cosentino, V; Cosentino, M; Eggenhoffner, R; Pellizzato, M; Fratter, A; Giacomelli, L

    2017-09-01

    Oncological treatments are associated with toxicities that may decrease compliance to treatment in most genitourinary cancer patients. Supplementation with pharmaceutical-standardized supplement may be a supplementary method to control the side effects after chemo- and radiotherapy and the increased oxidative stress associated to treatments. This registry study evaluated a natural combination of supplements containing curcumin, cordyceps, and astaxanthin (Oncotris™) used as supplementary management in genitourinary cancer patients who had undergone oncological therapy. Patients with genitourinary cancers (prostate or bladder malignancies) who had undergone and completed cancer treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy or intravesical immunotherapy with increased oxidative stress and residual symptoms) were recruited in this registry, supplement study. Registry subjects (n = 61) freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) (control group = 35) or SM plus oral daily supplementation (supplement group = 26). Evaluation of severity of treatment-related residual side effects, blood count test, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and plasma free radicals (oxidative stress) were performed at inclusion and at the end of the observational period (6 weeks). Two patients dropped out during the registry. Therefore, the analysis included 59 participants: 26 individuals in the supplementation group and 33 in the control group. In the supplement group, the intensity of signs and symptoms (treatment-related) and residual side effects significantly decreased at 6 weeks: minimal changes were observed in controls. Supplementation with Oncotris™ was associated with a significant improvement in blood cell count and with a decreased level of plasmatic PSA and oxidative stress. Naturally-derived supplements, specifically Oncotris™ (patent pending), could support the body to overcome the treatment-related toxicities - and the relative oxidative stress in cancer patients.

  5. Weekly iron folic acid supplementation plays differential role in maintaining iron markers level in non-anaemic and anaemic primigravida: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shankar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia during pregnancy is most commonly observed and highly prevalent in South-East Asia. Various effective programmes have been laid down for its management, mainly daily supplementation of iron folic acid (IFA tablets. Following the same, standard obstetrical practice has included the IFA supplementation without requiring the determination of iron deficiency. In this study, a total of 120 primigravida (N = 60; non-anaemic (Hb > 11 g/dl and N = 60 anaemic (Hb = 8–11 g/dl were selected among those attending the Antenatal Clinic in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. They were supplemented with daily and weekly IFA tablets till 6 weeks postpartum. Corresponding changes in haemoglobin level on advance of pregnancy, side effects and compliance associated with daily and weekly IFA supplementation and its associations with iron status markers were studied. The inflammatory markers were also estimated. The statistical significance level (p < 0.05 between the groups were assessed by applying unpaired t-test using SPSS (version 16.0. The obtained results publicized the salutary role of daily IFA supplementation in improving the haemoglobin level and iron status markers in anaemic pregnant women though the levels could not reach up to the non-anaemic haemoglobin levels. However, weekly IFA supplementation seems to be a better approach in non-anaemic pregnant women where almost comparable results were obtained in terms of haematological parameters, gestation length and birth weight. Conclusion: Weekly IFA supplementation found to be as effective as daily supplementation in iron sufficient non-anaemic pregnant women whereas anaemic pregnant women should be prescribed daily IFA supplementation irrespective of iron replete/deplete state. Keywords: Anaemia, Iron folic acid supplementation, Iron status markers, Pregnancy

  6. Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S. Bassil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05, which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02 lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm. P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.

  7. Effects of hyperbaric, normobaric and hypobaric oxygen supplementation on retinal vessels in newborn rats: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, B

    1987-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted on eight litters of newborn rats to evaluate the effects of supplemental oxygen administration on the retinal vasculature. The animals and their mothers were kept inside a pressure chamber and treated for the first 5 days of life. On the sixth day, they were removed and kept for five more days under room air and normobaric conditions. Three litters received continuous flow oxygen at 80% at a compression pressure of +81 kPa, one litter oxygen at 80% at a pressure of -39.5 kPa atms and three other litters received oxygen at 80% under normobaric conditions. The eighth litter was treated with room air oxygen at a compression pressure of +81 kPa. A severe retinopathy with marked retinal neovascularization was seen only in the newborn animals of the litters that received oxygen supplementation under normobaric or hypobaric conditions. Retinal vessels showed no pathological changes in the litters treated with hyperbaric normoxia or hyperoxia. It is possible to hypothesize that the prolonged period of oxygen supplementation failed to produce harmful effects on the retinal vasculature because the moderate hyperbarism caused mild retinal and choroidal vasoconstriction thus preventing excessive oxygen transport to the inner retina from the choroid during hyperoxia without inducing structural damage to the retinal tissue.

  8. Effect of a Food Supplement Containing L-Methionine on Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy: A Prospective, Multicenter Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Mario; Mainini, Giampaolo; Ambrosio, Francesco; Sgambato, Raimondo; Balbi, Giancarlo

    2017-06-01

    Adjuvants or alternatives to antibiotics in urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy seem advisable because of possible fetal stress. The present study assessed the effectiveness of a food supplement containing L-methionine and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Boswellia serrata Roxb. extracts as a treatment for symptomatic UTIs in pregnancy. Pregnant patients with symptomatic cystitis were screened for UTIs in three different clinical centers. Those unwilling to take antibiotics were offered two alternative treatments: (A) a 1-week treatment with the food supplement or (B) a week in which they were advised to increase their fluid consumption to more than 1.5 L daily. After 1 week, group B patients who still had positive urine cultures (UCs) or had no UC performed took the food supplement for an additional week. UCs were performed on all patients at the first visit (w0) and on most of them at 7 days (w1). Patients who were still positive at w1 or had no UC performed at w1 had UC performed 14 days (w2) thereafter. Of 264 pregnant women enrolled, 216 joined group A, while 48 joined group B. At w1, 70.0% of group A patients and 43.2% of those in group B had negative UCs (p = 0.003). The reduction of bacterial load was 42.2% ± 8.0% and 4.5% ± 9.2%, respectively (p UTI in pregnancy.

  9. Lactobacillus casei Shirota Supplementation Does Not Restore Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Barrier in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with disturbances in gut microbiota composition. We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS on gut microbiota composition, gut barrier integrity, intestinal inflammation and serum bile acid profile in metabolic syndrome. In a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled pilot study, 28 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either LcS for 12 weeks (n = 13 or no LcS (n = 15. Data were compared to healthy controls (n = 16. Gut microbiota composition was characterised from stool using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Serum bile acids were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Zonulin and calprotectin were measured in serum and stool by ELISA. Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was significantly higher in healthy controls compared to metabolic syndrome but was not influenced by LcS. LcS supplementation led to enrichment of Parabacteroides. Zonulin and calprotectin were increased in metabolic syndrome stool samples but not influenced by LcS supplementation. Serum bile acids were similar to controls and not influenced by LcS supplementation. Metabolic syndrome is associated with a higher Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and gut barrier dysfunction but LcS was not able to change this. LcS administration was associated with subtle microbiota changes at genus level.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182844.

  10. Supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Emma J; Davies, Andrew R; Parke, Rachael; Bailey, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Gillanders, Lyn; Cooper, David J; McGuinness, Shay

    2015-12-24

    Nutrition is one of the fundamentals of care provided to critically ill adults. The volume of enteral nutrition received, however, is often much less than prescribed due to multiple functional and process issues. To deliver the prescribed volume and correct the energy deficit associated with enteral nutrition alone, parenteral nutrition can be used in combination (termed "supplemental parenteral nutrition"), but benefits of this method have not been firmly established. A multi-centre, randomised, clinical trial is currently underway to determine if prescribed energy requirements can be provided to critically ill patients by using a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy in the critically ill. This prospective, multi-centre, randomised, stratified, parallel-group, controlled, phase II trial aims to determine whether a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy will reliably and safely increase energy intake when compared to usual care. The study will be conducted for 100 critically ill adults with at least one organ system failure and evidence of insufficient enteral intake from six intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Enrolled patients will be allocated to either a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy for 7 days post randomisation or to usual care with enteral nutrition. The primary outcome will be the average energy amount delivered from nutrition therapy over the first 7 days of the study period. Secondary outcomes include protein delivery for 7 days post randomisation; total energy and protein delivery, antibiotic use and organ failure rates (up to 28 days); duration of ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. At both intensive care unit and hospital discharge strength and health-related quality of life assessments will be undertaken. Study participants will be followed up for health-related quality of life, resource utilisation and survival at 90 and 180 days post randomisation (unless death occurs first). This trial

  11. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals Does Not Reduce the Risk of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, James M.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of UC. We sought to use the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident UC in a United States population. Materials&Methods 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. . After 6 years of follow-up, 330 incident UC cases occurring in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw-palmetto, ginko-biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement, the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for UC comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% confidence intervals, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression., adjusted for potential confounders. Results None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with UC risk in either age-adjusted or multivariate models. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for chemoprevention of UC. PMID:21334017

  12. Benefits of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Supplementation in Preterm Neonates - A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patole, Sanjay K; Rao, Shripada C; Keil, Anthony D; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen N

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials report that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) to preterm neonates would reduce the incidence of NEC. The incidence of NEC ≥ Stage II and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period of 24 months 'before' (Epoch 1) and 'after' (Epoch 2) RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in neonates Bifidobacterium breve M-16V was associated with decreased NEC≥ Stage II and 'NEC≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality' in neonates <34 weeks. Large sample size is required to assess the potential benefits of RPS in neonates <28 weeks.

  13. Vitamin and mineral supplements in pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skegg David CG

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earlier case-control study from Western Australia reported a protective effect of maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. The present study tested that association. Methods A national case-control study was conducted in New Zealand. The mothers of 97 children with ALL and of 303 controls were asked about vitamin and mineral supplements taken during pregnancy. Results There was no association between reported folate intake during pregnancy and childhood ALL (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.5–2.7. Combining our results with the study from Western Australia and another study from Québec in a meta-analysis gave a summary OR of 0.9 (95% CI 0.8–1.1. Conclusion Our own study, of similar size to the Australian study, does not support the hypothesis of a protective effect of folate on childhood ALL. Neither do the findings of the meta-analysis.

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Daily Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Imai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe fatigue can negatively affect quality of life, and oxidative stress may play a role in its mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin and sesamin (AS, strong food-derived antioxidants, on fatigue. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were supplemented with AS and placebo, each for four weeks. After each supplementation period, participants underwent tasks inducing mental and physical fatigue (visual display terminal task and ergometer task, respectively. Subjective fatigue was evaluated using a visual analogue scale during and after the mental and physical tasks, and daily subjective fatigue was evaluated by the Chalder fatigue questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included other subjective feelings, work efficiency, autonomic nerve activity, levels of an oxidative stress marker (plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH and safety. AS supplementation was associated with significantly improved recovery from mental fatigue compared with placebo. Increased PCOOH levels during mental and physical tasks were attenuated by AS supplementation. No differences between AS and placebo were detected in secondary outcomes, and no adverse effects of AS supplementation were observed. In conclusion, AS supplementation may be a candidate to promote recovery from mental fatigue which is experienced by many healthy people.

  15. Supplementing electronic health records through sample collection and patient diaries: A study set within a primary care research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rebecca M; Soames, Jamie; Wright, Mark; Sultana, Kirin; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Dixon, William G

    2018-02-01

    To describe a novel observational study that supplemented primary care electronic health record (EHR) data with sample collection and patient diaries. The study was set in primary care in England. A list of 3974 potentially eligible patients was compiled using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Interested general practices opted into the study then confirmed patient suitability and sent out postal invitations. Participants completed a drug-use diary and provided saliva samples to the research team to combine with EHR data. Of 252 practices contacted to participate, 66 (26%) mailed invitations to patients. Of the 3974 potentially eligible patients, 859 (22%) were at participating practices, and 526 (13%) were sent invitations. Of those invited, 117 (22%) consented to participate of whom 86 (74%) completed the study. We have confirmed the feasibility of supplementing EHR with data collected directly from patients. Although the present study successfully collected essential data from patients, it also underlined the requirement for improved engagement with both patients and general practitioners to support similar studies. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafi Kuchay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69 or no Vitamin D (n = 68. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4% in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%. Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7 and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16 were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25 at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels.

  17. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  18. Pilot Study: Mother's Attitude and Practices toward Antenatal Care, Micronutrient Supplementation and Breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Good nutrition in the first 1000 days provides a stable long term foundation for society, as it ensures a child's growth to his/her potential (1). Pregnant women who suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including Low Birth weight-LBW (4). Iron deficiency anemia is linked to an increased risk of infections (4), and is still a health problem in the kingdom of Bahrain with the prevalence of 22.7% to 54% (5). The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nation Children's fund (UNICEF) and American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations are to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour of life and to and sustain exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (6). Several studies have shown a downward trend of breastfeeding in developing countries such as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (7,8). Studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Kingdom of Bahrain have shown partial breastfeeding at early months<6month age (8,9) Aim: To provide a preliminary evaluation of the mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding in Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC), Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A sample of 62 Bahraini mothers - inpatients and outpatients- within the age group of 20 years to 35 years old at SMC were asked by dietitians and diet technicians to answer 7 closed ended questions about importance of antenatal care, compliance to nutritional recommendations during pregnancy and breastfeeding practices. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in analyzing data collected. Fisher Exact test and Chi-Square test were used to correlate the determinants (age and education level) with mother's attitude/practices. Statistical significance was assumed at p<0.05 Results: Scores showed no significant correlation between education level mother's attitude/practices toward antenatal care, micronutrient supplementation and breastfeeding. As for age, we found more mothers above 25

  19. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  20. An Open-Label Evaluator Blinded Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Nutritional Supplement in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Anna J.; Hughes, Olivia Bosshardt; Canazza, Agnese; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel oral supplement, Forti5?, containing green tea extract, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, melatonin, beta-sitosterol, and soy isoflavones, and in the management of subjects with androgenetic alopecia. Design: A prospective case series of 10 subjects. Setting: Open-label, evaluator-blinded, proof-of-concept study. Participants: Ten adult subjects with androgenetic alopecia completed the study. Subjects were not allowed to use oral o...

  1. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplementation for Older Women after a Fracture: Rationale, Design and Study of the Feasibility of a Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockwood Keri A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a problem for many older people recovering from a hip and other major fractures. Oral supplementation with high calorie high protein nutrients is a simple intervention that may help older people with fractures to improve their recovery in terms of rehabilitation time, length of hospital stay and mortality. This paper reports a pilot study to test the feasibility of a trial initiated in a hospital setting with an oral supplement to older people with recent fractures. Method A randomized controlled trial with 44 undernourished participants admitted to a hospital following a fracture. The intervention group (n = 23 received a high calorie high protein supplement for forty days in addition to their diet of choice. The control group (n = 21 received high protein milk during their hospital stay in addition to their diet of choice and their usual diet when discharged from hospital. Results All participants were women and their mean age was 85.3 (± 6.1 years. Twenty nine (65% participants had a hip fracture. At baseline no differences were measured between the two groups regarding their nutritional status, their cognitive ability or their abilities in activities of daily living. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control group with reference to nutritional or functional parameters at 40 day and 4 month follow-ups. Median length of stay in hospital was 18.0 days, with 12 participants being readmitted for a median of 7.0 days. Conclusion It is feasible to perform a randomised trial in a hospital and community setting to test the effect of an oral high energy high protein supplement for older people. Due to the limited number of participants and incomplete adherence with use of the supplements no conclusion can be drawn about the efficacy or effectiveness of this intervention.

  3. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  4. Endocrine disruptors in the workplace, hair spray, folate supplementation, and risk of hypospadias: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Gillian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nelson, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Iszatt, Nina; Geneletti, Sara; Elliott, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocrine-disruptor chemicals, use of folate supplementation during pregnancy, and vegetarianism. We designed a case-control study of 471 hypospadias cases referred to surgeons and 490 randomly selected birth controls, born 1 January 1997-30 September 1998 in southeast England. Telephone interviews of mothers elicited information on folate supplementation during pregnancy and vegetarianism. We used a job exposure matrix to classify occupational exposure. In multiple logistic regression analysis, there were increased risks for self-reported occupational exposure to hair spray [exposed vs. nonexposed, odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40-4.17] and phthalate exposure obtained by a job exposure matrix (OR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.04-11.46). There was a significantly reduced risk of hypospadias associated with of folate use during the first 3 months of pregnancy (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93). Vegetarianism was not associated with hypospadias risk. Excess risks of hypospadias associated with occupational exposures to phthalates and hair spray suggest that antiandrogenic EDCs may play a role in hypospadias. Folate supplementation in early pregnancy may be protective.

  5. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 561 subjects, 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Frequency of protein supplements use and association with dietary behaviours were investigated. Subsequently, the frequency distribution was used for demographic assessment. Results Frequency of protein consumption was similar in both groups (30% for CC and 28.8% for SB). Males show greater consumption percentages than females (30.5% in males and 6.9% in females). Milk and chicken are the most frequently consumed foods. Data show that non-supplement users (NSU) consume significantly more snacks and bakery products than supplement users (SU) (P gym users is 30% for the CC and 28.8% for the SB. Significant differences were found between CC and SB females, underlining an interesting discrepancy, indicating to dietary supplement industries regarding regional implications. Subjects that use protein supplements also consume larger quantities of high protein food compared to NSU. NSU also eat higher proportions of unhealthy food compared to SU. PMID:24976800

  6. Cost-effectiveness of age-related macular degeneration study supplements in the UK: combined trial and real-world outcomes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Y; Butt, Thomas; Chew, Emily; Agron, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E; Egan, Catherine A; Lee, Cecilia S; Tufail, Adnan

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) 1 & 2 supplements in patients with either bilateral intermediate age-related macular degeneration, AREDS category 3, or unilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration AMD (nAMD), AREDS category 4. A patient-level health state transition model based on levels of visual acuity in the better-seeing eye was constructed to simulate the costs and consequences of patients taking AREDS vitamin supplements. UK National Health Service (NHS). The model was populated with data from AREDS and real-world outcomes and resource use from a prospective multicentre national nAMD database study containing 92 976 ranibizumab treatment episodes. Two treatment approaches were compared: immediate intervention with AREDS supplements or no supplements. quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs were accrued for each strategy, and incremental costs and QALYs were calculated for the lifetime of the patient. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were employed to test the uncertainty of the model. For AREDS category 3, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £30 197. For AREDS category 4 compared with no intervention, AREDS supplements are more effective (10.59 vs 10.43 QALYs) and less costly (£52 074 vs 54 900) over the lifetime of the patient. The recommendation to publicly fund AREDS supplements to category 3 patients would depend on the healthcare system willingness to pay. In contrast, initiating AREDS supplements in AREDS category 4 patients is both cost saving and more effective than no supplement use and should therefore be considered in public health policy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Enhanced muscle strength with carbohydrate supplement two hours before open cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Giovana Gava

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the effects of preoperative fasting abbreviation with oral supplementation with carbohydrate in the evolution of grip strength in patients undergoing cholecystectomy by laparotomy. Methods : we conducted a clinical, randomizeddouble blind study with adult female patients, aged 18-60 years. Patients were divided into two groups: Control Group, with fasting prescription 6-8h until the time of operation; and Intervention Group, which received prescription of fasting for solids 6-8h before surgery, but ingested an oral supplement containing 12.5% carbohydrate, six (400ml and two (200ml hours before theprocedure. The handgrip strength was measured in both hands in both groups, at patient's admission (6h before surgery, the immediate pre-operative time (1h before surgery and 12-18h postoperatively. Results : we analyzed 27 patients, 14 in the intervention group and 13 in the control group. There was no mortality. The handgrip strength (mean [standard deviation] was significantly higher in the intervention group in the three periods studied, in at least one hand: preoperatively in the dominant hand (27.8 [2.6] vs 24.1 [3.7] kg; p=0.04, in the immediate preoperative in both hands, and postoperatively in the non-dominant hand (28.5 [3.0] vs 21.3 [5.9] kg; p=0.01. Conclusion : the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with drink containing carbohydrate improves muscle function in the perioperative period.

  8. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used.

  9. The influence of winter vitamin D supplementation on muscle function and injury occurrence in elite ballet dancers: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wolman, Roger; Nevill, Alan M; Allen, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Athletes who train indoors during the winter months exhibit low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations due to a lack of sunlight exposure. This has been linked to impaired exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of oral vitamin D₃ supplementation on selected physical fitness and injury parameters in elite ballet dancers. Controlled prospective study. 24 elite classical ballet dancers (intervention n=17; control n=7) participated in a controlled 4-month oral supplementation of vitamin D₃ (2000 IU per day). Isometric muscular strength and vertical jump height were measured pre and post intervention. Injury occurrence during the intervention period was also recorded by the in-house medical team. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney-U statistical tests were used and significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Significant increases were noted for the intervention group for isometric strength (18.7%, pballet dancers. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (Peye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  12. Factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women in Mecha district, Western Amhara: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Bekele; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonen, Alemetsehaye

    2015-01-01

    Iron and folate supplementation can effectively control and prevent anaemia in pregnancy. In Ethiopia, all pregnant women are prescribed iron folate during their ANC visit. However, limited adherence is thought to be a major reason for the low effectiveness of iron supplementation programs. Therefore this study was done to investigate factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women who gave birth in the last 12 months before the survey in Mecha district. Community based cross sectional study design was employed in Mecha district from June 25 - July 15/2013. A sample of 634 women who gave birth 12 months before the survey was included in the study. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique after allocating the total sample to each kebele proportionally. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured Amharic questionnaire. Collected data were edited, coded and entered to Epi info version 3.1 and exported to' SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was computed. A total of 628 women who gave birth twelve months before the survey were enrolled. In this study only 20.4% of participants were compliant with iron foliate supplementation. In multivariable analysis, age of the mother, educational status of the mother, knowledge of anaemia and iron folate tablets, and history of anaemia during pregnancy were significantly associated with compliance to iron folate supplementation (Ptablets would harm the baby and fear of side effects were the major reasons given for noncompliance. Compliance to iron folate supplementation is very low in the study area. Increasing female education and increasing knowledge of women about anaemia and iron folate tablets are recommended to increase compliance to iron folate supplementation.

  13. Different doses of supplemental vitamin D maintain interleukin-5 without altering skeletal muscle strength: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in vitamin D sufficient adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Tyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplemental vitamin D modulates inflammatory cytokines and skeletal muscle function, but results are inconsistent. It is unknown if these inconsistencies are dependent on the supplemental dose of vitamin D. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different doses of supplemental vitamin D on inflammatory cytokines and muscular strength in young adults. Methods Men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 received a daily placebo or vitamin D supplement (200 or 4000 IU for 28-d during the winter. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, cytokine concentrations and muscular (leg strength measurements were performed prior to and during supplementation. Statistical significance of data were assessed with a two-way (time, treatment analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by a Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference to test multiple pairwise comparisons. Results Upon enrollment, 63% of the subjects were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25(OHD ≥ 30 ng/ml. Serum 25(OHD and interleukin (IL-5 decreased (P P P P Conclusion In young adults who were vitamin D sufficient prior to supplementation, we conclude that a low-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D prevents serum 25(OHD and IL-5 concentration decreases, and that muscular strength does not parallel the 25(OHD increase induced by a high-daily dose of supplemental vitamin D. Considering that IL-5 protects against viruses and bacterial infections, these findings could have a broad physiological importance regarding the ability of vitamin D sufficiency to mediate the immune systems protection against infection.

  14. Insulin, glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate responses to a medium-chain triglyceride-based sports supplement: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a current trend in endurance sports to move athletes towards a low-carbohydrate diet or use periods of low carbohydrate consumption to increase both health and performance. As a result, a market is developing for sports supplements to provide nutritional support during training and racing for athletes who follow a low-carbohydrate lifestyle. PHAT FIBRE (PF is a powdered sports supplement that includes medium-chain triglycerides suspended in a digestion-resistant carbohydrate and is tailored to the needs of low-carb athletes. Eleven healthy participants were administered 25 g of PF after an overnight fast. After 30 minutes, median blood glucose increased by 6 mg/dl from 94 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl (p = 0.002. At the same time points, median blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB increased from 0.3 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L. The increase in BHB was significant (p = 0.02 after excluding one outlier who had elevated levels of fasting BHB. Insulin levels did not change significantly at any point during the study. In a single participant, a revised formulation of PF (PFv2 produced a 0.6 mmol/L increase in BHB with no effect on blood glucose. These data suggest that PF can provide a source of energy for the low-carb athlete by supporting ketone production without negatively impacting insulin or blood glucose levels.

  15. Newspaper design – processes, routines and product: a study of Segundo Caderno, the Zero Hora cultural supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes Damasceno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the graphic design of Segundo Caderno supplement  from the newspaper Zero Hora (ZH. The study identifies and analyses witch graphical elements e what compositional strategies are used by the periodic, verifying how these area articulated with the editorial process and the values of the journalistic field. The methodological procedures utilized were bibliographical research; qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a corpus composed by 24 editions of the months of June, August, September and October of 2011; observation of the productive routines; and non-structured interviews with five professionals of this supplement. The results showed that journalism possesses a strong e consolidated work culture, and that its constraints guide the design practice in this context. It was also observed that the ignorance of the reader's profile by the journalists, the mismatch between the possibility of advanced planning in virtue of the connection with the events agenda and the restricted use of visual resources, highlighting by a significant number of released photos.

  16. Newspaper design – processes, routines and product: a study of Segundo Caderno, cultural supplement from Zero Hora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gruszynski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the graphic design of Segundo Caderno supplement  from the newspaper Zero Hora (ZH. The study identifies and analyses witch graphical elements e what compositional strategies are used by the periodic, verifying how these area articulated with the editorial process and the values of the journalistic field. The methodological procedures utilized were bibliographical research; qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a corpus composed by 24 editions of the months of June, August, September and October of 2011; observation of the productive routines; and non-structured interviews with five professionals of this supplement. The results showed that journalism possesses a strong e consolidated work culture, and that its constraints guide the design practice in this context. It was also observed that the ignorance of the reader's profile by the journalists, the mismatch between the possibility of advanced planning in virtue of the connection with the events agenda and the restricted use of visual resources, highlighting by a significant number of released photos.

  17. NEWSPAPER DESIGN – PROCESSES, ROUTINES AND PRODUCT: A STUDY OF SEGUNDO CADERNO, THE ZERO HORA CULTURAL SUPPLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes Damasceno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the graphic design of Segundo Caderno supplement  from the newspaper Zero Hora (ZH. The study identifies and analyses witch graphical elements e what compositional strategies are used by the periodic, verifying how these area articulated with the editorial process and the values of the journalistic field. The methodological procedures utilized were bibliographical research; qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a corpus composed by 24 editions of the months of June, August, September and October of 2011; observation of the productive routines; and non-structured interviews with five professionals of this supplement. The results showed that journalism possesses a strong e consolidated work culture, and that its constraints guide the design practice in this context. It was also observed that the ignorance of the reader's profile by the journalists, the mismatch between the possibility of advanced planning in virtue of the connection with the events agenda and the restricted use of visual resources, highlighting by a significant number of released photos. 

  18. An Open-Label Evaluator Blinded Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Nutritional Supplement in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Anna J; Hughes, Olivia Bosshardt; Canazza, Agnese; Zaiac, Martin N

    2017-02-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel oral supplement, Forti5 ® , containing green tea extract, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, melatonin, beta-sitosterol, and soy isoflavones, and in the management of subjects with androgenetic alopecia. Design: A prospective case series of 10 subjects. Setting: Open-label, evaluator-blinded, proof-of-concept study. Participants: Ten adult subjects with androgenetic alopecia completed the study. Subjects were not allowed to use oral or topical hair growth products in the 24 weeks preceding the study or during the study. The nutritional supplement was administered at a dosage of two tablets daily for 24 weeks. Measurements: Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline and at 24 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using hair mass index measured by cross section trichometer, terminal hair count measured with dermoscopy and Investigator Global Photography Assessment. Results: Overall 80 percent of subjects (8/10) were rated as improved after 24 weeks of supplementation (mean change of +1.4 equivalent to slightly-to-moderately increased). Forty percent of subjects (4/10) were rated as moderately improved (2+), and 10 percent (1/10) were rated as greatly improved (3+). There was a significant improvement in terminal hair count (mean increase of 5.9% or 4.2 more terminal hairs in the area examined, p =0.014) and in Hair Mass Index (mean increase of 9.5% or 4.5 higher Hair Mass Index, p =0.003). Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that Forti5 ® a novel nutritional supplement that contains cholecalciferol, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, melatonin, antioxidants, and botanical 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  19. High potency fish oil supplement improves omega-3 fatty acid status in healthy adults: an open-label study using a web-based, virtual platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Ritz, Barry W

    2013-08-08

    The health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are well known, and fish oil supplements are used widely in a preventive manner to compensate the low intake in the general population. The aim of this open-label study was to determine if consumption of a high potency fish oil supplement could improve blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and impact SF-12 mental and physical health scores in healthy adults. A novel virtual clinical research organization was used along with the HS-Omega-3 Index, a measure of EPA and DHA in red blood cell membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids that has been shown to correlate with a reduction in cardiovascular and other risk factors. Briefly, adult subjects (mean age 44 years) were recruited from among U.S. health food store employees and supplemented with 1.1 g/d of omega-3 from fish oil (756 mg EPA, 228 mg DHA, Minami Nutrition MorEPA Platinum) for 120 days (n = 157). Omega-3 status and mental health scores increased with supplementation (p < 0.001), while physical health scores remained unchanged. The use of a virtual, web-based platform shows considerable potential for engaging in clinical research with normal, healthy subjects. A high potency fish oil supplement may further improve omega-3 status in a healthy population regularly consuming an omega-3 supplement.

  20. A Study on the effect of iron folic acid supplementation and deworming among college going adolescent girls in urban Agra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratandeep Lamba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spaced IFA Supplementation is recognized as an efficacious public health program and effective preventive approach in combating anemia in adolescent girls, is cost effective and results in fewer side effects. Aim: To study the effect of: bi-weekly supplementation of IFA with and without Albendazole administration on the status of hemoglobin level in college going adolescent girls. Material and methods:  An interventional study was conducted among college going girls in Agra in the age group of 16-19 years (n=300 who were randomly selected. Their Hemoglobin levels were estimated before and after intervention by the Cynmeth-hemoglobin method using Drabkin’s solution. Three groups [two study A and B and one control] of hundred girls each were randomly constituted. To the study groups, supervised bi-weekly IFA with and without Albendazole were administered respectively for three months. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical tools. Results &Discussion: The overall prevalence of anemia was 65.3%.The initial prevalence in study group  reduced significantly from 80.7% to 35.5% whereas in study group B it reduced from 73.5% to 58.8% and in control it remained almost same 84.3% and 81.2% pre and post intervention respectively. The mean Hemoglobin rise observed in the study group A and B was 2.5gm/dl and 2.3 gm/dl respectively while in control group fall in the mean Hb was observed (0.1gm/dl. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls is high. Supervised IFA therapy twice a week is an effective strategy to lower the prevalence of anemia either combined or uncombined with Albendazole.

  1. Pomegranate Supplementation Protects against Memory Dysfunction after Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Ropacki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory dysfunction is a common complaint following heart surgery and may be related to a diffuse ischemic state induced by microemboli dislodged during the procedure. Ischemia can induce damage by a number of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Because pomegranates contain a variety of polyphenols with antioxidant and other potentially beneficial effects, we tested whether supplementation with a pomegranate extract before and after heart surgery could protect against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery were given either 2 g of pomegranate extract (in 2 POMx pills or placebo (pills containing no pomegranate ingredients per day from one week before surgery to 6 weeks after surgery. The patients were also administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess memory function at 1 week before surgery (baseline, 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 weeks after surgery. The placebo group had significant deficits in postsurgery memory retention, and the pomegranate treatment not only protected against this effect, but also actually improved memory retention performance for up to 6 weeks after surgery as compared to presurgery baseline performance.

  2. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Decreases Statin-Related Mild-to-Moderate Muscle Symptoms: A Randomized Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Skarlovnik, Ajda; Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Turk, Martina; Šabovič, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    Background Statin use is frequently associated with muscle-related symptoms. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation has yielded conflicting results in decreasing statin myopathy. Herein, we tested whether coenzyme Q10 supplementation could decrease statin-associated muscular pain in a specific group of patients with mild-to-moderate muscle symptoms. Material/Methods Fifty patients treated with statins and reporting muscle pain were recruited. The Q10 group (n=25) received coenzyme Q10 supplementation o...

  3. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellez-Vazquez J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Tellez-Vazquez On behalf of the Dry Eye In Glaucoma Study Group (DEIGSG Glaucoma Section, Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods: A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively], conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results: After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001 (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision. The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study

  5. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  6. Supplementation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    We therefore designed this study to measure thoracic aortic ring .... contraction obtained from pilot study (1 x 10-6. M for control and 1 x .... muscle cell hyperpolarisation20. Similarly, several reports have suggested that potassium supplementation enhances endothelium- dependent relaxations, increased vascular activity of ...

  7. Benefits of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Supplementation in Preterm Neonates - A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Patole

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials report that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC in preterm neonates.To determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS to preterm neonates would reduce the incidence of NEC.The incidence of NEC ≥ Stage II and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period of 24 months 'before' (Epoch 1 and 'after' (Epoch 2 RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in neonates <34 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for relevant confounders.A total of 1755 neonates (Epoch I vs. II: 835 vs. 920 with comparable gestation and birth weights were admitted. There was a significant reduction in NEC ≥ Stage II: 3% vs. 1%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.43 (95%CI: 0.21-0.87; 'NEC ≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality': 9% vs. 5%, aOR = 0.53 (95%CI: 0.32-0.88; but not all-cause mortality alone: 7% vs. 4%, aOR = 0.58 (95% CI: 0.31-1.06 in Epoch II. The benefits in neonates <28 weeks did not reach statistical significance: NEC ≥ Stage II: 6% vs. 3%, aOR 0.51 (95%CI: 0.20-1.27, 'NEC ≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality', 21% vs. 14%, aOR = 0.59 (95%CI: 0.29-1.18; all-cause mortality: 17% vs. 11%, aOR = 0.63 (95%CI: 0.28-1.41. There was no probiotic sepsis.RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V was associated with decreased NEC≥ Stage II and 'NEC≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality' in neonates <34 weeks. Large sample size is required to assess the potential benefits of RPS in neonates <28 weeks.

  8. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D

    2001-09-01

    It is possible in many situations to identify humans exposed to potentially toxic materials in the workplace and in the environment. As in most human studies, there tends to be a high degree of interindividual variability in response to chemical insults. Some non-exposed control individuals exhibit as high a level of damage as some exposed individuals and some of these have levels of damage as low as many of the controls. Thus, it is only the mean values of the groups that can substantiate an exposure-related problem; the data on an individual basis are still of limited use. While human lymphocytes remain the most popular cell type for monitoring purposes, sperm, buccal, nasal, epithelial and placental cells are also used. However, for interpretation of responses, the issue of confounding factors must be addressed. There are endogenous confounding factors, such as age, gender, and genetic make-up and exogenous ones, including lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) There are biomarkers of exposure, effect/response and susceptibility and the last may be influenced by the genotype and polymorphism genes existing in a population. From our own studies, confounding effects on cytogenetic damage and ras oncoproteins will be considered in relation to workers exposed to vinyl chloride and petroleum emissions and to volunteers taking Vitamin C supplementation. Smoking history, exposure and duration of employment affected the worker studies. For petroleum emissions, so did gender and season of exposure. For the non-smoking volunteer Vitamin C supplementation study, cholesterol levels, plasma Vitamin C levels, lipid peroxidation products and DNA damage in the Comet assay were also measured. Gender affected differences in Vitamin C levels, antioxidant capacity and the number of chromosome aberrations induced by bleomycin challenge in vitro. The results were the same for both high and low cholesterol subjects. The relationship between biomarkers and the various factors which

  9. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive functions and neural substrates: a voxel-based morphometry study in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and experimental studies have revealed putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA in aging, evidencing positive correlations between peripheral n-3 PUFA levels and regional grey matter (GM volume, as well as negative correlations between dietary n-3 PUFA levels and cognitive deficits. We recently showed that n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibit better hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions, along with enhanced cellular plasticity and reduced neurodegeneration, thus supporting a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in preventing cognitive decline during aging. To corroborate these initial results and develop new evidence on the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on brain substrates at macro-scale level, here we expanded behavioral analyses to the emotional domain (anxiety and coping skills, and carried out a fine-grained regional GM volumetric mapping by using high-resolution MRI-based voxel-based morphometry. The behavioral effects of 8 week n-3 PUFA supplementation were measured on cognitive (discriminative, spatial and social and emotional (anxiety and coping abilities of aged (19 month-old at the onset of study C57B6/J mice. n-3 PUFA supplemented mice showed better mnesic performances as well as increased active coping skills. Importantly, these effects were associated with enlarged regional hippocampal, retrosplenial and prefrontal GM volumes, and with increased post mortem n-3 PUFA brain levels. These findings indicate that increased dietary n-3 PUFA intake in normal aging can improve fronto-hippocampal GM structure and function, an effect present also when the supplementation starts at late age. Our data are consistent with a protective role of n-3 PUFA supplementation in counteracting cognitive decline, emotional dysfunctions and brain atrophy.

  10. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  11. DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA methylation in blood leukocytes: the OmegAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Vedin, Inger; Freund Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Faxén Irving, Gerd; Eriksdotter, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Schultzberg, Marianne; Hjorth, Erik; Cederholm, Tommy; Palmblad, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors-such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation-are poorly described. Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Design: In the present study, DNA methylation in four 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) sites of long interspersed nuclear element-1 repetitive sequences was assessed in a group of 63 patients (30 given the n-3 FA preparation and 33 given placebo) as an estimation of the global DNA methylation in blood cells. Patients originated from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled OmegAD study, in which 174 AD patients received either 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (the n-3 FA group) or placebo daily for 6 mo. Results: At 6 mo, the n-3 FA group displayed marked increases in DHA and EPA plasma concentrations (2.6- and 3.5-fold), as well as decreased methylation in 2 out of 4 CpG sites ( P DHA concentration, and were not related to apolipoprotein E-4 allele frequency. Conclusion: Supplementation with n-3 FA for 6 mo was associated with global DNA hypomethylation in PBLs. Our data may be of importance in measuring various effects of marine oils, including gene expression, in patients with AD and in other patients taking n-3 FA supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00211159. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. High-dose B-vitamin supplements and risk for age-related cataract: a population-based prospective study of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Jinjin Z; Lindblad, Birgitta E; Bottai, Matteo; Morgenstern, Ralf; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies that have investigated the association between B-vitamin supplement use and risk for cataract yield conflicting results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements (approximately 10 times recommended daily intake) and risk for age-related cataract in a population-based prospective study of 13 757 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 22 823 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men. Dietary supplement use and potential confounders were assessed using a questionnaire at baseline. Information on cataract diagnosis and extraction was obtained through linkage to registers. During the follow-up period between January 1998 and December 2011, we identified 8395 cataract cases (3851 for women and 4544 for men). The use of B vitamins plus other supplements and B vitamins only was associated with 9 % (95 % CI 2, 17) and 27 % (95 % CI 12, 43) increased risk for cataract, respectively. The hazard ratios for use of B vitamins only and risk for cataract stratified by different age groups were as follows: B-vitamin supplements was associated with an increased risk for cataract. This association might be confined to younger participants.

  13. A study of whole body protein kinetics in malnourished children with persistent diarrhea: A double blind trial of zinc supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, Z.A.; Nizami, S.Q.; Hardy, S.; Hendricks, K.

    1996-01-01

    Persistent diarrhoea (PD) is globally recognized as a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. PD is closely associated with malnutrition and nutrition rehabilitation especially domiciliary dietary therapy posses a therapeutic challenge. While there has been success in managing such children with locally home available traditional diets, there has been concern with the potential of associated micronutrient especially zinc deficiency. We are evaluating the impact of zinc supplementation of a traditional rice-lentil (khitchri) and yogurt diet in malnourished children with PD in randomized double blind study. In addition to the impact on weight gain, stool output and body composition, we will evaluate whole body protein kinetics using the modified CRP protocol [employing 15 N-glycine, H 13 Co 3 and 1- 13 C leucine]. We will also estimate the effect of coexisting illnesses, especially febrile episodes on nutritional recovery and protein metabolism. (author). 20 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. A case study of discordant overlapping meta-analyses: vitamin d supplements and fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bolland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are now very common, and discordant results often occur. To explore why discordant results arise, we examined a common topic for overlapping meta-analyses- vitamin D supplements and fracture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 24 meta-analyses of vitamin D (with or without calcium and fracture in a PubMed search in October 2013, and analysed a sample of 7 meta-analyses in the highest ranking general medicine journals. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the quality of the meta-analyses, and compared their methodologies, analytic techniques and results. Applying the AMSTAR tool suggested the meta-analyses were generally of high quality. Despite this, there were important differences in trial selection, data extraction, and analytical methods that were only apparent after detailed assessment. 25 trials were included in at least one meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses included all eligible trials according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria, but the other 3 meta-analyses "missed" between 3 and 8 trials, and 2 meta-analyses included apparently ineligible trials. The relative risks used for individual trials differed between meta-analyses for total fracture in 10 of 15 trials, and for hip fracture in 6 of 12 trials, because of different outcome definitions and analytic approaches. The majority of differences (11/16 led to more favourable estimates of vitamin D efficacy compared to estimates derived from unadjusted intention-to-treat analyses using all randomised participants. The conclusions of the meta-analyses were discordant, ranging from strong statements that vitamin D prevents fractures to equally strong statements that vitamin D without calcium does not prevent fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in trial selection, outcome definition and analytic methods between overlapping meta-analyses led to discordant estimates of the efficacy of vitamin D for fracture prevention

  15. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  16. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  17. Study on the effect of supplementation of ironfortified food to chinese juvenile athletes by nuclear analysis techniques and blood analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Q.F.; Feng, W.Y.; Zhang, P.Q.; Chai, C.F.; Pan, J.X.; Wu, Y.Y.; Chao, Z.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The iron contents in the hair and blood samples of 37 juvenile athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/day, respectively, in the food of ferrous gluconatecontaining chocolate for 3 months were determined before and after the supplementation by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results showed that after supplementation of the iron-fortified food, the normal ferritin level in the blood of the male athletes was attained and the iron content in the hair was increased with supplementation, but both are not in the positive proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplementation of 8 mg iron/day to juvenile athletes may be desirable. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Study on effect of supplementing iron-fortified food to children athletes by nuclear analysis and blood analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Qinfang; Sun Jianguo; Feng Weiyue

    1996-01-01

    The iron content in hair and blood for 37 children athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/d, respectively, in the form of ferrous gluconate-containing chocolate for 3 months was determined before and after the supplement by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results indicated that after the supplement of the iron-fortified food, the ferritin level in blood of the male athletes attained to normal and the iron content in hair was increased with the increasing level of supplement, but not in direct proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplement of 8 mg Fe/d to a child athlete may be adequate

  19. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010, it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2 months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG- derived macular (18° flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010 every three months over a followup of 14 (±2 months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P<0.01, and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P<0.01. These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup.

  20. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Courten, Barbora; Mousa, Aya; Naderpoor, Negar; Teede, Helena; de Courten, Maximilian P J; Scragg, Robert

    2015-08-07

    Despite Australia's sunny climate, low vitamin D levels are increasingly prevalent. Sun exposure is limited by long working hours, an increase in time spent indoors, and sun protection practices, and there is limited dietary vitamin D fortification. While the importance of vitamin D for bone mineralization is well known, its role as a protective agent against chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is less understood. Observational and limited intervention studies suggest that vitamin D might improve insulin sensitivity and secretion, mainly via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby decreasing the risk of development and progression of type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this trial is to investigate whether improved plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), obtained through vitamin D supplementation, will increase insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. A secondary aim is to determine whether these relationships are mediated by a reduction in underlying subclinical inflammation associated with obesity. Fifty overweight but otherwise healthy nondiabetic adults between 18 and 60 years old, with low vitamin D levels (25(OH)D daily, while the placebo group will receive apparently identical capsules, both for a period of 16 weeks. All measurements will be repeated at follow-up, with the primary outcome measure expressed as a change from baseline in insulin sensitivity and secretion for the intervention group compared with the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures will compare changes in anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammatory markers. The trial will provide much needed clinical evidence on the impact of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and secretion and its underlying mechanisms, which are relevant for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02112721 .

  1. Use and Factors Associated With Herbal/Botanical and Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Dietary Supplements Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Filippelli, Amanda C; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the changes in prevalence of dietary supplement use in pregnancy, postpartum, and in a comparison group of nonpregnant women. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices II study. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use by US women with respect to demographic, behavioral, and health factors. We compared pregnant and postpartum women to a comparison group of nonpregnant women who had not given birth in the past 12 months. Our main outcome was the prevalence of dietary supplements. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use during reproductive age, pregnancy, and postpartum. The total sample included 1444 women assessed during the prenatal period, 1422 from the postpartum period, and 1517 women in a comparison group. In terms of herb or botanical use, 15% of the prenatal group, 16% of the postpartum group, and 22% of the comparison group reported using herbs or botanicals. The most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement was omega-3 fatty acid. Among the total prenatal group and comparison group, women eating 5 or more servings of fruits or vegetables were less likely to report using herbs or botanicals. Women in the comparison group self-identifying as black were 4 times as likely to report using herbs or botanicals compared to participants self-identifying as white. In addition, women identifying as a race other than white were almost twice as likely to report herb or botanical use across all study groups. This is one of the rare studies that shows the changing prevalence of herbs or botanicals and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use in women in the reproductive stage of their lives. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  2. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and colon and rectum carcinoma among men and women was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Onions, leeks, and garlic belong to the Allium genus and contain

  3. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc supplementation to improve mucositis and dermatitis in patients after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers: A double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.-C.; Que, Jenny; Lin, L.-K.; Lin, F.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether zinc supplementation can accelerate the healing of mucositis and dermatitis after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In this double-blind study, patients were placed into two randomized groups (experimental and control) of 50 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The experimental group received a standard dose of a zinc supplement, and the control group was given a placebo. Results: Patients in the control group developed Grade 2 mucositis and dermatitis earlier and sooner than patients in the experimental group. There was also a significant difference in the development of Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group were found to have milder mucositis and dermatitis. Zinc supplementation did not show much benefit in those patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy or make a substantial impact on weight changes. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation used in conjunction with radiotherapy could postpone the development of severe mucositis and dermatitis for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Zinc supplementation can also alleviate the degree of mucositis and dermatitis. The impact of zinc on tumor growth and patient survival is under further investigation

  5. Limited agreement exists between rationale and practice in athletes' supplement use for maintenance of health: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of nutritional supplements among athletes is poorly understood. The prevalence of supplement intake and users' knowledge have been researched independently leading to useful, but disconnected, information on supplement use. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [φ], to discover observed incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results are given for test pairs between 'motive for use' [doctor's advice, avoiding sickness, overcoming injuries and enhancement of diet] and each supplement used and these were categorized as strong (φ > .7, intermediate (7 φ > .3 and weak (φ Results The use of selected supplements varied widely as follows: multivitamin (72.7%, vitamin C (70.4%, echinacea (30.8%, iron (29.8%, magnesium (11.0% and ginseng (8.3%. Associations with motive were found in 8 of the 10 test pairs which were expected from literature precedents, however only weak associations exist. Of these, four were associated with avoidance of sickness [iron (χ2 = 11.94, p χ2 = 6.43, p φ = .11, p = .011, vitamin C (χ2 = 54.67, p φ = .32, p χ2 = 40.34, p φ = .28, p χ2 = 7.64, p = .006; φ = .12, p = .006 and multivitamin (χ2 = 9.103, p = .003; φ = .13, p = .003; overcoming injuries with magnesium (χ2 = 6.99, p = .008; φ = .11, p = .008; doctors' advice and iron (χ2 = 35.00, p φ = .25, p = .001. Conclusion These results suggest a lack of understanding regarding supplements and health maintenance, except for vitamin C and echinacea. Furthermore, supplement use is apparently independent of physicians/dieticians' advice, except for iron. This may suggest a widespread circumvention of expert advice in the growing area of supplement use and therefore should be addressed to underscore potential health risks.

  6. Supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D3 and uridine in combination with six weeks of cognitive and motor training in prepubescent children: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Solvejg Lis; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Voigt, Camilla B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Learning and memory have been shown to be influenced by combination of dietary supplements and exercise in animal models, but there is little available evidence from human subjects. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of combining a motor- and cognitive exercise...... on one of the cognitive tasks revealed a proper sample size of 26 children. Conclusion All children showed improved performance in the trained motor- and cognitive tasks, but it was not possible to demonstrate any significant effects on the cognitive tests from the dietary supplementation. However, DDU...

  7. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  8. Supplementing consumer insights at Electrolux by mining social media: An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this thesis is to explore the possibility of text mining social media, for consumer insights from an organizational perspective. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory, single case embedded case study with inductive approach and partially mixed, concurrent, dominant status mixed method research design. The case study contains three different studies to try to triangulate the research findings and support research objective of using social media for consumer insights...

  9. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Lee, Yujin; Park, Kyong

    2018-01-06

    Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants ( n = 586) were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women ( p = 0.02), older participants ( p = 0.002), and those with a higher income level ( p = 0.03) than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7-3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  10. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants (n = 586 were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women (p = 0.02, older participants (p = 0.002, and those with a higher income level (p = 0.03 than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7–3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  11. Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent information suggests that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) supplement, enhanced intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and diminishing dietary glycemic index (dGI) are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Dietary information was collected a...

  12. Khan Academy as Supplemental Instruction: A Controlled Study of a Computer-Based Mathematics Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.; Rutherford, Teomara

    2017-01-01

    Khan Academy is a large and popular open educational resource (OER) with little empirical study into its impact on student achievement in mathematics when used in schools. In this study, we examined the use of Khan Academy as a mathematics intervention among seventh grade students over a 4-week period versus a control group. We also compared…

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Gaurang R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is lacking for multi-ingredient herbal supplements claiming therapeutic effect in sexual dysfunction in men. We examined the safety and efficacy of VigRX Plus (VXP – a proprietary polyherbal preparation for improving male sexual function, in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multi-centre study. Methods 78 men aged 25–50 years of age; suffering from mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED, participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to receive VXP or placebo at a dose of two capsules twice daily for 12 weeks. The international index of erectile function (IIEF was the primary outcome measure of efficacy. Other efficacy measures were: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS, Serum testosterone, Semen analysis, Investigator’s Global assessment and Subjects’ opinion. Results In subjects receiving VXP, the IIEF-Erectile Function (EF scores improved significantly as compared to placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd IIEF-EF score at baseline increased from 16.08 (2.87 to 25.08 (4.56 in the VXP group versus 15.86 (3.24 to 16.47 (4.25 in the placebo group (P P  Conclusions VigRX Plus was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in improving sexual function in men. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry India, CTRI/2009/091/000099, 31-03-2009

  10. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22.7 ± 4.0 kg m(-2) and age 35.3 ± 12.3 y were grouped to take the two study meals in random order. In each of the 2 study periods, one serving of onion soup (made from 100 g fresh red onion, providing 156.3 ± 3.4 μmol (47 mg) quercetin) or a single dose of a quercetin dihydrate tablet (1800 ± 150 μmol (544 mg) of quercetin) were administered following 3 d washout. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h, and after enzyme deconjugation, quercetin was quantified by LC-MS. The 24 h urinary excretion of quercetin (1.69 ± 0.79 μmol) from red onion in soup was not significantly different to that (1.17 ± 0.44 μmol) for the quercetin supplement tablet (P = 0.065, paired t-test). This means that, in practice, 166 mg of quercetin supplement would be comparable to about 10 mg of quercetin aglycone equivalents from onion. These data allow intervention studies on quercetin giving either food or supplements to be more effectively compared.

  11. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, L.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  12. Vitamin E supplementation and atherosclerosis : epidemiological studies in elderly and smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant vitamin E may have beneficial effects on several indicators of human health. We studied the impact on atherosclerosis, immune response and total mortality in smokers and elderly people, who are at risk for increased oxidative stress. Vitamin E may exert its effect on

  13. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J.I.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Kusters, Y.H.A.M.; Bakker, S.J.A.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we

  14. Defense waste solidification studies. Volume 2. Drawing supplement. Savannah River Plant, Project S-1780

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Volume 2 contains the drawings prepared and used in scoping and estimating the Glass-Form Waste Solidification facilities and the alternative studies cited in the report, the Off-Site Shipping Case, the Decontaminated Salt Storage Case, and a revised Reference Plant (Concrete-Form Waste) Case

  15. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  16. Reactivity of Chromium(III) Nutritional Supplements in Biological Media: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, A.; Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P.A.

    2009-05-22

    Chromium(III) nutritional supplements are widely used due to their purported ability to enhance glucose metabolism, despite growing evidence on low activity and the potential genotoxicity of these compounds. Reactivities of Cr(III) complexes used in nutritional formulations, including [Cr3O(OCOEt)6(OH2)3]+ (A), [Cr(pic)3] (pic) = 2-pyridinecarboxylato(-) (B), and trans-[CrCl2(OH2)4]+ (CrCl3 {center_dot} 6H2O; C), in a range of natural and simulated biological media (artificial digestion systems, blood and its components, cell culture media, and intact L6 rat skeletal muscle cells) were studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectroscopic data were processed by multiple linear-regression analyses with the use of a library of model Cr(III) compounds, and the results were corroborated by the results of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Complexes A and B underwent extensive ligand-exchange reactions under conditions of combined gastric and intestinal digestion (in the presence of a semisynthetic meal, 3 h at 310 K), as well as in blood serum and in a cell culture medium (1-24 h at 310 K), with the formation of Cr(III) complexes with hydroxo and amino acid/protein ligands. Reactions of compounds A-C with cultured muscle cells led to similar ligand-exchange products, with at least part of Cr(III) bound to the surface of the cells. The reactions of B with serum greatly enhanced its propensity to be converted to Cr(VI) by biological oxidants (H2O2 or glucose oxidase system), which is proposed to be a major cause of both the insulin-enhancing activity and toxicity of Cr(III) compounds (Mulyani, I.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4504-4507). This finding enhances the current concern over the safety of consumption of large doses of Cr(III) supplements, particularly [Cr(pic)3].

  17. (InConsistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Froio de Araujo Dias

    Full Text Available Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB.15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110% following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials or placebo (PL, 2 trials. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD was recorded as the exercise outcome.SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001; absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05. Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001, and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05, although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none.The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  18. The studies on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat flour supplementing withs weet potato flour

    OpenAIRE

    Taneya, M.L.J.; Biswas, M.M.H.; Shams-Ud-Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour...

  19. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S

    2007-01-01

    Meheroz H Rabadi1, Bruce S Kristal2,31Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 2Burke Medical Research Institute, an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell Medical College, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Department of Neuroscience, Cornell University Medical College, White Plains, NY, USABackground and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and &beta...

  20. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani; Biswas, Mamta; Kumar, Smriti Nanda

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with aberrations in the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid that result in development of secondary complications. Extensive studies have indicated that nutritional therapy plays a pivotal role in the controlling or postponing of development of these secondary complications. Several functional foods have been shown to possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Flax seed (FS) is a functional food that is rich in omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants and is low in carbohydrates. In exploratory studies, FS was incorporated in recipes, which resulted in a reduction in the glycemic index of the food items. These observations prompted us to investigate the efficacy of FS supplementation in type 2 diabetics (n = 29). Subjects were assigned to the experimental (n = 18) or the control group (n = 11) on the basis of their desire to participate in the study. The experimental group's diet was supplemented daily with 10 g of FS powder for a period of 1 month. The control group received no supplementation or placebo. During the study, diet and drug intake of the subjects remained unaltered. The efficacy of supplementation with FS was evaluated through a battery of clinico-biochemical parameters. Supplementation with FS reduced fasting blood glucose by 19.7% and glycated hemoglobin by 15.6%. A favorable reduction in total cholesterol (14.3%), triglycerides (17.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (21.8%), and apolipoprotein B and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.9%) were also noticed. These observations suggest the therapeutic potential of FS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  1. A human dietary arachidonic acid supplementation study conducted in a metabolic research unit: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Emken, E A; Phinney, S D; Kyle, D; Ferretti, A

    1997-04-01

    While there are many reports of studies that fed arachidonic acid (AA) to animals, there are very few reports of AA feeding to humans under controlled conditions. This 130-d study was conceived as a controlled, symmetrical crossover design with healthy, adult male volunteers. They lived in the metabolic research unit (MRU) of the Western Human Nutrition Research (WHNRC) for the entire study. All food was prepared by the WHNRC kitchen. The basal (low-AA) diet consisted of natural foods (30 en% fat, 15 en% protein, and 55 en% carbohydrate), containing 210 mg/d of AA, and met the recommended daily allowance for all nutrients. The high-AA (intervention) diet was similar except that 1.5 g/d of AA in the form of a triglyceride containing 50% AA replaced an equal amount of high-oleic safflower oil in the basal diet. The subjects (ages 20 to 39) were within -10 to +20% of ideal body weight, nonsmoking, and not allowed alcohol in the MRU. Their exercise level was constant, and their body weights were maintained within 2% of entry level. Subjects were initially fed the low-AA diet for 15 d. On day 16, half of the subjects (group A) wee placed on the high-AA diet, and the other group (B) remained on the low-AA diets. On day 65, the two groups switched diets. On day 115, group B returned to the low-AA diet. This design, assuming no carryover effect, allowed us to merge the data from the two groups, with the data comparison days being 65 (low-AA) and 115 (high-AA) for group B and 130 (low-AA) and 65 (high-AA) for group A. The main indices studied were the fatty acid composition of the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and adipose tissue; in vitro platelet aggregation, bleeding times, clotting factors; immune response as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, cellular proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to various mitogens and antigens, natural killer cell activity, and response to measles/mumps/rubella and influenza vaccines; the

  2. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  3. One-Year Conservative Care Using Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation Is Associated with a Decrease in Electronegative LDL in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, Felipe; Mafra, Denise; Barra, Ana Beatriz; Pires de Melo, Gisella; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra; Leite, Maurilo

    2017-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients develop metabolic acidosis when approaching stages 3 and 4, a period in which accelerated atherogenesis may ensue. Studies in vitro show that low pH may increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, suggesting a role for chronic metabolic acidosis in atherosclerosis. The present study attempted to evaluate the effects of conservative care using oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation on the electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a minimally oxidized LDL, plasma levels in CKD patients. Thirty-one CKD patients were followed by a multidisciplinary team during 15 months of care in which 1.0 mmol/kg/day oral NaHCO 3 supplementation was first given in the third month. Blood samples were collected 3 months before the initiation of oral NaHCO 3 supplementation (T1), at the time of the beginning of supplementation (T2), and thereafter, each 4 months (T3, T4 and T5) until month 15 of care. Blood parameters and LDL(-) were measured from these collections. After 12 months of conservative care, creatinine clearance (MDRD) was kept stable, and serum bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) increased from 20.5 ± 2.9 to 22.6 ± 1.1 mM ( p < 0.003). LDL(-) plasma levels declined from 4.5 ± 3.3 to 2.1 ± 0.9 U/L ( p < 0.007) after reaching mean serum HCO 3 - levels of 22.6 ± 1.1 mM. Conservative care using oral NaHCO 3 supplementation was able to stabilize renal function and decrease serum levels of LDL(-), a modified proatherogenic lipoprotein, only when mean serum HCO 3 - levels approached 22 mM. This study constitutes evidence that alkali therapy, in addition to its beneficial effect on renal disease progression, might serve as a preventive strategy to attenuate atherogenesis in CKD patients.

  4. Evaluation of congruence among dietary supplement use and motivation for supplementation in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is endemic in young athletes; however, it is unclear if their choices are congruent with their motivation for supplementation and the established benefits of the dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dietary supplement use and self-reported rationale in young athletes. Canadian athletes (n = 567; 11-25 years; 76% club or provincial level, 24% national or higher) completed a questionnaire designed to assess supplementation patterns and motivation for supplementation. Chi square tests examined associations between dietary supplements and self-reported rationale for use. Vitamin and mineral supplements, including vitamin-enriched water, were associated with several health- and performance- related reasons (p performance reasons, as were performance foods (protein powder, sport bars, sport gels, etc.). Plant extracts and fatty acids were primarily associated with health reasons, particularly immune support (p performance rationales and supplementation for common ergogenic aids, however, less so for vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts. Incongruences were found between fatty acids, protein supplements, vitamin and mineral supplements, vitamin-enriched water, and plant extracts and health motivators for supplementation. Educational interventions are essential to ensure young athletes are using dietary supplements safely and effectively.

  5. A natural seaweed derived mineral supplement (Aquamin F for knee osteoarthritis: A randomised, placebo controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskowski Michael A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a slowly destructive process that may be influenced by a nutritional mineral balance in the body. Methods This small, double blind, placebo controlled pilot study investigated the impact of treatment with a natural multi-mineral supplement from seaweed (Aquamin on 6 minute walking distance (6 MWD, range of motion (ROM, and pain and joint mobility measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index in subjects with moderate to severe OA of the knee during gradual withdrawal of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs that were being used daily for pain management. Subjects (n = 29 with moderate to severe OA of the knee were randomised to receive either Aquamin (2400 mg/d or Placebo for up to 12 weeks. Results Of the 29 subjects initially randomized, only 22 subjects proceeded to treatment due to 7 subjects not meeting study selection criteria at baseline. Fourteen subjects completed the study and an ITT analysis (n = 22 of the data showed no significant differences in WOMAC scores however, the data did reveal significant improvements in passive and active extension ROM (0.83° ± 1.54 vs. -1.54° ± 2.43; difference, 5.2° ± 2.2, p = 0.028 and 6 MWD (150 ± 48 ft vs. 12.5 ± 31.5 ft; difference, 136 ± 57 ft, p = 0.03 in the Aquamin group compared to the placebo group; respectively, following a 50% reduction in NSAID use. The treatments were well tolerated and the adverse event profiles were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion This small preliminary study suggests Aquamin may increase range of motion and walking distances in subjects with OA of the knee and may allow partial withdrawal of NSAIDs over 12 weeks of treatment. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Trial registration NCT00755482

  6. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM, safety is not yet well understood. Cancer survivors took 1.8, 3.6, or 5.4 g ABM granulated powder (Kyowa Wellness Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan per day orally for 6 months. Adverse events were defined by subjective/objective symptoms and laboratory data according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (NCI-CTCAE v3.0. Seventy-eight patients were assessed for safety of ABM (30/24/24 subjects at 1/2/3 packs per day, resp.. Adverse events were observed in 9 patients (12%. Most were digestive in nature such as nausea and diarrhea, and one patient developed a liver dysfunction-related food allergy, drug lymphocyte product. However, none of these adverse events occurred in a dose-dependent manner. This study shows that ABM does not cause problems in most patients within laboratory parameters at the dosages tested over 6 months. This trial supports previous evidence that the ABM product is generally safe, excluding possible allergic reaction.

  7. A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Dale A; Allen, Timothy A; Dodd, Chadwick E; Jewell, Dennis E; Sixby, Kristin A; Leventhal, Phillip S; Brejda, John; Hahn, Kevin A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis. Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial. 131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States. In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs. Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group. Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

  8. The effects of resveratrol supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Adibi, Payman; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is usually associated with insulin resistance, central obesity, reduced glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. The beneficial effects of resveratrol on metabolic disorders have been shown previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with NAFLD. In this randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, fifty NAFLD patients were supplemented with either a 500-mg resveratrol capsule or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. resveratrol supplementation reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic steatosis significantly more than placebo (P0·05). There were no significant changes in blood pressure, insulin resistance markers and TAG in either group (P>0·05). Our data have shown that 12-week supplementation of 500 mg resveratrol does not have any beneficial effect on anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance markers, lipid profile and blood pressure; however, it reduced ALT and hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD.

  9. Erythrocyte Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Elite Athletes in Response to Omega-3 Supplementation: A Dose-Response Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Félix; Pons, Victoria; Banquells, Montserrat; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) in athletes is related to the anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect and consequently its action on all the processes of tissue restoration and adaptation to physical stress. Objective Evaluate the Omega-3 Index (O3Ix) response, in red blood cells, to supplemental EPA + DHA intake in the form of high purity and stable composition gums (G), in elite summer athletes. Method Twenty-four summer sport athletes of both sexes, pertaining to the Olympic Training Center in Spain, were randomized to two groups (2G = 760 or 3G = 1140 mg of n-3 FA in Omegafort OKids, Ferrer Intl.) for 4 months. Five athletes and four training staff volunteers were control group. Results The O3Ix was lower than 8% in 93.1% of all the athletes. The supplementation worked in a dose-dependent manner: 144% for the 3G dose and 135% for the 2G, both p < 0.001, with a 3% significant decrease of Omega-6 FAs. No changes were observed for the control group. Conclusions Supplementation with n-3FA increases the content of EPA DHA in the red blood cells at 4 months in a dose-dependent manner. Athletes with lower basal O3Ix were more prone to increment their levels. The study is registered with Protocol Registration and Results System (ClinicalTrials.gov) number NCT02610270. PMID:28656110

  10. Study the Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Lipid Profiles, Insulin Sensi-tivity and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jamilian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: We are aware of no study evaluating the effects of zinc supplementation on metabolic profiles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on glucose homeostasis parameters in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 52 women diagnosed with PCOS and aged 18-40 years old. Participants were ran-domly divided into two groups to receive 220 mg zinc sulfate (containing 50 mg zinc supplements (n=26 or placebo (n=26 per day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention to quantify glucose and insulin. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention, zinc-supplemented patients had reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG (-4.3±9.6 vs. +0.5±6.0 mg/dL, p=0.03, serum insulin (-3.0 ± 2.9 vs . + 1.5 ± 8.4 µIU/ml, p=0.01, serum triglycerides levels (-15.6±40.3 vs. +14.5±25.3 mg/dL, p=0.002 and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (+0.02±0.02 vs. -0.004±0.05, p=0.03 compared with the placebo. Conclusion: Taken together, 220 mg zinc sulfate supplementation per day for 8 weeks among PCOS women had beneficial effects on metabolic profiles.

  11. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  12. A pilot study of rhythm and timing training as a supplement to occupational therapy in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Valerie; Dunn, Leah; Dunning, Kari; Page, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability. A need exists for an effective intervention to enhance upper extremity (UE) motor abilities and activities of daily living (ADL) performance. The objectives of this pilot study were to (1) determine the feasibility of adding Interactive Metronome (IM) to an occupational therapy (OT) program; and (2) determine changes in UE impairments, function, quality of life, and perceived physical performance ability and satisfaction using a combined IM + OT regimen compared with OT alone for adults with chronic stroke. This pilot study (n=10) used a 2-group (OT or IM+OT) pretest-posttest design. The intervention involved 60 minutes of IM + OT or OT alone, 3 days a week for 10 weeks. Outcome measures included the UE Fugl-Meyer (impairment), the Arm Motor Ability Test (function), the Box and Block Test (function), Stroke Impact Scale (quality of life), and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (perceived performance ability and satisfaction). It was feasible to add IM to OT. The IM+OT group demonstrated decreased impairment and increased quality of life. However, the OT-alone group demonstrated greater gains in function, perceived physical performance ability, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that rhythm and timing training using the IM is a feasible intervention to consider as part of therapy treatment. However, IM may fit best for prefunctional treatment, as it seemed to primarily decrease impairment. It may also serve as a supplement before or after treatment in order to maximize rehabilitation potential. Clinical implications and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  13. Use of high doses of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Spain: an INMA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manoli; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Riaño, Isolina; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the use of low (<400 μg/day, including no use) and high folic acid supplement (FAS) dosages (≥1000 μg/day) among pregnant women in Spain, and explored factors associated with the use of these non-recommended dosages. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Spain. Participants We analysed data from 2332 pregnant women of the INMA study, a prospective mother-child cohort study in Spain. Main outcome measures We assessed usual dietary folate and the use of FAS from preconception to the 3rd month (first period) and from the 4th to the 7th month (second period), using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate relative risk ratios (RRRs). Results Over a half of the women used low dosages of FAS in the first and second period while 29% and 17% took high dosages of FAS, respectively. In the first period, tobacco smoking (RRR=1.63), alcohol intake (RRR=1.40), multiparous (RRR=1.44), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=4.20) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.58, lower use of high FAS dosages among those with previous abortions) were significantly associated with low FAS dosages. Alcohol consumption (RRR=1.42), unplanned pregnancy (RRR=2.66) and previous spontaneous abortion (RRR=0.68) were associated with high dosage use. In the second period, only tobacco smoking was significantly associated with high FAS dosage use (RRR=0.67). Conclusions A high proportion of pregnant women did not reach the recommended dosages of FAS in periconception and a considerable proportion also used FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/day. Action should be planned by the Health Care System and health professionals to improve the appropriate periconceptional use of FAS, taking into consideration the associated factors. PMID:26603248

  14. Evaluation of a multi-herb supplement for erectile dysfunction: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gaurang R; Chaudhari, Manojkumar V; Patankar, Suresh B; Pensalwar, Shrikant V; Sabale, Vilas P; Sonawane, Navneet A

    2012-09-15

    Evidence is lacking for multi-ingredient herbal supplements claiming therapeutic effect in sexual dysfunction in men. We examined the safety and efficacy of VigRX Plus (VXP) - a proprietary polyherbal preparation for improving male sexual function, in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multi-centre study. 78 men aged 25-50 years of age; suffering from mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED), participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to receive VXP or placebo at a dose of two capsules twice daily for 12 weeks. The international index of erectile function (IIEF) was the primary outcome measure of efficacy. Other efficacy measures were: Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), Serum testosterone, Semen analysis, Investigator's Global assessment and Subjects' opinion. In subjects receiving VXP, the IIEF-Erectile Function (EF) scores improved significantly as compared to placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd) IIEF-EF score at baseline increased from 16.08 (2.87) to 25.08 (4.56) in the VXP group versus 15.86 (3.24) to 16.47 (4.25) in the placebo group (P sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction).There was a significant difference for VXP versus placebo comparison of mean (sd) EDITS scores of patients: 82.31(20.23) vs 36.78(22.53) and partners :(82.75(9.8) vs 18.50(9.44);P global assessment rated VXP therapy as very good to excellent in more than 50% patients and placebo therapy as fair to good in about 25% of patients. Incidence of side effects and subject's rating for tolerability of treatment was similar in both groups. VigRX Plus was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in improving sexual function in men. Clinical Trial Registry India, CTRI/2009/091/000099, 31-03-2009.

  15. Efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine as a supplemental buccal infiltration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brandon S; Botero, Tatiana M; McDonald, Neville J; Gardner, Richard J; Peters, Mathilde C

    2014-06-01

    Profound pulpal anesthesia in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis (IP) is often difficult to obtain and often requires supplemental injections after an ineffective inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the efficacy of 4% articaine with 2% lidocaine for supplemental buccal infiltrations (BIs) after an ineffective IANB in mandibular molars with IP. In addition, the use of articaine for IANB and intraosseous injections was investigated. One hundred emergency patients diagnosed with IP of a mandibular molar were selected and received an IANB with 4% articaine. All injections were 1.7 mL with 1:100,000 epinephrine. All patients reported profound lip numbness after IANB. Patients with ineffective IANB (positive pulpal response to cold or pain on access) randomly received 4% articaine or 2% lidocaine as a supplemental BI. Endodontic access was initiated 5 minutes after deposition of the infiltration solution. Success was defined as no pain or no more than mild pain during endodontic access and instrumentation as measured on a visual analogue scale. Seventy-four patients failed to achieve pulpal anesthesia after IANB with 4% articaine, resulting in IANB success rate of 26%. Success rates for supplemental BIs were 62% for articaine and 37% for lidocaine (P < .05). This effect was most pronounced in second molars (P < .05). Supplemental BI with articaine was significantly more effective than lidocaine. The IANB success rate of 4% articaine confirmed published data. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, R; Béné, M C; Spazzafumo, L; Pinto, A; Donini, L M; Pryen, F; Charrouf, Z; Valentini, L; Lochs, H; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Blanc-Bisson, C; Buccolini, F; Brigidi, P; Franceschi, C; d'Alessio, P A

    2016-08-01

    Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds. A cohort of 125 healthy elderly subjects was recruited and randomized into 4 arms (Arm A, RISTOMED diet; Arm B, RISTOMED diet plus VSL#3 probiotic blend; Arm C, RISTOMED diet plus AISA d-Limonene; Arm D, RISTOMED diet plus Argan oil). Inflammatory and metabolism parameters as well as the ratio between Clostridium cluster IV and Bifidobacteria (CL/B) were collected before and after 56 days of dietary intervention, and their evolution compared among the arms. Moreover, participants were subdivided according to their baseline inflammatory parameters (erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa (TNF-α), and Interleukin 6) in two clusters with low or medium-high level of inflammation. The evolution of the measured parameters was then examined separately in each cluster. Overall, RISTOMED diet alone or with each nutraceutical supplementation significantly decreased ESR. RISTOMED diet supplemented with d-Limonene resulted in a decrease in fibrinogen, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR. The most beneficial effects were observed in subjects with a medium-high inflammatory status who received RISTOMED diet with AISA d-Limonene supplementation. Moreover, RISTOMED diet associated with VSL#3 probiotic blend induced a decrease in the CL/B ratio. Overall, this study emphasizes the beneficial anti-inflammageing effect of RISTOMED diet supplemented with nutraceuticals to control the inflammatory status of elderly

  17. We need studies of the mortality effect of vitamin A supplementation, not surveys of vitamin A deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2017-01-01

    It is usually acknowledged that high‐dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about...

  18. [Dietary supplementation of obese children with 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid per day: a placebo-controlled double blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Burus, István; Schmidt, János; Molnár, Dénes; Decsi, Tamás

    2007-08-12

    Enhanced dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids may benefit persons with increased cardiovascular risk, among them obese subjects. Incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into the plasma lipids is a prerequisite to achieve the favorable effects; however, only very few data are available on the dose of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of the consumption of a diet supplemented with 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid daily on plasma lipids in obese children. In this two times six-week-long, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 9 obese children (age: 13.1 [2.5] years, body mass index: 31.2 [6.2] kg/m 2 ), median [IQR]) incorporated into their diet one egg and one meatball (50 g) per day from hens fed diets containing flaxseed oil, i.e. supplementary dietary intake of 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid per day was provided. The fatty acid composition of plasma lipids was determined by high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography. Tendencies of increase were observed in the alpha-linolenic acid content of plasma lipids in the phospholipid, triacyl-glycerine and sterol-ester fractions after the supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the non-esterified fatty acid fraction, the values of alpha-linolenic acid were significantly higher after the supplementation (0.11 [0.08] versus 0.14 [0.20], % weight/weight, p < 0.05), indicating the beginning of the accumulation of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma lipids. In obese children a six-week-long supplementation of the diet with 1000 mg alpha-linolenic acid per day increased significantly the contribution of omega-3 fatty acids only to the non-esterified fatty acids of plasma lipids, but had no significant effect on the esterified fractions. Increase of the dose of supplementation may be needed to influence omega-3 fatty acid status in obese children.

  19. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  20. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  1. The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n--3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Dunstan, J; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2011-09-01

    The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study is a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating whether the incidence of allergic disease can be reduced and developmental outcomes enhanced through supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Infants at high risk of developing allergic disease will be randomised to receive either fish oil or olive oil supplements until 6 months of age and followed up at six postnatal clinic visits to assess allergy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Study groups to consist of a treatment group allocated to receive 650 mg of fish oil daily (250-280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and at least 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and a placebo group (olive oil) from birth to 6 months of age. Allergy outcomes will be assessed by clinical history, clinical assessments and allergen skin prick tests at the 12, 30 and 60 month visits. Neurodevelopmental assessments to be conducted at 18 months, and language questionnaires at 12, 18 and 30 months. Samples will be collected from mothers antenatally, from infants at birth, and at clinic visits from 6 months onwards for immunological assessments. Fatty acid composition to be measured in erythrocytes and plasma (at birth and after the supplementation period) to assess the effect of the intervention on fatty acid status. Information on medical history, diet and other lifestyle factors at an antenatal clinic visit and postnatal clinic visits will also be collected. This study is designed to examine clinically relevant effects of a novel, non-invasive and potentially low cost approach to reduce the incidence of allergic disease and facilitate neurodevelopment during early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaley Jill

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence indicates that dietary fats and physical activity influence bone health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3 supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, bone mineral density (BMD, and bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine healthy sedentary post-menopausal women aged 58-78 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of 4 groups: exercise + supplement (E+S, n = 21, exercise (E, n = 20, supplement (S, n = 20, and control (Con, n = 18 groups. The subjects in the E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jogging up to 65% of HRmax, three times a week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the E+S and S groups consumed 1000 mg/d N-3 for 24 weeks. The lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, interleukin (IL 6, prostaglandin (PG E2, estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 Vit D, C-telopeptide (CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcitonin (CT were measured at baseline, the end of week 12 and 24. Results Serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25 Vit D, CT, L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD measures increased (P 2 decreased (P 2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, estrogen, osteocalcin, and CT were negatively (P 2. PTH and CT were correlated positively and negatively with IL-6, respectively (P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise training plus N-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in attenuating inflammation and augmenting BMD in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  3. Selenium Supplementation in Fish: A Combined Chemical and Biomolecular Study to Understand Sel-Plex Assimilation and Impact on Selenoproteome Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pacitti

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential oligonutrient, as a component of several Se-containing proteins (selenoproteins, which exert important biological functions within an organism. In livestock, Se-enriched products have been proposed as dietary supplements to be included into functional feeds for animal preventive health care. To this end, it is important to understand the optimal range of concentrations for supplementation and how long it takes to be assimilated into the organism.In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were fed a control diet containing 0.9 g Kg-1 Se or the same diet supplemented with a Se-Yeast product (Sel-Plex to achieve Se concentrations ranging from 1.5-8.9 g Kg-1 for a period of ten weeks. Fish were sampled every two weeks for analysis. The kinetics of Se bioaccumulation and the effects on fish selenoprotein expression was determined in different tissues combining chemical and bimolecular techniques.The Sel-Plex enriched diets did not have any effect on survival and growth performance. The highest Se levels were found in liver and kidney followed by muscle and blood cells. Analysis of the Se concentration factor showed that liver is able to initially regulate the amount of Se accumulated. However, with higher dietary Se level (4.8 and 8.9 g Kg-1 and longer times of exposure (10 weeks, regulation is ineffective and the Se tissue concentration increases. The expression of the selected trout selenoprotein transcripts showed an inverse correlation with Sel-Plex augmentation in most cases. In liver, kidney and blood cells the highest up-regulation of the trout selenoprotein genes was seen mostly in the group fed the diet enriched with the lowest concentration of Sel-Plex (0.5 g Kg-1 for 10 weeks.Sel-Plex may represent an excellent Se supplement to deliver a high level of Se without provoking harm to the fish and to guarantee the maximal absorption of the element. According to our results, a dietary supplementation of Sel

  4. Perioperative Alanyl-Glutamine-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition in Chronic Radiation Enteritis Patients With Surgical Intestinal Obstruction: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Danhua; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Jian; Guo, Mingxiao; Yin, Jianyi; Li, Yousheng

    2016-04-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of perioperative alanyl-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition (PN) support on the immunologic function, intestinal permeability, and nutrition status of surgical patients with chronic radiation enteritis (CRE)-induced intestinal obstruction. Patients who received 0.4 g/kg/d alanyl-glutamine and isonitrogenous PN were assigned to an alanyl-glutamine-supplemented PN (Gln-PN) group and a control group, respectively. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and glutamine, body fat mass (FM), immunologic function, and intestinal permeability were measured before and after surgery. Serum glutamine levels of the Gln-PN group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P nutrition state and intestinal motility of surgical patients with CRE-induced intestinal obstruction. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik,1 Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro,1 Nicolás Alejandre-Alba,1 Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Statistics, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain Background: Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods: We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds. Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1 TBUT; (2 Schirmer I test; (3 Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; (4 MG expression; (5 evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6 interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results: After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively. The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per

  6. Phytosterols and Omega 3 Supplementation Exert Novel Regulatory Effects on Metabolic and Inflammatory Pathways: A Proteomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lambert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. In addition to drug treatment, nutritional interventions or supplementations are becoming a health strategy for CVD prevention. Phytosterols (PhyS are natural components that have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels; while poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, mainly omega-3 (ω3 fatty acids, have shown to reduce triglyceride levels. Here we aimed to investigate whether the proteins in the main lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins (LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL as well as proteins in the lipid free plasma fraction (LPDP were regulated by the intake of PhyS-milk or ω3-milk, in overweight healthy volunteers by a proteomic based systems biology approach. The study was a longitudinal crossover trial, including thirty-two healthy volunteers with body mass index (BMI 25–35 kg/m2 (Clinical Trial: ISRCTN78753338. Basal samples before any intervention and after 4 weeks of intake of PhyS or ω3-milk were analyzed. Proteomic profiling by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by mass spectrometry-(MALDI/TOF, ELISA, Western blot, conventional biochemical analysis, and in-silico bioinformatics were performed. The intake of PhyS-milk did not induce changes in the lipid associated plasma protein fraction, whereas ω3-milk significantly increased apolipoprotein (Apo- E LDL content (p = 0.043 and induced a coordinated increase in several HDL-associated proteins, Apo A-I, lecitin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1, Apo D, and Apo L1 (p < 0.05 for all. Interestingly, PhyS-milk intake induced a reduction in inflammatory molecules not seen after ω3-milk intake. Serum amyloid P component (SAP was reduced in the LPDP protein fraction (p = 0.001 of subjects taking PhyS-milk and C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2expression detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis in white blood cells was significantly

  7. Enabling students to learn: Design, implementation and assessment of a supplemental study strategies course for an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Jayanthi Sanjeevi

    Attrition in the STEM disciplines is a national problem and one of the important reasons for this is student experiences in introductory courses. A myriad of factors influence students' experiences in those courses; inadequate student preparation is one of the most cited reasons. Incoming freshmen often lack the learning strategies required to meaningfully learn and succeed in college courses. Unfortunately, the instructors have limited time and/or have little experience in teaching learning strategies. In this paper, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a Supplemental Course (SC) model that emphasizes learning strategies is presented. SC was offered concurrently with the introductory biology courses for four consecutive semesters (fall 2011 to spring 2013); for 10 weeks in fall 2012 and 7 weeks in the other semesters at Miami University. 10 weeks SC began earlier in the semester than the shorter SC. This study evaluated the effects of the SC on students' (1) performance in the introductory biology course, (2) perceived changes in self-regulation and social support, and (3) experiences in the introductory biology course before, during, and after participation in the SC. A mixed methods approach was used to address these goals. A pre-post survey was administered to obtain students' use of self-regulation strategies and social-support data. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze content exam grades and changes in self-regulation strategies and social-support. To explore the experiences of the students, semi-structured interviews were conducted, followed by analysis using grounded theory. The findings reveal that participants of the longer duration SC (with an earlier start date) significantly improved in content exam performance, perceived use of self-regulation strategies, and social support compared to the non-participants. Participants of the shorter duration SC (with a later start date) did not significantly improve in content exam performance

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  9. Potential Effects of Nichi Glucan as a Food Supplement for Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperlipidemia: Preliminary Findings from the Study on Three Patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta Glucan food supplements have been reported to be of benefit in diabetes and hyperlipidemia. We report a pilot study of the effects of Nichi Glucan, 1, 3-1, 6 Beta Glucan food supplement, in lowering the blood glucose and lipid levels in three patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM from India. These patients had increased blood glucose and lipid levels inspite of routine antidiabetic and lipid level lowering medications. Each of the participants took 1.5 g of Nichi Glucan per day with food for two months along with their routine medications. The relevant parameters to assess glycemic status and lipid levels were calculated at the baseline and at the end of two months. After two months of continuous consumption, in one patient, the HbA1c decreased from 9.1% to 7.8%, and the glycemic target of HbA1c <6.5% laid down by the International Diabetes Federation was reached in two patients. Lipid levels also decreased significantly. Based on our findings, Nichi Glucan food supplement can be considered along with routine medications in patients with Type II diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Further studies are needed to validate the results.

  10. From Science to Finance-A Tool for Deriving Economic Implications from the Results of Dietary Supplement Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Christopher J; de Lorimier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines evidence showing that the use of key dietary supplements can reduce overall disease treatment-related hospital utilization costs associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States among those at a high risk of experiencing a costly, disease-related event. Results show that the potential avoided hospital utilization costs related to the use of omega-3 supplements at preventive intake levels among the target population can be as much as $2.06 billion on average per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs after accounting for the cost of omega-3 dietary supplements at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $3.88 billion in cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020. Furthermore, the use of folic acid, B6, and B12 among the target population at preventive intake levels could yield avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs savings of an average savings of $1.52 billion per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related health care costs after accounting for the cost of folic acid, B6, and B12 utilization at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $5.23 billion in cumulative health care cost net savings during the same period. Thus, targeted dietary supplement regimens are recommended as a means to help control rising societal health care costs, and as a means for high-risk individuals to minimize the chance of having to deal with potentially costly events and to invest in increased quality of life.

  11. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  12. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  13. Study on minerals status of dairy cows and their supplementation through area specific mineral mixture in the state of Jharkhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Bhanderi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiency of macro and micro-minerals in the ration of dairy cows adversely affects growth, milk production and reproduction efficiency. It is essential to examine mineral concentrations in feeds offered to dairy cows in practical farms. Methods Two villages from each taluka were selected at random for taking representative samples of feeds, forages and hair. Within the village, help was sought from village milk producers and district animal husbandry officer for identification of 4 to 5 farmers and collection of representative samples. All the samples were processed and analyzed for chemical composition as well as major macro and micro-minerals, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer. Results Ca content in wheat straw (0.29%, crushed maize (0.02% and wheat bran (0.12% was found to be below the critical level (0.30%. The P content in concentrate ingredients was high (0.26–0.96%, but low in dry roughages (0.06–0.12%. Cereal straws (0.14% and grains (0.12% were deficient in Mg. Feeds and forages were found to be adequate in K (1.50%. Cereals straws were found to be deficient in S (0.11%. Greens were good source of Cu (12.02 ppm. Wheat straw was found to be low in Zn (18 ppm, but high in Mn (225 ppm and Fe (509 ppm. Local grasses and azolla green were found to be rich source of Co (>1.00 ppm. Se (0.63 ppm was present in appreciable quantities in most of the feedstuffs. Conclusions From the present study, it was apparent that the feeds and forages available in the state of Jharkhand may not meet the requirements for Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Co in order to sustain a milk production of ~10 kg/day. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement these deficient minerals through area specific mineral mixture in the ration of dairy cows for improving productivity and reproduction efficiency.

  14. A comparative study of the bone metabolic response to dried plum supplementation and PTH treatment in adult, osteopenic ovariectomized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone

  15. Calcium supplementation and inflammation increase mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: A 15-year cohort study in 609 patients from the Oslo Rheumatoid Arthritis Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Sella A; Olsen, Inge C; Austad, Cathrine; Haugeberg, Glenn; Kvien, Tore K; Uhlig, Till

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether osteoporosis or use of calcium supplementations predict all-cause mortality, or death from CVD, in a longitudinal cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients in the Oslo RA register (ORAR) were examined, and bone mineral density was measured in 1996. The cohort was linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death registry on December 31, 2010. Death from CVD was defined in 3 following different outcomes: (1) primary atherosclerotic death, (2) atherosclerotic death as one of the 5 listed causes of death, and (3) CVD according to World Health Organization (WHO) definition as primary cause of death. Baseline predictors of all-cause mortality and death from CVD were identified in separate Cox regression models, using backwards selection. Sensitivity analyses were performed including analyses of interactions and competing risk. A total of 609 patients were examined in 1996/1997. By December 31, 2010, 162 patients (27%) had died, resulting in 7439 observed patient-years. Of the deceased, 40 (24.7%) had primary atherosclerotic death. In the final model of all-cause mortality increased baseline ESR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.02 per mm/h, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03], calcium supplementation (1.74, 1.07-2.84), and osteoporosis, defined as a T score ≤2.5 SD at any location, (1.58, 1.07-2.32) predicted higher mortality rates, in models adjusted for age, gender, and a propensity score. In the final model of primary atherosclerotic death, increased ESR (1.03 per mm/h, 1.01-1.05) and calcium supplementation (3.39, 1.41-8.08), predicted higher mortality. Increased baseline ESR and use of calcium supplementation were predictors of increased all-cause mortality and risk of death from CVD in this longitudinal study of patients with RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Oral Supplementation with Branched-chain Amino Acid (BCAA) during Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Double-Blind Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ik Jae; Seong, Jinsil; Bae, Jung Im; You, Sei Hwan; Rhee, Yumie; Lee, Jong Ho

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated whether oral supplementation with a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) improves the biochemical and amino acid profiles of liver tumor patients undergoing radiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: a group given oral supplementation with BCAA granules (LIVACT granules; Samil Pharm Co., Korea, each granule containing L-isoleucine 952 mg, L-leucine 1,904 mg, and L-valine 1,144 mg) during radiotherapy, or a placebo group. Physical and biochemical examinations and measurements, including subjective symptoms, Child-Pugh class, body mass index, plasma albumin concentration, and plasma amino acid profiles were monitored. Fifty were enrolled between November 2005 and November 2006. We also analyzed data from 37 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in order to evaluate a more homogenous group. The two groups of patients were comparable in terms of age, gender, Child-Pugh score, and underlying hepatitis virus type. Serum albumin, total protein, liver enzymes, and cholesterol showed a tendency to increase in the BCAA group. In this group, the percentage of cases that reverted to normal serum albumin levels between 3 and 10 weeks after administration of BCAA was significantly higher (41.18%) than in the placebo group (p=0.043). Oral supplementation with a BCAA preparation seems to help HCC patients undergoing radiotherapy by increasing the BCAA concentration.

  17. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  18. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  19. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  20. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  1. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background : The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective : This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods : Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results : We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions : Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  2. Nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional supplement intake knowledge among university athletes. Fifty-one university athletes volunteered to participate in this survey study. Results showed the nutritional supplement intake was significantly higher compared to the knowledge that they have about the ...

  3. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  4. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clare J; Iyer, Geetha; Liu, Yang; Kalyani, Rita R; Bamba, N'Dama; Ligon, Colin B; Varma, Sanskriti; Mathioudakis, Nestoras

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation improves glucose metabolism in adults with type 2 diabetes. PubMed and Cochrane database were searched up to July 1st 2016 for randomized controlled trials that assessed the relationship between vitamin D supplementation and glucose metabolism (change in hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and fasting blood glucose (FBG)) among adults with type 2 diabetes. Twenty nine trials (3324 participants) were included in the systematic review. Among 22 studies included in the meta-analysis, 19 reported HbA1C, 16 reported FBG outcomes and 15 were deemed poor quality. There was a modest reduction in HbA1C (-0.32% [-0.53 to -0.10], I 2 =91.9%) compared to placebo after vitamin D supplementation but no effect on FBG (-2.33mg/dl [-6.62 to 1.95], I 2 =59.2%). In studies achieving repletion of vitamin D deficiency (n=7), there were greater mean reductions in HbA1C (-0.45%, [-1.09 to 0.20]) and FBG (-7.64mg/dl [-16.25 to 0.97]) although not significant. We found a modest reduction of HbA1C after vitamin D treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes albeit with substantial heterogeneity between studies and no difference in FBG. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the glycemic effects of vitamin D treatment especially in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants' growth and health: a multisite surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Cutts, Diana B; Frank, Deborah A; Geppert, Joni; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Casey, Patrick H; Berkowitz, Carol; Zaldivar, Nieves; Cook, John T; Meyers, Alan F; Herren, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the largest food supplement program in the United States, serving almost 7 500 000 participants in 2002. Because the program is a grant program, rather than an entitlement program, Congress is not mandated to allocate funds to serve all eligible participants. Little is known about the effects of WIC on infant growth, health, and food security. To examine associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants 95th percentile, varied from 7% to 9% and did not differ among the 3 groups but were higher than the 5% expected from national growth charts. Rates of food insecurity were consistent with national data for minority households with children. Families that did not receive WIC assistance because of access problems had higher rates of food insecurity (28%) than did WIC participants (23%), although differences were not significant after covariate control. Caregivers who did not perceive a need for WIC services had more economic and personal resources than did WIC participants and were less likely to be food-insecure, but there were no differences in infants' weight-for-age, perceived health, or overweight between families that did not perceive a need for WIC services and those that received WIC assistance. Infants participation. Health care providers should promote WIC utilization for eligible families and advocate that WIC receive support to reduce waiting lists and eliminate barriers that interfere with access.

  7. THE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN AMINO-ACIDS SUPPLEMENTATION OF THE LAYING HEN`S FODDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA SIMIZ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been carried out on 69 Tetra SL hens, 27-36 weeks old, distributed into 3 groups consisted of 23 hens. They were fed with fodder recipes with different protein levels (17, 16 and respectively 15%. These recipes have been supplemented with DL-methionine and L-lysine up to the level of 0.80% lysine and 0.38% methionine. Fish flour has participated in a proportion of 3% in group 1, 1.5% in group 2 and it was absent from the fodder structure used in group 3. The reduction of crude protein with 1-2p% compared to the available commercial products, but with an amino acid supplementation, has led to the improvement of the economic criteria regarding egg production, generating savings of 7.7% in the group with 16% CP and of 12.8% in the group with 15% CP. The egg mass has not been affected significantly (p>0.05, the best yield being achieved from the hens fed with a 16%CP recipe.

  8. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Young-Sool; Chung, Hye Jin; Sontakke, Sneha B; Chung, In-Young; Ju, Sunmi; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2017-07-11

    To measure ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor of patients with cataract after oral or intravenous vitamin C supplementation. Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with senile cataract who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients (n = 14 each) were administered oral vitamin C (2 g), intravenous vitamin C (20 g) or no treatment (control group) on the day before surgery. Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 cm 3 ) were obtained by anterior chamber aspiration at the beginning of surgery and stored at -80 °C. Ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean age at surgery was 62.5 years, with no difference among the three groups. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of ascorbic acid in aqueous humor in the control and oral and intravenous vitamin C groups were 1347 ± 331 μmol/L, 1859 ± 408 μmol/L and 2387 ± 445 μmol/L, respectively. Ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in the control than in the oral (P humor is increased by systemic vitamin C supplementation, with intravenous administration being more effective than oral administration.

  9. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Michael; Völp, Andreas; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela

    2010-09-24

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement) is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events) and acceptance (compliance) of the dietary therapy were documented. After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A total of 16 adverse events with a possible causal relationship to

  10. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völp Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. Materials and methods In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events and acceptance (compliance of the dietary therapy were documented. Results After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A

  11. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  12. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowska-Kr?pa, E; K?apci?ska, B; Podg?rski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood sam...

  13. Can polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster alter the effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2017-09-19

    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.

  14. Effect of BCAA supplement timing on exercise-induced muscle soreness and damage: a pilot placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Kojima, Ryo; Komine, Shoichi; Ishikura, Keisuke; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2017-09-22

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation taken before or after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Fifteen young men (aged 21.5 ± 0.4 years) were given either BCAA (9.6 g·day-1) or placebo before and after exercise (and for 3 days prior to and following the exercise day) in three independent groups: the Control group (placebo before and after exercise), the PRE group (BCAA before exercise and placebo after exercise), and the POST group (placebo before exercise and BCAA after exercise). Participants performed 30 repetitions of eccentric exercise with the non-dominant arm. DOMS, upper arm circumference (CIR), elbow range of motion (ROM), serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aldolase, BCAA, and Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were measured immediately before and after the exercise and on the following 4 days. Serum BCAA and 3HMB concentrations increased significantly in the PRE group immediately after the exercise, recovering to baseline over the following days. In the days following the exercise day, DOMS, CIR, and ROM were significantly improved in the PRE group compared to the Control group, with weaker effects in the POST group. Serum activities of CK, LDH, and aldolase in the days following the exercise day were significantly suppressed in the PRE group compared to Control group. Present study confirmed that repeated BCAA supplementation before exercise had a more beneficial effect in attenuating DOMS and EIMD induced by eccentric exercise than repeated supplementation after exercise.

  15. Behavioral and omics analyses study on potential involvement of dipeptide balenine through supplementation in diet of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Wada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME, supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8, an Alzheimer's disease (AD model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+WME supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests – open field, Y-maze, novel object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze – to examine effects on learning and memory. Brain transcriptome of SAMP8 mice-fed the WME diet over control low-safflower oil (LSO diet-fed mice was delineated on a 4 × 44 K mouse whole genome DNA microarray chip. Results revealed the WME diet not only induced improvements in the learning and memory formation but also positively modulated changes in the brain of the SAMP8 mouse; the gene inventories are publically available for analysis by the scientific community. Interestingly, the SAMP8 mouse model presented many genetic characteristics of AD, and numerous novel molecules (Slc2a5, Treh, Fbp1, Aldob, Ppp1r1a, DNase1, Agxt2l1, Cyp2e1, Acsm1, Acsm2, and Pah were revealed over the SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 mouse, to be oppositely regulated/recovered under the balenine (+WME supplemented diet regime by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses. Our present study demonstrates an experimental strategy to understand the effects of dipeptide balenine, prominetly contained in meat diet, on SAMP8, providing new insight into whole brain transcriptome changes genome-wide. The gene expression data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE76459. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, James P; Saiyed, Zainulabedin M; Lane, Nancy E

    2016-01-29

    Undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) is a nutritional supplement derived from chicken sternum cartilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of UC-II for knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain and associated symptoms compared to placebo and to glucosamine hydrochloride plus chondroitin sulfate (GC). One hundred ninety one volunteers were randomized into three groups receiving a daily dose of UC-II (40 mg), GC (1500 mg G & 1200 mg C), or placebo for a 180-day period. The primary endpoint was the change in total Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) from baseline through day 180 for the UC-II group versus placebo and GC. Secondary endpoints included the Lequesne Functional Index (LFI), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and the WOMAC subscales. Modified intent-to-treat analysis were performed for all endpoints using analysis of covariance and mixed model repeated measures, while incremental area under the curve was calculated by the intent-to-treat method. At day 180, the UC-II group demonstrated a significant reduction in overall WOMAC score compared to placebo (p = 0.002) and GC (p = 0.04). Supplementation with UC-II also resulted in significant changes for all three WOMAC subscales: pain (p = 0.0003 vs. placebo; p = 0.016 vs. GC); stiffness (p = 0.004 vs. placebo; p = 0.044 vs. GC); physical function (p = 0.007 vs. placebo). Safety outcomes did not differ among the groups. UC-II improved knee joint symptoms in knee OA subjects and was well-tolerated. Additional studies that elucidate the mechanism for this supplement's actions are warranted. CTRI/2013/05/003663 ; CTRI/2013/02/003348 .

  17. Effect of long-term consumption of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli and fluoride on dental caries and general health in preschool children: a cluster-randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Sjöström, I; Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and fluoride on caries development and general health in preschool children. Children 1-5 years of age (n = 248) attending 14 day care centres with 27 units in northern Sweden entered the study. The cent......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and fluoride on caries development and general health in preschool children. Children 1-5 years of age (n = 248) attending 14 day care centres with 27 units in northern Sweden entered the study...... for 21 months (weekdays) and data were collected through clinical examinations and questionnaires. The primary outcome was caries increment and secondary outcomes were measures of general health. The dropout rate was 25%. The mean baseline caries experience was 0.5 dmfs in the intervention units and 0.......05). In children who had participated during the whole 21-month intervention, fewer days with otitis media were reported (0.4 vs. 1.3 days, p caries in preschool...

  18. The SOS pilot study: a RCT of routine oxygen supplementation early after acute stroke--effect on recovery of neurological function at one week.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Roffe

    Full Text Available Mild hypoxia is common after stroke and associated with poor long-term outcome. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and improve recovery. A previous study of routine oxygen supplementation showed no significant benefit at 7 and 12 months. This pilot study reports the effects of routine oxygen supplementation for 72 hours on oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes at 1 week after a stroke.Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission between October 2004 and April 2008. Participants were randomized to oxygen via nasal cannulae (72 h or control (room air, oxygen given only if clinically indicated. Clinical outcomes were assessed by research team members at 1 week. Baseline data for oxygen (n = 148 and control (n = 141 did not differ between groups.The median (interquartile range National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score for the groups at baseline was 6 (7 and 5 (7 respectively. The median Nocturnal Oxygen Saturation during treatment was 1.4% (0.3 higher in the oxygen than in the control group (p<0.001 during the intervention. At 1 week, the median NIHSS score had reduced by 2 (3 in the oxygen and by 1 (2 in the control group. 31% of participants in the oxygen group and 14% in the control group had an improvement of ≥4 NIHSS points at 1 week doubling the odds of improvement in the oxygen group (OR: 2.9.Our data show that routine oxygen supplementation started within 24 hours of hospital admission with acute stroke led to a small, but statistically significant, improvement in neurological recovery at 1 week. However, the difference in NIHSS improvement may be due to baseline imbalance in stroke severity between the two groups and needs to be confirmed in a larger study and linked to longer-term clinical outcome.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; European Clinical Trials Database 2004-001866-41.

  19. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotta D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104 were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation. They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, ADAS-cog test, clock drawing

  20. The Effect of a 12-Week Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Highly-Trained Combat Sports Athletes: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Jeszka, Jan; Podg?rski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and the value of biochemical parameters in highly-trained combat sports athletes. Forty-two males highly-trained in combat sports were subjected to 12 weeks of supplementation with HMB and a placebo in a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover manner. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic and anaerobic capacity was determined, whil...

  1. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Izabel Medeiros Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG, after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG and the arginine group (AG respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and C-reactive protein (CRP. The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's tmethods were used and p≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain.

  2. In vitro Study of Noni Juice Extract Waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and Pineapple Industrial Wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as Energy Supplement in Dairy Goat Ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evvyernie, D.; Tjakradidjaja, A. S.; Permana, I. G.; Toharmat, T.; Insani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of noni juice extract waste (Morinda citrifolia L.) and pineapple industrial wastes (Ananas comosus L. Merr) as an energy supplement in dairy goat ration through in vitro study. This study used a complete randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 rumen fluid groups. The treatments were R0 as control (60% Napier grass (NG) + 40% concentrate), R1 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste + 40% concentrate) + R2 (45% NG + 15% noni juice extract waste ammoniated + 40% concentrate), R3 (45% NG + 15% pineapple peel + 40% concentrate), and R4 (45% NG + 15% pineapple crown + 40% concentrate). The variables were totalbacterial population, protozoal population, fermentation characteristic (total VFA and NH3 concentration), and digestibility (dry matter and organic matter).Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences among treatments were determined by orthogonal contrast.The results showed that total VFA concentration was significant increased (Ppineapple peel (R3). The average increasing of total VFA concentration was 74% compared to control. As conclusions, 15% pineapple peel or 15% noni juice extract waste can use as an energy supplement by replacing 25% of napier grass in lactating dairy goat ration.

  3. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a glucosamine-containing supplement to improve locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study was conducted for 16 weeks in 100 Japanese subjects (age, 51.8±0.8 years) with knee pain. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two supplements containing 1) 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, and 5 μg of vitamin D per day (GCQID group, n=50) or 2) a placebo (placebo group, n=50). Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, visual analog scale score, normal walking speed, and knee-extensor strength were measured to evaluate the effects of the supplement on knee-joint functions and locomotor functions. In subjects eligible for efficacy assessment, there was no significant group × time interaction, and there were improvements in knee-joint functions and locomotor functions in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In subjects with mild-to-severe knee pain at baseline, knee-extensor strength at week 8 (104.6±5.0% body weight vs 92.3±5.5% body weight, P=0.030) and the change in normal walking speed at week 16 (0.11±0.03 m/s vs 0.05±0.02 m/s, P=0.038) were significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group. Further subgroup analysis based on Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade showed that normal walking speed at week 16 (1.36±0.05 m/s vs 1.21±0.02 m/s, Pknee pain, GCQID supplementation was effective for relieving knee pain and improving locomotor functions.

  4. Effects of supplementation with acai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart. berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sadowska-Krępa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR], concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid, total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and activities of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  5. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been shown to be beneficial to health due to its antioxidant potential. Strenuous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, which could lead to apoptosis. We investigated the ability of CrM in amelioration of apoptosis induced by incremental aerobic exercise (AE to exhaustion in young athletes. Materials and Methods: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 31 young athletes (age 19.52 ± 2.75 years, body mass 79.24 ± 16.13 kg, height 1.73 ± 6.49 m, body fat 16.37% ± 5.92% were randomly assigned to CrM (4 × 5 g/day, n = 15 or placebo (PL: 4 × 5 g/day of maltodextrine powder; n = 16 to investigate the effect of 7 days CrM on serum p53 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentration after acute incremental AE test to exhaustion. Subjects performed AE before (test 1 and after 7 days of supplementation (test 2. Results: Before supplementation, AE to exhaustion induced a significant increase in serum p53 and IGF-1 concentrations at both CrM and PL groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation with CrM prevents apoptosis, as measured by decreases in p53 concentration, induced by AE to exhaustion in young athletes. However, CrM had no effect on IGF-1 concentration after AE to exhaustion in young athletes.

  6. The Effect of a 12-Week Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Highly-Trained Combat Sports Athletes: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Jeszka, Jan; Podgórski, Tomasz

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and the value of biochemical parameters in highly-trained combat sports athletes. Forty-two males highly-trained in combat sports were subjected to 12 weeks of supplementation with HMB and a placebo in a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover manner. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic and anaerobic capacity was determined, while analyses were conducted on body composition and levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol and lactate. Following HMB supplementation, fat-free mass increased ( p = 0.049) with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass ( p = 0.016) in comparison to placebo. In turn, after HMB supplementation, the following indicators increased significantly in comparison to the placebo: the time to reach ventilatory threshold ( p athletes.

  7. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  8. The effect of vitamin B12 supplementation in Nepalese infants on growth and development: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Kvestad, Ingrid; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Merina; Basnet, Sudha; Ranjitkar, Suman; Shrestha, Laxman; Shrestha, Prakash S

    2017-04-21

    Vitamin B 12 deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with poor cognitive development and growth. Vitamin B 12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and it is necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study is to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B 12 on the neurodevelopment and growth of young children in Nepal. We are conducting an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 600 marginally stunted children 6-11 months old (length for age less than -1 z-score). Children are randomized to receive a lipid-based paste containing vitamin B 12 or placebo daily for 12 months. The main outcomes are changes in growth (z-scores) and in neurodevelopment measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, from baseline until the end of the study. If vitamin B 12 supplementation benefits early child development and growth, this will have consequences for dietary recommendations for malnourished children worldwide. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02272842 . Registered on 21 October 2014. Universal Trial Number: U1111-1161-5187. Registered on 8 September 2014.

  9. Is By-passing the Stomach a Means to Optimise Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation? A Case-study With a Post-Bariatric Surgery Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luana Farias; Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2018-05-03

    Sodium bicarbonate (SB) is an ergogenic supplement shown to improve high-intensity exercise via increased blood bicarbonate buffering. Substantial amounts of the ingested bicarbonate are neutralised in the stomach. Bariatric surgery results in a small gastric pouch which dramatically reduces exposure time of any ingested food in the stomach. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of orally ingested SB in a post-gastric bypass individual to determine the magnitude of changes in blood bicarbonate and associated side-effects. We hypothesized that SB supplementation in a gastric bypass model would result in greater blood bicarbonate increases and less side-effects than in healthy individuals due to minimal bicarbonate losses in the stomach. One post-bariatric male ingested 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of SB on three occasions (SB1, SB2, SB3) and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of placebo (PL) on a further occasion. Blood bicarbonate was determined before and every 10-min following supplement ingestion for 3 h and then every 20 min for a further 1 h. Side-effects were reported using an adapted questionnaire at identical time points. Maximal increases in blood bicarbonate with SB were +20.0, +15.2 and +12.6 mM, resulting in maximal bicarbonate concentrations of 42.8, 39.3 and 36.2 mM. Area under the curve was SB1: 8328, SB2: 7747, SB3: 7627 mM·min -1 and 6436 mM·min -1 for PL. Side-effects with SB were scarce. Maximal bicarbonate increases were well above those shown previously, with minimal side-effects, indicative of minimal neutralisation of bicarbonate in the stomach. The large increases in circulating bicarbonate and minimal side-effects experienced by our post-gastric surgery patient are indicative that minimising neutralisation of bicarbonate in the stomach, as would occur with enteric coated capsules, may optimise SB supplementation and thus warrants investigation.

  10. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  11. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330

  12. Potential of as a Nutritional Supplement in Malnourished HIV-Infected Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Randomised, Single-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azabji-Kenfack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Malnutrition is a major global public health issue and its impact on communities and individuals is more dramatic in Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is compounded by widespread poverty and generalized high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Therefore, malnutrition should be addressed through a multisectorial approach, and malnourished individuals should have access to nutritional rehabilitation molecules that are affordable, accessible, rich in nutrient and efficient. We thus assessed the efficacy of two affordable and accessible nutritional supplements, spirulina platensis versus soya beans among malnourished HIV-infected adults. Methods Undernourished patients, naïve of, but eligible to antiretroviral treatment (ART, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups. The first group received spirulina (Group A as food supplement and the second received soya beans (Group B. Patients were initiated ART simultaneously with supplements. Food supplements were auto-administered daily, the quantity being calculated according to weight to provide 1.5 g/kg body weight of proteins with 25% from supplements (spirulina and soya beans. Patients were monitored at baseline and followed-up during twelve weeks for anthropometric parameters, body composition, haemoglobin and serum albumin, CD4 count and viral load. Results Fifty-two patients were enrolled (Group A: 26 and Group B: 26. The mean age was 26.4 ± 4.9 years (Group A and 28.7 ± 4.8 (Group B with no significant difference between groups ( P = 0.10. After 12 weeks, weight and BMI significantly improved in both groups ( P < 0.001 within each group. The mean gain in weight and BMI in Group A and B were 4.8 vs. 6.5 kg, ( P = 0.68 and 1.3 vs. 1.90 Kg/m 2 , ( P = 0.82 respectively. In terms of body composition, fat free mass (FFM did not significantly increase within each group (40.5 vs. 42.2 Kg, P = 0.56 for Group A; 39.2 vs. 39.0 Kg, P = 0.22 for Group B. But

  13. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Luca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development and research of nutraceuticals based on marine collagen peptides (MCPs have been growing due to their high homology with human collagens, safety, bioavailability through gut, and numerous bioactivities. The major concern regarding safety of MCPs intake relates to increased risk of oxidative stress connected with collagen synthesis (likewise in fibrosis and to ROS production by MCPs-stimulated phagocytes. In this clinical-laboratory study, fish skin MCPs combined with plant-derived skin-targeting antioxidants (AO (coenzyme Q10 + grape-skin extract + luteolin + selenium were administered to volunteers (n=41. Skin properties (moisture, elasticity, sebum production, and biological age and ultrasonic markers (epidermal/dermal thickness and acoustic density were measured thrice (2 months before treatment and before and after cessation of 2-month oral intake. The supplementation remarkably improved skin elasticity, sebum production, and dermal ultrasonic markers. Metabolic data showed significant increase of plasma hydroxyproline and ATP storage in erythrocytes. Redox parameters, GSH/coenzyme Q10 content, and GPx/GST activities were unchanged, while NO and MDA were moderately increased within, however, normal range of values. Conclusions. A combination of MCPs with skin-targeting AOs could be effective and safe supplement to improve skin properties without risk of oxidative damage.

  14. Skin Antiageing and Systemic Redox Effects of Supplementation with Marine Collagen Peptides and Plant-Derived Antioxidants: A Single-Blind Case-Control Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Chiara; Mikhal'chik, Elena V.; Suprun, Maxim V.; Papacharalambous, Michael; Truhanov, Arseniy I.; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, development and research of nutraceuticals based on marine collagen peptides (MCPs) have been growing due to their high homology with human collagens, safety, bioavailability through gut, and numerous bioactivities. The major concern regarding safety of MCPs intake relates to increased risk of oxidative stress connected with collagen synthesis (likewise in fibrosis) and to ROS production by MCPs-stimulated phagocytes. In this clinical-laboratory study, fish skin MCPs combined with plant-derived skin-targeting antioxidants (AO) (coenzyme Q10 + grape-skin extract + luteolin + selenium) were administered to volunteers (n = 41). Skin properties (moisture, elasticity, sebum production, and biological age) and ultrasonic markers (epidermal/dermal thickness and acoustic density) were measured thrice (2 months before treatment and before and after cessation of 2-month oral intake). The supplementation remarkably improved skin elasticity, sebum production, and dermal ultrasonic markers. Metabolic data showed significant increase of plasma hydroxyproline and ATP storage in erythrocytes. Redox parameters, GSH/coenzyme Q10 content, and GPx/GST activities were unchanged, while NO and MDA were moderately increased within, however, normal range of values. Conclusions. A combination of MCPs with skin-targeting AOs could be effective and safe supplement to improve skin properties without risk of oxidative damage. PMID:26904164

  15. EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladenova, Ralitsa B., E-mail: ralitsa@ic.bas.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Firzov, Cyril [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, Nicola D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-09-15

    Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.0039{+-}0.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of Enoviton, Enoviton S and Enoviton SE, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of Enoviton S or Enoviton SE due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in Enoviton S and Enoviton SE). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stability-for a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

  16. EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Ralitsa B.; Firzov, Cyril; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2010-09-01

    Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.0039±0.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of Еnoviton, Еnoviton С and Еnoviton СЕ, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of Еnoviton С or Еnoviton СЕ due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in Еnoviton С and Еnoviton СЕ). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stability—for a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

  17. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (placebo, 15 (1 drink, and 30 (2 drinks g alcohol (ethanol/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24 when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006 when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion.

  18. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  19. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  20. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  1. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  2. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of nutritional supplementation and promotion of responsive parenting in Madagascar: the MAHAY study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Galasso, Emanuela; Qamruddin, Jumana; Ranaivoson, Christian; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy; Stewart, Christine P; Weber, Ann M

    2016-06-03

    Over half of the world's children suffer from poor nutrition, and as a consequence they experience delays in physical and mental health, and cognitive development. There is little data evaluating the effects of delivery of lipid-based, nutrition supplementation on growth and development during pregnancy and early childhood within the context of a scaled-up program. Furthermore, there is limited evidence on effects of scaled-up, home-visiting programs that focus on the promotion of child development within the context of an existing, national nutrition program. The MAHAY ("smart" in Malagasy) study uses a multi-arm randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects and cost-effectiveness of combined interventions to address chronic malnutrition and poor child development. The arms of the trial are: (T0) existing program with monthly growth monitoring and nutritional/hygiene education; (T1) is T0 + home visits for intensive nutrition counseling within a behavior change framework; (T2) is T1 + lipid-based supplementation (LNS) for children 6-18 months old; (T3) is T2 + LNS supplementation of pregnant/lactating women; and (T4) is T1 + intensive home visiting program to support child development. There are anticipated to be n = 25 communities in each arm (n = 1250 pregnant women, n = 1250 children 0-6 months old, and n = 1250 children 6-18 months old). Primary outcomes include growth (length/height-for-age z-scores) and child development (mental, motor and social development). Secondary outcomes include care-giver reported child morbidity, household food security and diet diversity, micro-nutrient status, maternal knowledge of child care and feeding practices, and home stimulation practices. We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects. Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the Malagasy Ethics Committee at the Ministry of Health in Madagascar and by the institutional review board at the University of

  3. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of nutritional supplementation and promotion of responsive parenting in Madagascar: the MAHAY study design and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia C. H. Fernald

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over half of the world’s children suffer from poor nutrition, and as a consequence they experience delays in physical and mental health, and cognitive development. There is little data evaluating the effects of delivery of lipid-based, nutrition supplementation on growth and development during pregnancy and early childhood within the context of a scaled-up program. Furthermore, there is limited evidence on effects of scaled-up, home-visiting programs that focus on the promotion of child development within the context of an existing, national nutrition program. Methods/Design The MAHAY ("smart" in Malagasy study uses a multi-arm randomized-controlled trial (RCT to test the effects and cost-effectiveness of combined interventions to address chronic malnutrition and poor child development. The arms of the trial are: (T0 existing program with monthly growth monitoring and nutritional/hygiene education; (T1 is T0 + home visits for intensive nutrition counseling within a behavior change framework; (T2 is T1 + lipid-based supplementation (LNS for children 6–18 months old; (T3 is T2 + LNS supplementation of pregnant/lactating women; and (T4 is T1 + intensive home visiting program to support child development. There are anticipated to be n = 25 communities in each arm (n = 1250 pregnant women, n = 1250 children 0–6 months old, and n = 1250 children 6–18 months old. Primary outcomes include growth (length/height-for-age z-scores and child development (mental, motor and social development. Secondary outcomes include care-giver reported child morbidity, household food security and diet diversity, micro-nutrient status, maternal knowledge of child care and feeding practices, and home stimulation practices. We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects. Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the Malagasy Ethics Committee at the Ministry of Health in Madagascar and by

  4. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end...

  5. Developing supplemental activities for primary health care maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, E

    1990-12-01

    Supplemental health care activities are described in the context of the augmented product. The potential benefits of supplemental services to recipients and provider are discussed. The author describes a study that was the basis for (re)developing a supplemental maternity service. The implementation of the results in terms of changes in the marketing mix of this supplemental program is discussed. The effects of the marketing mix changes on program participation are presented.

  6. Cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial to compare supplement consumption and adherence to different dosing regimens for antenatal calcium and iron-folic acid supplementation to prevent preeclampsia and anaemia: rationale and design of the Micronutrient Initiative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood O. Omotayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC. WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. Design and methods: This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill with IFA taken as above. Measurements: Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Statistical analyses: Unit of randomization is the health-care facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. Expected public health impact: If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources.

  7. The effect of calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation on the healing of the proximal humerus fracture: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2004-01-01

    scan, WHO criteria), and not taking any drugs related to bone formation, including calcium or vitamin D supplementation, were randomly assigned to either oral 800 IU vitamin D3 plus 1 g calcium or placebo, in a double-blind prospective study. We measured biochemical, radiographic, and bone mineral......The purpose of this study was to (1) quantify the healing process of the human osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture (PHF) expressed in terms of callus formation over the fracture region using BMD scanning, and (2) quantify the impact of medical intervention with vitamin D3 and calcium...... on the healing process of the human osteoporotic fracture. The conservatively treated PHF was chosen in order to follow the genuine fracture healing without influence of osteosynthetic materials or casts. Thirty women (mean age = 78 years; range = 58-88) with a PHF, osteoporosis or osteopenia (based on a hip...

  8. Original Article The effect of grower feed diet supplemented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a preliminary study on the effect of grower feed diet supplemented with mashed Ganoderma lucidum against some enteric zoonotic parasites of wild rock pigeons (Columba livia) in Benin City, Nigeria. The pigeons were fed ad libitum with supplemented and non-supplemented grower feed diet in sawdust-floored ...

  9. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  10. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  11. Effect of branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutritional supplementation on interferon therapy in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA with zinc component (Aminofeel® on adherence to and outcome of therapy in patients treated with interferon (IFN for chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis and to determine whether to recommend the supplement. Methods In this retrospective study, 51 patients who received IFN therapy were investigated among 203 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and were advised regarding the potential benefit of taking Aminofeel®. Each patient was free to choose whether to purchase and take Aminofeel®. Results Twenty four patients (group 1-A took Aminofeel® during standard IFN therapy and 13 (group 1-B did not. Low-dose, long-term IFN (maintenance therapy, mainly peglated (Peg-IFN alpha 2a, was administered to 14 patients who were difficult to treat, because of no effect or harmful side effects with standard IFN therapy, and who had advanced liver fibrosis. Among the 14, 11 patients (group 2-A took Aminofeel® and 3 (group 2-B did not. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher (P=0.04 in group 1-A than in group 1-B. The rate of adherence to IFN therapy was higher in group 1-A (83.3% than in group 1-B (53.8%, P=0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of sustained virological response (SVR to IFN therapy. According to multivariate analysis, two factors, SVR and intake of Aminofeel®, were associated with successful adherence to IFN therapy. The adjusted odds ratios for these two factors were 13.25 and 12.59, respectively, and each was statistically significant. The SVR rate of maintenance IFN therapy was in 18.2% group 2-A and 0% in group 2-B. Conclusion Our data show that BCAA intake is useful for adherence to and effect of IFN therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Nutritional supplementation with BCAA seems to be useful for HCV-infected patients receiving

  12. The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Pilz-Burstein, Ruty; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Cooper, Dan M; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2011-09-01

    The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g/day) supplementation on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic/catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators in elite, national team level adolescent volleyball players (13.5-18 years, 14 males, 14 females, Tanner stage 4-5) during the first 7 weeks of the training season. HMB led to a significant greater increase in FFM by skinfold thickness (56.4 ± 10.2 to 56.3 ± 8.6 vs. 59.3 ± 11.3 to 61.6 ± 11.3 kg in the control and HMB group, respectively, p HMB led to a significant greater increase in both dominant and non-dominant knee flexion isokinetic force/FFM, measured at fast (180°/sec) and slow (60°/sec) angle speeds, but had no significant effect on knee extension and elbow flexion and extension. HMB led to a significant greater increase in peak and mean anaerobic power determined by the Wingate anaerobic test (peak power: 15.5 ± 1.6 to 16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 to 17.2 ± 1.2 watts/FFM, mean power: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 10.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.0 watts/FFM in control and HMB group, respectively, p HMB had no significant effect on aerobic fitness or on anabolic (growth hormone, IGF-I, testosterone), catabolic (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist). HMB supplementation was associated with greater increases in muscle mass, muscle strength and anaerobic properties with no effect on aerobic capacity suggesting some advantage for its use in elite adolescent volleyball players during the initial phases of the training season. These effects were not accompanied by hormonal and inflammatory mediator changes.

  13. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Farooq, M.; Kousar, N.

    2015-01-01

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  14. Effect of leucine supplementation on fat free mass with prolonged hypoxic exposure during a 13-day trek to Everest Base Camp: a double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing-Gaia, Stacie L; Gershenoff, Dana C; Drummond, Micah J; Askew, E Wayne

    2014-03-01

    Loss of body weight and fat-free mass (FFM) are commonly noted with prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Recent evidence suggests protein supplementation, specifically leucine, may potentially attenuate loss of FFM in subcaloric conditions during normoxia. The purpose of this study was to determine if leucine supplementation would prevent the loss of FFM in subcaloric conditions during prolonged hypoxia. Eighteen physically active male (n = 10) and female (n = 8) trekkers completed a 13-day trek in Nepal to Everest Base Camp with a mean altitude of 4140 m (range 2810-5364 m). In this double-blind study, participants were randomized to ingest either leucine (LEU) (7 g leucine, 93 kcal, 14.5 g whey-based protein) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control (CON) (0.3 g LEU, 93 kcal, 11.3 g collagen protein) twice daily prior to meals. Body weight, body composition, and circumferences of bicep, thigh, and calf were measured pre- and post-trek. There was a significant time effect for body weight (-2.2% ± 1.7%), FFM (-1.7% ± 1.5%), fat mass (-4.0% ± 6.9%), and circumferences (p FFM (CON -2.1 ± 1.5%; LEU -1.2 ± 1.6%), fat mass (CON -2.9% ± 5.9%; LEU -5.4% ± 8.1%), or circumferences. Although a significant loss of body weight, FFM, and fat mass was noted in 13 days of high altitude exposure, FFM loss was not attenuated by leucine. Future studies are needed to determine if leucine attenuates loss of FFM with longer duration high altitude exposure.

  15. Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Hagve, Tor-Arne

    2007-01-01

    and nonsupplement users and to validate self- reported intake of dietary supplements in mid pregnancy. Method: 120 women were recruited from MoBa, and 119 subjects completed the MoBa FFQ and a 4- day weighed food diary. Information on supplement use was collected by both methods. Venous blood specimens and 24- hour...

  16. High-Fiber Orange Juice as a Nutrition Supplement in Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tolerance and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Christiane; Horie, Lilian Mika; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2015-11-01

    The daily consumption of dietary fiber is frequently below suggested recommendations. Using a double-blind, controlled, randomized study, we assessed the efficiency and tolerance of a fiber-enriched orange juice to supplement fiber intake in women. After 1 week of noninterventional observation, 192 healthy adult women ingested 400 mL of orange juice for 21 days, which either was not (placebo group) or was enriched with fiber (fiber group). Orange juice ingestion was registered daily and controlled for each week during the study period. Macronutrient, fiber, and energy intake were determined using a 3-day food record, validated food chemical composition databases, and the "Pro Diet" software. Gastrointestinal symptoms were self-evaluated daily by scoring 4 grades of symptom intensity and using a visual analog scale to grade pain severity. No changes were observed for macronutrient and energy ingestion. For the placebo group (n = 97), the total fiber intake record was under the daily recommended value. In contrast, the fiber group (n = 95) displayed higher comparative values of total and soluble fiber consumption (P ≤ .001), achieving the daily recommended values of fiber intake. Both groups reported an increased frequency of slight bloating and rumbles over time (P ≤ .05). The fiber group also experienced a higher frequency of slight flatulence over time (P = .002). Consumption of fiber-enriched orange juice was efficient to achieve the daily fiber intake recommendation for women, was not accompanied by intense adverse events, and may represent a suitable method to supplement fiber intake in woman. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Dietary supplementation with low-dose omega-3 fatty acids reduces salivary tumor necrosis factor-α levels in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskiner, I; Saygun, I; Bal, V; Serdar, M; Kantarci, A

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on physiological processes and on a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of omega-3 PUFAs in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP) on salivary markers in patients with chronic periodontitis. Thirty systemically healthy subjects with chronic periodontitis were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups. The control group (n = 15) was treated with SRP + placebo whereas the test group was treated with SRP and dietary supplementation of low-dose omega-3 PUFAs (6.25 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 19.19 mg docosahexaenoic acid). Clinical parameters were taken at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 mo following therapy. Saliva samples were obtained at the same time intervals and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Both groups showed significant changes in clinical parameters in response to treatment compared to baseline with no significant difference between groups. Salivary TNF-α levels showed a statistically significant decrease in the test group at 6 mo compared to the control group. Salivary SOD levels increased significantly at 3 and 6 mo in the test group and at 6 mo in placebo groups compared to baseline with no statistically significant differences between the groups. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with low-dose omega-3 PUFAs improves salivary TNF-α without any significant impact on clinical parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis, suggesting that the systemic benefits of dietary omega-3 PUFAs may not be translated to periodontal health. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02719587). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Resveratrol supplementation rescues pool of growing follicles and ovarian stroma from Cisplatin-induced toxicity on the ovary in Sprague-Dawley rats: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbotolorun Stella Chinwe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is a potent antineoplastic agent for many cancers but causes several levels of gonadal damage. Ovarian toxicity is a major concern of young cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Objective: This study sought to examine the effect of Cisplatin and Resveratrol supplementation on ovarian function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 45 cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 160 gr were divided into 9 groups (n=5/group. Group 1 was used as control and received distilled water. Groups 2 and 9 received Cisplatin only. Groups 3, 4, and 5 received different doses of Resveratrol after a single dose of Cisplatin. Groups 6, 7, and 8 received Resveratrol before Cisplatin. At sacrifice, the ovary was analyzed for histopathology, biochemical indices of oxidation and hormonal assay. Results: Relative and absolute organ weights were notably increased (p=0.001, 0.01 in the prophylactic groups relative to the groups that received Resveratrol after Cisplatin. Also, glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased (p=0.047, 0.01, 0.023 in a dose-dependent manner when compared to Cisplatin group only. Malondialdehyde decreased significantly (p=0.001 in the groups that received high dose Resveratrol compared with the control and Cisplatin alone groups. Although oestrogen showed no significant difference within the groups (p=0.48, Resveratrol significantly increased progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels (p=0.007, 0.001, 0.006 at high doses when compared with Cisplatin alone groups. Ovarian histoarchitecture was best preserved in the prophylactic groups in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Resveratrol supplementation confers protection and preserves ovarian follicles from Cisplatin toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  19. Estrogenic botanical supplements, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and hormone-related symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a HEAL study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huiyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether estrogenic botanical supplement (EBS use influences breast cancer survivors' health-related outcomes. Methods We examined the associations of EBS use with health-related quality of life (HRQOL, with fatigue, and with 15 hormone-related symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats among 767 breast cancer survivors participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL Study. HRQOL was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short form-36 physical and mental component scale summary score. Fatigue was measured by the Revised-Piper Fatigue Scale score. Results Neither overall EBS use nor the number of EBS types used was associated with HRQOL, fatigue, or hormone-related symptoms. However, comparisons of those using each specific type of EBS with non-EBS users revealed the following associations. Soy supplements users were more likely to have a better physical health summary score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.70. Flaxseed oil users were more likely to have a better mental health summary score (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.94. Ginseng users were more likely to report severe fatigue and several hormone-related symptoms (all ORs ≥ 1.7 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Red clover users were less likely to report weight gain, night sweats, and difficulty concentrating (all OR approximately 0.4 and all 95% CIs exclude 1. Alfalfa users were less likely to experience sleep interruption (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12-0.68. Dehydroepiandrosterone users were less likely to have hot flashes (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14-0.82. Conclusions Our findings indicate that several specific types of EBS might have important influences on a woman's various aspects of quality of life, but further verification is necessary.

  20. Sperm quality after swim up and density gradient centrifugation sperm preparation with supplementation of alpha lipoic acid (ALA): A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Lestari, Sarah H.; Pujianto, Dwi A.

    2018-02-01

    Intra uterine insemination (IUI) as one of the treatment for infertility, persists low success rate. A factor that contributes to the unsuccessful of IUI is sperm preparation, performed through Swim-up (SU) and Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) methods. Furthermore, studies have shown that Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant that could enhance the sperm motility and protect the DNA integrity of the sperm [1]. This study is aimed to re-evaluate the efficiency of the DGC and SU methods in selecting sperm before being transferred for IUI by the supplementation of ALA based on the sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples were obtained from 13 men from partners of women who are infertile (normozoospermia) and underwent IUI. Semen analysis based on the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 was performed to measure the sperm motility and velocity, before and after sperm preparation. Then, samples were incubated with Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) in 0.625 mg (ALA 1), 1.25 mg (ALA 2) and 2.5 mg (ALA 3). The Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test was performed to evaluate the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). The percentage of motile sperm was higher in prepared sperm (post-DGC and post-SU) than in whole semen. Furthermore, the percentage of motile sperm was higher in post-DGC compared to post-SU. The level of DFI after the supplementation of ALA was decreased in prepared sperm compared to the whole semen. ALA was proved capable to select the better sperm quality with decreased sperm DNA fragmentation of prepared sperm in the all of DFI category.

  1. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  2. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements, making it hard to identify any benefits from the MVMs. Should I take an MVM? MVMs cannot take the place of eating a variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Foods ...

  3. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  4. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  5. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  6. Impact of supplemental instruction leader on the success of supplemental instruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Haslam, Jeanne

    Supplemental instruction utilizes peer-assisted study sessions to provide review sessions on course material and an opportunity to discuss and work out problems. The impact of supplemental instruction on student performance is well researched and used in a large number of universities around the world due to its proven success. However, the impact of the student leader who plays a significant role in this model is rarely discussed in the literature. We present a case study on the impact of student leader on the success of supplemental instruction model. This case study was done for an Introductory Physics course correlating student performance and the supplemental instruction sessions they attended. Further analysis revealed that the academic performance and work ethics of the student leader has a significant impact on the success of the supplemental instruction model. Important factors to consider when selecting a student leader, the challenges and possible remedies will also be discussed.

  7. Effects of CD36 Genotype on Oral Perception of Oleic Acid Supplemented Safflower Oil Emulsions in Two Ethnic Groups: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Brenda; Melis, Melania; Scoular, Katelyn; Driver, Michael; Schaich, Karen M; Keller, Kathleen L; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrate humans can detect fatty acids via specialized sensors on the tongue, such as the CD36 receptor. Genetic variation at the common single nucleotide polymorphism rs1761667 of CD36 has been shown to differentially impact the perception of fatty acids, but comparative data among different ethnic groups are lacking. In a small cohort of Caucasian and East Asian young adults, we investigated if: (1) participants could detect oleic acid (C18:1) added to safflower oil emulsions at a constant ratio of 3% (w/v); (2) supplementation of oleic acid to safflower oil emulsions enhanced perception of fattiness and creaminess; and (3) variation at rs1761667 influenced oleic acid detection and fat taste perception. In a 3-alternate forced choice test, 62% of participants detected 2.9 ± 0.7 mM oleic acid (or 0.08% w/v) in a 2.8% safflower oil emulsion. Supplementation of oleic acid did not enhance fattiness and creaminess perception for the cohort as a whole, though East Asians carrying the GG genotype perceived more overall fattiness and creaminess than their AA genotype counterparts (P < 0.001). No differences were observed for the Caucasians. These preliminary findings indicate that free oleic acid can be detected in an oil-in-water emulsion at concentrations found in commercial oils, but it does not increase fattiness or creaminess perception. Additionally, variation at rs1761667 may have ethnic-specific effects on fat taste perception. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  8. Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 supplementation in the management of diarrhea predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Ali, Furqan; Pande, Anurag; Majeed, Shaheen; Karri, Suresh Kumar

    2016-02-27

    Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 has been marketed as a dietary ingredient, but its efficacy in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) condition has not been clinically elucidated till date. Thus, a double blind placebo controlled multi-centered trial was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 in diarrhea predominant IBS patients. Thirty six newly diagnosed diarrhea predominant IBS patients were enrolled in three clinical centres. Along with standard care of treatment, 18 patients in group one received placebo while in group two 18 patients received B. coagulans MTCC 5856 tablet containing 2 × 10(9) cfu/day as active for 90 days. Clinical symptoms of IBS were considered as primary end point measures and were evaluated through questionnaires. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used for abdominal pain. Physician's global assessment and IBS quality of life were considered as secondary efficacy measures and were monitored through questionnaires. Laboratory parameters, anthropometric and vital signs were within the normal clinical range during the 90 days of supplementation in placebo and B. coagulans MTCC 5856 group. There was a significant decrease in the clinical symptoms like bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and stool frequency in a patient group receiving B. coagulans MTCC 5856 when compared to placebo group (p coagulans MTCC 5856 when compared to placebo group. The study concluded that the B. coagulans MTCC 5856 at a dose of 2 × 10(9) cfu/day along with standard care of treatment was found to be safe and effective in diarrhea predominant IBS patients for 90 days of supplementation. Hence, B. coagulans MTCC 5856 could be a potential agent in the management of diarrhea predominant IBS patients.

  9. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  10. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  11. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  12. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  13. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  14. Profiling the Use of Dietary Supplements by Brazilian Physical Education Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ricardo Borges; Silva, Maria Sebastiana; da Silva, Wellington Fernando; Campos, Mário Hebling; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Andre Barbosa de Lira, Claudio

    2017-12-27

    A survey was designed to examine the use of dietary supplements by Brazilian physical education professionals. The study included 131 Brazilian physical education professionals (83 men and 48 women). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed (mean, standard deviation, and absolute and relative frequencies). A chi-square test was applied to evaluate differences in use of dietary supplements according to particular variables of interest (p supplements. Approximately 59% of dietary supplement users took two or more kinds of supplements. Among users of supplements, men professionals (73%) consumed more dietary supplements than women (27%). The most-consumed dietary supplement was whey protein (80%). The results showed a higher use of dietary supplements by men. The most-consumed supplements were rich in protein. The consumption of dietary supplements by almost half of the participants in this study suggests that participants did not consider their dietary needs to be met by normal diet alone.

  15. Additive effects of nutritional supplementation, together with bisphosphonates, on bone mineral density after hip fracture: a 12-month randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flodin L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lena Flodin,1,2 Maria Sääf,3 Tommy Cederholm,4 Amer N Al-Ani,2,5 Paul W Ackermann,5,6 Eva Samnegård,7 Nils Dalen,7 Margareta Hedström2,51Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Department of Orthopedics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Department of Clinical Science, Division of Orthopedics, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: After a hip fracture, a catabolic state develops, with increased bone loss during the first year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of postoperative treatment with calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates (alone or together with nutritional supplementation on total hip and total body bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: Seventy-nine patients (56 women, with a mean age of 79 years (range, 61–96 years and with a recent hip fracture, who were ambulatory before fracture and without severe cognitive impairment, were included. Patients were randomized to treatment with bisphosphonates (risedronate 35 mg weekly for 12 months (B; n=28, treatment with bisphosphonates along with nutritional supplementation (40 g protein, 600 kcal daily for the first 6 months (BN; n=26, or to controls (C; n=25. All participants received calcium (1,000 mg and vitamin D3 (800 IU daily. Total hip and total body BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Marker of bone resorption C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were analyzed in serum

  16. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  17. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  18. Effects of creatine supplementation on cardiac autonomic functions in bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Kadir Uğur; Ilgüy, Serdar; Dural, Muhammet; Mert, Gurbet Özge; Özakin, Engin

    2017-06-01

    Bodybuilder-type workouts may affect heart rate variability (HRV), which has considerable potential to assess the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS). A scientifically designed approach is necessary for bodybuilders to achieve better results while protecting their health. In this study, we aimed to investigate HRV parameters in bodybuilders compared to healthy control subjects and effects of creatine supplementation. A total of 48 male participants (16 controls, 16 supplement (-), 16 supplement (+)) were evaluated in our study. Bodybuilders who were taking creatine supplementation were enrolled in supplement (+) group. HRV parameters were measured from 24-hour Holter recordings of all participants. When mean heart rates were compared with control group (71.5 ± 12.6 beats/min), statistically significant difference was revealed in supplement (-) group (61.8 ± 6.8 beats/min; P = 0.022) unlike supplement (+) group (69.63 ± 14.1 beats/min; P = 0.650). HRV analyses revealed significant parasympathetic shift in supplement (-) group. No significant difference was demonstrated on HRV parameters, except high frequency (P = 0.029) in supplement (+) group. Conclusively, elevated parasympathetic modulation, which is favorable cardiovascular outcome of exercise, was demonstrated in bodybuilders. However, our study also revealed that creatine supplementation attenuates this favorable effect in ANS by limiting elevation of parasympathetic modulation. Although the sympathetic slight shift is attributed to creatine supplementation, it cannot be discriminated from the effects of over training. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Meta-analysis of studies on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes are both common diseases. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between the two. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic status, lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes. Method: Type of systematic review and meta-analysis, which is actually a review on the studies available. Beginning a search extensively on electronic resources English, including EMBASE, Web of science, Medline Scopus and Who and electronic resources Persian including SID and Google scholar for diabetes-related research papers do. Result: The test of heterogeneity, studies with significant heterogeneity in vitamin D, HOMA-IR and insulin sensitivity were the random effects model was used and the mean difference and 95% confidence intervals between the two groups in the vitamin D , 1.87 and (-5.49,9.23, HOMA-IR 0.09 and (-.023,0.05 and insulin sensitivity, 0.24 and (-0.75,0.26, respectively. Discussion: The overall results of this study showed that the meta-analysis, vitamin D and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients is effective and HOMA-IR is not effective on patients with diabetes.

  20. Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-04-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20-50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21-48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m(2) [range, 28.9-50.9 kg/m(2)]) were assigned to the treatment group (8 women, 4 men) or the placebo

  1. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers: To evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. 1993 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags

  2. One-carbon metabolites and telomere length in a prospective and randomized study of B- and/or D-vitamin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Irene; Herrmann, Markus; Kirsch, Susanne H; Werner, Christian; Hübner, Ulrich; Bodis, Marion; Laufs, Ulrich; Widmann, Thomas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin B deficiency is common in elderly people and has been associated with an increased risk of developing age-related diseases. B-vitamins are essential for the synthesis and stability of DNA. Telomers are the end caps of chromosomes that shorten progressively with age, and short telomers are associated with DNA instability. In the present randomized intervention study, we investigated whether the one-carbon metabolism is related to telomere length, a surrogate marker for cellular aging. Sixty-five subjects (>54 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily combination of vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (0.5 mg), vitamin B 12 (0.5 mg), vitamin B 6 (50 mg) and calcium carbonate (456 mg) (group A) or vitamin D3 and calcium carbonate alone (group B). Blood testing was performed at baseline and after 1 year of supplementation. The concentrations of several metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, as well as relative telomere length (RTL) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype, were analyzed. At baseline, age- and gender-adjusted RTL correlated with total folate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF). Subjects with RTL above the median had higher concentrations of total folate and 5-methylTHF compared to subjects below the median. At study end, gender- and age-adjusted RTL correlated in group A with methylmalonic acid (MMA; r = -0.460, p = 0.0012) and choline (r = 0.434, p = 0.0021) and in group B with 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (r = 0.455, p = 0.026) and dimethylglycine (DMG; r = -0.386, p = 0.047). Subjects in the group A with RTL above the median had lower MMA and higher choline compared to subjects below the median. The present pilot study suggests a functional relationship between one-carbon metabolism and telomere length. This conclusion is supported by several correlations that were modified by B-vitamin supplementation. In agreement with our hypothesis, the availability of nucleotides and

  3. Inszenierung eines Supplements / Staging a Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-M. Seibert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.

  4. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypocaloric diet supplemented with probiotic cheese improves body mass index and blood pressure indices of obese hypertensive patients - a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gut lactobacilli can affect the metabolic functions of healthy humans. We tested whether a 1500 kcal/d diet supplemented with cheese containing the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA (Deutsche Sammlung für Mikroorganismen, DSM 21380) could reduce some symptoms of metabolic syndrome in Russian adults with obesity and hypertension. Methods In this 3-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel pilot study, 25 subjects ingested probiotic cheese and 15 ingested control cheese. Fifty grams of each cheese provided 175 kcal of energy. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric characteristics, markers of liver and kidney function, metabolic indices (plasma glucose, lipids, and cholesterol), and urine polyamines were measured. Counts of fecal lactobacilli and L. plantarum TENSIA were evaluated using molecular methods. The data were analyzed by t-test for independent samples and Spearman’s partial correlation analysis. Results The probiotic L. plantarum TENSIA was present in variable amounts (529.6 ± 232.5 gene copies) in 16/25 (64%) study subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced (p = 0.031) in the probiotic cheese group versus the control cheese group. The changes in BMI were closely associated with the water content of the body (r = 0.570, p = 0.0007) when adjusted for sex and age. Higher values of intestinal lactobacilli after probiotic cheese consumption were associated with higher BMI (r = 0.383, p = 0.0305) and urinary putrescine content (r = 0.475, p = 0.006). In patients simultaneously treated with BP-lowering drugs, similar reductions of BP were observed in both groups. A positive association was detected between TENSIA colonization and the extent of change of morning diastolic BP (r = 0.617, p = 0.0248) and a trend toward lower values of morning systolic BP (r = −0.527, p = 0.0640) at the end of the study after adjusting for BMI, age, and sex. Conclusion In a pilot study of obese hypertensive patients, a hypocaloric

  6. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Wiltgren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306 were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (28%. A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001. Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them.

  7. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  8. Creatine Supplementation Associated or Not with Strength Training upon Emotional and Cognitive Measures in Older Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Merege Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Brucki, Sonia; Pereira, Rosa Maria R.; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of creatine supplementation, associated or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman. Methods This is a 24-week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The individuals were randomly allocated into one of the following groups (n=14 each): 1) placebo, 2) creatine supplementation, 3) placebo associated with strength training or 4) creatine supplementation associated with strength training. According to their allocation, the participants were given creatine (4 x 5 g/d for 5 days followed by 5 g/d) or placebo (dextrose at the same dosage) and were strength trained or not. Cognitive function, assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests involving memory, selective attention, and inhibitory control, and emotional measures, assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale, were evaluated at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention. Muscle strength and food intake were evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results After the 24-week intervention, both training groups (ingesting creatine supplementation and placebo) had significant reductions on the Geriatric Depression Scale scores when compared with the non-trained placebo group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and the non-trained creatine group (p creatine (p = 0.60) groups, or between the trained placebo and creatine groups (p = 0.83). Both trained groups, irrespective of creatine supplementation, had better muscle strength performance than the non-trained groups. Neither strength training nor creatine supplementation altered any parameter of cognitive performance. Food intake remained unchanged. Conclusion Creatine supplementation did not promote any significant change in cognitive function and emotional parameters in apparently healthy older individuals. In addition, strength training per se improved emotional state and muscle strength, but not cognition, with no additive effects of creatine supplementation

  9. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF A 3-MONTH INTERVENTION WITH ORAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS IN DISEASE RELATED MALNUTRITION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Norman , Kristina; Pirlich , Matthias; Smoliner , Christine; Kilbert , Anne; Schulzke , Jörg-Dieter; Ockenga , Johann; Lochs , Herbert; Reinhold , Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nutritional intervention with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) has been shown to increase quality of life in malnourished patients. We investigated whether post-hospital supplementation with ONS is cost-effective according to international benchmarks in malnourished patients. Methods: 114 malnourished patients (50.6?16.1 years, 63 female) with benign gastrointestinal disease were included and randomised to receive either ONS for three months and dietary co...

  10. Branched chain amino acids supplemented with L-acetylcarnitine versus BCAA treatment in hepatic coma: a randomized and controlled double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Mariano; Risino, Corrado; Cammalleri, Lisa; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Astuto, Marinella; Vecchio, Ignazio; Rampello, Liborio

    2009-07-01

    Our earlier study has demonstrated that the administration of L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) improves neurological symptoms and serum parameters in hepatic coma. The aim of this work has been to evaluate the efficacy of the LAC and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) versus BCAA, administered in intravenous infusion, in patients with cirrhotic hepatic coma. Forty-eight highly selected patients were enrolled in the study and, after randomization, received blindly LAC+BCAA (n=24) versus BCAA (n=24). The two groups were similar in age, sex, pathogenesis of cirrhosis, and severity of liver disease. The comparison between values before and after LAC planned treatment showed statistical significant differences in neurological findings, evaluated by the Glasgow Scale, ammonia serum levels, blood urea nitrogen, and EEG. After 60 min of the study period, the LAC+BCAA treated patients compared with BCCA treated showed a significant decrease of ammonia serum levels: 41.20 versus 10.40 mumol PBCAA treated patients compared with BCCA treated patients showed a significant increase of Glasgow's score: 3.60 versus 1.50 score PBCAA supplemented with LAC might improve neurological symptoms and serum ammonium levels in selected cirrhotic patients with hepatic coma.

  11. A Randomized, Double-Blind Study Assessing Changes in Cognitive Function in Indian School Children Receiving a Combination of Bacopa monnieri and Micronutrient Supplementation vs. Placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Mitra-Ganguli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a chronic cognitive enhancing effect of Bacopa monnieri across different ages and cognitive impairment associated with vitamin and mineral deficiencies in children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 4-month supplementation with a combination of B. monnieri extract and multiple micronutrients on cognitive functions in Indian school children aged 7–12 years. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, single-center study in which 300 children were randomized to receive a beverage either fortified with B. monnieri and multiple micronutrients (“fortified” or a non-fortified isocaloric equivalent (“control” twice-daily for 4 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB administered at baseline, Day 60 and Day 121. The primary endpoint was change in short-term memory (working memory from baseline in subjects receiving “fortified” vs. “control” beverages after 4 months. Secondary endpoints included sustained attention, episodic memory, and executive function. The “fortified” beverage did not significantly improve short-term memory or any of the secondary outcomes tested relative to the “control” beverage. However, the spatial working memory “strategy” score showed significant improvement on Day 60 (difference between groups in change from baseline: −0.55; p < 0.05, but not on Day 121 due to the active intervention. Study products were well-tolerated. Reasons for these unexpected findings are discussed.

  12. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  13. Whole-body electromyostimulation and protein supplementation favorably affect sarcopenic obesity in community-dwelling older men at risk: the randomized controlled FranSO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler,1 Anja Weissenfels,1 Marc Teschler,1 Sebastian Willert,1 Michael Bebenek,1 Mahdieh Shojaa,1 Matthias Kohl,2 Ellen Freiberger,3 Cornel Sieber,3 Simon von Stengel1 1Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Faculty of Medical and Life Science, University of Furtwangen, Schwenningen, Germany; 3Institute of Biomedicine of Aging, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany Background: Sarcopenic obesity (SO is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the disproportion between the amount of lean mass and fat mass. Exercise decreases fat and maintains muscle mass; however, older people fail to exercise at doses sufficient to affect musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, a time-efficient, joint-friendly and highly individualized exercise technology, on sarcopenia and SO in older men. Materials and methods: A total of 100 community-dwelling northern Bavarian men aged ≥70 years with sarcopenia and obesity were randomly (1–1–1 assigned to either 16 weeks of 1 WB-EMS and protein supplementation (WB-EMS&P, 2 isolated protein supplementation or 3 nonintervention control. WB-EMS consisted of 1.5×20 min (85 Hz, 350 µs, 4 s of strain to 4 s of rest applied with moderate-to-high intensity while moving. We further generated a daily protein intake of 1.7–1.8 g/kg/body mass per day. The primary study end point was Sarcopenia Z-Score, and the secondary study end points were body fat rate (%, skeletal muscle mass index (SMI and handgrip strength. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis determined a significantly favorable effect of WB-EMS&P (P<0.001 and protein (P=0.007 vs control. Both groups significantly (P<0.001 lost body fat (WB-EMS&P: 2.1%; protein: 1.1% and differed significantly (P≤0.004 from control (0.3%. Differences between WB

  14. Genomic DNA Methylation Changes in Response to Folic Acid Supplementation in a Population-Based Intervention Study among Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Robert J.; Hao, Ling; Li, Zhu; Maneval, David; Yang, Thomas P.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Yang, Quanhe; Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Hu, Dale J.; Bailey, Lynn B.

    2011-01-01

    Folate is a source of one-carbons necessary for DNA methylation, a critical epigenetic modification necessary for genomic structure and function. The use of supplemental folic acid is widespread however; the potential influence on DNA methylation is unclear. We measured global DNA methylation using DNA extracted from samples from a population-based, double-blind randomized trial of folic acid supplementation (100, 400, 4000 µg per day) taken for 6 months; including a 3 month post-supplementation sample. We observed no changes in global DNA methylation in response to up to 4,000 µg/day for 6 months supplementation in DNA extracted from uncoagulated blood (approximates circulating blood). However, when DNA methylation was determined in coagulated samples from the same individuals at the same time, significant time, dose, and MTHFR genotype-dependent changes were observed. The baseline level of DNA methylation was the same for uncoagulated and coagulated samples; marked differences between sample types were observed only after intervention. In DNA from coagulated blood, DNA methylation decreased (−14%; Pmethylation decreased an additional 23% (Pmethylation of ≥25% (vs. methylation between DNA extracted from coagulated and uncoagulated samples in response to folic acid supplementation is an important finding for evaluating use of folic acid and investigating the potential effects of folic acid supplementation on coagulation. PMID:22163281

  15. Effect of rapid weight loss and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression of combat athletes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritto, Aline C C; Amano, Mariane T; De Cillo, Maria E; Oliveira, Vinicius A; Mendes, Sandro H; Yoshioka, Caroline; Roschel, Hamilton; Camara, Niels Olsen S; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme G

    2018-02-01

    The role of plasma glutamine concentration and glutamine supplementation on immunosuppression was investigated in combat athletes. Twenty-three male athletes were randomly assigned to receive glutamine (21 g/day, n=12) or placebo (ovalbumin, n=11) for 10 days. Six athletes who did not lose weight served as controls. Athletes were assessed 21 days before (-21d), 1 day before (-1d) and 5 days after (+5d) a competition. Weight reduction was similar between glutamine (-8.2%± 4.1%) and placebo (-8.5%±2.4%) and negligible in control (-0.6%±1.4%). In both weight-loss groups, the majority of athletes reported symptoms of upper respiratory symptoms, as assessed by the Wisconsin upper respiratory symptom survey questionnaire. Only two athletes reported symptoms in the control group. Immune cell function remained unchanged throughout the study except for an increase in neutrophil phagocytic activity (placebo: -21d=5,251±2,986; -1d=17,428±22,374; +5d=21,125±21,934; glutamine: -21d=6,096±3,549; -1d=11,029±17,113; +5d=28,186±21,032 FI) and a minor change in monocyte phagocytic activity (placebo: -21d=4,421±3,634; -1d=3,329±6,283; +5d=3,243± 2,553; glutamine: -21d=4,051±3,186; -1d=3,106±2,625; +5d=4,981± 4,598) in both glutamine and placebo after weight loss. Plasma glutamine and cortisol remained unchanged across the study. creatine kinase levels were increased in placebo (-21d=125.2±54.1; -1d=187.2± 73.5; +5d=111.3±59.1 U/L) but not in glutamine (-21d=136.2±58.2; -1d= 168.8±65.0; +5d=129.7±64.0 U/L). Rapid weight loss increased the frequency and severity of infection symptoms, but this was neither associated with plasma glutamine depletion nor counteracted by glutamine supplementation.

  16. Impact of short-term nutritional supplementation on surrogate markers of undernutrition in hemodialysis patients - prospective real-life interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Andreja; Bevc, Sebastjan; Ekart, Robert

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk for undernutrition, especially protein wasting. We present the results of a prospective study in HD patients after 4 months of intervention with oral nutritional supplements (ONS). After a 3-month wash-out period, 92 HD patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were tested for undernutrition with composite parameters, laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and hand-grip strength test (HGS). All patients fulfilling criteria for, or at high risk of, undernutrition were given ONS in addition to their regular diet. The impact of short-term ONS on surrogate markers of undernutrition was statistically analyzed. Data for 84 patients, 45 (53.6%) male, average age 63.3 years, were available for analysis after 4 months. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (n = 28), patients with normal nutritional status (NUS) at baseline not necessitating ONS; group B (n = 43), patients entitled to receive ONS; group C (n = 13), patients entitled to receive but refused to take ONS. In group B patients, received on average 4.1 bottles of ONS (902 mL; 1,623.6 kcal; 73.06 g protein) per week. Baseline results showed statistically-significant differences between groups in serum albumin levels and phase angle (PhA) but not in HGS. After 4 months of ONS, we noticed stagnation of observed markers in group B. Interestingly, in group A, significant deterioration of serum albumin and PhA was observed, but HGS improved. There was a trend towards worsening of serum albumin levels and HGS in group C not reaching statistical significance. In undernourished HD patients after ONS we did not find statistically-significant improvement of NUS evaluating surrogate markers. Nevertheless, in undernourished patients not receiving ONS, serum albumin and HGS showed a trend towards worsening, and even in well-nourished patients, nutritional markers (serum albumin and PhA) declined. We speculate that a certain positive

  17. Effect of early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the paediatric ICU: a preplanned observational study of post-randomisation treatments in the PEPaNIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Verbruggen, Sascha; Casaer, Michaël P; Gunst, Jan; Wouters, Pieter J; Hanot, Jan; Guerra, Gonzalo Garcia; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2017-06-01

    Large randomised controlled trials have shown that early supplemental parenteral nutrition in patients admitted to adult and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is harmful. Overdosing of energy with too little protein was suggested as a potential reason for this. This study analysed which macronutrient was associated with harm caused by early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the Paediatric Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition In Critical Illness (PEPaNIC) randomised trial. Patients in the initial randomised controlled trial were randomly assigned to receive suppplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) within 24 h of PICU admission (early PN) or to receive such PN after 1 week (late PN) when enteral nutrition was insufficient. In this post-randomisation, observational study, doses of glucose, lipids, and aminoacids administered during the first 7 days of PICU stay were expressed as % of reference doses from published clinical guidelines for age and weight. Independent associations between average macronutrient doses up to each of the first 7 days and likelihood of acquiring an infection in the PICU, of earlier live weaning from mechanical ventilation, and of earlier live PICU discharge were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses. The three macronutrients were included in the analysis simultaneously and baseline risk factors were adjusted for. From June 18, 2012, to July 27, 2015, 7519 children aged between newborn and 17 years were assessed for eligibility. 6079 patients were excluded, and 1440 children were randomly assigned to receive either early PN (n=723) or late PN (n=717). With increasing doses of aminoacids, the likelihood of acquiring a new infection was higher (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] per 10% increase between 1·043-1·134 for days 1-5, p≤0·029), while the likelihood of earlier live weaning from mechanical ventilation was lower (HRs 0·950-0·975 days 3-7, p≤0·045), and the likelihood of earlier live PICU

  18. Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund Levi, Y; Vedin, I; Cederholm, T; Basun, H; Faxén Irving, G; Eriksdotter, M; Hjorth, E; Schultzberg, M; Vessby, B; Wahlund, L-O; Salem, N; Palmblad, J

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 FA supplement and 15 receiving placebo) were included in the study. These patients were participants in the double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized OmegAD study in which 204 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) received 2.3 g n-3 FA [high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or placebo daily for 6 months. CSF FA levels were related to changes in plasma FA and to CSF biomarkers of AD and inflammation. At 6 months, the n-3 FA supplement group displayed significant increases in CSF (and plasma) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA and total n-3 FA levels (P acid were strongly correlated, in contrast to those of DHA. Changes in DHA levels in CSF were inversely correlated with CSF levels of total and phosphorylated tau, and directly correlated with soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II. Thus, the more DHA increased in CSF, the greater the change in CSF AD/inflammatory biomarkers. Oral supplementation with n-3 FAs conferred changes in the n-3 FA profile in CSF, suggesting transfer of these FAs across the BBB in adults. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  20. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Wendy R; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate a method for the determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements at levels >1.00 mg/100 g based on a 2-3 g sample. Test samples were saponified at high temperature with ethanolic KOH solution. The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene. Phytosterols were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with hydrogen flame ionization detection. Twelve blind duplicates, one of which was fortified, were successfully analyzed by 10 collaborators. Recoveries were obtained for the sample that was fortified. The results were 99.8, 111, and 111% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. For repeatability, the relative standard deviation (RSDr) ranged from 3.93 to 17.3% for campesterol, 3.56 to 22.7% for stigmasterol, and 3.70 to 43.9% for beta-sitosterol. For reproducibility, the RSDR ranged from 7.97 to 22.6%, 0 to 26.7%, and 5.27 to 43.9% for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol, respectively. Overall, the Study Director approved 5 materials with acceptable HorRat values for campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol ranging from 1.02 to 2.16.

  1. The Usefullness of Green Coconut Water Supplementation in Overcoming The Toxic Effect of Mercury Chloride in The Blood and Blood Profile (Study in Sprague Dewly Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrzag Ehmeeda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When people are exposed to mercury chloride, it can produce a variety of health effects in the blood and liver. Coconut water contains Zn, Fe, Vit. C, Vit B11, Vit. B6­, and Se to reduce mercury chloride level in the blood and improve blood profile. Aim of this study was to analysis the effect of green coconut water supplementation in overcoming the toxic effect of Hg chloride in the blood of Sprague dawley rats exposed to Hg chloride. Samples were randomly about 36 animals rats exposed to HgCl2 through forced feeding by 20 mg/kgBW sondage perday for 14 days, which divided into control group, and intervention groups were given fresh green coconut water in each by 6, 8, and 10 mL/kgBW for intervention 7 and 17 days. The result of this study showed that there is a significant effect and the decrease in mercury levels in the blood. There is no significant affect on the hemoglobin level, hematocrit level and platelet count with the treatment of green coconut water in the rats with exposure Hg. New findings/significance of contribution were the effectiveness of green coconut water to reduce Hg level in blood and improve blood profile.

  2. Sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation in relation to vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants in the global exploration of human milk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Davidson, Barbara; Woo, Jessica G; Peng, Yong-Mei; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; de Lourdes Guerrero, Maria; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2015-02-05

    Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n=112), Cincinnati, Ohio (n=119), and Mexico City, Mexico (n=113). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay (obesity (p=0.03), season (p=0.001) and sites (p<0.001) predicted maternal vD status. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was found in 62%, 28%, and 6% of Mexican, Cincinnati and Shanghai infants, respectively (p<0.001). Season (p=0.022), adding formula feeding (p<0.001) and a higher sun index (p=0.085) predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  3. Glycemic variability and insulin needs in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus supplemented with vitamin D: a pilot study using continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felício, Karem Miléo; de Souza, Ana Carolina Contente Braga; Neto, João Felício Abrahão; de Melo, Franciane Trindade Cunha; Carvalho, Carolina Tavares; Arbage, Thaís Pontes; de Rider Brito, Hana Andrade; Peixoto, Amanda Soares; de Oliveira, Alana Ferreira; de Souza Resende, Fabricio; Reis, Scarlatt Sousa; Motta, Ana Regina; da Costa Miranda, Henrique; Janaú, Luísa Corrêa; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Felício, João Soares

    2017-06-15

    Recent studies suggest that glycemic variability could influence the risk of complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). There are no data about the action of vitamin D (VD) on glycemic variability. Our pilot study aims to evaluate glycemic variability and insulin needs in patients with T1DM supplemented with VD. 22 patients received doses of 4000 and 10000 IU/day of cholecalciferol for 12 weeks, according to the patient's baseline VD levels and underwent continuous glucose monitoring system. Correlations were found between percentage variation (∆) of glycemia standard deviation (∆SDG), calculated using continuous glucose monitoring, with ∆ of basal (r= 0.6; p needed by patients is lower when VD status is better. We divided patients in two subgroups: SDG improved (subgroup 1; n =12 (55%)) and SDG worsened (subgroup 2; n =10 (45%)). Group 1, compared to subgroup 2, required a lower insulin dose (∆basal insulin dose = -8.0 vs 6.3%; p needs and lower frequency of hypoglycemia in patients with T1DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-11-01

    Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist-patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  5. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental X-tip intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in patients with irreversible pulpitis: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atool Chandra; Latha, Satheesh Sasidharan; Jain, Shefali; Kataki, Rubi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain management remains the utmost important qualifying criteria in minimizing patient agony and establishing a strong dentist–patient rapport. Symptomatic irreversible pulpitis is a painful condition necessitating immediate attention and supplemental anesthetic techniques are often resorted to in addition to conventional inferior alveolar nerve block. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of X-tip intraosseous injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, in mandibular posterior teeth, using 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as local anesthetic, when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block proved ineffective. Materials and Methods: X-tip system was used to administer 1.7 ml of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline in 30 patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular posterior teeth with moderate to severe pain on endodontic access after administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block. Results: The results of the study showed that 25 X-tip injections (83.33%) were successful and 5 X-tip injections (16.66%) were unsuccessful. Conclusion: When the inferior alveolar nerve block fails to provide adequate pulpal anesthesia, X-tip system using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was successful in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25506137

  6. Factors associated with prenatal folic acid and iron supplementation among 21,889 pregnant women in Northern Tanzania: A cross-sectional hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundipe Olukemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate and iron deficiency during pregnancy are risk factors for anaemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight, and may contribute to poor neonatal health and increased maternal mortality. The World Health Organization recommends supplementation of folic acid (FA and iron for all pregnant women at risk of malnutrition to prevent anaemia. We assessed the use of prenatal folic acid and iron supplementation among women in a geographical area with a high prevalence of anaemia, in relation to socio-demographic, morbidity and health services utilization factors. Methods We analysed a cohort of 21,889 women who delivered at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC, Moshi, Tanzania, between 1999 and 2008. Logistic regression models were used to describe patterns of reported intake of prenatal FA and iron supplements. Results Prenatal intake of FA and iron supplements was reported by 17.2% and 22.3% of pregnant women, respectively. Sixteen percent of women reported intake of both FA and iron. Factors positively associated with FA supplementation were advanced maternal age (OR = 1.17, 1.02-1.34, unknown HIV status (OR = 1.54, 1.42-1.67, a diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy (OR = 12.03, 9.66-14.98 and indicators of lower socioeconomic status. Women were less likely to take these supplements if they reported having had a malaria episode before (OR = 0.57, 0.53-0.62 or during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 0.41-0.51, reported having contracted other infectious diseases (OR = 0.45, 0.42-0.49, were multiparous (OR = 0.73, 0.66-0.80, had preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR = 0.48, 0.38-0.61, or other diseases (OR = 0.55, 0.44-0.69 during pregnancy. Similar patterns of association emerged when iron supplementation alone and supplementation with both iron and FA were evaluated. Conclusions FA and iron supplementation are low among pregnant women in Northern Tanzania, in particular among women with co-morbidities before

  7. Evaluation of Hypocaloric Diet With Protein Supplementation in Middle-Aged Sarcopenic Obese Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sammarco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. Methods: We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was Results: Weight significantly decreased in both groups. Women with high-protein diet preserved lean body mass compared to low-calorie diet and improved significantly muscle strength; SPPB score did not change in both groups. SF-36 test showed a significant change for general health after 4 months in group B. Conclusions: In our study, sarcopenic obese patients with high-protein diet showed an improvement in muscle strength. Furthermore, dietary protein enrichment may represent a protection from the risk of sarcopenia following a hypocaloric diet.

  8. Evaluation of Hypocaloric Diet With Protein Supplementation in Middle-Aged Sarcopenic Obese Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarco, Rosa; Marra, Maurizio; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Naccarato, Marianna; Contaldo, Franco; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. Methods: We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was Results: Weight significantly decreased in both groups. Women with high-protein diet preserved lean body mass compared to low-calorie diet and improved signif...

  9. Fluid supplementation for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nai Ming; Ahmad Kamar, Azanna; Choo, Yao Mun; Kong, Juin Yee; Ngim, Chin Fang

    2017-08-01

    Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a common problem which carries a risk of neurotoxicity. Certain infants who have hyperbilirubinaemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus which may lead to long-term disability. Phototherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Among the adjunctive measures to compliment the effects of phototherapy, fluid supplementation has been proposed to reduce serum bilirubin levels. The mechanism of action proposed includes direct dilutional effects of intravenous (IV) fluids, or enhancement of peristalsis to reduce enterohepatic circulation by oral fluid supplementation. To assess the risks and benefits of fluid supplementation compared to standard fluid management in term and preterm newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia who require phototherapy. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 7 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 7 June 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 7 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. We included randomised controlled trials that compared fluid supplementation against no fluid supplementation, or one form of fluid supplementation against another. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group using the Covidence platform. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using mean difference (MD), risk difference (RD), and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Out of 1449 articles screened, seven studies were included. Three articles were awaiting classification, among them, two completed trials identified from the trial registry appeared to be unpublished so far.There were

  10. Use of an Accessible iPad App and Supplemental Graphics to Build Mathematics Skills: Feasibility Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study evaluated the feasibility of using an iPad application or "app" for algebra-readiness mathematics, with accompanying braille materials and accessible graphics, when used in authentic educational settings. Methods: Twenty-nine students with visual impairments in grades 4-11 used the materials under the…

  11. A Stepwise, Pilot Study of Bovine Colostrum to Supplement the First Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants (Precolos)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Juhl, Sandra M; Ye, Xuqiang

    2017-01-01

    STUDY PROTOCOL: The optimal feeding for preterm infants during the first weeks is still debated, especially when mother's own milk is lacking or limited. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) contains high amounts of protein, growth factors, and immuno-regulatory components that may benefit protein intake...

  12. Effect of a fermented dietary supplement containing chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the increasing development of type 2 diabetes dietary habits play an important role. In this regard, dietary supplements are of growing interest to influence the progression of this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cascade-fermented dietary supplement based on fruits, nuts, and vegetables fortified with chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, intervention study under free-living conditions using a cross-over design. Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and randomized either to receive a cascade-fermented dietary supplement enriched with chromium (100 µg/d and zinc (15 mg/d or a placebo similar in taste but without supplements, over a period of 12 weeks. After a wash-out period of 12 weeks, the patients received the other test product. The main outcome variable was the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Other outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, and lipid parameters. Results: Thirty-one patients completed the study. HbA1c showed no relevant changes during both treatment periods, nor was there a relevant difference between the two treatments (HbA1c: p=0.48. The same results were found for fructosamine and fasting glucose (fructosamine: p=0.9; fasting glucose: p=0.31. In addition, there was no effect on lipid metabolism. Conclusion: This intervention study does not provide evidence that a cascade-fermented plant-based dietary supplement enriched with a combination of chromium and zinc improves glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under free-living conditions.

  13. Evaluation of Hypocaloric Diet With Protein Supplementation in Middle-Aged Sarcopenic Obese Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Rosa; Marra, Maurizio; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Naccarato, Marianna; Contaldo, Franco; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was Hypocaloric diet plus placebo (A) and hypocaloric high-protein diet (1.2-1.4 g / kg body weight reference / day) (B). Anthropometric measurements, body composition, resting energy expenditure, handgrip test, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and SF-36 questionnaire were evaluated at baseline and after 4 months. Weight significantly decreased in both groups. Women with high-protein diet preserved lean body mass compared to low-calorie diet and improved significantly muscle strength; SPPB score did not change in both groups. SF-36 test showed a significant change for general health after 4 months in group B. In our study, sarcopenic obese patients with high-protein diet showed an improvement in muscle strength. Furthermore, dietary protein enrichment may represent a protection from the risk of sarcopenia following a hypocaloric diet. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  15. Preparation of a continuative brochure as supplement to the evaluation hand-out for the assessment of study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, S.; Gollnick, F.; Driessen, S.; Schmidt, M.; Gross, D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the Federal Office for Radiation Protection gave the responsibility to the Department of History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine (Institut GTE Med) in Aachen for the project ''Creating a practical hand-out for the assessment of study results for employees of local governments'' (FM 8855). The manual serves as a practical way for the qualitative evaluation of texts for persons who deal with the topics Mobile Communication and Health (for example communities or government agencies) in their profession. The main objective of the manual is to aid users in performing a faster and more efficient evaluation of texts by answering the containing questions. This approach is purely functional and precludes the placement of deeper information. At this point the new project FM 8862 started by ''Creating a continuative brochure in addition to the hand-out for the assessment of study results''. It continued the previous project FM 8855 to further develop the information which was up to this point purely functional. The brochure presents the issues in an overall context and provides valuable background knowledge. As a result, possible users get in a more casual and clear manner a deeper understanding of the evaluating of texts. It should be possible for a user to better evaluate texts and by obtaining arguments, thus being better prepared to engage with interested Laymen in an objective discussion. The brochure was submitted together with the existing manual for a practical test, which was attended by 21 target group-specific subjects. The study tested in detail the intelligibility, clarity, applicability, and the support of the brochure. The feedback of the test participants were then used as basis for the final optimization of the brochure. Project participants belong to the Department of History, Philosophy and Ethics of Medicine and the Research Center for Bioelectromagnetic Interaction of the RWTH Aachen University (femu).

  16. Does vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation prolong the latency period before delivery following the preterm premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungorduk, Kemal; Asicioglu, Osman; Gungorduk, Ozgu Celikkol; Yildirim, Gokhan; Besimoğlu, Berhan; Ark, Cemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether maternal vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation after the premature rupture of membranes is associated with an increase in the latency period before delivery. In the present prospective open randomized trial, 229 pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) at ≥ 24.0 and vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E (n = 126) or a placebo (n = 123). The primary outcome was the latency period until delivery. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. No significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics were observed between the groups. Latency period until delivery was significantly higher in the group that received vitamins compared with the control group (11.2 ± 6.3 days versus 6.2 ± 4.0 days; p vitamin group compared with the control group (31.9 ± 2.6 weeks versus 31.0 ± 2.6 weeks; p = 0.01). No significant differences in adverse maternal outcome (i.e., chorioamnionitis or endometritis) or neonatal outcome (i.e., neonatal sepsis, neonatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, or grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) were noted between groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the use of vitamins C and E in women with PPROM is associated with a longer latency period before delivery. Moreover, adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, which are often associated with prolonged latency periods, were similar between the groups. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Selenium content of tissues in Finnish infants and adults with various diseases, and studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westermarck, T.

    1977-01-01

    A low blood selenium level has previously been observed in healthy inhabitants of Finland. In this study even lower blood selenium values were observed in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica, dystrophia musculorum progressiva (Duchenne), infantile and juvenile type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), severe mental retardation caused by various factors, and myocardial infarction. The selenium content of the brain, heart, kidney and liver in patients of different ages was also determined. The highest selenium level was found in the kidney. The mean liver selenium concentrations in stillborn, premature and full-term neonates were 1.11 plus minus 0.23 (8), 1.21 plus minus 0.17 (12) and 0.93 plus minus 0.16 μg/g dry weight (12) respectively (the number of subjects in parentheses). The selenium values are considerably higher than those in infants of from one to nine months of age and adults, whose liver selenium values were 0.58 plus minus 0.21 (8) and 0.67 plus minus 0.08 μg/g dry weight (8) respectively. The vitamin E levels of serum in patients with NCL, as well as in subjects with severe mental retardation (controls), were low compared with values in healthy normal subjects. Sodium selenite supplementation in patients with NCL produced at least a transitory improvement without causing any toxic effects during one year of administration. (author)

  18. Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn (Bjornn), Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  20. Fall chinook salmon survival and supplementation studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River reservoirs: Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn, Theodore C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2)

  1. Intra-operative Patient-Controlled Sedation (PCS:Propofol versus Midazolam Supplementation During Epidural Analgesia (Clinical and Hormonal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S Al-khayat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done on sixty adult males scheduled to have an epidural analgesia for elective inguinal hernia repair. The study was designed to compare propofol and midazolam with regard to their suitability for the patient-controlled sedation (PCS technique during epidural analgesia. Patients were divided into three equal groups and premedicated with 0.2mg.kg -1 oral midazolam. Group I (G1 served as control. Using PCS technique, the pump was programmed to deliver on demand a bolus dose of 0.5 mg.kg- 1 of propofol in Group II (G2 or 0.1mg.kg -1 midazolam in Group III(G3. Patient′s sedation status was assessed by sedation score, comfort scale and by psychometric testing. The total delivered dose of each tested drug was calculated. Serum concentrations of propfol and midazolam, plasma cortisol and free fatty acids were measured. Propofol and midazolam PCS technique produced excellent and easily controllable sedation. The dose needed to produce steady state sedation was 2.8±1.42 and 0.11±0.6 mg.kg -1 .h- 1 for propofol and midazolam respectively. Propofol was more suitable than midazolam for PCS because of its rapid onset, favorable recovery profile and low side effects. PCS proved to be a stress-free and acceptable technique.

  2. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and storage studies of high density macrocapsules containing Lactobacillus spp. strains as nutritional supplement in young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astesana, Diego M; Zimmermann, Jorge A; Frizzo, Laureano S; Zbrun, María V; Blajman, Jesica E; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero-Scharpen, Analía; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Soto, Lorena P

    2018-03-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different production methodologies of probiotic macrocapsules with high bacterial densities destined to lactating calves. Three types of capsules containing Lactobacillus casei DSPV318T and Lactobacillus plantarum DSPV354T were prepared from an overnight culture in whey medium: (1) mixing the culture with calcium alginate and then, reincubating the capsules in whey (RC); (2) concentrating the biomass by centrifugation and mixing the pellet with calcium alginate (CC) at different concentrations with respect to the initial culture (5X and 12.5X); (3) CC with cryoprotectants: whey permeate (Per) and glycerol (Gly). Chitosan coating was evaluated. Capsules were freeze-dried and viability was assessed before freezing, after freeze-drying and every two weeks for 84 days of storage at room temperature, 4°C and -20°C. CC showed higher cell densities than RC. Storage temperature affected viability: greater viability at lower temperature. Moreover, the effect of temperature was influenced by other factors, such as capsule coating, culture neutralization and cryoprotectants. Coating improved viability at room temperature; however no effect was observed at 4°C. Culture neutralization allowed greater survival during storage. Cryoprotectants improved viability during freezing, but they also generated a positive or negative effect depending on storage temperature. The best results were: at refrigeration Gly12.5X exhibited counts above 10 9 CFU/capsule until day 70 and Per12.5X until day 56 of storage and at -20°C Gly12.5X showed counts above 10 9 CFU/capsule until the end of the study (84 days). A 10 9 CFU capsule is the daily dose per calf which would facilitate the administration of this probiotic inoculum to field animals. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaudis, H; Pupelis, G; Zeiza, K; Boka, V

    2012-01-01

    Experience with administration of synbiotics (prebiotics/probiotics) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity. The aim of this trial was evaluation of the feasibility and perspective of early clinical application of oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplements in patients with SAP. 90 SAP patients were enrolled during the period from 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to the feeding mode. CONTROL (n = 32) group received standard whole protein feeding formula. SYNBIO (n = 30) and FIBRE groups (n = 28) received early (within first 24-48 hours) synbiotic or prebiotic supplements. Oral administration of synbiotics or prebiotics was commenced when patients were able to sip water. Daily provided average volume and calories of synbiotic/prebiotic blends were smaller compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.001. Oral administration of synbiotic/prebiotic supplements was associated with lower infection rate (pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis) compared to the CONTROL, (p = 0.03; p = 0.001), lower rate of surgical interventions, p = 0.005, shorter ICU (p = 0.05) and hospital stay (p = 0.03). Synbiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut resulted in reduced mortality rate compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.02. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut seems to be a potentially valuable complement to the routine treatment protocol of SAP.

  5. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF, supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533 and 2006 (n = 515 were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  6. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  7. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  8. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  9. SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Increases Long-Term Food Security among Indiana Households with Children in a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rebecca L; Maulding, Melissa K; Abbott, Angela R; Craig, Bruce A; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is negatively associated with US children's dietary intake and health. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) aims to alleviate food insecurity by offering nutrition, budgeting, and healthy lifestyle education to low-income individuals and families. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the Indiana SNAP-Ed on food security among households with children. A randomized, controlled, parallel study design with SNAP-Ed as an intervention was carried out during a 4- to 10-wk intervention period. Intervention group participants received the first 4 Indiana SNAP-Ed curriculum lessons. Study participants (n = 575) were adults aged ≥18 y from low-income Indiana households with ≥1 child living in the household. Both treatment groups completed an assessment before and after the intervention period and 1 y after recruitment. The 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module was used to classify the primary outcomes of food security for the household and adults and children in the household. A linear mixed model was used to compare intervention with control group effects over time on food security. Mean ± SEM changes in household food security score and food security score among household adults from baseline to 1-y follow-up were 1.2 ± 0.4 and 0.9 ± 0.3 units lower, respectively, in the intervention group than in the control group (P security score from baseline to 1-y follow-up among household children was not significantly different in the intervention group compared with the control group. SNAP-Ed improved food security over a longitudinal time frame among low-income Indiana households with children in this study. SNAP-Ed may be a successful intervention to improve food security. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  11. Do fatty acids help in overcoming reading difficulties? A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and carnosine supplementation on children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairaluoma, L; Närhi, V; Ahonen, T; Westerholm, J; Aro, M

    2009-01-01

    There are claims that dietary supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids could help children with dyslexia to overcome their reading problems. However, these claims have not yet been empirically tested. This study was designed to test whether dietary supplementation was superior to placebo in treating reading, spelling or other reading-related skills of children with dyslexia. The experimental group (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, n = 30) ate dietary supplements and the control group (placebo, n = 31) placebos during the 90-day treatment period. The supplements contained omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl-EPA, 500 mg/day) and carnosine (400 mg/day). The groups were matched for reading skills, grade, gender, attention problems, intelligence and amount of special education. The literacy-related skills of the two groups were assessed before and after the treatment period. No group differences were observed between EPA and placebo in measures of reading accuracy or speed, spelling, decoding fluency, arithmetical skills, reading-related language skills, attention or behavioural problems. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl-EPA) or carnosine has a role in the treatment of reading and spelling problems in children with dyslexia.

  12. Multi-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy for prevention of maternal anaemia and adverse birth outcomes in a high-altitude area: a prospective cohort study in rural Tibet of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jianpeng; Ouzhu, Luobu; Yan, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy, characterised by Hb anaemia among pregnant women and their infants' health in a high-altitude area. A prospective cohort study was carried out in two rural counties in Tibet from 2007 to 2012. A total of 1149 eligible pregnant women were allocated daily supplementation with FA in one county and MMN containing a recommended allowance of twenty-three vitamins and minerals in another county starting ≤24 weeks of gestation and continuing until delivery. Compared with the FA group, prenatal supplementation with MMN was significantly associated with reduced odds of anaemia in the third trimester. This was demonstrated in the primary outcome, with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 0·63; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·88 and P=0·007 and also reduced odds of preterm delivery (AOR: 0·31; 95 % CI 0·15, 0·61; P=0·001). There was no difference between MMN and FA groups in mean birth weight (adjusted mean difference: 36·78; 95 % CI -19·42, 92·98 g; P=0·200), whereas MMN supplementation significantly reduced the odds of low-birth weight (LBW) babies (AOR: 0·58; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·91; P=0·019). In conclusion, the antenatal MMN supplementation in rural Tibet is associated with a reduction of maternal anaemia in the third trimester, and may potentially decrease the risk of preterm delivery and LBW babies.

  13. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.

  14. Compounding of vitamin A, D3, E and K3 supplements for cystic fibrosis patients: formulation and stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghebaert, N; De Beer, J; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2007-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). These vitamins are available as water-dispersible (A, D(3) and E) or water-soluble grades (K(3)), which is favoured in CF patients as they fail to absorb oil-based products. The objective of this study was to determine stability of these raw materials after opening the original package and to develop a compounded formulation of acceptable quality, stability and taste, allowing flexible dose adaptation and being appropriate for administration to children and elderly people. The raw materials were stored after opening their original package for 8 months at 8 degrees C and room temperature (RT). Stability was assessed using a validated HPLC method after extraction of the vitamin from the cold water-soluble matrix (vitamin A acetate, D(3) and E) or using a spectrophotometrical method (vitamin K(3)). These materials were mixed with an appropriate lactose grade (lactose 80 m for vitamins A and D(3); lactose 90 m for vitamin E, lactose very fine powder for vitamin K(3)) and filled in hard gelatin capsules. Mass and content uniformity were determined and stability of the vitamins in the capsules was assessed after 2 months storage at 8 degrees C and RT. All raw materials showed good stability during storage in the opened original package for 8 months storage at 8 degrees C as well as RT (>95% of the initial content). The compounded formulations complied with the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia for mass and content uniformity and can be stored for 2 months at 8 degrees C or RT while maintaining the vitamin content between 90% and 110%. As these fat-soluble vitamins are not commercially available on the Belgian market, compounded formulations are a valuable alternative for prophylactic administration of these vitamins to CF patients, i.e. a stable formulation, having an acceptable taste, allowing flexible dose adaptation and being appropriate for administration to

  15. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive resistance training and dietary supplements in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients - the DAHANCA 25A study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    weeks of PRT ± protein and creatine supplementation among HNSCC patients. Secondly, to investigate group changes over time and group differences regarding lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength and functional performance following PRT ± dietary supplementation. Material and methods. Thirty patients were...... supplementation. Before the pre-trial and pre- and post-PRT evaluation of LBM, maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength and functional performance were performed. Results. Seventy percent of the patients completed the intervention and the PRT adherence rate was 97%. No significant group differences were...... found in any endpoints. From pre- to post-PRT, LBM increased significantly in the PROCR group by 2.6 ± 2.2 kg (p

  16. Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Arons, MPAff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA in 327 predominantly African American mother–child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE Study (Memphis, TN. To account for selection bias, we used within-child fixed effects to model the variability in each child's BITSEA scores over two measurement occasions (ages 12 and 24 months. Final models were adjusted for time-varying characteristics including child age, maternal stress, mental health, child abuse potential, marital status, and food stamp participation. In fully adjusted models, we found no statistically significant effect of WIC on change in socioemotional development (β = 0.22 [SD = 0.39] and β = −0.58 [SD = 0.79] for BITSEA Competence and Problem subdomains, respectively. Using rigorous methods and a longitudinal study design, we found no significant association between WIC and socioemotional development in a high needs population. This finding suggests that early childhood interventions that more specifically target socioemotional development are necessary if we are to reduce racial disparities in socioemotional skills and prevent poor social and health outcomes across the life course.

  17. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  18. Vitamin and mineral supplements: Do we really need them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Kamangar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, 40 - 50% of the men and women 50 years of age or older regularly use multivitamin/mineral (MVM supplements, making the annual sales of these supplements over $11 billion. However, the question remains whether using MVM supplements is beneficial to health. This article reviews the results of randomized studies of MVM supplements and individual vitamins/mineral supplements in relation to overall mortality and incidence of chronic diseases, particularly cancer and ischemic heart disease. The results of large-scale randomized trials show that, for the majority of the population, there is no overall benefit from taking MVM supplements. Indeed, some studies have shown increased risk of cancers in relation to using certain vitamins.

  19. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  20. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Raakel; Laitinen, Kirsi; Nermes, Merja; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-06-01

    The breast milk bioactive substances such as adiponectin, have a presumably long-term impact upon the health and well-being of a child. To determine the impact of probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration. Altogether 256 pregnant women were randomized into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotics) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). The intervention group received dietary counseling provided by a nutritionist, the main focus being the amount and the type of dietary fat. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) for adiponectin concentration analysis (n=181). The dietary intervention increased the colostrum adiponectin concentration (ng/mL, geometric mean [95% CI]), the difference being significant when comparing to the control group; 12.7 [10.6-29.7] vs. 10.2 [9.9-13.2], P=0.024. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy (kg) correlated inversely with colostrum adiponectin concentration; β (SE)=-1.7 (0.1), P=0.020, and gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with the likelihood of adiponectin concentration falling into the lowest quartile; OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, P=0.028. In showing that the colostrum adiponectin concentration is markedly dependent on maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy, and considering that colostrum adiponectin has potential effects on metabolism, nutrition, and immune function in the neonates, the results of this study underscore the importance of the metabolic homeostasis of the mother for the child's initial nutritional environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  2. Impact of chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic subjects: an exploratory analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainulabedin M. Saiyed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromium dinicocysteinate (CDNC is a unique chromium complex consisting of chromium, niacin, and L-cysteine. Previous preclinical and clinical studies support the safety and efficacy of CDNC in modulating oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, and glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Objective: Herein, we report the results of several exploratory analyses conducted on type 2 diabetic subjects who previously participated in a 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and were treated with only metformin as standard diabetic care in addition to receiving the test supplementations. Design: Results from 43 metformin users, who were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (P, n=13, chromium picolinate (CP, 400 µg elemental Cr3+/day, n=12, or CDNC (400 µg elemental Cr3+/day, n=18, were analyzed for blood markers of vascular inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at baseline and at 3 months of supplementation. Results: A statistically significant decrease in insulin resistance in the CDNC-supplemented cohort compared to placebo (p=0.01 was observed at 3 months. The CDNC group also demonstrated a significant reduction in insulin levels (p=0.03, protein carbonyl (p=0.02, and in TNF-α (p=0.03 compared to the placebo group. The CP group only showed a significant reduction in protein carbonyl levels (p=0.03 versus placebo. Conclusions: When controlling for diabetes medication, CDNC supplementation showed beneficial effects on blood markers of vascular inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress compared to placebo. The findings suggest that CDNC supplementation has potential as an adjunct therapy for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  3. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  4. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  5. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  6. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P creatine treatment prevented all asphyxia-induced changes in the gastrocnemius, improved motor performance. This study demonstrates that creatine loading before birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  7. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  8. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  9. Pilot feasibility and safety study examining the effect of medium chain triglyceride supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida J. Rebello

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of 56 g/day of MCTs for 24 weeks increases serum ketone concentrations and appears to be a candidate for larger randomized control trials in the future that quantify the modulation of cognitive function through supplementation with ketone precursors, in patients with MCI.

  10. Associations of maternal folic acid supplementation and folate concentrations during pregnancy with foetal and child head growth: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); A.N. Walstra (Alette N.); H. El Marroun (Hanan); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with a reduced risk of common neurodevelopmental delays in the offspring. However, it is unclear whether low folate status has effects on the developing brain. We evaluated the associations of maternal folic acid

  11. Efficacy of supplementation in Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Marie S Tayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb, hematocrit (Hct, reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Methodology: Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Study Design: Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. Results: A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25 of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12 of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13. Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC count

  12. Hip fracture risk in relation to vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roddam Andrew W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D supplementation for fracture prevention is widespread despite conflicting interpretation of relevant randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence. This study summarises quantitatively the current evidence from RCTs and observational studies regarding vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH and hip fracture risk. Methods We undertook separate meta-analyses of RCTs examining vitamin D supplementation and hip fracture, and observational studies of serum vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD level, PTH and hip fracture. Results from RCTs were combined using the reported hazard ratios/relative risks (RR. Results from case-control studies were combined using the ratio of 25(OHD and PTH measurements of hip fracture cases compared with controls. Original published studies of vitamin D, PTH and hip fracture were identified through PubMed and Web of Science databases, searches of reference lists and forward citations of key papers. Results The seven eligible RCTs identified showed no significant difference in hip fracture risk in those randomised to cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol supplementation versus placebo/control (RR = 1.13[95%CI 0.98-1.29]; 801 cases, with no significant difference between trials of 21 (heterogeneity = 51.02, p 216 (heterogeneity = 137.9, p 29 (heterogeneity = 149.68, p Conclusions Neither higher nor lower dose vitamin D supplementation prevented hip fracture. Randomised and observational data on vitamin D and hip fracture appear to differ. The reason for this is unclear; one possible explanation is uncontrolled confounding in observational studies. Post-fracture PTH levels are unrelated to hip fracture risk.

  13. A mechanical comparison of linear and double-looped hung supplemental heavy chain resistance to the back squat: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelly, Kurt R; Terry, Joseph G; Morris, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new and scarcely researched technique to increase strength is the use of supplemental heavy chain resistance (SHCR) in conjunction with plate weights to provide variable resistance to free weight exercises. The purpose of this case study was to determine the actual resistance being provided by a double-looped versus a linear hung SHCR to the back squat exercise. The linear technique simply hangs the chain directly from the bar, whereas the double-looped technique uses a smaller chain to adjust the height of the looped chain. In both techniques, as the squat descends, chain weight is unloaded onto the floor, and as the squat ascends, chain weight is progressively loaded back as resistance. One experienced and trained male weight lifter (age = 33 yr; height = 1.83 m; weight = 111.4 kg) served as the subject. Plate weight was set at 84.1 kg, approximately 50% of the subject's 1 repetition maximum. The SHCR was affixed to load cells, sampling at a frequency of 500 Hz, which were affixed to the Olympic bar. Data were collected as the subject completed the back squat under the following conditions: double-looped 1 chain (9.6 kg), double-looped 2 chains (19.2 kg), linear 1 chain, and linear 2 chains. The double-looped SHCR resulted in a 78-89% unloading of the chain weight at the bottom of the squat, whereas the linear hanging SHCR resulted in only a 36-42% unloading. The double-looped technique provided nearly 2 times the variable resistance at the top of the squat compared with the linear hanging technique, showing that attention must be given to the technique used to hang SHCR.

  14. Study on Utilization of Detoxified Jatropha curcas Seed Cake Subjected to Solid State Fermentation as a Dietary Supplement in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath, Belame S; Muthukumar, Sevva P; Somashekar, Devappa

    2017-01-01

    The presence of anti-nutrients and toxins like phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas seed cake (JSC) limits its application in feeds. This study was done to assess the potential of detoxified JSC as rat feed. The rats were fed a diet containing 0-5 and 10% of detoxified fermented JSC for four weeks. For the group I, only casein diet was used in rat feed as a negative control. For the group II, untreated JSC was used in rat feed as a positive control. For the group III, fermented JSC using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC-36 was used. For the group IV, the fermented JSC treated with 65% ethanol to remove the residual toxic phorbol esters was used as rat feed. The rats fed with untreated JSC showed increased levels of serum liver enzymes as an indication of the onset of liver disease resulting in mortality. In this group, rats died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe as feed until it is processed. The rats fed with detoxified JSC with 5 and 10% level survived with no adverse effects, and the performance was on par with the control groups, although the body weight was slightly less compared to control. Therefore, it was concluded that the detoxified JSC might be the potential and alternative source of protein in the animal feedstuffs up to 10% level. There are recent patents also suggesting the use of alternative feed supplements in the animal feed applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Choice architecture to promote fruit and vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC): randomized corner store pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N; Bright, Oliver-John M; Dimond, Melissa A; Fishman, Ronald; Levy, Douglas E

    2017-05-01

    To conduct a pilot study to determine if improving the visibility and quality of fresh produce (choice architecture) in corner stores would increase fruit/vegetable purchases by families participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Six stores were randomly assigned to choice architecture intervention or control. Store-level WIC sales data were provided by the state. Primary outcomes were WIC fruit/vegetable voucher and non-fruit/vegetable voucher sales, comparing trends from baseline (December 2012-October 2013) with the five-month intervention period (December 2013-April 2014). Secondary outcomes were differences in customer self-reported fruit/vegetable purchases between baseline and end of the intervention. Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income urban community. Adult customers (n 575) completing store exit interviews. During baseline, WIC fruit/vegetable and non-fruit/vegetable sales decreased in both intervention and control stores by $US 16/month. During the intervention period, WIC fruit/vegetable sales increased in intervention stores by $US 40/month but decreased in control stores by $US 23/month (difference in trends: $US 63/month; 95 % CI 4, 121 $US/month; P=0·036); WIC non-fruit/vegetable sales were not different (P=0·45). Comparing baseline and intervention-period exit interview responses by customers participating in WIC (n 134), intervention store customers reported increased fruit/vegetable purchases compared with control store customers (18 v. -2 %), but this did not achieve statistical significance (P=0·11). Placement of fruits/vegetables near the front of corner stores increased purchase of produce by customers using WIC. New policies that incentivize stores to stock and prominently display good-quality produce could promote healthier food choices of low-income families.

  16. Oral supplement enriched in HMB combined with pulmonary rehabilitation improves body composition and health related quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis (Prospective, Randomised Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Olveira, Casilda; Doña, Esperanza; Palenque, Francisco Javier; Porras, Nuria; Dorado, Antonio; Godoy, Ana M; Rubio-Martínez, Elehazara; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Martín-Valero, Rocío

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is recommended for bronchiectasis but there is no data about its effect on body composition. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) for 12 weeks in normally-nourished non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis patients compared with the effect of PR plus a hyperproteic oral nutritional supplement enriched with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle strength, quality of life and serum biomarkers. single center randomized controlled trial, parallel treatment design: Participants were randomly assigned to receive PR for 12 weeks or PR plus ONS (PRONS) (one can per day). Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks: body composition (Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), phase angle by Bio-impedance), health related quality of life (Spanish QOL-B-V3.0, Physical Functioning Scale), handgrip strength, diet questionnaire, and plasma levels of prealbumin, myostatin and somatomedin-c. Thirty patients were randomized (15 per group) without differences in clinical and respiratory variables. In the PRONS group bone mineral density (BMD), mean and maximum handgrip dynamometry, MAMC, QOLB and prealbumin were significantly increased from baseline at 12 and 24 weeks and Fat free Mass (FFM) and FFM index, at 12 weeks. In the PR group only mean handgrip dynamometry and prealbumin were significantly increased at 12 and 24 weeks. In both groups plasma myostatin was reduced at 12 weeks (without significant differences). The addition of a hyperproteic ONS enriched with HMB to Pulmonary Rehabilitation could improve body composition, BMD, muscle strength and health related quality of life in bronchiectasis patients. Clinical Trials Number NCT02048397. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Participants' comments on changes in the revised special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children food packages: the Maryland food preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M; Oberlander, Sarah E; Hager, Erin R; McGill, Adrienne E; White, Nneka T; Quigg, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommended changes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages to help families from diverse populations establish more healthful dietary patterns. A cross-sectional study conducted during summer 2007 included interviews and focus groups with 223 WIC participants throughout Maryland. The objectives were to examine participants' responses to food package changes, to identify racial/ethnic differences, and to assess costs. All participants (100%) consumed fruits and vegetables. They preferred fresh for taste, but many endorsed canned and frozen for convenience and cost. Most women (56%) and children (69%) consumed whole milk and did not want reduced-fat milk. Few participants (13%) consumed soy products and most were uninterested in future consumption. Participants endorsed whole-wheat bread as more healthful and reported that they (59%) and their children (51%) would increase consumption if provided by WIC. Non-Hispanic participants preferred peanut butter over beans, Hispanic participants reported that they (44%) and their children (57%) would consume more beans (substituting for peanut butter) if provided by WIC. There were few differences in preferences between African-American and white participants. Hispanics differed from non-Hispanics in preference for beans and dislike of frozen and canned vegetables, suggesting the importance of choices. The proposed food packages were cost-neutral, except when extensive substitutions with soy products were allowed. By providing fruits and vegetables, reduced-fat options, and increased opportunities for nutrition education, the revised food packages may reduce the risk of obesity among low-income women, infants, and children.

  18. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  19. Micronutrient Supplementation, Dietary Intervention and Resulting Body Weight Gain of Severe Acute Malnourished Children – A Pilot Project Study of OJUS Medical Institute with Existing ICDS Project in Nasik District, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasree Ray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: OJUS Medical Institute in collaboration with Women & Child development department of Nashik District, Maharashtra conducted a target oriented pilot project study to see the improvement in body weight gain of SAM children, supplemented with nutritionally enriched diet and micronutrients. The Egg-DOT project is a target vertical intervention study that involved both Anganwadi workers and Community health workers to bring a fruitful result by working hand-in-hand. Rationale: ICDS is one of the best supplementary nutrition programs to address and eliminate malnutrition from the country. To make it more comprehensive and result oriented the pilot project study is formulated and executed to see if the addition in existing system could eradicate malnutrition in an effective manner and strengthen the Govt. health machinery. Objective: The study aimed at working along with the Govt. to reduce severity of malnutrition. It shouted for a healthy public-private relationship to bring optimum result from the existing Govt. project in reducing burden of malnutrition, spreading health education and behavioural modification in the community members by adopting a systematic micronutrient-diet-health education  intervention strategy. Materials & methods: Along with existing nutritional intervention, a small modification in diet is introduced to fulfill the deficit of 300 Kcal approximately. Good quality fat and protein are added to the Anganwadi meal with daily micronutrient supplementation. The supplementation is continued for 30 days in 25 SAM children of 3 to 5 years. The baseline and end line body weight measurements are taken and compared to see the improvement. Result: After 30 days of intervention the supplemented SAM children showed statistically significant increased body weight (P<0.01 with an overall healthy nutritional status. Conclusion: The study showed that public-private collaborative systematic strategy with proper

  20. Combining Exergame Training with Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study assessing the Effect on Neuronal Structure/Function in the Elderly Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schättin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling that might lead to injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g. decline in grey- and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that the sole administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a combination of exergame training with omega-3 FA supplementation on the elderly brain. We hypothesize that an intervention using a combination approach differently effects on the neuronal structure and function of the elderly’s brain as compared to the sole administration of exergame training. The study is a parallel, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial lasting 26 weeks. Sixty autonomous living, non-smoking, and right-handed healthy older (>65 years adults who live independently or in a senior residency are included, randomized, and allocated to one of two study groups. The experimental group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml fish oil (including 2.9g of omega-3 FA, whereas the control group receives a daily amount of 13.5ml olive oil for 26 weeks. After 16 weeks, both groups start with an exergame training program three times per week. Measurements are performed on three time-points by treatment blinded investigators: pre-intervention measurement, blood sample after 16 week, and post-intervention measurements. The main outcomes are motor evoked potentials of the right M. tibialis anterior (transcranial magnetic stimulation and response-related potentials (electroencephalography during a cognitive test. For secondary outcomes, reaction times during cognitive tests and spatio-temporal parameters during gait performance are measured. Statistics

  1. Efficacy of supplementation in filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayao, Charisse Marie S

    2015-01-01

    At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25) of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12) of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13). Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC) count, with the level progression statistically significant. Overall, the results

  2. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical formulation containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in a large series of patients with dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatell-Tortajada, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    To assess the benefits and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on omega-3 fatty acids to relieve dry eye symptoms. A total of 1,419 patients (74.3% women, mean age 58.9 years) with dry eye syndrome using artificial tears participated in a 12-week prospective study. Patients were instructed to take 3 capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec(®) 1.5 g). Study variables were dry eye symptoms (scratchy and stinging sensation, eye redness, grittiness, painful and tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time (TBUT), Schrimer I test, and Oxford grading scheme. At 12 weeks, each dry eye symptom improved significantly (Pdry eye symptoms were also found in compliant versus noncompliant patients as well as in those with moderate/severe versus none/mild conjunctival hyperemia. Oral ω-3 fatty acids supplementation was an effective treatment for dry eye symptoms.

  3. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi mask in the delivery of supplemental oxygen: Pilot study in oxygen-dependent patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecroft, Jaime M; Hanly, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada) is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA) in patients with chronic hypoxemia. METHODS: Oxygen-dependent patients with chronic, stable respiratory disease were recruited to compare the OxyMask and Venturi mask in a randomized, single-blind, cross-over design. Baseline blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) was established breathing room air, followed in a random order by supplemental oxygen through the OxyMask or Venturi mask. Oxygen delivery was titrated to maintain SaO2 4% to 5% and 8% to 9% above baseline for two separate 30 min periods of stable breathing. Oxygen flow rate, partial pressure of inspired and expired oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2), minute ventilation, heart rate, nasal and oral breathing, SaO2 and transcutaneous PCO2 were collected continuously. The study was repeated following alterations to the OxyMask design, which improved clearance of carbon dioxide. RESULTS: Thirteen patients, aged 28 to 79 years, were studied initially using the original OxyMask. Oxygen flow rate was lower, inspired PO2 was higher and expired PO2 was lower while using the OxyMask. Minute ventilation and inspired and expired PCO2 were significantly higher while using the OxyMask, whereas transcutaneous PCO2, heart rate and the ratio of nasal to oral breathing did not change significantly throughout the study. Following modification of the OxyMask, 13 additional patients, aged 18 to 79 years, were studied using the same protocol. The modified OxyMask provided a higher inspired PO2 at a lower flow rate, without evidence of carbon dioxide retention. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen is delivered safely and more efficiently by the OxyMask than by the Venturi mask in stable oxygen-dependent patients. PMID:16896425

  4. Effect of iron containing supplements on rats' dental caries progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Ar; Kowsari-Isfahan, R; Rezaiefar, M; Razavi, M; Zeighami, S

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit this vital supplement in their children's diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or non-cariogenic diet. Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; group C, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Section method, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III. The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenic diet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (pcariogenic dietary regimen.

  5. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  6. Vitamin C Supplementation Reduces Peroxidative Damage without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function tests and peroxidative damage in asthmatic children. Methodology: Fifteen asthmatics aged between 8 - 14 years, all in the stable state were used in this study. Three millilitres of blood were drawn from the antecubital ...

  7. Association of Parental Environmental Exposures and Supplementation Intake with Risk of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts: A Case-Control Study in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanru Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to check the possible association of potential parental environmental exposures and maternal supplementation intake with the risk of nonsyndromic orofacial clefting (NSOC. A retrospective study comprised 499 cases and 480 controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province. Chi-square analysis and unconditional multiple logistic regression were used in the study. The results showed that maternal history of fever and the common cold without fever (ORCL/P = 3.11 and 5.56, 95%CI: 1.67–5.82 and 2.96–10.47, ORCPO = 3.31 and 8.23, 95%CI: 1.58–6.94 and 4.08–16.95, paternal smoking and alcohol consumption (ORCL/P = 2.15 and 5.04, 95%CI: 1.37–3.38 and 3.00–8.46, ORCPO = 1.82 and 4.40, 95%CI: 1.06–3.13 and 2.50–7.74, maternal exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides (ORCL/P = 6.07, 5.67 and 5.97, 95%CI: 1.49–24.76, 1.34–24.09 and 2.10–16.98, ORCPO = 10.65, 7.28 and 3.48, 95%CI: 2.54–44.67, 1.41–37.63 and 1.06–11.46 and multivitamin use during the preconception period (ORCL/P = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02–0.23, ORCPO = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01–0.30 were associated with cleft lip or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO. Maternal history of skin disease and negative life events (ORCL/P = 12.07 and 1.67, 95%CI: 1.81–80.05 and 1.95–2.67 were associated with CL/P. Some potential parental hazardous exposures during the periconception period and maternal use of multivitamins during the preconception period were associated with risk of NSOC.

  8. Creatine supplementation and glycemic control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Camila Lemos; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Campos-Ferraz, Patrícia Lopes; Mota, João Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this review is the effects of creatine supplementation with or without exercise on glucose metabolism. A comprehensive examination of the past 16 years of study within the field provided a distillation of key data. Both in animal and human studies, creatine supplementation together with exercise training demonstrated greater beneficial effects on glucose metabolism; creatine supplementation itself demonstrated positive results in only a few of the studies. In the animal studies, the effects of creatine supplementation on glucose metabolism were even more distinct, and caution is needed in extrapolating these data to different species, especially to humans. Regarding human studies, considering the samples characteristics, the findings cannot be extrapolated to patients who have poorer glycemic control, are older, are on a different pharmacological treatment (e.g., exogenous insulin therapy) or are physically inactive. Thus, creatine supplementation is a possible nutritional therapy adjuvant with hypoglycemic effects, particularly when used in conjunction with exercise.

  9. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  10. Folic acid supplementation normalizes the endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with type 1 diabetes: a case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role in vascular wall repair. Patients with type 1 diabetes have reduced levels of endothelial progenitor cells of which their functional capacity is impaired. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress play a role in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in these patients. Folic acid, a B-vitamin with anti-oxidant properties, may be able to improve endothelial progenitor cell function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes compared to endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects. Furthermore, we studied the effect of folic acid on gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We used microarray analysis to investigate the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from type 1 diabetes patients before (n = 11 and after a four week period of folic acid supplementation (n = 10 compared to the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects (n = 11. The probability of genes being differentially expressed among the classes was computed using a random-variance t-test. A multivariate permutation test was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed among the two classes. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes was performed using the biological process ontology in the Gene Ontology database. Results Type 1 diabetes significantly modulated the expression of 1591 genes compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in processes regulating development, cell communication, cell adhesion and localization. After folic acid treatment, endothelial progenitor cell gene expression profiles from diabetic patients were similar to those from healthy controls. Genes that were normalized by folic acid played a prominent role in

  11. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  12. The Palatability of Cereal Based Nutritional Supplements in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420

  13. Prevalence of supplement use in recreationally active Kazakhstan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis; Romanova, Zhanna; Dushpanova, Anar; Absatarova, Karashash; Utepbergenova, Zhazira

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the supplements use and recreational sport practices in Kazakhstan university students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain supplements use prevalence and their predictors in this population. Cross-sectional survey of both undergraduate and graduate level students was completed in 2017 et al.-Farabi Kazakh National University, the largest higher institution in the country, from almost all Schools. A 45-item questionnaire was used to record physical activity, supplements use, lifestyle attributes (smoking, alcohol, sleep, etc.) and eating habits, and adjusted regression models were used to verify predictors of supplements use. Of the entire sample of 889 students (70% females), 526 (59%) were practicing recreational physical activity (RPA), and walking, jogging and track and field was the most popular activity type (38%). N  = 151 (29%) students reported the use of any supplement (31% in men and 27% in women), whereas the most popular supplement type were vitamins. Supplement use was most prevalent in swimmers (55%). Age (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37), use of fitness tracker (OR 6.26 (95% CI 3.90-10.03)) and low-fat diet (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.23-3.10)), but not income predicted supplements use in adjusted models. With more than half of students exercising regularly, only less than one-third use supplements with a very strong association with fitness tracker use.

  14. Dietary supplement intake during pregnancy; better safe than sorry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Alie; Bast, Aalt; Godschalk, Roger

    2018-06-01

    Consumption of dietary supplements and specifically niche products such as supplements targeting pregnant women is increasing. The advantages of dietary supplementation during pregnancy with folic acid have been established, but health effects of many other supplements have not been confirmed. EU and US legislation on dietary supplements requires the product to be safe for the direct consumer, the mother. Long-term health effects for the fetus due to fetal programming (in utero adaptation of the fetal epigenome due to environmental stimuli such as supplementation) are not taken into account. Such epigenetic alterations can, however, influence the response to health challenges in adulthood. We therefore call for both conducting research in birth cohorts and animal studies to identify potential health effects in progeny of supplement consuming mothers as well as the establishment of a nutrivigilance scheme to identify favorable and adverse effects post-marketing. The acquired knowledge can be used to create more effective legislation on dietary supplement intake during pregnancy for safety of the child. Increasing knowledge on the effects of consuming supplements will create a safer environment for future mothers and their offspring to optimize their health before, during and after pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  16. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  17. Vitamin Supplementation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E.; Roffman, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we review the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. We first describe the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, then review the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. We then describe mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. We highlight the need for larger, randomized controlled trials, and recommend further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products. PMID:24846474

  18. Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies Evaluation Number 16. Supplement to Evaluation 15: Update of Key Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, S. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Barker, J. R.; Golden, D. M.; Kurylo, M. J.; Wine, P. H.; Abbatt, J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Moortgat, G. K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This is the supplement to the fifteenth in a series of evaluated sets of rate constants and photochemical cross sections compiled by the NASA Panel for Data Evaluation. The data are used primarily to model stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes, with particular emphasis on the ozone layer and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic and natural phenomena. Copies of this evaluation are available in electronic form and may be printed from the following Internet URL: http://jpldataeval.jpl.nasa.gov/.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  20. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of

  1. Supplemental treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with natural milk antibodies against enteromicrobes and their toxins: results of an open-labelled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuno Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors, particularly commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether natural milk antibodies against a wide spectrum of pathogenic enteromicobes and their toxins modify the disease activity in RA. Methods Twenty patients with RA, whose disease activity was uncontrolled by authentic medications due to drug resistance, complications and/or risk factors were treated for 3