WorldWideScience

Sample records for studies united states

  1. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  2. Black Studies and United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptheker, Herbert

    1971-01-01

    A consciously anti-racist historiography is urgently needed by the historical profession. The movement for what is called Black Studies would contribute decisively towards making the educational process real and wholesome, and help exalt the historical profession in the United States. (Author)

  3. Chinese Students' Motivations for Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chiang-nan; Hegarty, Niall; Angelidis, John; Lu, Victor F.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the presence of Chinese students in U.S., and attempts to explore the reasons why so many Chinese students choose to study abroad and why the United States is their preferred destination. This population is a vital component of university life at many colleges and a much needed source of financial revenue. The results indicate…

  4. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  5. Coal facies studies in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8433 (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2004-04-23

    Coals in the eastern United States (east of the Mississippi River) have been the subject of a number of coal facies studies, going back to the 19th century. Such studies would not necessarily fall within a strict modern classification of coal facies studies, but if a study encompassed some aspects of paleobotany, palynology, petrology, geochemistry, or sedimentology, we assumed that some data and interpretations may be of use in evaluations of the facies. References are presented, as a guide for further research, with annotation in the tables.

  6. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  7. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  8. The Beginnings of Communication Study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The history of communication research in the United States is reviewed in this paper through an extensive look at the lives of four men who made significant contributions to the field: Harold Lasswell, Kurt Lewin, Paul Lazarsfeld, and Carl Hovland. The pattern of institute formation in the social sciences is briefly reviewed to explain the…

  9. Challenges Facing Chinese International Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yuerong; Renes, Susan L.; McMurrow, Samantha; Simpson, Joni; Strange, Anthony T.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese international students often find it challenging to adjust to attending college in the United States (US). There is limited research addressing Chinese international college students' adjustment in the US. Drawing on what literature exists combined with research addressing Chinese immigrants' transition and international students'…

  10. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  11. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  12. Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Few words in the realm of earth science have caused more debate than "loess". It is a common term that was first used as a name of a silt deposit before it was defined in a scientific sense. Because this "loose" deposit is easily distinguished from other more coherent deposits, it was recognized as a matter of practical concern and later became the object of much scientific scrutiny. Loess was first recognized along the Rhine Valley in Germany in the 1830s and was first noted in the United States in 1846 along the lower Mississippi River where it later became the center of attention. The use of the name eventually spread around the world, but its use has not been consistently applied. Over the years some interpretations and stratigraphic correlations have been validated, but others have been hotly contested on conceptual grounds and semantic issues. The concept of loess evolved into a complex issue as loess and loess-like deposits were discovered in different parts of the US. The evolution of concepts in the central US developed in four indefinite stages: the eras of (1) discovery and development of hypotheses, (2) conditional acceptance of the eolian origin of loess, (3) "bandwagon" popularity of loess research, and (4) analytical inquiry on the nature of loess. Toward the end of the first era around 1900, the popular opinion on the meaning of the term loess shifted from a lithological sense of loose silt to a lithogenetic sense of eolian silt. However, the dual use of the term fostered a lingering skepticism during the second era that ended in 1944 with an explosion of interest that lasted for more than a decade. In 1944, R.J. Russell proposed and H.N. Fisk defended a new non-eolian, property-based, concept of loess. The eolian advocates reacted with surprise and enthusiasm. Each side used constrained arguments to show their view of the problem, but did not examine the fundamental problem, which was not in the proofs of their hypothesis, but in the definition of

  13. Trends in Infant Mortality in United States: A Brief Study of the Southeastern States from 2005–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojia He; Luma Akil; Aker, Winfred G.; Huey-Min Hwang; Ahmad, Hafiz A.

    2015-01-01

    While overall infant mortality rates have declined over the past several decades, the Southeastern states have remained the leading states in high infant death in the United States. In this study, we studied the differences in infant mortality in the southeastern United States from 2005 through 2009 according to mother’s characteristics (age of mother, marital status, maternal race, maternal education), birth characteristics (month when maternal prenatal care began, birth weight), and infant’...

  14. The National Environmental Literacy Project: A Baseline Study of Middle Grade Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, William; Volk, Trudi L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss environmental literacy in the United States and present a brief summary of the results of a major national study designed to attain a baseline measure of environmental literacy among middle school students in the United States. The authors include events that led up to the study and describe future directions for environmental…

  15. Buddhism in the United States: an Ethnographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeon Choe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Buddhism in America, an neglected area of inquiry in anthropological study. There is a need for modern ethnographic studies to shed light on historical issues, paradigms for comparative inquiry, and thus, explore the impact of Buddhism on modern American society (Glazier, 1997. The enormous growth of Buddhism in the last quarter century (Smith, 2002 makes this an especially pertinent topic in American anthropology. We utilize Glazier’s model to add Buddhism as a topic in the area of modernity studies. This is a preliminary study of the nature of Buddhism in America. We conducted participant observation with a Buddhist meditation group in a north eastern state in the US for four months in the spring of 2010. Based on our preliminary ethnographic data, we believe that a unique perspectives of Buddhism in America can be identified: non-religious and therapeutic involvement or use of Buddhism. Also, new forms of practice become evident, for example, ‘walking meditation’ and ‘bowing to other Buddhists,’ are identified as characteristics of Buddhism in America. It is interesting to note that at the end of meditation sessions, participants not only bow to the Buddha statue, but also bow to each other. This is a unique ritual dynamic which appears to be consistent with the worldview of American people - being equal and individual. The meditation group also practiced ‘walking meditation’ which is easy to do in everyday life. Additionally, we observed that American meditation rooms provide additional cushions to sit on which are a further element, along with walking meditation, which help American beginners to meditate more easily. These study observations shed light on the current situation by providing new lenses from which to understand and focus on different ritual performances/interpretations of Buddhism, and their meanings and functions in society. The most important reflection is that religious change is not an

  16. Image of the United States as a travel destination: a case study of United Kingdom college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Hee Park; Pavlina Latkova; Sarah Nicholls

    2007-01-01

    The youth travel market is a major growth segment of international tourism. The purpose of this study was to explore the travel behaviors and perceptions of United Kingdom college students with regards to the United States as a travel destination. Two objectives were formulated, to determine whether image dimensions differed based on (1) travel behavior, and (2) socio-...

  17. Online marketing strategies of plastic surgeons and clinics: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Navsaria, Harshad; Myers, Simon; Frame, James

    2011-07-01

    The cosmetic surgery market is a rapidly growing sector of healthcare, and the use of marketing strategies is now an integral part of any cosmetic surgery practice. In this study, the authors review 50 Web sites from practitioners in London and New York to quantify the utilization of online marketing, comparing results between the United Kingdom and the United States.

  18. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  19. Ethnic Studies in the United States as decolonial studies within the overall university system westernized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Grosfoguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the Westernized university and its Eurocentric fundamentalism in relation to the subaltern struggles of racialized groups in the United States and its impact on the formation of ethnic studies in the university’s epistemic structure. The article goes on to discuss questions of epistemic racism/sexism and the dilemmas that ethnic studies programs confront today in particular forms of disciplinary colonization, liberal multiculturalism and identity politics.

  20. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-14

    This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  1. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  2. Unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound : a case study of United States, United Kingdom and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hatleskog, Anne; Lappi, Henna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound: First, we assemble a framework for implementing and evaluating unconventional monetary policy. Second, we use the framework to conduct three detailed case studies on unconventional policy responses in Japan, United States and United Kingdom. Third, we make a cross-country analysis of the development in key macroeconomic variables after the adaption of unconventional monetary policies. We find...

  3. United States Marine Corps Assault Amphibian Vehicle Egress Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the death of a Marine. Every consideration should be given to the findings of this 90 study; they should be applied to the re-design of the AAV, the...http://www.dtic.mil/cgi- bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ada430450 Kovach, G. C. (2011, January 21). Amtrackers mourn Marine who drowned in training accident...Retrieved from utsandiego.com: http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2011/Jan/20/amtrackers- mourn -fallen- marine/ Lyle, A. (2013, March 12). National security

  4. THE IMPACT OF DISTANCE EDUCATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION: A Case Study of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D. CARUTH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Distance education has been credited for bringing education to students who would not otherwise have educational opportunities. This study used a qualitative case study approach to examine the research to determine the impact of distance education on higher education in the United States. This look into the impact of distance education is significant to higher education because informed knowledge of the impact will provide insight into the effects of overall education in the United States. The researchers asked the following two exploratory questions: What happened during the evolution of distance education in the United States? What themes emerged over time? The findings suggested that the impact of distance education on higher education in the United States has been change. It can be anticipated that in the future changes will continue to occur. Consequently, higher education has to be prepared to teach about change and teach students how to handle change.

  5. The securitization of sex trafficking: a comparative case study of Sweden and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Ainsley Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex trafficking is a form of transnational organized crime, which may pose security threats to nation states. This project examines the roles that Sweden and the United States (US) played as global leaders in securitizing sex trafficking. This comparative case study identifies and analyzes both states' securitization processes according to the Copenhagen School's securitization framework. This project argues that both states securitized sex trafficking in the early 1990s through to 2009 in a ...

  6. An Overview of Research Infrastructure for Medieval Studies in the United States: Associations, Institutes, and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Kocher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview of research infrastructure in the United States brieflymentions some institutes, universities, associations, conferences,sources of funding, types of courses, research databases, academicjournals and book publishers. It intends to make American medievalistresources better accessible to colleagues from other countries, and toencourage those who wish to study in the United States and those whoare using the Internet to seek printed or digital materials for theirteaching or research.

  7. Comparison of Elementary Social Studies Curricula of Turkey and the United States on Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Zihni; Kus, Zafer; Karatekin, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the social studies teaching curricula of Turkey and the United States in terms of values education. The study is a model case study that relies upon one of the qualitative research methods. The data come from the elementary social studies curricula of both countries through the documents analysis method. The…

  8. Music Education in Montessori Schools: An Exploratory Study of School Directors' Perceptions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Rekha S.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the changing role of music education and the availability of musical experiences for students attending Montessori schools in the Midwestern United States. On a survey instrument designed by the researcher, Montessori school directors (N = 36) from eight states shared descriptions of the current role of music at…

  9. Depression among Korean immigrant elders living in Canada and the United States: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kang, Suk-Young; Kim, Isok

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrant elders in North America experience a high level of depression. This study explored the correlates of depression among a sample of 245 Korean immigrant elders living in metropolitan cities in Canada (n = 128) and a southwestern state in the United States (n = 117), using a stress-coping framework. Results revealed discrepancies between the 2 subgroups. Years since immigration and number of health concerns were positively associated, and English proficiency was negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Korean immigrant elders in the United States; only health status was significant among Korean immigrant elders in Canada. Implications of the study are presented.

  10. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  11. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  12. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  13. Use of ground-penetrating radar to study tree roots in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; J.A. Doolittle; L. Kress; Susan Cohen; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2001-01-01

    Summary: The objectives of our study were to assess the feasibility of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to study roots over a broad range of soil conditions in the southeastern United States. Study sites were located in the Southern Piedmont, Carolina Sandhills and Atlantic Coast Flatwoods. At each site, we tested for selection of the appropriate...

  14. Comparison of Social Studies Education in the United States, China, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.; Choi, Jungsoon; Lee, Seung-Yun

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief picture of social studies education in the United States, China, and South Korea. It begins with a brief account of the K-12 curriculum structure and history of social studies education in each country in the 20th century. It then turns to a contemporary look at the social studies, the national curriculum standards…

  15. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-01-01

    ...: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data...

  16. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  17. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about our courses and how to apply Publication Electronic cigarette fires and explosions in the United States ... unique hazard to users. 62 percent of the electronic cigarette explosion and fire incidents reviewed in this ...

  18. Capital punishment views in China and the United States: a preliminary study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanhe; Lambert, Eric G; Wang, Jin

    2007-02-01

    There is a lack of research on attitudes toward capital punishment in China, and there is even less research on cross-national comparisons of capital punishment views. Using data recently collected from college students in the United States and China, this study finds that U.S. and Chinese students have differences in their views on the death penalty and its functions of deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation. This study also reveals that the respondents' perspectives of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and incapacitation all affect their attitudes toward the death penalty in the United States, whereas only the first three views affect attitudes toward capital punishment in China. Furthermore, retribution is the strongest predictor in the United States, whereas deterrence is the strongest predictor in China.

  19. To Sum It Up: Case Studies of Education in Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Harold W.; Nerison-Low, Roberta

    This document is one of five publications in the Case Study Project, a component of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The Project was designed to provide in-depth information about education at the 4th, 8th, and 12th grade levels in Germany, Japan, and the United States. Four research topics, selected by the U.S.…

  20. The Impact of Distance Education on Higher Education: A Case Study of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.; Caruth, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Distance education has been credited for bringing education to students who would not otherwise have educational opportunities. This study used a qualitative case study approach to examine the research to determine the impact of distance education on higher education in the United States. This look into the impact of distance education is…

  1. Rural change and circular migration to the United States. A case of study from Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Levi Levi

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of circular migration to the United States upon the economic and social changes in the rural areas influenced by it. Factors as innovations in agricultural practices, penetration of capital, increased commercialization, expansion of infrastructure and social modifications within rural areas will be examined. These changes have increased the local importance of temporary migration to the United States. Using case studies in Michoacan, the impact of the flow of remittances associated with this form of movement is explored.

  2. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  3. A numerical study on hydrological impacts of forest restoration in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.-Q. Liu

    2010-01-01

    Landscape in the southern United States changed dramatically during the 1930s and the following decades when massive agricultural and abandoned logging lands were converted to forest lands through natural restoration and silviculture. The impacts of this forest restoration on hydrology were investigated in this study by conducting numerical experiments with a regional...

  4. A Global Investigation of Child Labor: Case Studies from India, Uganda, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…

  5. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  6. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  7. A Case Study of the Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery Activities in State Level Digital Depositories in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shiou Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the novel phenomenon of librarian-initiated publications discovery (LIPD in state-level digital depositories in the United States. LIPD is a series of actions taken by digital depository librarians to discover and inspect government Web sites and select Web content qualifying as government publications for inclusion in the state depositories. In a current popular model in which states employ OCLC Digital Archive™ for the depositories, the power of content selection has shifted from government agencies (content producers to digital depositories. This study systematically documented and compared the LIPD actions in four case states and developed a LIPD process model for descriptive and analytic purposes. It also discusses the impacts and challenges facing the changing practices in preserving government information as historical record. [Article content in Chinese

  8. Tracking Dabbing Using Search Query Surveillance: A Case Study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dabbing is an emerging method of marijuana ingestion. However, little is known about dabbing owing to limited surveillance data on dabbing. Objective The aim of the study was to analyze Google search data to assess the scope and breadth of information seeking on dabbing. Methods Google Trends data about dabbing and related topics (eg, electronic nicotine delivery system [ENDS], also known as e-cigarettes) in the United States between January 2004 and December 2015 were collected by using relevant search terms such as “dab rig.” The correlation between dabbing (including topics: dab and hash oil) and ENDS (including topics: vaping and e-cigarette) searches, the regional distribution of dabbing searches, and the impact of cannabis legalization policies on geographical location in 2015 were analyzed. Results Searches regarding dabbing increased in the United States over time, with 1,526,280 estimated searches during 2015. Searches for dab and vaping have very similar temporal patterns, where the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) is .992 (P<.001). Similar phenomena were also obtained in searches for hash oil and e-cigarette, in which the corresponding PCC is .931 (P<.001). Dabbing information was searched more in some western states than other regions. The average dabbing searches were significantly higher in the states with medical and recreational marijuana legalization than in the states with only medical marijuana legalization (P=.02) or the states without medical and recreational marijuana legalization (P=.01). Conclusions Public interest in dabbing is increasing in the United States. There are close associations between dabbing and ENDS searches. The findings suggest greater popularity of dabs in the states that legalized medical and recreational marijuana use. This study proposes a novel and timely way of cannabis surveillance, and these findings can help enhance the understanding of the popularity of dabbing and provide insights for future

  9. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association and Larry... Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent... for chiropractic services. Copies of the Complaint, proposed Final Judgment, and Competitive Impact...

  10. Trends in Infant Mortality in United States: A Brief Study of the Southeastern States from 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Akil, Luma; Aker, Winfred G.; Hwang, Huey-Min; Ahmad, Hafiz A.

    2015-01-01

    While overall infant mortality rates have declined over the past several decades, the Southeastern states have remained the leading states in high infant death in the United States. In this study, we studied the differences in infant mortality in the southeastern United States from 2005 through 2009 according to mother’s characteristics (age of mother, marital status, maternal race, maternal education), birth characteristics (month when maternal prenatal care began, birth weight), and infant’s characteristics (age of infant at death). This paper illustrates the significance level of each characteristic of mothers and infants, as well as socioeconomic factors that contribute to significant infant mortality that impacts subgroups within the US population. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance studies were performed and presented. Statistical analysis of the contribution of causes of infant death to infant mortality at the national and state level was elaborated. Data suggest that mothers with no prenatal care had a very high overall infant death rate (5281.83 and 4262.16 deaths per 100,000 births in Mississippi and Louisiana, respectively, whereas the US average was 3074.82 deaths (p < 0.01)). It is suggested that better education and living quality should be available and improved for the residents in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. PMID:25955527

  11. Trends in Infant Mortality in United States: A Brief Study of the Southeastern States from 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While overall infant mortality rates have declined over the past several decades, the Southeastern states have remained the leading states in high infant death in the United States. In this study, we studied the differences in infant mortality in the southeastern United States from 2005 through 2009 according to mother’s characteristics (age of mother, marital status, maternal race, maternal education, birth characteristics (month when maternal prenatal care began, birth weight, and infant’s characteristics (age of infant at death. This paper illustrates the significance level of each characteristic of mothers and infants, as well as socioeconomic factors that contribute to significant infant mortality that impacts subgroups within the US population. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance studies were performed and presented. Statistical analysis of the contribution of causes of infant death to infant mortality at the national and state level was elaborated. Data suggest that mothers with no prenatal care had a very high overall infant death rate (5281.83 and 4262.16 deaths per 100,000 births in Mississippi and Louisiana, respectively, whereas the US average was 3074.82 deaths (p < 0.01. It is suggested that better education and living quality should be available and improved for the residents in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi.

  12. Trends in infant mortality in United States: a brief study of the Southeastern states from 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Akil, Luma; Aker, Winfred G; Hwang, Huey-Min; Ahmad, Hafiz A

    2015-05-06

    While overall infant mortality rates have declined over the past several decades, the Southeastern states have remained the leading states in high infant death in the United States. In this study, we studied the differences in infant mortality in the southeastern United States from 2005 through 2009 according to mother's characteristics (age of mother, marital status, maternal race, maternal education), birth characteristics (month when maternal prenatal care began, birth weight), and infant's characteristics (age of infant at death). This paper illustrates the significance level of each characteristic of mothers and infants, as well as socioeconomic factors that contribute to significant infant mortality that impacts subgroups within the US population. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance studies were performed and presented. Statistical analysis of the contribution of causes of infant death to infant mortality at the national and state level was elaborated. Data suggest that mothers with no prenatal care had a very high overall infant death rate (5281.83 and 4262.16 deaths per 100,000 births in Mississippi and Louisiana, respectively, whereas the US average was 3074.82 deaths (p < 0.01)). It is suggested that better education and living quality should be available and improved for the residents in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi.

  13. Migration from Mexico to the United States and conduct disorder: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Saito, Naomi; Tancredi, Daniel J; Benjet, Corina; Hinton, Ladson; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kravitz, Richard; Vega, William; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2011-12-01

    Twin studies suggest that conduct disorder (CD) is under substantial genetic influence, which is stronger for aggressive than for nonaggressive symptoms. Studies of migrating populations offer an alternative strategy for separating environmental and genetic influences on psychiatric disorders. To examine variation in the prevalence of CD associated with migration from Mexico to the United States and to determine whether this variation is similar for aggressive and nonaggressive CD symptoms and symptom profiles. The prevalences of CD, different types of CD symptoms, and CD symptom profiles were compared across 3 generations of people of Mexican origin with increasing levels of exposure to American culture: families of origin of migrants (residing in Mexico), children of Mexican migrants raised in the United States, and Mexican-American children of US-born parents. General population surveys conducted in Mexico and the United States using the same diagnostic interview. Adults aged 18 to 44 years in the household population of Mexico and the household population of people of Mexican descent in the United States. Conduct disorder criteria, assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Compared with the risk in families of origin of migrants, risk of CD was lower in the general population of Mexico (odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.19-1.51), higher in children of Mexican-born immigrants who were raised in the United States (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.47-11.52), and higher still in Mexican-American children of US-born parents (OR, 7.64; 95% CI, 3.20-18.27). The association with migration was markedly weaker for aggressive than for nonaggressive symptoms. The prevalence of CD increases dramatically across generations of the Mexican-origin population after migration to the United States. This increase is of larger magnitude for nonaggressive than for aggressive symptoms, consistent with the suggestion that nonaggressive

  14. Men's body depilation: an exploratory study of United States college students' preferences, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A; O'Neil, Katherine

    2014-09-01

    Young men in Western cultures frequently engage in body depilation practices, but little is known regarding how such bodies are perceived. This exploratory study asked United States college students (N=238) to view six pictures of the same male body with different amounts of visible body hair and to indicate which body was most sexually attractive to themselves, to most men, and to most women. Both men and women chose a relatively hairless male body as the most sexually attractive. Women, however, thought men would choose a hairier body than men actually did. Most of the men reduced or removed body hair, especially from the pubic area. Questionnaire responses indicated that men and women had similar attitudes toward men's body hair, with both hair reduction and hair retention being socially acceptable. Men's body depilation, while still optional, may be becoming normative, at least among United States college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M

    2018-01-08

    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  16. The Role of Social Media in the Acculturation of South Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Dilshad

    2017-01-01

    Some South Asian immigrants in the United States experience acculturative stress as a result of sociocultural differences. Social media is a tool that can facilitate the process of acculturation of some ethnic groups in the United States such as Hispanics. The specific problem that the researcher examined in this study was that the use of social…

  17. Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory Study of Immigrant Teens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Rosario-Ramos, Enid

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the literacy practices that are involved in transnational social and information networking among youths of immigrant backgrounds in the United States. In particular, it investigates the ways in which young migrants of diverse national origins in the United States are utilising digital media to organise social relationships…

  18. Colombians in the United States: A Study of Their Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Cándida Madrigal

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which four factors—acculturation, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and resilience—can explain the well-being of Colombian immigrants in the United States across three waves of immigration (wave 1, from 1945–1964; wave 2, from 1965–1989; and wave 3, from 1990–2008). The results indicate that of the four factors, self-esteem most correlated with and was a predictor of well-being. Participants exhibited high levels of well-being as their level of self-esteem increa...

  19. Constitution of the State of Illinois and United States: Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    The study guide, intended for adults wishing to obtain a General Educational Development (GED) certificate in Illinois, discusses the U.S. Constitution, the Illinois Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and rules for displaying the U.S. flag. The objective is to aid adults in passing the constitution component of the GED examination.…

  20. Inter-basin water transfer: case studies from Australia, United States, Canada, China, and India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghassemi, F; White, I

    2007-01-01

    ... operating in these countries. It examines the water resources of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, and explores inter-basin water transfer projects in the United States, Canada, China and India, examining their benefits...

  1. Colombians in the United States: A Study of Their Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Madrigal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which four factors—acculturation, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and resilience—can explain the well-being of Colombian immigrants in the United States across three waves of immigration (wave 1, from 1945–1964; wave 2, from 1965–1989; and wave 3, from 1990–2008. The results indicate that of the four factors, self-esteem most correlated with and was a predictor of well-being. Participants exhibited high levels of well-being as their level of self-esteem increased. Ethnic identity negatively predicted well-being, especially for men who entered during wave 3; as the extent of their ethnic identity increased, their well-being decreased. Correspondingly, Colombians who entered as political refugees reported a lower level of well-being. This research was groundbreaking in assessing factors contributing to the well-being of Colombian immigrants and assisting in the search for appropriate scales to study this population. Although its results have to be considered with caution, the study opens doors to future research, policies, and programs regarding the mental health assessment and treatment of Colombians in the United States.

  2. Risk For Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant Arabic Women in the United States: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasanat, Dalia; Fry-McComish, Judith; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2017-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 14% of women in the United States and 10% to 37% of Arabic women in the Middle East. Evidence suggests that immigrant women experience higher rates, but information on PPD among immigrant women of Arabic descent in the United States is nonexistent. A cross-sectional descriptive feasibility study was conducted to assess the practicality of implementing a larger proposed research study to examine predictors of PPD in US immigrant women of Arabic descent residing in Dearborn, Michigan. Fifty women were recruited from an Arab community center and completed demographic data, the Arabic version of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R). Among participants, 36% were considered at high risk for developing PPD. Lack of social support, antenatal anxiety, antenatal depression, maternity blues (feeling depressed during the first 4 weeks postpartum), and life stress were significantly related to risk for PPD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social support (t = -3.77, P Arabic descent and support the feasibility of a larger and more in-depth understanding of their immigration and acculturation experiences. Study participants reported high risk for PPD. Maternity blues and lack of social support were significant predictors to the risk for PPD. Future research tailored to this minority group is recommended. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. A comparative study of clinical supervision in the Republic of Ireland and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael V; Creaner, Mary; Hutman, Heidi; Timulak, Ladislav

    2015-10-01

    We replicated Son, Ellis, and Yoo (2013) and extended Ellis et al.'s (2014) taxonomy of harmful and inadequate supervision by providing and testing cross-national comparative descriptive data about clinical supervision practices in the Republic of Ireland versus the United States. Participants were 149 Republic of Ireland and 151 U.S. mental health supervisees currently receiving clinical supervision. The results suggested that characteristics of supervision in the Republic of Ireland and United States evidenced both similarities and differences. The dissimilar credentialing systems appeared to account for the observed differences, suggesting that Ellis et al.'s (2014) criteria for inadequate supervision need to be modified to account for country-specific standards for supervision. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were observed between the Republic of Ireland and United States in the high occurrence of inadequate, harmful, or exceptional supervision. The results suggested that 79.2% (Republic of Ireland) and 69.5% (United States) of the supervisees were categorized as currently receiving inadequate supervision, and 40.3% (Republic of Ireland) and 25.2% (United States) of the supervisees as receiving harmful supervision. At some point in their careers, 92.4% (Republic of Ireland) and 86.4% (United States) of the supervisees received inadequate supervision--51.7% (Republic of Ireland) and 39.7% (United States) received harmful supervision. On the positive side, 51.0% (Republic of Ireland) and 55.0% (United States) of the supervisees reported receiving exceptional supervision from their current supervisors. Substantial discrepancies were observed between supervisees' perceptions versus more objective criteria of the inadequate or harmful supervision they received. Implications for cross-national supervision research and training are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Exercise and limitations in physical activity levels among new dialysis patients in the United States: an epidemiologic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States.

  5. Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2010-12-01

    The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns monitored using actigraphy for 8 months: one month in both fall and spring academic semesters over a 4-year period. Data were collected at the United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. Participants were members of the class of 2007 (n˜1300) ranging in age from 17 to 22 when entering USMA. A sample of the class (n=80) wore wrist activity monitors and completed activity logs for one month in fall and spring academic semesters for the 4-year period. On average over the 4 years, cadets sleptdebt. Cadets slept more during fall than spring semesters. Male and female cadet sleep patterns varied dramatically, with males consistently receiving less sleep than females (˜21 m for nighttime sleep and ˜23 m for daily sleep). Cadet sleep at USMA is related to academic year, semester, season, sex, school day or weekend, and day of the week. These students suffer from chronic sleep debt. Restrictions imposed by the military academy limit the generalizability of the findings to other college age populations.

  6. United States version of the Stroke Driver Screening Assessment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwuntan, Abiodun Emmanuel; Gantt, Diana; Gibson, Gina; Kimmons, Kurt; Ross, Valerie; Rosen, Peter Newman; Wachtel, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Most stroke survivors who resume driving in the United States do so within the first year. More than 87% of these individuals resume driving without a formal evaluation of their fitness to drive because of the absence of standard practices and generally accepted and valid screening tools. The Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (SDSA) is an established battery for predicting stroke survivors' driving performance but is not currently used in the United States. This pilot study investigated the predictive ability of the US version of the battery in a US-based cohort of stroke survivors. Fifteen first-ever stroke survivors (age, 52±12 years) and 16 healthy adults (age, 40±16 years) were administered the US version of the SDSA in a standardized format. Performance on the SDSA was compared with driving performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Stroke and healthy participants' driving performance was predicted with 87% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The US version of the SDSA battery has the potential to be a good predictor of driving performance of mildly impaired stroke survivors. Larger studies are needed to further establish its predictive accuracy.

  7. Teaching English as an Additional Language In The Global Classroom: A Transnational Study In The United States and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail McEachron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.

  8. The United States Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Study: evidence for vector-borne transmission of the parasite that causes Chagas disease among United States blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Paul T; Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Kamel, Hany; Ofafa, Karen; Todd, Charles W; Currier, Mary; Hand, Sheryl; Varnado, Wendy; Dotson, Ellen; Hall, Chris; Jett, Pamela L; Montgomery, Susan P

    2012-09-01

    Screening US blood donors for Trypanosoma cruzi infection is identifying autochthonous, chronic infections. Two donors in Mississippi were identified through screening and investigated as probable domestically acquired vector-borne infections, and the US T. cruzi Infection Study was conducted to evaluate the burden of and describe putative risk factors for vector-borne infection in the United States. Blood donors who tested enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay repeat reactive and positive by radioimmunoprecipitation assay, and whose mode of infection could not be identified, were evaluated with a questionnaire to identify possible sources of infection and by additional serologic and hemoculture testing for T. cruzi infection. Of 54 eligible donors, 37 (69%) enrolled in the study. Fifteen (41%) enrollees had four or more positive serologic tests and were considered positive for T. cruzi infection; one was hemoculture positive. Of the 15, three (20%) donors had visited a rural area of an endemic country, although none had stayed for 2 or more weeks. All had lived in a state with documented T. cruzi vector(s) or infected mammalian reservoir(s), 13 (87%) reported outdoor leisure or work activities, and 11 (73%) reported seeing wild reservoir animals on their property. This report adds 16 cases, including one from the Mississippi investigation, of chronic T. cruzi infection presumably acquired via vector-borne transmission in the United States to the previously reported seven cases. The estimated prevalence of autochthonous infections based on this study is 1 in 354,000 donors. Determining US foci of vector-borne transmission is needed to better assess risk for infection. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. The pedagogical purposes of interdisciplinary social science: a view from area studies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2015-01-01

    "Interdisciplinarity" is widely praised in modern academe for its apparent ability to generate important research results and contribute to scholarly innovation. This essay examines a crucial case of interdisciplinary work in the humanities and social sciences: the area studies complex that emerged in the United States after World War II. Examining both celebrations and critiques of area studies, this essay concludes that the enterprise made a major contribution to national life not through the production of scholarship (the usual focus of historians of higher education) but through the innovative model of undergraduate teaching and graduate training that expanded the geographic and linguistic horizons of American undergraduate and graduate life. A final section of the essay suggests the relevance of this pedagogical focus for contemporary debates about the future of area studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine use among Asian Indians in the United States: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita; Balagopal, Padmini; Klatt, Maryanna; Geraghty, Maureen

    2010-08-01

    Asian Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at a higher rate than Americans. This national study on Asian Indians (AIs), the third largest Asian-American subgroup in the United States, examined the CAM use by gender and its association with acculturation, health behaviors, and access to health care. This was a cross-sectional survey. The subjects consisted of 1824 AI adults in six states with higher concentration of AIs. Mean age and years lived in the United States was 45.7 +/- 12.8 and 16.6 +/- 11.1 years, respectively. The respondent majority was male, immigrants, college graduates, and had access to care. Sixty three percent (63%) of AIs used at least one type of CAM; most common was a vegetarian diet, followed by use of dietary and herbal supplements and alternative medical systems. Females reported a significantly higher use of CAM, a vegetarian diet, and use of dietary and herbal supplements than AI males. Older age, female gender, having no access to care, and spirituality predicted CAM use in the logistic regression model. Older age, female gender, unmarried, and higher income was associated with use of dietary and herbal supplements; AIs who reported being vegetarian were more likely to be female, unmarried, spiritual, and self-reported their physical health to be fair or poor. This is the first national study of CAM use among AIs by gender and selected respondent characteristics. Results provide important information on health behaviors, beliefs, and patterns of CAM use in this ethnic subgroup to be factored into patient education.

  11. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects—but not the school context effects—are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation. PMID:25045173

  12. Decentering the United States in the studies of blackness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Santana Pinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominance of Eurocentric or US-centric perspectives in the social sciences has strengthened the notion that there is an exclusive model of modernity, experienced firstly in the economic centers of the world, and only later adopted in the 'peripheries.' This same logic can be found in studies of blackness in Brazil which have frequently characterized the black experience in the U.S.A. as the most 'modern within the African Diaspora.' In this article I develop a theoretical reflection which aims to overcome the centrality of the United States in the studies of blackness, recovering the notion of the African Diaspora as a multi-centered configuration. In order to do so, I examine the position of the city of Salvador da Bahia as an important center for the formation of the modern world, as well as for the construction of contemporary black identities.

  13. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  15. The meaning of family caregiving in Japan and the United States: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhagen, Margaret I; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how cultural values affect the meaning and experiences of daughter (or daughter-in-law) caregivers of elderly persons with dementia by comparing caregivers in the United States and Japan. Nine American and seven Japanese caregivers were interviewed twice at 6-month intervals. Interviews were audiotaped and analyzed using constant-comparative techniques. Data suggest that moral obligation to care and intense loss are two universal themes of caregiving. However the experiences and perceptions of the role of caregivers from these two cultures differed in select ways that were captured within three categories: reasons for caregiving, caregiving as a career, and caregiving as a life phase or detour. Findings suggest that American caregivers may need greater anticipatory socialization regarding the caregiving role, whereas Japanese caregivers may benefit from assistance in accepting needed services.

  16. Optimal location of centralized biodigesters for small dairy farms: A case study from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion technology is available for converting livestock waste to bio-energy, but its potential is far from fully exploited in the United States because the technology has a scale effect. Utilization of the centralized anaerobic digester (CAD concept could make the technology economically feasible for smaller dairy farms. An interdisciplinary methodology to determine the cost minimizing location, size, and number of CAD facilities in a rural dairy region with mostly small farms is described. This study employs land suitability analysis, operations research model and Geographical Information System (GIS tools to evaluate the environmental, social, and economic constraints in selecting appropriate sites for CADs in Windham County, Connecticut. Results indicate that overall costs are lower if the CADs are of larger size and are smaller in number.

  17. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Judith C; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Hoeft, Kristin S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable, the

  18. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C Barker

    Full Text Available Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61 were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is

  19. Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2011-01-01

    Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new

  20. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  1. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia (Chinese translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-67613. This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  2. Brandishing the Economic Weapon: A Study of United States Economic Warfare against Japan, 1940 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-26

    the realities of logic in a dim "religious world" in which Neptune was God, Mahan his prophet , and the United 49 States Navy the only true Church ...an ultimatum to Indochina for the occupation of eight air bases and two ports ( Cameroon [Camerahn] and Saigon) for the avowed reason of preventing

  3. Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nickel sensitization is frequent among US patients with dermatitis and in the general population. In Europe, decreasing prevalences of nickel sensitization are observed as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive. However, no directive exists in the United States. Objectives: W...

  4. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, David B.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D.; Gillies, Michael; O?Hagan, Jacqueline A; Ghassan B. Hamra; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308?297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66?...

  5. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A Fisher

    Full Text Available There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities.We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers.Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  6. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  7. An ethnographic study of the social context of migrant health in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M Holmes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. CONCLUSIONS: Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making.

  8. Overview of contact lens postmarket surveillance in the United States: system and recent study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Robin L; Gleason, William

    2013-01-01

    This is an overview of the US contact lens (CL) postmarket surveillance systems and surveillance study results that include silicone hydrogel CLs. As 30-night continuous wear silicone hydrogel and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) CLs were approved for use in the United States in 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated large postmarket surveillance studies to assess the risk of microbial keratitis with those products when worn with the 30-night wearing schedule. Since the time of the approvals, RGP 30-night wear has been used sparingly and a shift from 30-night wear has occurred for silicone hydrogel lenses. Several silicone hydrogel lenses have been approved and most of these lenses are being prescribed for daily or flexible wear and not for 30-night wear. With daily wear and less overnight use, silicone hydrogel lenses are regularly exposed to lens care products, lens cases, and improper handling, all of which may introduce sources of microbial contamination that could trigger lens-related complications. This summary of CL postmarket surveillance system and methods gives results of FDA-mandated surveillance and of recent US studies that observed "real-world" populations for safety results outside the bounds of highly controlled prospective clinical trials.

  9. A Case Study of Personal Experiences of Undocumented Eastern European Immigrants Living in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titanilla KISS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on undocumented migration has focused predominantly on Latin American and Mexican immigrants and largely overlooked the experiences of immigrants originating from other parts of the world. As such, very few studies have considered how the lack of legal residency status can influence life opportunities of undocumented immigrants from Eastern Europe. The overarching aim of the present study was to explore the personal experiences of unauthorized Eastern European immigrants in the United States in order to: (a augment research on undocumented migration, and (b highlight the experiences of undocumented Eastern Europeans who remain an understudied group of the undocumented immigrants. Comprehensive personal interviews were conducted with a small group of unauthorized immigrants to explore: (1 reasons for immigration and prior expectations, and (2 psychosocial experiences (i.e., status related anxiety, experience with prejudice and discrimination, job satisfaction, sense of belonging, family relations, and future plans. Some of the results are presented in terms of similarity and differences between the current study's sample and the undocumented immigrants from other regions of the world, namely, Mexico and Latin America.

  10. A Mixed Methods Study of Health Care Experience Among Asian Indians in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gagne, Jennie C; Oh, Jina; So, Aeyoung; Haidermota, Murtaza; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2015-09-01

    The study explored health care experiences among Asian Indian immigrants living in the Southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used with a purposive sample of 125 Asian Indian immigrants aged between 40 and 64 years in the survey and 10 participants in the focus group. The majority of the participants had health insurance and higher socioeconomic status. They had a moderate level of knowledge on the U.S. health care system and health insurance while presenting moderate satisfaction with the system. Barriers to health care services and needs in the health care system were identified from both quantitative and qualitative data. Some of the barriers were high costs, dissatisfaction with services, and inconvenience in accessing services. Participants called for self-management and community-based health programs as well as culturally tailored health care services. Findings congruent with prior studies further support the importance of comprehending Asian Indians' unique cultural background and experiences in the health care system. This study can be the foundation for culturally competent care to advance the body of transcultural nursing knowledge. Culturally congruent community-based health care programs are needed to provide better care for the ethnic minority to maintain and promote their health status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. An ethnographic study of the social context of migrant health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Seth M

    2006-10-01

    Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making.

  12. Association between migraine and stroke in a large-scale epidemiological study of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, K R; Fenton, B T; Cheng, S H; Stolar, M J; Risch, N

    1997-04-01

    To examine the association between stroke and migraine in an epidemiological study. DATA SOURCES AND DESIGN: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey baseline and first follow-up data were used to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between headache/migraine and stroke. Study participants from a national probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Self-reported physician diagnosis of stroke. After controlling for established risk factors for stroke (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and gender), both migraine and severe nonspecific headache were associated with a significantly increased risk for stroke reported at follow-up. The risk for stroke associated with migraine decreased as the age at stroke increased. Our results strengthen previous evidence regarding a nonrandom association of both headache and migraine with stroke, particularly among young women. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic examination in a large-scale prospective epidemiological study of men and women with sufficient statistical power to test the association between migraine and stroke in women. Severe headache and migraine should be considered as risk factors for the development of stroke, particularly in the absence of other well-established stroke risk factors. Further investigation is required to identify the putative mechanisms underlying comorbidity of migraine and stroke.

  13. Resilience skills as emergent phenomena: A study of emergency departments in Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Righi, Angela Weber; Wears, Robert Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of resilience skills (RSs) by emergency department (ED) front-line staff is ubiquitous, the nature and origin of these skills tend to be taken for granted. This study investigates the research question "where do RSs come from"? Case studies in two EDs were undertaken in order to answer the research question: one in Brazil and the other in the United States. The case studies adopted the same data collection and analysis procedures, involving interviews, questionnaires, observations, and analysis of documents. A model for describing RSs as emergent phenomena is proposed. The model indicates that RSs arise from interactions between: work constraints, hidden curriculum, gaps in standardized operating procedures, organizational support for resilience, and RSs themselves. An instantiation of the model is illustrated by a critical event identified from the American ED. The model allows the identification of leverage points for influencing the development of RSs, instead of leaving their evolution purely to chance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic word of mouth on twitter about physical activity in the United States: exploratory infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-11-20

    Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users' past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04) were more likely to talk positively about

  15. Migration from Mexico to the United States and subsequent risk for depressive and anxiety disorders: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Borges, Guilherme; Tancredi, Daniel; Saito, Naomi; Kravitz, Richard; Hinton, Ladson; Vega, William; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Migration is suspected to increase risk for depressive and anxiety disorders. To test the hypothesized increase in risk for depressive and anxiety disorders after arrival in the United States among Mexican migrants. We combined data from surveys conducted separately in Mexico and the United States that used the same diagnostic interview. Discrete time survival models were specified to estimate the relative odds of first onset of depressive disorders (major depressive episode and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) among migrants after their arrival in the United States compared with nonmigrant Mexicans who have a migrant in their immediate family. Population surveys in the United States and Mexico. Two thousand five hundred nineteen nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico and 554 Mexican migrants in the United States. First onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder. After arrival in the United States, migrants had a significantly higher risk for first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder than did nonmigrant family members of migrants in Mexico (odds ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.94). Associations between migration and disorder varied across birth cohorts. Elevated risk among migrants relative to nonmigrants was restricted to the 2 younger cohorts (those aged 18-25 or 26-35 years at interview). In the most recent birth cohort, the association between migration and first onset of any depressive or anxiety disorder was particularly strong (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.74-5.53). This is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare risk for first onset of psychiatric disorder between representative samples of migrants in the United States and nonmigrants in Mexico. The findings are consistent with the hypothesized adverse effect of migration from Mexico to the United States on the mental health of migrants, but only among

  16. A cohort study of smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary factors for pancreatic cancer (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; McLaughlin, J K; Gridley, G; Bjelke, E; Schuman, L M; Silverman, D T; Wacholder, S; Co-Chien, H T; Blot, W J; Fraumeni, J F

    1993-09-01

    Risk factors for pancreatic cancer were evaluated in a cohort study of 17,633 White men in the United States who responded to a mailed questionnaire in 1966 and were followed-up through 1986 for mortality. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were found to be important risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Risks increased significantly with number of cigarettes smoked, reaching fourfold for smokers of 25 or more cigarettes per day relative to nonsmokers. Alcohol intake also was related significantly to risk, with consumers of 10 or more drinks per month having three times the risk of nondrinkers, but dose-response trends among drinkers were not smooth. Coffee consumption was unrelated to risk. Dietary analyses revealed a rising rate of pancreatic cancer mortality with increasing consumption of meat after adjustment for other risk factors. Men in the highest quartile of meat intake had about three times the risk of those in the lowest quartile. No consistent association, however, was observed for consumption of fruits, vegetables, or grains. This study confirms cigarette smoking as an important risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and provides evidence that elevated intake of alcohol and meat may increase the risk of this fatal malignancy.

  17. A case-control study of bladder cancer in the United States rubber and tyre industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, H; Smith, A H; McMichael, A J; Jones, F S; Monson, R R; Tyroler, H A

    1981-01-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer was conducted in five United States rubber and tyre companies to determine if there were high-risk jobs and work areas within the industry. The study included 220 male cases of bladder cancer, of whom 107 were identified from hospital record reviews and 113 from death certificates. Each case was matched individually with two industry controls by sex, race, year of birth, and company. One control was matched additionally by year of hire and duration of employment. Comparisons of cases and controls not matched by year of hire and age of hire showed no differences for those variables, which suggests that age and calendar period of first exposure to the industry were not risk determinants. When the work histories of both cases and controls were contrasted it was found that cases were more likely than controls to have worked in milling (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91) and calender operation (OR = 2.21) jobs. The relative risk estimates for milling and calender operation both exhibited linear trends of increase with duration of exposure. Milling and calender operation jobs entail potential exposures to volatilised reaction products from heated rubber stock. A better understanding of aetiological associations with job type will require more detailed characterisation of the work environment with regard to the sources and levels of aromatic amines and other suspected bladder carcinogens. PMID:7272236

  18. Chronic back pain among older construction workers in the United States: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiuwen S; Wang, Xuanwen; Fujimoto, Alissa; Dobbin, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed chronic back pain among older construction workers in the United States by analyzing data from the 1992-2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large-scale longitudinal survey. Fixed-effects methods were applied in the multiple logistic regression model to explore the association between back pain and time-varying factors (e.g., employment, job characteristics, general health status) while controlling for stable variables (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity). Results showed that about 40% of older construction workers over the age of 50 suffered from persistent back pain or problems. Jobs involving a great deal of stress or physical effort significantly increased the risk of back disorders and longest-held jobs in construction increased the odds of back disorders by 32% (95% CI: 1·04-1·67). Furthermore, poor physical and mental health were strongly correlated with back problems. Enhanced interventions for construction workers are urgently needed given the aging workforce and high prevalence of back disorders in this industry.

  19. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  20. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., designs, trade dress, and trade secrets; computer software, databases, and related documentation; know-how... Columbia for defendants Amcor and Rio Tinto under 28 U.S.C. 1391(d). IV. Trade and Commerce A. Background 1... Federal Trade Commission. See id. United States District Court for the District of Columbia United States...

  1. THE "NEW IDENTITY" OF THE IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES: A STUDY OF TWO POEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Syamsi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States of America has long been the land of hopes and dreams. People poured into the country for a better life. The ('native' people of the country have campaigned that everybody is welcome to live and become the citizens there; they also claim that they respect and appreciate human right and do not discriminate people. The two poems analyzed here describe the efforts and struggles of immigrants who came to the United States and tried to become her citizens, a thing that 'in reality' is very difficult and full of obstacles. Those newcomers were hampered by many things, both from the things outside and inside them. Immigrants who now live in USA write the two poems and they are interesting to be analyzed, as they picture experiences and struggles of migrants living in a new country

  2. Globalisation, Language and Education: A Comparative Study of the United States and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2001-07-01

    Educational language choice has been one of the most provocative issues of the 20th century and continues to be a dominant issue at the turn of the new millennium. Efforts to naturalize English as the only suitable language for post primary school education persist in many African countries, including Tanzania. In the United States the campaign for "English only" in the schools is gaining momentum, despite the increasing multilingual population in the schools. Focusing on Tanzania and the United States, this article examines the fallacy of a monolingual, English only, policy in education. It examines the ethos surrounding the debate about the language of instruction, and considers some of the detrimental effects upon students of attempting to impose a monolingual policy. Finally, the paper suggests possible roles of educators and researchers in fostering international understanding of educational language issues as one aspect of the quest for global peace and social justice in the 21st century.

  3. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  4. Mobile Phone Use in Psychiatry Residents in the United States: Multisite Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Shih; Torous, John; Boland, Robert; Conrad, Erich

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology ownership in the general US population and medical professionals is increasing, leading to increased use in clinical settings. However, data on use of mobile technology by psychiatry residents remain unclear. In this study, our aim was to provide data on how psychiatric residents use mobile phones in their clinical education as well as barriers relating to technology use. An anonymous, multisite survey was given to psychiatry residents in 2 regions in the United States, including New Orleans and Boston, to understand their technology use. All participants owned mobile phones, and 79% (54/68) used them to access patient information. The majority do not use mobile phones to implement pharmacotherapy (62%, 42/68) or psychotherapy plans (90%, 61/68). The top 3 barriers to using mobile technology in clinical care were privacy concerns (56%, 38/68), lack of clinical guidance (40%, 27/68), and lack of evidence (29%, 20/68). We conclude that developing a technology curriculum and engaging in research could address these barriers to using mobile phones in clinical practice.

  5. The Association between Optimism and Serum Antioxidants in the Midlife in the United States Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Williams, David R.; Rimm, Eric B.; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Psychological and physical health are often conceptualized as the absence of disease, but less research addresses positive psychological and physical functioning. For example, optimism has been linked with reduced disease risk and biological dysfunction, but very little research has examined associations with markers of healthy biological functioning. Thus, we investigated the association between two indicators of positive health: optimism and serum antioxidants. Methods The cross-sectional association between optimism and antioxidant concentrations was examined in 982 men and women from the Midlife in the United States study. Primary measures included self-reported optimism (assessed with the revised Life Orientation Test) and serum concentrations of nine different antioxidants (carotenoids and Vitamin E). Regression analyses examined the relationship between optimism and antioxidant concentrations in models adjusted for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Results For every standard deviation increase in optimism, carotenoid concentrations increased by 3–13% in age-adjusted models. Controlling for demographic characteristics and health status attenuated this association. Fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking status were identified as potential pathways underlying the association between optimism and serum carotenoids. Optimism was not significantly associated with Vitamin E. Conclusions Optimism was associated with greater carotenoid concentrations and this association was partially explained by diet and smoking status. The direction of effects cannot be conclusively determined. Effects may be bidirectional given that optimists are likely to engage in health behaviors associated with more serum antioxidants, and more serum antioxidants are likely associated with better physical health that enhances optimism. PMID:23257932

  6. A Comparative Study of the Distance Education History in China and the United States: A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of international distance education development through comparison of the distance education historical developments in China and the United States (U.S.). This study, utilizing a document analysis method, studied historical documents, explored the historical development of…

  7. Laboratory study of competition between United States strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Rai, K S; Turco, B J; Arroyo, D C

    1989-07-01

    .S Ae. albopictus population is inherently more competitive in the laboratory than Ae. aegypti. Other reasons for the observed decline in Ae. aegypti in the United States are discussed.

  8. Authentic science in education: Studies in course-based research at the United States Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony M.

    This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct that many curriculum developers and instructors want to foster within their students but often lack clear definitions or evaluation plans. This study gives a definition of critical thinking and an outcome of a critical thinking test. Significant gains in critical thinking are observed by students participating in the CURE as well as significant gains in three affective factors (Interest in Science/Chemistry, Authenticity, Perceived Learning). The gains in critical thinking are then further statistically linked to students’ perceptions of how authentically they saw the research in the course. If they felt that the course was demonstrating more authentic science practices, they gained significantly more in their critical thinking scores. The second study in this dissertation adds an additional transfer focus to the instructional materials that the CURE was meant to support. The treatment group in this study received instruction that was framed expansively. The expansively framed instruction showed students ways that the material was applicable outside of the course. The assessments and instructional materials of this study were transfer assessments with contrasting cases. Instances of negative or “overzealous transfer” were also reported. Findings suggest

  9. Unstaged cancer in the United States: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Allison E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study examines unstaged disease for 18 cancer sites in the United States according to the influence of age, sex, race, marital status, incidence, and lethality. Methods Analyses are based on 1,040,381 male and 1,011,355 female incident cancer cases diagnosed during 2000 through 2007. Data were collected by population-based cancer registries in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results The level of unstaged disease was greater in more lethal cancers (e.g., liver, esophagus, and pancreas compared with less deadly cancers (i.e., colon, urinary bladder, and female breast. Unstaged disease increased with age and is greater among non-married patients. Blacks compared with whites experienced significantly higher levels of unstaged cancers of the stomach, rectum, colon, skin (melanoma, urinary bladder, thyroid, breast, corpus, cervix, and ovaries, but lower levels of unstaged liver, lung and bronchial cancers. Males compared with females experienced significantly lower levels of unstaged cancers of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and stomach, but significantly higher levels of unstaged lung and bronchial cancer and thyroid cancer. The percent of unstaged cancer significantly decreased over the study period for 15 of the 18 cancer sites. Conclusion Tumor staging directly affects treatment options and survival, so it is recommended that further research focus on why a decrease in unstaged disease did not occur for all of the cancer sites considered from 2000 to 2007, and why there are differential levels of staging between whites and blacks, males and females for several of the cancer sites.

  10. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, John C [ORNL; Parks, Cecil V [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transport and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  11. Sickle Cell Trait and Renal Function in Hispanics in the United States: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, Nicole D; Della-Morte, David; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Blanton, Susan H

    2017-01-19

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hematological disorder among individuals of African descent in the United States; the disorder results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin. It is caused by homozygosity for a genetic mutation in HBB; rs334. While the presence of a single mutation (sickle cell trait, SCT) has long been considered a benign trait, recent research suggests that SCT is associated with renal dysfunction, including a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. It is currently unknown whether similar associations are observed in Hispanics. Therefore, our study aimed to determine if SCT is associated with mean eGFR and CKD in a sample of 340 Dominican Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Using regression analyses, we tested rs334 for association with eGFR and CKD, adjusting for age and sex. eGFR was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation and CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Within our sample, there were 16 individuals with SCT (SCT carriers). We found that SCT carriers had a mean eGFR that was 12.12 mL/min/1.73m2 lower than non-carriers (P=.002). Additionally, SCT carriers had 2.72 times higher odds of CKD compared with non-carriers (P=.09). Taken together, these novel results show that Hispanics with SCT, as found among African Americans with SCT, may also be at increased risk for kidney disease.

  12. Graduate Coursework in College Counseling: An Exploratory Study of the Certificate Programs Training Pathway in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher William

    2014-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of graduate certificate programs offered in college counseling in the United States. This study presents historical and current information about eight different college counseling certificate programs and seven themes that describe these programs in the context of national college access and college…

  13. Unemployment and Mortality: A Comparative Study of Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N.; MacNab, Ying C.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between unemployment and mortality in Germany, a coordinated market economy, and the United States, a liberal market economy. Methods. We followed 2 working-age cohorts from the German Socio-economic Panel and the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1984 to 2005. We defined unemployment as unemployed at the time of survey. We used discrete-time survival analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Results. There was an unemployment–mortality association among Americans (relative risk [RR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 3.4), but not among Germans (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0). In education-stratified models, there was an association among minimum-skilled (RR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.7) and medium-skilled (RR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.8) Americans, but not among minimum- and medium-skilled Germans. There was no association among high-skilled Americans, but an association among high-skilled Germans (RR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.3, 7.0), although this was limited to those educated in East Germany. Minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans had the highest absolute risks of dying. Conclusions. The higher risk of dying for minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans, not found among Germans, suggests that the unemployment–mortality relationship may be mediated by the institutional and economic environment. PMID:22698036

  14. Fast food perceptions: a pilot study of college students in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rachel; Dundes, Lauren

    2008-09-01

    Comparing survey data of college students from Spain and the United States provides insight into how perceptions about fast food are culture and gender-specific. More American college males (61%) considered value (amount of food for the money) to be a priority than did other respondents (35%) and relatively few American college males (29%) cited nutritional status as important (versus 60% of other college respondents). Convenience of fast food is more important to Americans (69%) than Spaniards (48%) while more Spanish college students (49%) than Americans (18%) objected to the proliferation of fast food establishments in their own countries.

  15. Bystander Attitudes to Prevent Sexual Assault: A Study of College Students in the United States, Japan, India, Vietnam, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Nguyen, Hanh; Yamawaki, Niwako; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Mo, Wenjing; Birkholz, Ryan; Makomenaw, Angie; Olson, Lenora M

    2016-01-01

    College women are at a high risk of sexual assault. Although programs that aim to change bystander behaviors have been shown to be potentially effective in preventing sexual assault on campuses in the United States, little is known about bystander behaviors outside of the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare factors affecting bystander behaviors regarding sexual assault intervention and prevention among undergraduate students in the United States, Japan, India, Vietnam, and China. A total of 1,136 students participated in a self-reported survey. Results demonstrate substantial variations across countries. Bystander behaviors are associated with multilevel factors, including gender, knowledge of individuals who have experienced a sexual assault, and knowledge about campus or community organizations.

  16. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  17. A Comparative Study of Israeli and United States of America Teacher Trainers on Sockett's Four Models of Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Hollenbeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the beliefs of teacher educators and their impact on pre-service teachers as they entered the profession and identified commonalities between Israel and the United States teacher education programs. 150 teacher educators were surveyed from a cross section of teacher educators on Hugh Sockett's four teaching models proposed for teacher preparation from Israel and the United States. The research queried three questions: (1 teacher educators' evaluation of the field of teacher education, (2 beliefs regarding the four basic components of teacher education as described by Sockett, and (3 beliefs regarding teacher education in the institution they taught.

  18. Categorizing Neonatal Deaths : A Cross-Cultural Study in the United States, Canada, and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A. A. Eduard; Janvier, Annie; Leuthner, Steven R.; Andrews, B.; Lagatta, J.; Bos, Arend F.; Meadow, William

    Objective To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making in culturally different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Study design Review of medical files of newborns >22 weeks gestation who died in the delivery room (DR) or the NICU during 12 months in 4 NICUs (Chicago, Milwaukee,

  19. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States.   Methods:  We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US.  Results:  An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular. Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries.  Conclusions:  Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture are some of the most variably utilized and debated.

  20. Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

  1. A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Education for Preschool Teachers in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a comparative analysis of the pre-service education system for preschool educators in China and the United States. Based on collected data and materials (literature, policy documents, and statistical data), we compare two areas of pre-service training: (1) the formal system; (2) the informal system. In the formal system, most…

  2. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  3. Joint-Service Integration: An Organizational Culture Study of the United States Department of Defense Voluntary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the descriptive case study with a multiple case framework was to (a) describe the organizational cultures of education programs and leaders in the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) voluntary education system on Oahu, Hawaii; (b) determine if an overlapping common organizational culture exists; and (c) assess the…

  4. A Review of the Major School Counseling Policy Studies in the United States: 2000-2014. Research Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John C.; Martin, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the major policy studies concerning school counseling in the United States that were disseminated between 2000 and 2014. In all, reviewers located 37 documents that were disseminated between 2000 and 2014, and that were either intentionally written with a focus on policy implications or were…

  5. A Study of the Leadership Styles of Campus Based Women's Centers in Higher Education in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuz, Nikki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the organizational and institutional variables that influence the leadership styles of directors of campus-based women's centers at public and private four-year universities in the southeast United States. The researcher examined the leadership frame (or frames), as measured by Bolman and Deal's (1990) Leadership Orientations…

  6. Epidemiology of constipation (EPOC) study in the United States: relation of clinical subtypes to sociodemographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W F; Liberman, J N; Sandler, R S; Woods, M S; Stemhagen, A; Chee, E; Lipton, R B; Farup, C E

    1999-12-01

    Constipation is a common heterogeneous condition, possibly encompassing different clinical subtypes. Little is known about the comparative epidemiology of constipation subtypes. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of constipation subtypes and determine whether subtypes differ by sociodemographic factors. Between June and September 1997, a telephone interview was conducted with individuals about their bowel habits in the preceding 3 months. Survey data on 15 constipation-related symptoms were used to identify individuals who met prespecified symptom criteria for the following mutually exclusive subgroups: functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), outlet obstruction or delay (outlet), both IBS and outlet (IBS-outlet), and frequent laxative users (i.e., at least every other day). A total of 10,018 eligible individuals in the United States 18 yr of age or older completed the interview. Test-retest reliability of reporting symptoms was assessed in a separate national survey. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for reporting symptoms ranged from 0.54 to 0.83; all but three symptoms had correlations above 0.68. The overall prevalence of constipation was 14.7%. By subtype, prevalence was 4.6% for functional, 2.1% for IBS, 4.6% for outlet, and 3.4% for IBS-outlet. An additional 1.8% of respondents reported laxative use at least every other day. Outlet was the most common subtype among women, whereas functional constipation was the most common subtype among men. The gender ratio varied by subtype, with elevated ratios for outlet (F/M = 1.65) and IBS-outlet (F/M = 2.27) subtypes. The age pattern differed among each of the four subtypes. Prevalence of functional subtype decreased with increasing age. In contrast, outlet subtype did not seem to vary by age, and IBS (both men and women) and IBS-outlet (women only) subtypes increased to age 35 yr and declined thereafter. Prevalence of functional constipation increased with increasing education

  7. Dietary sources of sodium in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, women and men aged 40 to 59 years: the INTERMAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence J; Okuda, Nagako; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Zhao, Liancheng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kesteloot, Hugo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Curb, J David; Yoshita, Katsushi; Elliott, Paul; Yamamoto, Monica E; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2010-05-01

    Public health campaigns in several countries encourage population-wide reduced sodium (salt) intake, but excessive intake remains a major problem. Excessive sodium intake is independently related to adverse blood pressure and is a key factor in the epidemic of prehypertension/hypertension. Identification of food sources of sodium in modern diets is critical to effective reduction of sodium intake worldwide. We used data from the INTERMAP Study to define major food sources of sodium in diverse East Asian and Western population samples. INTERMAP is an international, cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of 4, 680 individuals ages 40 to 59 years from Japan (four samples), People's Republic of China (three rural samples), the United Kingdom (two samples), and the United States (eight samples); four in-depth, multipass 24-hour dietary recalls/person were used to identify foods accounting for most dietary sodium intake. In the People's Republic of China sample, most (76%) dietary sodium was from salt added in home cooking, about 50% less in southern than northern samples. In Japan, most (63%) dietary sodium came from soy sauce (20%), commercially processed fish/seafood (15%), salted soups (15%), and preserved vegetables (13%). Processed foods, including breads/cereals/grains, contributed heavily to sodium intake in the United Kingdom (95%) and the United States (for methodological reasons, underestimated at 71%). To prevent and control prehypertension/hypertension and improve health, efforts to remove excess sodium from diets in rural China should focus on reducing salt in home cooking. To avoid excess sodium intake in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, salt must be reduced in commercially processed foods. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  9. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  10. A study of four medicinal plant complexes of Mexico and adjacent United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, E; Bye, R A

    1987-01-01

    A survey of medicinal herbs in markets of central and northern Mexico and southwestern United States revealed the existence of plant complexes of different species sharing common names, morphological and aromatic characteristics, and uses. Four complexes (with the "label" species listed first) discussed include: "cachani" with Roldana sessilifolia, Iostephane madrensis, Liatris punctata, Psacalium sp., and Potentilla sp.; "chuchupate" with Ligusticum porteri and Myroxylon balsamum; "hierba anís" with Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, T. micrantha, Artemisia dracunculus, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum; and "matarique" with Psacalium decompositum, P. peltatum, P. sinuatum, P. sp., and Acourtia thurberi. The distribution analysis of utilization and natural occurrence of plants in each complex indicated the presence of a dominant or "label" plant whose use extended beyond its natural range and which had substitutes derived from local plants that were not registered far beyond their respective natural ranges.

  11. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  12. Survival Comparison of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in Canada and the United States: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anne L; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Quon, Bradley S; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza K; Elbert, Alexander; Goss, Christopher H

    2017-04-18

    In 2011, the median age of survival of patients with cystic fibrosis reported in the United States was 36.8 years, compared with 48.5 years in Canada. Direct comparison of survival estimates between national registries is challenging because of inherent differences in methodologies used, data processing techniques, and ascertainment bias. To use a standardized approach to calculate cystic fibrosis survival estimates and to explore differences between Canada and the United States. Population-based study. 42 Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics and 110 U.S. cystic fibrosis care centers. Patients followed in the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (CCFR) and U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 1990 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival between patients followed in the CCFR (n = 5941) and those in the CFFPR (n = 45 448). Multivariable models were used to adjust for factors known to be associated with survival. Median age of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis increased in both countries between 1990 and 2013; however, in 1995 and 2005, survival in Canada increased at a faster rate than in the United States (P cystic fibrosis survival between Canada and the United States persisted after adjustment for risk factors associated with survival, except for private-insurance status among U.S. patients. Differential access to transplantation, increased posttransplant survival, and differences in health care systems may, in part, explain the Canadian survival advantage. U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

  13. Bicyclist Safety Behaviors in an Urban Northeastern, United States City: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Salzler, Matthew J; Bugaev, Nikolay; Rabinovici, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    Bicycling is gaining popularity in the United States, and laws and safety recommendations are being established to keep bicyclists safer. To improve road safety for bicyclists, there is a need to characterize their compliance with road laws and safety behaviors. Adult bicyclists were observed at three high-traffic intersections in Boston, MA, with state recommendations of wearing a helmet and riding in a bike lane. State law compliance for displaying reflectors during the day and of a front light and a rear light/reflector at night, obeying traffic signals, and giving pedestrians the right of way was also observed. Variables were compared between personal and shared/rented bicyclists and analyzed by time of day. A total of 1,685 bicyclists were observed. Because of the speed of the bicyclists and obstructed views, only a sampling of 802 bicyclists was observed for reflectors/front light. Overall, 74% wore a helmet, 49% had reflectors/front lights, 95% rode in bike lanes, 87% obeyed traffic signals, and 99% gave the right of way to pedestrians. Compared with shared bicyclists (n = 122), personal bicyclists (n = 1563) had a higher helmet-wearing behaviors (77% vs. 39%, p = .0001). Shared bicyclists had a higher (p = .0001) compliance with reflectors/lights (100%) than personal bicyclists (39%, n = 265). Boston bicyclists ride in bike lanes, obey traffic signals, give pedestrians the right of way, and wear helmets while having suboptimal compliance with light/reflector use. Educational programs and stricter law enforcement aimed at these safety behaviors should be part of the effort to improve safety for all road users.

  14. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    RBF reflected a preferential removal of NOM of particular character. The results of this study indicate that RBF appears to be equally capable of removing material of different character. The different removal mechanisms in the subsurface (e.g. sorption, biodegradation, filtration) combine to provide similar removal of the operationally defined hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of organic material upon ground passage. Thus, the reductions in DBP formation upon RBF observed during the first two phases of this research are largely the result of a decrease in the NOM concentration rather than a major shift in the NOM character. Preliminary monitoring of a number of microorganisms indicates that RBF may also serve as a significant barrier for the removal of microbial contaminants, including human pathogens. The monitoring data demonstrated >3 log removal of Clostridium spores and >2 log removal of bacteriophage. Assuming that these indicator organisms can be used as surrogates for Giardia cysts and human enteric viruses, RBF at the three study sites surpassed the performance requirements in the United States for conventional coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration (e.g., 2.5 log removal for Giardia cysts and 2.0 log removal of viruses). References Cosovic, D.; Hrsak, V.; Vojvodic, V.; &Krznaric, D., 1996. Transformation of organic matter and bank filtration from a polluted stream. Wat. Res., 30:12:2921. Doussan, C.; Poitevin, G.; Ledoux, E.; &Detay, M., 1997. River bank filtration: Modeling of the changes in water chemistry with emphasis on nitrogen species, J. Contam. Hydrol., 25:129. Hiscock, K.M. &Grischek, T., 2002. Attenuation of Groundwater Pollution by Bank Filtration. Jour. Hydrol., 266:139. Juttner, F., 1995. Elimination of Terpenoid Odorous Compounds by Slow Sand and River Bank Filtration of the Ruhr River, Germany. Wat. Sci. Tech., 31:11:211. Kivimaki, A-L.; Lahti, K.; Hatva, T.; Tuominen, S.M.; &Miettinen, I.T., 1998. Removal of organic matter during

  15. Decision Rightness and Emotional Responses to Abortion in the United States: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Kimport, Katrina; Roberts, Sarah C M; Gould, Heather; Neuhaus, John; Foster, Diana G

    2015-01-01

    Arguments that abortion causes women emotional harm are used to regulate abortion, particularly later procedures, in the United States. However, existing research is inconclusive. We examined women's emotions and reports of whether the abortion decision was the right one for them over the three years after having an induced abortion. We recruited a cohort of women seeking abortions between 2008-2010 at 30 facilities across the United States, selected based on having the latest gestational age limit within 150 miles. Two groups of women (n=667) were followed prospectively for three years: women having first-trimester procedures and women terminating pregnancies within two weeks under facilities' gestational age limits at the same facilities. Participants completed semiannual phone surveys to assess whether they felt that having the abortion was the right decision for them; negative emotions (regret, anger, guilt, sadness) about the abortion; and positive emotions (relief, happiness). Multivariable mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in each outcome over time, to compare the two groups, and to identify associated factors. The predicted probability of reporting that abortion was the right decision was over 99% at all time points over three years. Women with more planned pregnancies and who had more difficulty deciding to terminate the pregnancy had lower odds of reporting the abortion was the right decision (aOR=0.71 [0.60, 0.85] and 0.46 [0.36, 0.64], respectively). Both negative and positive emotions declined over time, with no differences between women having procedures near gestational age limits versus first-trimester abortions. Higher perceived community abortion stigma and lower social support were associated with more negative emotions (b=0.45 [0.31, 0.58] and b=-0.61 [-0.93, -0.29], respectively). Women experienced decreasing emotional intensity over time, and the overwhelming majority of women felt that termination was the right decision for

  16. Cosmetic surgery growth and correlations with financial indices: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and United States from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Harris, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been significant fluctuation in the yearly growth rates for cosmetic surgery procedures in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The authors compare cosmetic surgical procedure rates in the United Kingdom and United States with the macroeconomic climate of each region to determine whether there is a direct relationship between cosmetic surgery rates and economic health. The authors analyzed annual cosmetic surgery statistics from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery for 2002-2011 against economic indices from both regions, including the gross domestic product (GDP), consumer prices indices (CPI), and stock market reports. There was a 285.9% increase in the United Kingdom and a 1.1% increase in the United States in the number of procedures performed between 2002 and 2011. There were significant positive correlations between the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United Kingdom and both the GDP (r = 0.986, P United States and United Kingdom suggest 2 very different growth patterns in the number of cosmetic surgeries being performed as compared with the economy in each region. Economic indices are accurate indicators of numbers of procedures being performed in the United Kingdom, whereas rates in the United States seem independent of those factors.

  17. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for Methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: a case study of the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kimberly; Drenner, Ray W.; Chumchal, Matthew M.; Donato, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass–equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish.

  18. Acute HIV-1 infection in the Southeastern United States: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Mehri S; Cope, Anna B; Gay, Cynthia L; McGee, Kara S; Kuruc, Joann D; Kerkau, Melissa G; Hurt, Christopher B; Fiscus, Susan A; Ferrari, Guido; Margolis, David M; Eron, Joseph J; Hicks, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    In 1998 a collaboration between Duke University and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC) was founded to enhance identification of persons with acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The Duke-UNC AHI Research Consortium Cohort consists of patients ≥18 years old with a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and either a negative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test or a positive EIA with a negative/indeterminate Western blot. Patients were referred to the cohort from acute care settings and state-funded HIV testing sites that use NAAT testing on pooled HIV-1 antibody-negative samples. Between 1998 and 2010, 155 patients with AHI were enrolled: 81 (52%) African-Americans, 63 (41%) white, non-Hispanics, 137 (88%) males, 108 (70%) men who have sex with men (MSM), and 18 (12%) females. The median age was 27 years (IQR 22-38). Most (n=138/155) reported symptoms with a median duration of 17.5 days. The median nadir CD4 count was 408 cells/mm(3) (IQR 289-563); the median observed peak HIV-1 level was 726,859 copies/ml (IQR 167,585-3,565,728). The emergency department was the most frequent site of initial presentation (n=55/152; 3 missing data). AHI diagnosis was made at time of first contact in 62/137 (45%; 18 missing data) patients. This prospectively enrolled cohort is the largest group of patients with AHI reported from the Southeastern United States. The demographics reflect the epidemic of this geographic area with a high proportion of African-Americans, including young black MSM. Highlighting the challenges of diagnosing AHI, less than half of the patients were diagnosed at the first healthcare visit. Women made up a small proportion despite increasing numbers in our clinics.

  19. United States multicenter clinical usage study of the STAN 21 electronic fetal monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoe, Lawrence D; Ross, Michael; Wilde, Clayton; Beal, Maureen; Lysikewicz, Andrej; Maier, Jeffrey; Vines, Victor; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Lilja, Håkan; Norén, Håkan; Maulik, Dev

    2006-09-01

    The fetal electrocardiogram system for electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) (STAN S21, Neoventa Medical, Moelndal, Sweden) has led to improved perinatal outcomes in other countries. We aimed to assess the ability of United States (US) obstetricians to use this system appropriately for intrapartum care. A prospective nonrandomized trial was conducted in 6 sites. Enrollment required a singleton vertex fetus, >36 weeks' gestation, with indications for direct fetal monitoring during first stage of labor. Appropriate use was measured by negative predictive value (NPV) of nonintervention for fetuses with nonreassuring fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns, normal STAN readings, and normal neonatal outcomes with umbilical cord arterial pH >7.12; and percent agreement (PA) for intervention decisions with 3 STAN experts who conducted retrospective case reviews blinded to outcome. Five hundred and thirty patients were enrolled. An NPV of 95.2% was achieved while PA between investigators and STAN experts was 84%, and 90%, for intervention and nonintervention, respectively. No fetus with metabolic acidosis requiring intervention was missed by US clinicians. US clinicians used the STAN system appropriately in a manner similar to that of experienced STAN users.

  20. Evaluation of the use of digital study models in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Shruti; Park, Jae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the extent, experience, and trends associated with digital model use, as well as the advantages of using a particular study model type (digital or plaster) in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada. An electronic survey consisting of 14 questions was sent to 72 program directors or chairpersons of accredited orthodontic postgraduate programs in the United States and Canada. Fifty-one responded for a 71% response rate. Sixty-five percent of the schools use plaster study models compared with 35% that use digital models. The most common advantages of plaster models were a three-dimensional feel and the ability for them to be mounted on an articulator. The most common advantages of digital models were the ease of storage and retrieval, and the residents' exposure to new technology. About one third of the plaster model users reported that they wanted to switch to digital models in the future, with 12% planning to do so within 1 year. Based on our study, 35% of accredited orthodontic postgraduate programs in the United States and Canada are using digital study models in most cases treated in their programs, and the trend is for increased digital model use in the future.

  1. Organizations and Information Processing: A Field Study of Research and Development Units within the United States Air Force Systems Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    uncertainty (Downey, Hellriegel and Slocum, 1975). DowTney and Slocum (1975) conceptualize uncertainty as a psychological state in which the sources of...Child, 1912; Osborn and Hunt, 1914; Downey, Hellriegel , and Slocum, 1975; Huber, O’Connel and Cummings, 1975; Schmidt and Cummings, 1975; Leifer and...uncertainty and the need for external information processing, including: Duncan, 1972; Child, 1972; Osborn and Hunt, 1914; Hellriegel and Solcum, 1915; Huber

  2. Accreditation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Accreditation is a process of external quality review created and used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and programs for quality assurance and quality improvement. Accreditation in the United States is more than a hundred years old, emerging from concerns to protect public health and safety and to serve the public…

  3. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  4. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  5. International Learning through an Organised Study Abroad Program: Goals, Processes and Effects of an Organised Study Program in the United States of America. Report of an Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Henk; Oostindie, Marga

    This book presents a report of an evaluative study of an organized study abroad program. The problem addressed in this study is: what is the value of the United States of America/Netherlands Social Studies Student-Teachers Exchange Program 1987 with respect to both product and process? A preliminary literature study about internationalization of…

  6. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  7. Perceived barriers to the regionalization of adult critical care in the United States: a qualitative preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfeld Gordon D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalization of adult critical care services may improve outcomes for critically ill patients. We sought to develop a framework for understanding clinician attitudes toward regionalization and potential barriers to developing a tiered, regionalized system of care in the United States. Methods We performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of critical care stakeholders in the United States, including physicians, nurses and hospital administrators. Stakeholders were identified from a stratified-random sample of United States general medical and surgical hospitals. Key barriers and potential solutions were identified by performing content analysis of the interview transcriptions. Results We interviewed 30 stakeholders from 24 different hospitals, representing a broad range of hospital locations and sizes. Key barriers to regionalization included personal and economic strain on families, loss of autonomy on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, loss of revenue on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, the potential to worsen outcomes at small hospitals by limiting services, and the potential to overwhelm large hospitals. Improving communication between destination and source hospitals, provider education, instituting voluntary objective criteria to become a designated referral center, and mechanisms to feed back patients and revenue to source hospitals were identified as potential solutions to some of these barriers. Conclusion Regionalization efforts will be met with significant conceptual and structural barriers. These data provide a foundation for future research and can be used to inform policy decisions regarding the design and implementation of a regionalized system of critical care.

  8. To Return or Not to Return: Examining the Return Intentions of Mainland Chinese Students Studying at Elite Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan Chi Keung; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the return intention of mainland Chinese students studying at prestigious universities in the Unites States. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants were 90 students from three top-tiered universities on the East Coast of the United States. The results of this study…

  9. Social support and smoking abstinence among incarcerated adults in the United States: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United States, tobacco use among prisoners is nearly three times that of the general population. While many American prisons and jails are now tobacco-free, nearly all inmates return to smoking as soon as they are released back into the community. Methods To better understand the role that personal relationships may play in enabling return to smoking, we enrolled former-smokers who were inmates in a tobacco-free prison. Baseline assessments were conducted six weeks prior to inmates’ scheduled release and included measures of smoking prior to incarceration, motivation, confidence and plans for remaining quit after release. We also assessed global social support (ISEL) and a measure of social support specific to quitting smoking (SSQ). Smoking status was assessed three weeks after prison release and included 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine, days to first cigarette and smoking rate. Results A diverse sample comprised of 35% women, 20% Hispanic, and 29% racial minorities (average age 35.5 years) provided baseline data (n = 247). Over 90% of participants provided follow up data at 3-weeks post-release. Prior to incarceration participants had smoked an average of 21.5 (SD = 11.7) cigarettes per day. Only 29.2% had definite plans to remain smoking-abstinent after release. Approximately half of all participants reported that “most” or “all” of their family (42.2%) and friends (68%) smoked, and 58.8% reported their spouse or romantic partner smoked. SSQ scores were not significantly predictive of smoking outcomes at three weeks, however, social support from family and friends were each significantly and positively correlated with motivation, confidence, and plans for remaining abstinent (all p values smoking-related attitudinal variables were significantly predictive of smoking outcomes (all p values smoking-related attitudinal variables or smoking outcomes. Conclusions Inmates of smoke-free prisons have a

  10. A longitudinal study of chiropractic use among older adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michael P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal patterns of chiropractic use in the United States, particularly among Medicare beneficiaries, are not well documented. Using a nationally representative sample of older Medicare beneficiaries we describe the use of chiropractic over fifteen years, and classify chiropractic users by annual visit volume. We assess the characteristics that are associated with chiropractic use versus nonuse, as well as between different levels of use. Methods We analyzed data from two linked sources: the baseline (1993-1994 interview responses of 5,510 self-respondents in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD, and their Medicare claims from 1993 to 2007. Binomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with chiropractic use versus nonuse, and conditional upon use, to identify factors associated with high volume relative to lower volume use. Results There were 806 users of chiropractic in the AHEAD sample yielding a full period prevalence for 1993-2007 of 14.6%. Average annual prevalence between 1993 and 2007 was 4.8% with a range from 4.1% to 5.4%. Approximately 42% of the users consumed chiropractic services only in a single calendar year while 38% used chiropractic in three or more calendar years. Chiropractic users were more likely to be women, white, overweight, have pain, have multiple comorbid conditions, better self-rated health, access to transportation, higher physician utilization levels, live in the Midwest, and live in an area with fewer physicians per capita. Among chiropractic users, 16% had at least one year in which they exceeded Medicare's "soft cap" of 12 visits per calendar year. These over-the-cap users were more likely to have arthritis and mobility limitations, but were less likely to have a high school education. Additionally, these over-the-cap individuals accounted for 58% of total chiropractic claim volume. High volume users saw chiropractors the most among

  11. The U.S.S.R.: The Totalitarian State. Grade Eleven. [Resource Unit II, Sub Unit 3.] Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This subunit on totalitarianism in the USSR is part of an eleventh grade course on area studies. Following an introduction with suggested teaching strategies, the objectives for the subunit are listed as to generalizations, skills, and attitudes. A double-page format relates objectives with pertinent content, teaching procedures, and instructional…

  12. Sterilization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  13. Racial/ethnic representation in lifestyle weight loss intervention studies in the United States: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina F. Haughton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity remains a persistent public health and health disparity concern in the United States. Eliminating health disparities, particularly among racial/ethnic minority groups, is a major health priority in the US. The primary aim of this review was to evaluate representation of racial/ethnic sub-group members in behavioral weight loss interventions conducted among adults in the United States. The secondary aims were to assess recruitment and study design approaches to include racial/ethnic groups and the extent of racial/ethnic sub-group analyses conducted in these studies. PubMed, PsycInfo, Medline, and CINAHL were searched for behavioral weight loss intervention trials conducted in 2009–2015 using keywords: weight, loss, overweight, obese, intervention and trial. Most of the 94 studies included a majority of White participants compared to any other racial/ethnic group. Across the included studies, 58.9% of participants were White, 18.2% were African American, 8.7% were Hispanic/Latino, 5.0% were Asian and 1.0% were Native Americans. An additional 8.2% were categorized as “Other”. Nine of the 94 studies exclusively included minority samples. Lack of adequate representation of racial and ethnic minority populations in behavioral trials limits the generalizability and potential public health impact of these interventions to groups that might most benefit from weight loss. Given racial/ethnic disparities in obesity rates and the burden of obesity and obesity-related diseases among minority groups in the United States, greater inclusion in weight loss intervention studies is warranted.

  14. Gambling and Substance Use: Co-occurrence among Adults in a Recent General Population Study in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an up-to-date examination of gambling behaviors as well as gambling problems and their relationships to substance use and abuse. Further, the co-occurrence between problem gambling and substance abuse is studied using a large-scale, representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older in the United States. This random-digit-dial national survey was carried out in 2011–2013 with completed interviews from 2,963 respondents. Of the four gambling and substance use behaviors consi...

  15. Income distribution and mortality: cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1996-04-20

    To determine the effect of income inequality as measured by the Robin Hood index and the Gini coefficient on all cause and cause specific mortality in the United States. Cross sectional ecological study. Households in the United States. Disease specific mortality, income, household size, poverty, and smoking rates for each state. The Robin Hood index was positively correlated with total mortality adjusted for age (r = 0.54; P < 0.05). This association remained after adjustment for poverty (P < 0.007), where each percentage increase in the index was associated with' an increase in the total mortality of 21.68 deaths per 100,000. Effects of the index were also found for infant mortality (P = 0.013); coronary heart disease (P = 0.004); malignant neoplasms (P = 0.023); and homicide (P < 0.001). Strong associations were also found between the index and causes of death amenable to medical intervention. The Gini coefficient showed very little correlation with any of the causes of death. Variations between states in the inequality of income were associated with increased mortality from several causes. The size of the gap between the wealthy and less well off--as distinct from the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor--seems to matter in its own right. The findings suggest that policies that deal with the growing inequities in income distribution may have an important impact on the health of the population.

  16. Case Studies of Internationalization in Adult and Higher Education: Inside the Processes of Four Universities in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen Elizabeth; Durodoye, Beth A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Pate, P. Elizabeth; Nguyen, Shelbee

    2012-01-01

    This report outlines a method for learning about the internationalization processes at institutions of adult and higher education and then provides the analysis of data gathered from the researchers' own institution and from site visits to three additional universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was found that campus…

  17. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  18. A systematic review of low back pain cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Simon; Caro, Jaime; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The economic burden of low back pain (LBP) is very large and appears to be growing. It is not possible to impact this burden without understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the research on which these costs are calculated. To conduct a systematic review of LBP cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally. Systematic review of the literature. Medline was searched to uncover studies about the direct or indirect costs of LBP published in English from 1997 to 2007. Data extracted for each eligible study included study design, population, definition of LBP, methods of estimating costs, year of data, and estimates of direct, indirect, or total costs. Results were synthesized descriptively. The search yielded 147 studies, of which 21 were deemed relevant; 4 other studies and 2 additional abstracts were found by searching reference lists, bringing the total to 27 relevant studies. The studies reported on data from Australia, Belgium, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the United States. Nine studies estimated direct costs only, nine indirect costs only, and nine both direct and indirect costs, from a societal (n=18) or private insurer (n=9) perspective. Methodology used to derive both direct and indirect cost estimates differed markedly among the studies. Among studies providing a breakdown on direct costs, the largest proportion of direct medical costs for LBP was spent on physical therapy (17%) and inpatient services (17%), followed by pharmacy (13%) and primary care (13%). Among studies providing estimates of total costs, indirect costs resulting from lost work productivity represented a majority of overall costs associated with LBP. Three studies reported that estimates with the friction period approach were 56% lower than with the human capital approach. Several studies have attempted to estimate the direct, indirect, or total costs associated with LBP in various countries using heterogeneous methodology. Estimates of the

  19. Translating agricultural health and medicine education across the Pacific: a United States and Australian comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Susan A; Ruldolphi, Josie; Rohlman, Diane; Donham, Kelley J

    2017-01-01

    Populations in agricultural communities require health care that is interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral to address the high rate of workplace deaths, preventable injuries and illness. These rates are compounded by limited access to services and the distinctive personal values and culture of farming populations, which both health and rural practitioners must be aware of to reduce the gap between rural and urban population health outcomes. To address the unique health and medical characteristics of agricultural populations, education in agricultural medicine was established through the College of Medicine and the College of Public Health at the University of Iowa in the USA. The course was initially developed in 1974 for teaching medical students, family medicine residents and nurses, and a postgraduate curriculum was added in 2006 to develop medical/health and rural professionals' cultural competence to work in agricultural communities. This article reviews the adaptation of the US course to Australia and the educational and practice outcomes of students who completed the agricultural medicine course in either Australia or the USA. Data were collected from students who completed either the Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for Rural Health Professionals course in the state of Iowa in the USA or the Agricultural Health and Medicine course in the state of Victoria in Australia between 2010 and 2013 (inclusive). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequencies and the χ2 test. Students were invited to make any other comments regarding the course. One hundred and ten students completed the survey (59 from the USA and 51 from Australia) with over a 50% response from both countries, indicating the high level of commitment to this discipline. Responses were consistent across both continents, with more than 91% agreeing that the course improved their abilities to diagnose, prevent and treat rural and agricultural populations. Further

  20. Grooming and cultural socialization: a mixed method study of caregiving practices in Burma (Myanmar) and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Lemelson, Seinenu M

    2015-02-01

    Grooming behaviours are thought to be a crucial aspect of parenting and integral to the sociality of non-human mammals, but there have been few empirical studies on how grooming might be relevant to parenting and socialization processes in humans. Study 1 is a quantitative cross-cultural comparison of grooming practices in two cultural settings: an urban centre in Burma (Myanmar) and an urban centre in the United States. The study uses naturalistic video data of 57 families to analyse grooming behaviours directed at children. A broad range of ages was sampled in each culture to examine the developmental trajectory of grooming behaviours. Results indicate that significant cultural differences exist between Burma and the United States, with Burmese children being groomed by their caregivers more often than U.S. children. Results also indicate that cultural differences in grooming practices begin early and remain constant across age. An unexpected finding was that Burmese families were more variable in their behaviour than U.S. families. Study 2 attempts to explain this variability by using ethnography to describe how sociodemographic changes in Burma are leading to changes in parental values and socialization practices in the schools, but how embodied primary care in the homes appear resistant to change. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Categorizing neonatal deaths: a cross-cultural study in the United States, Canada, and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, A A Eduard; Janvier, Annie; Leuthner, Steven R; Andrews, B; Lagatta, J; Bos, Arend F; Meadow, William

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making in culturally different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Review of medical files of newborns >22 weeks gestation who died in the delivery room (DR) or the NICU during 12 months in 4 NICUs (Chicago, Milwaukee, Montreal, and Groningen). We categorized deaths using a 2-by-2 matrix and determined whether mechanical ventilation was withdrawn/withheld and whether the child was dying despite ventilation or physiologically stable but extubated for neurological prognosis. Most unstable patients in all units died in their parents' arms after mechanical ventilation was withdrawn. In Milwaukee, Montreal, and Groningen, 4% to 12% of patients died while receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This proportion was higher in Chicago (31%). Elective extubation for quality-of-life reasons never occurred in Chicago and occurred in 19% to 35% of deaths in the other units. The proportion of DR deaths in Milwaukee, Montreal, and Groningen was 16% to 22%. No DR deaths occurred in Chicago. Death in the NICU occurred differently within and between countries. Distinctive end-of-life decisions can be categorized separately by using a model with uniform definitions of withholding/withdrawing mechanical ventilation correlated with the patient's physiological condition. Cross-cultural comparison of end-of-life practice is feasible and important when comparing NICU outcomes.

  2. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  3. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  4. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah S. Huber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA. The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15 with the highest number of lithi- um samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R2 = 0.226, P <0.001 dur- ing the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation.

  5. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992–2003 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rebekah S.; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R2 = 0.226, P <0.001) during the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation. PMID:25545940

  6. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rebekah S; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E; Renshaw, Perry F; Kondo, Douglas G

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R(2) = 0.226, P <0.001) during the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation.

  7. Cyanobacteria blooms and non-alcoholic liver disease: evidence from a county level ecological study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Lee, Jiyoung; Liang, Song; Shum, C K

    2015-05-07

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms present a global threat to human health. There is evidence suggesting that cyanobacterial toxins can cause liver damage and cancer. However, because there is little epidemiologic research on the effects of these toxins in humans, the excess risk of liver disease remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to estimate the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial blooms in the United States and to conduct a Bayesian statistical analysis to test the hypothesis that contamination from cyanobacterial blooms is a potential risk factor for non-alcoholic liver disease. An ecological study design was employed, in which county-specific gender and age standardized mortality rates (SMR) of non-alcoholic liver disease in the United States were computed between 1999 and 2010. Bloom coverage maps were produced based on estimated phycocyanin levels from MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) water color imageries from 08/01/2005 to 09/30/2005. A scan statistical tool was used to identify significant clusters of death from non-alcoholic liver disease. A map of local indicator of spatial association (LISA) clusters and a Bayesian spatial regression model were used to analyze the relationship between cyanobacterial bloom coverage and death from non-alcoholic liver disease. Cyanobacterial blooms were found to be widely spread in the United States, including coastal areas; 62% of the counties (1949 out of 3109) showed signs of cyanobacterial blooms measured with MERIS. Significant clusters of deaths attributable to non-alcoholic liver disease were identified in the coastal areas impacted by cyanobacterial blooms. Bayesian regression analysis showed that bloom coverage was significantly related to the risk of non-alcoholic liver disease death. The risk from non-alcoholic liver disease increased by 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%) with each 1% increase in bloom coverage in the affected county after adjusting for age, gender, educational level, and race

  8. Deserts of the southwestern United States, for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundaries of the deserts of the southwestern United States. Those deserts include the Great Basin, Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran...

  9. The Use of Performance Based Funding in a Sport Organization: A Case Study of the United States Olympic Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    development pipeline for men, women, trampoline, and rhythmic athletes (United States of America Gymnastics , 2008). These plans evaluate how athletes should...standards that must be kept in order to gain grant money and health insurance from the USOC. Gymnastics During the Beijing Games, the United States...won the largest number of medals ever in a non-boycotted Olympic Games. USA Gymnastics has enjoyed a great deal of 69     success over the past two

  10. A Study of the Effects of Rank and Gender on Officers' Club Membership and Club Usage at U.S. Air Force Bases in the Continental United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, C

    1999-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between both officer rank and officer gender and both club membership and member usage at Air Force officers' clubs in the Continental United States (CONUS...

  11. Readjustment Problems of Brazilian Returnees from Graduate Studies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elizabeth M. P.; Pedersen, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, Subscription Rates: individuals, $15.00 per year; $25.00 two years; $35.00 three years; students, $8.00 per year for maximum of two years.

  12. Influencing Tomorrow: A Study of Emerging Influence Techniques and Their Relevance to United States Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Jaish- e-Muhammad ( Kashmir ); Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan; Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (Algeria) (formerly Salafist Group for Call and Combat...Also called IO.8 Information Warfare: Conflict between two or more states in information space with the aim of causing damage to information systems...

  13. Cervical cancer survival in the United States by race and stage (2001-2009): Findings from the CONCORD-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Vicki B; Watson, Meg; Saraiya, Mona; Harewood, Rhea; Townsend, Julie S; Stroup, Antoinette M; Weir, Hannah K; Allemani, Claudia

    2017-12-15

    Overall, cervical cancer survival in the United States has been reported to be among the highest in the world, despite slight decreases over the last decade. Objective of the current study was to describe cervical cancer survival trends among US women and examine differences by race and stage. This study used data from the CONCORD-2 study to compare survival among women (aged 15-99 years) diagnosed in 37 states covering 80% of the US population. Survival was adjusted for background mortality (net survival) with state- and race-specific life tables and was age-standardized with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Five-year survival was compared by race (all races, blacks, and whites). Two time periods, 2001-2003 and 2004-2009, were considered because of changes in how the staging variable was collected. From 2001 to 2009, 90,620 women were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. The proportion of cancers diagnosed at a regional or distant stage increased over time in most states. Overall, the 5-year survival was 63.5% in 2001-2003 and 62.8% in 2004-2009. The survival was lower for black women versus white women in both calendar periods and in most states; black women had a higher proportion of distant-stage cancers. The stability of the overall survival over time and the persistent differences in survival between white and black women in all US states suggest that there is a need for targeted interventions and improved access to screening, timely treatment, and follow-up care, especially among black women. Cancer 2017;123:5119-37. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. A Case Study of Exploring Older Chinese Immigrants' Social Support within a Chinese Church Community in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Chih-Ling; Shenk, Dena

    2016-09-01

    The number of older Chinese immigrants living in the United States is increasing steadily. They are faced with challenges to meet their needs for social support and are unlikely to turn to formal services. This case study utilizes an ecological framework to analyze social support among Chinese immigrants age 65 year and older within a Christian Chinese church community, and to explore the ways in which a Chinese church functions as the source of social support for older Chinese immigrants. Seven months of participant observation and ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 65+ Chinese adults who attended one Chinese church in the Southern United State and included questions concerning patterns of support and personal relationships within the church. Findings revealed that gender, living arrangements, working experiences, ability to drive, and English language skills were related to support the older Chinese immigrants sought, received, and provided. Although the Chinese church can be a viable source of supplementary support, some participants in this study felt the support they received from the church was insufficient, particularly in terms of emotional support. Therefore, suggestions are outlined that may assist Chinese churches to be more proactive in better understanding and providing services that meet the different needs and desires of older Chinese immigrants.

  15. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F. Patrick; Suaya, Jose A.; Ray, G. Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L.; Mera, Robertino M.; Close, Nicole M.; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  16. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  17. A Comparative Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Aging in Taiwan and the United States Through Student Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Chih-Ling

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare similarities and differences in the attitudes toward aging among college students from Taiwan and the United States; 128 Taiwanese students and 124 U.S. students participated in this study. The findings indicate that the majority of students from both countries viewed aging as consisting primarily of physical changes. The differences are the U.S. students' drawings showing physical decline along with hospitals, nursing homes, or death, whereas Taiwanese students presenting physical decline as getting wrinkles, wearing glasses, or needing aid devices. U.S. students associated aging with grandparents-grandchildren relationships, whereas more Taiwanese students thought aging related to spousal relationships. This study adds to the existing literature that demonstrates the strong influence of different cultures on students' attitudes toward aging. Further, knowledge derived from this study can be used in gerontology courses for both students and professors to lessen or correct ageist stereotypes over time.

  18. A Study to Identify the Transitional Training Needs for United States Army Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-29

    Medical Corps Branch, stated in a transition seminar at Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center (DDEAMC) in April of 1988 that the Army is currently...would necessitate additional detailed responses from multiple-year groups. Ultimately, generalizations of this nature are still hard to make ( Beckham ...Journal of Psychiatry 137.1 (1980): 32-36. Mangelsdorff, A. David . "Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire." Medical Care 17.1 (1979). Meyers, T., P. Leatt

  19. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  20. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dockery, Jr, Leon W

    2006-01-01

    ... became available in Afghanistan. The primary methodology of this thesis centers on case studies of the military presence of the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan...

  1. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, Shawn P

    2007-01-01

    The United States, its industries, livelihood, and economy depend on oil. The United States is the world's largest consumer of oil, with daily usage of approximately 20 million barrels. Approximately...

  2. Comparing of the Financial Ratios: A case study on United States, Great Britain, Greece Due Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of the countries through the financial ratios that were analysed. This study was carried out in order to find the characteristics of each economy in comparison to the others. It would be worthy to mention that the three economies that were put under comparative study, are not of the same dynamic. The United States of America and Great Britain show some common characteristics due to the positions of power that they possess in the allocation of the global economy. However, in the case of Greece the same dynamic with the other two countries doesn’t exist, a fact that is greatly imprinted in their in-between comparison.

  3. Prevalence of HIV infection among young adults in the United States: results from the Add Health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark S; Miller, William C; Ford, Carol A; Schmitz, John L; Hobbs, Marcia M; Cohen, Myron S; Harris, Kathleen M; Udry, J Richard

    2006-06-01

    We estimated HIV prevalence rates among young adults in the United States. We used survey data from the third wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a random sample of nearly 19000 young adults initiated in 1994-1995. Consenting respondents were screened for the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 in oral mucosal transudate specimens. We calculated prevalence rates, accounting for survey design, response rates, and test performance. Among the 13184 participants, the HIV prevalence rate was 1.0 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 1.7). Gender-specific prevalence rates were similar, but rates differed markedly between non-Hispanic Blacks (4.9 per 1000; 95% CI=1.8, 8.7) and members of other racial/ethnic groups (0.22 per 1000; 95% CI=0.00, 0.64). Racial disparities in HIV in the United States are established early in the life span, and our data suggest that 15% to 30% of all cases of HIV occur among individuals younger than 25 years.

  4. Gluten contamination of grains, seeds, and flours in the United States: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tricia; Lee, Anne Roland; Grace, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Under the Food Allergen and Consumer Protection Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must issue a rule for the voluntary labeling of food as gluten-free. In the proposed rule, many single-ingredient foods, such as millet, are considered inherently free of gluten. Inherently gluten-free grains will be considered misbranded if they carry a gluten-free label and do not also state that all foods of the same type are gluten-free (eg, "all millet is gluten free"). Twenty-two inherently gluten-free grains, seeds, and flours not labeled gluten-free were purchased in June 2009 and sent unopened to a company who specializes in gluten analysis. All samples were homogenized and tested in duplicate using the Ridascreen Gliadin sandwich R5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with cocktail extraction. Thirteen of 22 (59%) samples contained less than the limit of quantification of 5 parts per million (ppm) for gluten. Nine of 22 (41%) samples contained more than the limit of quantification, with mean gluten levels ranging from 8.5 to 2,925.0 ppm. Seven of 22 samples (32%) contained mean gluten levels >/=20 ppm and would not be considered gluten-free under the proposed FDA rule for gluten-free labeling. Gluten contamination of inherently gluten-free grains, seeds, and flours not labeled gluten-free is a legitimate concern. The FDA may want to modify their proposed rule for labeling of food as gluten-free, removing the requirement that gluten-free manufacturers of inherently gluten-free grains, seeds, and flours must state on product labels that all foods of that type are gluten-free. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hunger in the United States: A Summary of Recent Studies on Hunger and Emergency Food Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This is an annotated resource guide for those interested in recent hunger and food insecurity studies. Objectives, methods, and key findings of each study are summarized, and contact information for obtaining the report is given. Studies are grouped by survey location and listed chronologically by publication or release date within each geographic…

  6. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  7. The Impact of School Suspension on Student Tobacco Use: A Longitudinal Study in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: School suspension may have unintended consequences in contributing to problem behaviors, including dropping out from school, substance use, and antisocial behavior. Tobacco use is an early-onset problem behavior, but prospective studies of the effects of suspension on tobacco use are lacking. Method: Longitudinal school-based survey of…

  8. Equine Education Programs and Related Studies as Found in Colleges and Universities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, Carol L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and scope of equine education programs being offered in the colleges and universities throughout the country and the attitudes of specialists toward these programs. The paper is organized into five major categories: (1) introduction, statement of purpose, design and scope of the study, and…

  9. Study Abroad during College: Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Fei; You, You

    2017-01-01

    Study abroad can be a life-changing experience, but evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. We examine the experience of studying abroad at colleges in the US and China, which are the largest receiving and sending countries of international students respectively. Using data from two comparable national surveys that follow the same design, we…

  10. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues. One Family's Hunger in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gerald E.

    1974-01-01

    In South Carolina, the children of farmworkers were found to be getting 800 calories of food a day. This case study describes the lifestyle of one of these families and examines problems associated with underemployment and poverty. Study questions and activities are included. (DE)

  11. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  12. Crafts-Artists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, J. George; And Others

    Following a preliminary study of crafts membership organizations in the United States, a survey was conducted of members of these organizations in order to determine their number, kind, media of work, personal characteristics, and geographic location. A sample of 5,146 craftspersons who were members of these organizations was mailed a…

  13. A Study of Postwar Japan (1945-1950): What Insights and Lessons Can be Gained From the United States Led Rebirth of Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brinson, James D

    2006-01-01

    .... This is a study of the postwar military government and administration of Japan. It will examine the detailed preparation, the initial objectives, and the execution of the occupation by the United States (US)-led forces...

  14. A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

  15. Survival trends in metastatic bladder cancer in the United States: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This population-based study shows that decreases in 6-month and 12-month relative survival rates among patients with MBC in 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000, specifically, more pronounced among CC men and Oth men.

  16. Four Eras of Study of College Student Suicide in the United States: 1920-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of college student suicide can be grouped into the following 4 eras: 1920-1960, 1960-1980, 1980-1990, and 1990-2004. The suicide rate for students has declined monotonically across these 4 eras, from 13.4 to 8.0 to 7.5 and, most recently, to 6.5. The decreasing proportion of men in the student populations studied largely accounts for this…

  17. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O’Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. What this study adds The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated

  18. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2016-01-01

    Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation.

  19. A Study of Teacher Training in the United States and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Francis; Yanes Cabrera, Cristina; González Carriedo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Governments and multilateral organizations frequently employ comparative studies, which are receiving increased attention in the contemporary process of globalization. Within the assessment of educational policies, this comparison is used to define the parameters of quality and the models of efficiency, and it allows us to see the roles that…

  20. Enhancing Information Literacy for Preservice Elementary Teachers: A Case Study from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Margie; Fry, Sara Winstead; Bentahar, Adil

    2016-01-01

    Through this study, a librarian and faculty team aimed to determine the extent to which a one-credit information literacy course deepened preservice teachers' understanding of information literacy. We employed a treatment and control group design; treatment participants received 15 hours of information literacy instruction while control…

  1. A Contrastive Study of Cultural Diversity of Learning Styles between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes a contrastive study of learning styles between China and the U.S. from five aspects and recognizes that the differences are due to the influence of cultural diversity such as individualism and collectivism, Confucianism, utilitarianism and pragmatism etc.

  2. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A Comparative Study of Leadership Preparation Programs in Gama (Brazil) and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Gatewood, Mara Rubia Fonseca; McNeal, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship, if any, between leadership preparation programs types and how well school administrators are prepared to set a widely shared vision, develop a school culture, effectively manage school operations and resources, collaborate with faculty and community members, act with integrity and…

  4. A Case Study of the United States Military’s Response to the 2014 Ebola Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Creswell , Qualitative Inquiry and Design Research : Choosing Among Five Approaches, 3rd ed. (Washington, DC: SAGE...no. 11 (November 2014): 1803-1807. Creswell , John D. Qualitative Inquiry and Design Research : Choosing Among Five Approaches. 3rd ed. Washington...first step of the research design process was to define the research approach. For this research project, an intrinsic case study qualitative research

  5. A Study of Multiple Intelligences and Higher Education Faculty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stefanie Denise

    2007-01-01

    This quantitative research study discovered and identified the degree of relationships between the domains of multiple intelligences: (a) interpersonal, (b) intrapersonal, and (c) linguistic intelligences, and (d) leadership and demographic characteristics such as, (a) age, (b) gender and (c) ethnicity among higher education faculty. Using a…

  6. A prospective study of physical activity and the risk of pancreatic cancer among women (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schairer Catherine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiologic studies have examined the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk; however, the results of these studies are not consistent. Methods This study examined the associations of total, moderate, and vigorous physical activity to pancreatic cancer in a cohort of 33,530 U.S. women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP. At baseline (1987–1989, information on physical activity over the past year was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals of pancreatic cancer risk. Results 70 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were ascertained during 284,639 person years of follow-up between 1987–1989 and 1995–1998. After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking status, history of diabetes, and height, increased physical activity was related to a suggestively decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. The RRs for increasing quartiles of total physical activity were 1.0, 0.80, 0.66, 0.52 (95% CI = 0.26, 1.05; ptrend = 0.05. This association was consistent across subgroups defined by body mass index and smoking status. We also observed statistically non-significant reductions in pancreatic cancer risk for women in the highest quartile of moderate (RR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.26, 1.26 and highest quartile of vigorous physical activity (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.31, 1.28 compared to their least active counterparts. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for a role of physical activity in protecting against pancreatic cancer.

  7. Study of the interrelationships among chemical and petrographic variables of United States coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, C.; Davis, A.; Spackman, W.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1978-03-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are used in a study of the interrelationships among various coal properties. The properties chosen for study are the components of the ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, organic sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen); moisture; volatile matter; calorific value; maximum reflectance of the vitrinite-group macerals; and the relative proportions of the vitrinite-, liptinite-, and inertinite-group macerals. The coals included in the study are from four coal provinces (Eastern, Interior, Rocky Mountain, and Northern Great Plains) and range in rank from lignite to anthracite. A coal's characteristics, properties, and utilization behavior are determined by the maceral and mineral materials composing the coal. The level of coalification achieved by the maceral materials is of critical importance in fixing the properties. A factor analysis performed on all data together indicates that most variation in the data set is correlated with changes in rank (variables which vary with rank include carbon, oxygen, calorific value, moisture, volatile matter, and reflectance). The maceral groups account for the next greatest amount of variation. Nitrogen and sulfur are each independent of all other variables. A cluster analysis indicates that the data set represents a continuum with no distinct groups; however, the data set may be dissected into four groups distinguished from each other on the basis of rank, on the relative proportions of the maceral groups, and on the organic sulfur content. Factor analyses of the individual groups provide insights into coalification at various stages of rank.

  8. Promoters and barriers to work: a comparative study of refugees versus immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Kanno, Samer S; Abo-Shasha, Rami; AlSaqa, Mazen M; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Bengt B

    Immigrants in general and refugees in specific are at risk for unemployment with detrimental effects on health and social well-being. Prior work has identified a series of barriers preventing employment among immigrants and refugees. However, these studies either fail to have a comparison group, or it is improper. The objective of this study is to compare unemployment determinants among culturally comparable Iraqi immigrants and refugees. A convenience sample of Iraqis residing in Michigan, who came to US after 2003, were surveyed covering socio-demographic aspects, prior and current job history, perceived barriers and facilitators to get a job, discrimination, and health. results show that refugees were twice as likely to be unemployed. Lack of language skills was a bigger barrier among refugees. The results indicate that immigrants are more successful than refugees in securing a job, even after taking their pre-migration and professional experiences into consideration. This comparative study showed that refugees were more likely to have a difficult time in successfully finding a job. More attention is needed to help minimize the barriers that refugees face in the employment process.

  9. What can we learn from the study of Mexican-origin families in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin families are a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the U.S. population, but they remain underrepresented in family scholarship. This paper introduces a special section of four papers on Mexican-origin families designed to contribute to the advancement of research on how cultural, family, and gender socialization processes unfold across key developmental periods and life transitions in this cultural context. Two longitudinal studies of Mexican-origin families provided the data for these four papers: (a) The Juntos Project, an 8-year longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and adolescent sibling pairs in 246 Mexican-origin families; and (b) The Supporting MAMI Project, a study following 204 adolescent mothers and their mother figures from the third trimester of pregnancy through their young children's 5th birthdays. In this introductory paper, we highlight four themes, including (a) differential acculturation and reciprocal socialization, (b) interdependence in families, (c) the intersection of culture and gender, and (d) methodological issues. We end with suggestions for future research. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  10. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Preliminary report on seismic-reflection studies of crustal structure in the western, central, and southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, J.C.; Strozier, O.P.; Jackson, W.H.; Healy, J.H.

    1963-01-01

    During 1963 the U.S. Geological Survey, with the assistance of United ElectroDynamics, Inc., recorded five separate reversed seismic profiles. In addition to these profiles, the U.S. Geological Survey participated in a seismic-calibration program for the DRIBBLE experiment at Tatum Dome, Mississippi, a 20,000-pound shot near Dexter, Missouri, and in a cooperative seismic experiment in the Lake Superior region. This work is a continuation of the program started in 1961; however, the emphasis has shifted from a detailed study of the earth's crust in the western United States to a study of crustal structure in various geologic environments including the Wyoming thrust belt, Colorado Plateau, Central Lowlands, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and the southern part of the Canadian Shield. The U.S. Geological Survey has now completed reversed seismic-refraction profiles in nine different geologic provinces. These data present a promising indication that it may be possible to predict the crustal structure in unexplored areas by considering the regional geologic and physiographic environment. The following Pn velocities have been determined: 8.2 km/sec in the Wyoming thrust belt, 7.9 km/sec in the Colorado Plateau, 8.1 km/sec in the Central Lowlands, and about 8.2 km/sec in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The data from the Lake Superior region have not yet been interpreted.

  12. Cheerleading-related injuries in the United States: a prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Cheerleading injuries are on the rise and are a significant source of injury to females. No published studies have described the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries by type of cheerleading team and event. To describe the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries and to calculate injury rates by type of cheerleading team and event. Prospective injury surveillance study. Participant exposure and injury data were collected from US cheerleading teams via the Cheerleading RIO (Reporting Information Online) online surveillance tool. Athletes from enrolled cheerleading teams who participated in official, organized cheerleading practices, pep rallies, athletic events, or cheerleading competitions. The numbers and rates of cheerleading injuries during a 1-year period (2006-2007) are reported by team type and event type. A cohort of 9022 cheerleaders on 412 US cheerleading teams participated in the study. During the 1-year period, 567 cheerleading injuries were reported; 83% (467/565) occurred during practice, 52% (296/565) occurred while the cheerleader was attempting a stunt, and 24% (132/563) occurred while the cheerleader was basing or spotting 1 or more cheerleaders. Lower extremity injuries (30%, 168/565) and strains and sprains (53%, 302/565) were most common. Collegiate cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a concussion (P = .01, rate ratio [RR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34, 6.59), and All Star cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a fracture or dislocation (P = .01, RR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.16, 2.66) than were cheerleaders on other types of teams. Overall injury rates for practices, pep rallies, athletic events, and cheerleading competitions were 1.0, 0.6, 0.6, and 1.4 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, respectively. We are the first to report cheerleading injury rates based on actual exposure data by type of team and event. These injury rates are lower than those reported for other high school and collegiate sports; however, many cheerleading

  13. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves.

  14. Social Media Strategies for the United States Armed Forces: An Israeli Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Nov 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/11/inside-israels-socialmedia-command-center/265471/ 36 Allison Hoffman. “The Kids ...Behind IDF’s Media.” Tablet. 20 Nov 2012. http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish- news-and-politics/117235/the- kids -behind-idf-media (accessed 9 Dec 2012...gaza-conflict- study-shows.premium-1.491677 (Accessed 4 Jan 2013) 50 Liat Clark. “Israel trains teen cybersleuths, but loses social media war to

  15. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Two: Spanish and French Settlement of North America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Colonization of America is the theme in this second social studies unit for 6th grade students. Reasons for colonization are briefly discussed. The unit then takes up the Spanish settlement of Mexico, the way in which the Spanish took their culture with them to the new world, differences in the way in which the Aztecs and the Spanish perceived the…

  16. Perspectives on Violence Against Women: A Study of United States Nursing Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Glynn, Kim; Missari, Stacy

    2017-03-01

    This study examines conceptualizations of violence against women in U.S. nursing textbooks published from 1995 to 2005. Framing this pivotal decade, the federal Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) was passed and renewed. The American Nurses Association, the National League for Nursing, and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing also recognized violence against women as a health care priority. Sampling 107 generalist nursing textbooks from 1995 to 2005, the current study analyzes textbook terminologies, arguments, and protocols. Textbooks including violence were empirically tested for their application of gender neutral, symmetrical, and asymmetrical theoretical frameworks. Over 40% of generalist textbooks did not mention violence against women. Despite the VAWA in 1994 and broad recognition across national nursing organizations, textbooks did not change with regard to their treatment of violence over the next decade. The frameworks that nursing textbooks use may foster challenges for nurses in recognizing, supporting, and assisting women who are victims/survivors of violence. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(3):164-169.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. United States military service members and their tattoos: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R Gregory; Bahroo, Bhagwan A; Soumoff, Alyssa

    2013-08-01

    To explore the characteristics of military service tattoos a descriptive study was conducted at Walter Reed Army Medical Center to collect information from a convenience sample. An investigator-developed questionnaire provided the data for this study. Over the ensuing 12 month-period the researchers collected 126 questionnaires. Typical respondents were enlisted men with at least one deployment to an area of combat operations. Among the respondents, 57% acquired their tattoos before their deployment. One-quarter of the respondents reported only one tattoo, leaving the majority with multiple tattoos. Men received their first tattoo at an earlier age than women. The most common tattoo listed a person's name. Respondents did not regret their tattoos and rarely acquired the body art under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Little evidence was found to support a connection between tattoos and deployment. Few regretted their decisions and most all approached the tattoo experience free of any mind-altering substance. All this seems to suggest that military tattoos are a well-accepted means of self-expression. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Predictors of academic performance for applicants to an international dental studies program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela; King, Patricia A; Chambers, David W

    2011-12-01

    The number of U.S. and Canadian dental schools offering programs for dentists with degrees from other countries leading to the D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree has increased recently. This fact, along with the diversity of educational systems represented by candidates for these programs, increases the importance of identifying valid admissions predictors of success in international dental student programs. Data from 148 students accepted into the international dental studies program at the University of the Pacific from 1994 through 2004 were analyzed. Dependent variables were comprehensive cumulative GPA at the end of both the first and second years of the two-year program. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and both Parts I and II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) were significant positive predictors of success. Performance on laboratory tests of clinical skill in operative dentistry and in fixed prosthodontics and ratings from interviewers were not predictive of overall success in the program. Although this study confirms the predictive value of written tests such as the TOEFL and NBDE, it also contributes to the literature documenting inconsistent results regarding other types of predictors. It may be the case that characteristics of individual programs or features of the applicant pools for each may require use of admissions predictors that are unique to schools.

  19. Assassination in the United States: an operational study of recent assassins, attackers, and near-lethal approachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, R A; Vossekuil, B

    1999-03-01

    This study is the first operational exploration of the thinking and behavior of all 83 persons known to have attacked, or approached to attack, a prominent public official or public figure in the United States since 1949. In addition to data about each attack or near-attack and each subject's demographic and background characteristics, information was gathered about each subject's ideas and actions in the days and weeks before their attacks or near-lethal approaches. Questions were examined about each subject's movement from the idea of attack to actual attack, motives, selection of targets, planning, communication of threat and intent, symptoms of mental illness, and significant life experiences. In every case, the attack or near-attack was the end result of an understandable, and often discernible, process of thinking and action. Implications for protectors, investigators, and researchers are discussed.

  20. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA. The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options.

  1. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA). The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR) database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options. PMID:19909522

  2. Animal health economics: an aid to decisionmaking on animal health interventions - case studies in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T L; Pendell, D; Knippenberg, R

    2017-04-01

    For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors. The authors discuss the economic measurement of animal disease outbreaks and interventions and how measurement is used in private and public decision-making. Two illustrative case studies in the United States of America are provided: a hypothetical outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle, and the 2014-2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

  3. Segmented Assimilation: An Approach to Studying Acculturation and Obesity Among Latino Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Karen R; Abraído-Lanza, Ana

    Segmented assimilation theory posits that immigrants experience distinct paths of assimilation. Using cluster analysis and data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, this study sought to apply this theory in relation to obesity among Latinos. Four clusters emerged: a "second-generation classic," a "third-generation classic," an "underclass," and a "segmented assimilation" pattern. In analyses controlling for sociodemographic confounders (eg, age), second-generation classic individuals had higher odds of obesity (odds ratio = 2.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.47-4.93) relative to the segmented pattern. Similarly, third-generation classic individuals had higher odds of obesity (odds ratio = 3.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.74-6.01) compared with segmented assimilation individuals.

  4. Reverse Mortgage Participation in the United States: Evidence from a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the most recent wave of a nationally representative dataset to examine the factors associated with elderly homeowners’ decision to obtain reverse mortgage loans. The findings of this study suggest that very few homeowners participated in the reverse mortgage market, and homeowners younger than 67 were less likely to have reverse mortgage loans. However, homeowners who were risk averse, and homeowners in the two highest quartiles of net worth were more likely to have reverse mortgage loans. Further analyses reveal that among the reverse mortgage participants, homeowners with long-term care insurance coverage were less likely to have reverse mortgage loans. Implications for financial economists, financial planners, policy-makers, and scholars of retirement economics are included.

  5. Airborne Radar Study of Mars Analogs in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Doggett, T. C.; Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Dohm, J.; Ferre, P. A.; Hinnell, A.; Rucker, D.; Roden, J.; Stough, T.

    2003-01-01

    The search for surface and near-surface liquid water on Mars is a central part of current and planned future exploration, which include radar sounders on Mars Express and MRO and proposed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagers. In order to penetrate sand and dust cover, these systems are proposed for longer wavelengths (e.g, from [2]: 24 cm / L-band and 74 cm / P-band) than those considered optimal for the detection of soil moisture (6 cm / C-band). However, there has been some success in detecting soil moisture at longer wavelengths. Given the size and mass constraints for Mars missions, the optimization of radar instrument parameters for meeting science objectives, such as searching for liquid water, is essential. In this on-going study, we are using repeat coverage of Mars analog sites with multifrequency (C, L and P band) airborne radar and ground truth soil sample data to assess the detectability of soil moisture.

  6. Neurologic manifestations of AIDS: a comparative study of two populations from Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, J R; Garcìa-Ramos, G; Novak, I S; Rivera, V M; Huerta, E; Essex, M

    1995-01-01

    Neurologic complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection vary geographically. To understand the pattern of HIV-associated neurologic complications in Mexico, 120 AIDS patients from Mexico City, Mexico, and 500 AIDS patients from Houston, Texas, were studied cross-sectionally and retrospectively. Neurologic, laboratory, imaging, and pathologic examinations identified 40 Mexican patients and 130 U.S. patients with neurologic complications. Whereas AIDS dementia complex was the most common neurologic manifestation in both groups, intracranial tuberculoma was present only in the Mexican population (10%). Primary brain lymphoma was more prevalent in the U.S. population (8.4%). The different findings in the Mexican population likely reflect afflictions common to developing countries--a high prevalence of tuberculosis and a high mortality rate. These conditions preclude complications such as lymphoma, which develop later in the natural course of HIV infection.

  7. Survival Trends in Elderly Patients with Glioblastoma in the United States: a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Bista, Amir; Sharma, Sandhya

    2016-09-01

    Concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide along with radiotherapy following surgery (the Stupp regimen) is the preferred therapy for young patients with glioblastoma as well as for elderly (>70 years) ones with favorable risk factors. This study investigated the survival trend since the introduction of the use of the Stupp regimen in elderly patients in a population-based setting. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database was used to identify patients aged ≥70 years with glioblastoma as the first primary cancer diagnosed from 1999 to 2010. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard method were used for analysis. A total of 5,575 patients were included in the survival analysis. Survival in Stupp era (year of diagnosis ≥2005) was significantly better compared to the pre-Stupp era with p<0.001 by log-rank test, with 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival of 18.8% vs. 12.9%, 6.5% vs. 2.1% and 3.1% vs. 0.9% respectively, and hazard ratio for death in 3 years in the Stupp era was 0.87 (95% confidence interval=0.82-0.92; p<0.001) when compared with the pre-Stupp era. Factors such as younger age (<85 years), female sex, married status, Caucasian race and total resection favored better survival compared to their counterparts. This study shows that the survival of elderly patients with glioblastoma has improved since the introduction of the Stupp regimen. However, there are significant differences in survival rates among various cohorts. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical manifestations of pediatric psoriasis: Results of a multi-center study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Katherine; Kwasny, Mary; Cordoro, Kelly M.; Menter, Alan; Tom, Wynnis L.; Korman, Neil; Belazarian, Leah; Armstrong, April W.; Levy, Moise L.; Paller, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The clinical features of pediatric psoriasis warrant further attention. A national study was completed to determine the prevalence of scalp and nail involvement, and history of guttate psoriasis at onset, according to age, sex, and disease severity. Materials and Methods 181 children, ages 5 to 17 years, with plaque psoriasis were enrolled in a multi-center, cross-sectional study. Subjects/guardians were asked about a history of scalp and nail involvement and whether the initial presentation was guttate. Peak psoriasis severity was assessed and defined historically as mild psoriasis (MP) or severe psoriasis (SP) according to Physician Global Assessment and Body Surface Area measures. Results 79.0% (n=143) of subjects reported a history of scalp involvement and 39.2% (n=71) described a history of nail involvement. Boys were less likely than girls to report a history of scalp involvement (OR= 0.40 (0.19-0.84)), but were more likely to have had nail involvement (OR=3.01 (1.62-5.60)). Scalp and nail involvement was not related to psoriasis severity. In contrast, SP subjects (35.9%) more often reported a history of guttate lesions than did MP subjects (21.8%) (p=0.017). Antecedent streptococcal infection was more common in children with guttate vs. plaque psoriasis at onset (p=0.02), but did not correlate with severity. Conclusions Gender-related differences in scalp and nail involvement suggest koebnerization. Preceding streptococcal infection predicts guttate morphology but not severity, and initial guttate morphology is associated with eventual greater severity of disease More aggressive monitoring and management should be considered for guttate psoriasis, given its later association with more severe disease. PMID:23360462

  9. Obesity and rhinitis in a nationwide study of children and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with higher risk of asthma and asthma severity both in children and adults. However, studies evaluating the relation between obesity and rhinitis have yielded conflicting results. We performed a cross-sectional study of obesity indicators and rhinitis using data from 8165 participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Allergic rhinitis was defined as physician-diagnosed hay fever or allergy, the presence of symptoms in the past 12 months, and at least 1 positive allergen-specific IgE level. Nonallergic rhinitis was defined as a physician's diagnosis and symptoms but no positive allergen-specific IgE levels. Multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between obesity and rhinitis in children and adults. In adults, overweight or obesity was associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93; P = .02). Similarly, central obesity was associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis in adults (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.20-2.16; P obesity, or central obesity were not associated with allergic rhinitis in adults. In children, central obesity was associated with reduced odds of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.64; P children. In adults, obesity is associated with increased odds of nonallergic rhinitis, particularly in male subjects. In children, central obesity is associated with reduced odds of allergic rhinitis, regardless of sex. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  11. Women's knowledge and awareness of gynecologic cancer: a multisite qualitative study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Polonec, Lindsey; Gelb, Cynthia A

    2011-04-01

    U.S. women's awareness and knowledge of gynecologic cancer have not been well studied, with the exception of cervical cancer screening and risk factors. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with women aged 40-60 years in Miami, New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. Most participants said they had heard of cervical, ovarian, and uterine cancers but were unfamiliar with vaginal and vulvar cancers. The misconception that the Pap test screens for multiple gynecologic cancers was prevalent and engendered a false sense of security in some women. An annual Pap screening interval was most familiar to participants; some mentioned a shorter screening interval for high-risk women; few mentioned an extended screening interval. A few participants thought the pelvic examination could detect a variety of conditions, including ovarian cancer. Some knew that the human papillomavirus (HPV) could cause cervical cancer, but no other risk factors for specific cancers were mentioned with any consistency. Although some recognized unexplained vaginal bleeding as a symptom of cervical cancer, participants generally were unfamiliar with gynecologic cancer symptoms. Participants reported learning about the discussion topics from a variety of sources, including the mass media. Participants lacked critical knowledge needed to understand their gynecologic cancer risk and seek appropriate care. Pap tests and routine examinations offer ideal opportunities to educate women about the purpose of the Pap test as well as risk factors and symptoms associated with various gynecologic cancers. The reported influence of the mass media also supports the viability of multimedia educational strategies.

  12. TB perspectives among a sample of Mexicans in the United States: results from an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Heather A; Waldman, K; Rawls, C; Wilce, M; Shrestha-Kuwahara, R

    2008-04-01

    A study was conducted to describe the sociocultural aspects of tuberculosis (TB) among Mexicans in the U.S. and to provide TB programs with practical recommendations for serving this population. In-depth, structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 50 persons from Mexico living in the U.S. Local bilingual, bicultural researchers conducted the interviews with respondents recruited from TB clinics and surrounding communities. Both qualitative and quantitative strategies were used to analyze the data. We found diverse TB perceptions and attitudes, but few were associated with specific participant characteristics. We detected widespread misperceptions about TB transmission and low perceptions of risk. Anticipated TB stigma among those with no history of disease was qualitatively greater than reported stigma among those who had TB disease. We also detected missed opportunities for TB education. Reported barriers to care included lack of transportation, limited clinic hours, cost of services, inconvenient clinic location, and communication problems with staff. To address the diverse needs of Mexican-born clients, we recommend that TB programs provide culturally-appropriate, patient-centered care. We suggest several strategies aimed at raising risk awareness and reducing stigma. Finally, we encourage programs to facilitate access by providing language-appropriate services, extending clinic hours, and facilitating transportation.

  13. Ethnographic study of experiences of Pakistani women immigrants with pregnancy, birthing, and postpartum care in the United States and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Rubab; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2013-10-01

    Describe the comparative birthing experiences of Pakistani immigrant women in Pakistan and the United States. The framework was drawn from Berry's cultural adaptation, Glick-Schiller et al.'s transnationalism and Berkman's social network. Qualitative Women experienced difficulties associated with inability to observe cultural traditions and loss of extended, gendered kin support. Adaptive strategies were evident through development of social networks of weak ties with non-kin groups in the United States, maintenance of transnational ties with kin back in Pakistan, and assimilation of less gender-defined roles by women and their spouses.

  14. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  15. Unemployment, disability and life expectancy in the United States: A life course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment may be associated with health through factors including stress, depression, unhealthy behaviors, reduced health care, and loss of social networks. Little is known about associations of total lifetime unemployment with disability and life expectancy. People with high unemployment (≥the median) will live shorter lives with more disability than those with less unemployment. Data were nationally representative of African Americans and non-Hispanic whites, from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (37 waves 1968-2011, n = 7,970, mean work years = 24.7). Seven waves (1999-2011, 58,268 person-years) measured disability in activities of daily living. We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death associated with unemployment using multinomial logistic Markov models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, health status at baseline and throughout work life, and social support. We used the probabilities to create large populations with microsimulation, each individual having known monthly disability status, age 40 to death. We analyzed the populations to measure outcomes. Respectively for African American and white women and African American and white men, life expectancies (with 95% confidence intervals) from age 40 with low unemployment were ages: 77.1 (75.0-78.3), 80.6 (78.4-81.4), 71.4 (69.6-72.5), and 76.9 (74.9-77.9). Corresponding high unemployment results were: 73.7 (71.7-75.0), 77.5 (75.1-78.0), 68.4 (66.8-69.0), and 73.7 (71.5-74.3). The percentage of life disabled from age 40 was greater with high unemployment for the same groups, by 23.9%, 21.0%, 21.3%, and 21.1% (all p unemployment may be associated with a larger proportion of later life with disability and lower life expectancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gout in the Hmong in the United States: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahedduddin, Salman; Singh, Jasvinder A; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Gertner, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare characteristics of gout in Hmong patients versus Caucasians and examine if Hmong ethnicity is associated with risk of tophaceous gout. Methods A retrospective chart review of Hmong and Caucasian patients with gout in a large health care system (HealthPartners) in St Paul, Minnesota, from 1/2001 to 3/2008, to compare clinical characteristics and risk factors for gout. Multivariable-adjusted hierarchical logistic regressions examined the association of Hmong ethnicity with risk of tophaceous gout, adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diuretic use and kidney function. Results The analytic dataset consisted of 89 Hmong patients and 84 Caucasian controls, all of whom had ethnicity confirmed, an ICD-9 code for gout and had at least two physician-documented diagnoses of gout. The Hmong group was younger (58.3 vs. 66.3 y, p = 0.04), had an earlier onset of symptoms (37.4 vs. 55.0 y, p<0.001) and higher mean serum uric acid levels during follow-up (9.1 vs. 7.6 mg/dl, p ≤ 0.001). Hmong had higher rates of tophaceous gout (31.5% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.001), including hand tophi (21.3% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses that adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diuretic use and kidney function, Hmong ethnicity was significantly associated with risk of tophaceous gout, with odds ratio 4.3 (95% CI 1.5, 12.2). Conclusion Hmong patients have an earlier onset of gout symptoms. Hmong race is an independent risk factor for tophaceous gout. Future studies need to examine whether genetic or other co-morbid factors predict this higher risk of more severe gout in Hmong. PMID:20808166

  17. Comparison of trihalomethanes in tap water and blood: a case study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Wright, J Michael; Blount, Benjamin C; Silva, Lalith K; Jones, Elizabeth; Chan, Ronna L; Pegram, Rex A; Singer, Philip C; Savitz, David A

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have used various measures to characterize trihalomethane (THM) exposures, but the relationship of these indicators to exposure biomarkers remains unclear. We examined temporal and spatial variability in baseline blood THM concentrations and assessed the relationship between these concentrations and several exposure indicators (tap water concentration, water-use activities, multiroute exposure metrics). We measured water-use activity and THM concentrations in blood and residential tap water from 150 postpartum women from three U.S. locations. Blood ΣTHM [sum of chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromo-chloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] concentrations varied by site and season. As expected based on variable tap water concentrations and toxicokinetic properties, the proportion of brominated species (BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) in blood varied by site (site 1, 24%; site 2, 29%; site 3, 57%) but varied less markedly than in tap water (site 1, 35%; site 2, 75%; site 3, 68%). The blood-water ΣTHM Spearman rank correlation coefficient was 0.36, with correlations higher for individual brominated species (BDCM, 0.62; DBCM, 0.53; TBM, 0.54) than for TCM (0.37). Noningestion water activities contributed more to the total exposure metric than did ingestion, but tap water THM concentrations were more predictive of blood THM levels than were metrics that incorporated water use. Spatial and temporal variability in THM concentrations was greater in water than in blood. We found consistent blood-water correlations across season and site for BDCM and DBCM, and multivariate regression results suggest that water THM concentrations may be an adequate surro-gate for baseline blood levels.

  18. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-10-20

    Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? In this cohort study, 308,297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66,632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17,957 were due to solid cancers. Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated with protracted radiation exposures can help strengthen the foundation for

  19. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  20. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  1. Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease mortality in the United States, 1999-2010: a population-based comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are ubiquitous organisms with which humans commonly interact. The epidemiologic characteristics of NTM diseases including mortality rate and its associated factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the geographical area of exposure and mortality and comorbid conditions of affected persons to determine environment, host, and host-pathogen interactive factors. METHODS: We analyzed mortality related to nontuberculous mycobacterial infections from 1999 through 2010 by examining multiple-cause-of-death data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among those who died with these diseases, we analyzed age-adjusted mortality rates, trends, associations with demographic variables, and comorbid conditions and correlated this information with similar data for tuberculosis-related mortality during the same time. MEASUREMENTS AND MEAN RESULTS: From 1999 through 2010, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease was reported as an immediate cause of death in 2,990 people in the United States with a combined overall mean age-adjusted mortality rate of 0.1 per 100,000 person-years. A significant increase in the number of NTM related deaths was seen from 1999 through 2010 (R(2 = 0.72, p<0.0001, but it was not significant after adjustment for age. Persons aged 55 years and older, women, those living in Hawaii and Louisiana, and those of non-Hispanic, white ethnicity had higher mortality rates. Compared to tuberculosis-related mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, HIV, interstitial lung diseases, and tobacco use were significantly more common in persons with nontuberculous mycobacteria-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Nontuberculous mycobacteria-related death numbers are rising and are unevenly distributed. The strong association of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease with age suggests that its prevalence will increase as the United States population ages.

  2. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-18

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report as part of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) to present results of RI/FS activities at five sites at the Bullen Point radar installation. The IRP provides for investigating, quantifying, and remediating environmental contamination from past waste management activities at Air Force installations throughout the United States.

  3. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  4. Neurocysticercosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; White, A Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is typically considered a disease of the developing world. Nonetheless, NCC is also diagnosed in the developed world. The rise in the number of cases of NCC in developed countries, especially in the United States of America, has largely been driven by the influx of immigrants from endemic to non-endemic regions and the widespread access to neuroimaging. Cases of local transmission have also been documented particularly in the setting of a tapeworm carrier present in the household, which highlights the relevance of NCC as a public health problem in the USA. Although accurate incidence data in the USA are not available, estimates range from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 100 000 general population and 1.5–5.8 cases per 100 000 Hispanics. We estimate that between 1320 and 5050 new cases of NCC occur every year in the USA. The number of NCC cases reported in the literature in the USA increased from 1494 prior to 2004 to 4632 after that date. Parenchymal cases remain the most commonly reported form of the disease; however, a slight increase in the percentage of extraparenchymal cases has been described in the most recent series. NCC is associated with significant morbidity resulting from hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, and seizures. Although uncommon, NCC is also a cause of premature death in the USA with a calculated annual age-adjusted mortality rate of at least 0.06 per million population. PMID:23265549

  5. Resistance Rates of Intra-Abdominal Isolates from Intensive Care Units and Non-Intensive Care Units in the United States: The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Meredith A; Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hoban, Daryl J

    2015-06-01

    Enterobacteriaceae (3,235 isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (476 isolates), and Acinetobacter baumannii (106 isolates) from inpatient intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) were collected for the 2010-2012 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) program in the United States. This report evaluates the in vitro activity of several antimicrobial agents recommended for treatment of IAIs and compares profiles of isolates from intensive care units (ICUs) and non-intensive care units (non-ICUs). Gram-negative bacilli from hospitalized patients with IAIs were obtained each year from 2010-2012 from hospitals in the United States and tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics according to 2012 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The most active agents against members of the Enterobacteriaceae family from both ICUs and non-ICUs were amikacin, ertapenem, and imipenem-cilastatin, whereas the least active agent was ampicillin-sulbactam. Amikacin was the only agent with good activity against P. aeruginosa, whereas none of the agents tested exhibited substantial activity against A. baumannii. Amikacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and imipenem-cilastatin were significantly less active against Enterobacteriaceae from ICU patients, whereas cefepime and ceftazidime were significantly less active against P. aeruginosa from ICU patients. Intensive care unit isolates were more likely to be multi-drug-resistant than non-ICU isolates, although there was no difference in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production rates between the two patient groups. Despite increasing resistance trends, in this study amikacin, ertapenem, and imipenem-cilastatin were shown to have good in vitro activity against the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacilli from IAIs in ICU and non-ICU settings.

  6. Housing Arrangements among a National Sample of Adults with Chronic Schizophrenia Living in the United States: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Stroup, T. Scott; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been no recent national description of where and with whom people with chronic mental illness reside. Using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, the living arrangements of 1,446 clients with schizophrenia from 57 sites throughout the United States were characterized over 1 year. At baseline, 46% of…

  7. Legal Protections and Advocacy for Contingent or "Casual" Workers in the United States: A Case Study in Day Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Contingent, non-standard or "casual" work is present in large numbers in virtually every sector of the United States economy. Staffing strategies that use subcontracted or contingent work--strategies that once characterized only some low-wage workers such as garment and agriculture--have now spread to virtually every area of industry, including…

  8. Computer Science Teacher Professional Development in the United States: A Review of Studies Published between 2004 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menekse, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    While there has been a remarkable interest to make computer science a core K-12 academic subject in the United States, there is a shortage of K-12 computer science teachers to successfully implement computer sciences courses in schools. In order to enhance computer science teacher capacity, training programs have been offered through teacher…

  9. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  10. Urban Growth and Decline in the United States: A Study of Migration's Effects in Two Cities. Paper Series No. 5234.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Peter A.

    The United States is a highly urbanized nation with space in abundance, yet large portions of its national territory are emptying out. The counterpart of this pervasive population decline is a highly selective pattern of growth, conferred by a national system of migration flows that has increasingly favored a certain few metropolitan areas. This…

  11. Appendix 2: Risk-based framework and risk case studies. Risk assessment for wildfire in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Jeremy S. Littell

    2012-01-01

    Wildfire is one of the two most significant disturbance agents (the other being insects) in forest ecosystems of the Western United States, and in a warmer climate, will drive changes in forest composition, structure, and function (Dale et al. 2001, McKenzie et al. 2004). Although wildfire is highly stochastic in space and time, sufficient data exist to establish clear...

  12. Are wildfire management resources in the United States efficiently allocated to protect resources at risk? A case study from Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek T. O' Donnell; Tyron J. Venna; David E. Calkin

    2014-01-01

    Federal wildfire management agencies in the United States are under substantial pressure to reduce and economically justify their expenditures. To support economically efficient management of wildfires, managers need better estimates of the resource benefits and avoided damage costs associated with alternative wildfire management strategies. This paper reports findings...

  13. Liver cancer survival in the United States by race and stage (2001-2009): Findings from the CONCORD-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh R; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Carreira, Helena; Li, Chunyu; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Worldwide, liver cancer is a leading cause of death for both men and women. The number of Americans who are diagnosed with and die of liver cancer has been rising slowly each year. Using data from the CONCORD-2 study, this study examined population-based survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Data from 37 statewide registries, which covered 81% of the US population, for patients diagnosed during 2001-2009 were analyzed. Survival up to 5 years was adjusted for background mortality (net survival) with state- and race-specific life tables, and it was age-standardized with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Liver cancer was diagnosed overall more often at the localized stage, with blacks being more often diagnosed at distant and regional stages than whites. 5-year net survival was 12.2% in 2001-2003 and 14.8% in 2004-2009. Whites had higher survival than blacks in both calendar periods (11.7% vs 9.1% and 14.3% vs 11.4%, respectively). During 2004-2009, 5-year survival was 25.7% for localized-stage disease, 9.5% for regional-stage disease, and 3.5% for distant-stage disease. Some progress has occurred in survival for patients with liver cancer, but 5-year survival remains low, even for those diagnosed at the localized stage. Efforts directed at controlling well-established risk factors such as hepatitis B may have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of liver cancer in the United States. Cancer 2017;123:5059-78. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. The Impact of Invisibility on the Health of Migrant Farmworkers in the Southeastern United States: A Case Study from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari M. Bail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrant farmworkers represent one of the most marginalized and underserved populations in the United States. Acculturation theory cannot be easily mapped onto the transnational experience of migrant farmworkers, who navigate multiple physical and cultural spaces yearly, and who are not recognized by the state they constitute, “the Citizen’s Other” (Kerber, 2009. This paper utilizes narrative analysis of a case study to illustrate, through the relationship of the narrator to migrant farmworkers and years of participant observation by the coauthors, how isolation from family and community, as well as invisibility within institutions, affect the health and well-being of migrant farmworkers in southeastern Georgia. Invisibility of farmworkers within institutions, such as health care, the educational system, social services, domestic violence shelters, and churches contribute to illness among farmworkers. The dominant American discourse surrounding immigration policy addresses the strain immigrants put on the social systems, educational system, and the health care system. Nurses who work with farmworkers are well positioned to bring the subjective experience of farmworkers to light, especially for those engaged with socially just policies. Those who contribute to the abundant agricultural produce that feeds Americans deserve the recognition upon which social integration depends.

  15. EDEX Educational Expansion and Labour Market: A Comparative Study of Five European Countries--France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom with Special Reference to the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduwe, Catherine; Planas, Jordi

    The long-term economic and social impacts of the rise in levels of education on mechanisms of access to employment and on human resources management were examined in a comparative study of educational expansion and the labor markets of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with special reference to the United States. Five teams of…

  16. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  17. Assessment of "TIMELINE" for river floods in Japan based on geographical and societal backgrounds: Case studies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, S.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    "TIMELINE" is a tool that supports people in disaster cases. After "TIMELINE" was used effectively in the United States at Hurricane Sandy, it was introduced in Japan to apply for river flood cases. In terms of Japan, "TIMELINE" is a developing method. Therefore, the objective of our research is to contribute for the effective application of "TIMELINE" in Japan. To achieve our objective, we tried two steps. First, to understand the reason of "TIMELINE" making, we found the primal concept of "TIMELINE" by case study in the United States. In this part, by using bibliographic survey, we researched the history of disaster prevention acts in the United States and tried to find the root of "TIMELINE". Second, we extracted the difference of attitudes toward river floods between Japan and the United States with studying actual river flood cases. To catch issues with several aspects, we focused on geographical and societal backgrounds in both countries. About time scale of our research, we picked up from early 20th century to now. In this era, both Japan and the United States started to operate the modern approaches to river floods. As a result, we found that it might be important to recognize the difference of geographical and societal aspects between Japan and the United States for effective application of "TIMELINE". Our research would also contribute for effective application of "TIMELINE" on flash floods.

  18. Generalized hydrogeologic framework and groundwater budget for a groundwater availability study for the glacial aquifer system of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Bayless, E. Randall; Dudley, Robert W.; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Qi, Sharon L.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.

    2017-12-14

    The glacial aquifer system groundwater availability study seeks to quantify (1) the status of groundwater resources in the glacial aquifer system, (2) how these resources have changed over time, and (3) likely system response to future changes in anthropogenic and environmental conditions. The glacial aquifer system extends from Maine to Alaska, although the focus of this report is the part of the system in the conterminous United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The glacial sand and gravel principal aquifer is the largest source of public and self-supplied industrial supply for any principal aquifer and also is an important source for irrigation supply. Despite its importance for water supply, water levels in the glacial aquifer system are generally stable varying with climate and only locally from pumping. The hydrogeologic framework developed for this study includes the information from waterwell records and classification of material types from surficial geologic maps into likely aquifers dominated by sand and gravel deposits. Generalized groundwater budgets across the study area highlight the variation in recharge and discharge primarily driven by climate.

  19. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  20. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    sub-index measures society’s basic attitudes toward entrepreneurship through education and social stability. The activity sub- index measures what...career choice or in terms of social status. In the institutional variable, the United States scores very well among all countries studied but somewhat...Coduras and J. Levie 2009, GEM Executive Report 2008, Babson College, Universidad del Desarrollo , and Global Entrepreneurship Research Consortium

  1. Blood Transfusion and Survival for Resected Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Study from the United States Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Caroline E; Postlewait, Lauren M; Ethun, Cecilia G; Tran, Thuy B; Prescott, Jason D; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wang, Tracy S; Glenn, Jason; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Phay, John E; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C; Jin, Linda X; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C; Mansour, John C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C; Kiernan, Colleen M; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Levine, Edward A; Staley, Charles A; Poultsides, George A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic, gastric, and liver cancer. The effect of transfusion in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has not been studied. Patients with available transfusion data undergoing curative-intent resection of ACC from 1993 to 2014 at 13 institutions comprising the United States Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group were included. Factors associated with blood transfusion were determined. Primary and secondary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), respectively. Out of 265 patients, 149 were included for analysis. Out of these, 57 patients (38.3%) received perioperative transfusions. Compared to nontransfused patients, transfused patients more commonly had stage 4 disease (46% vs 24%, P = 0.01), larger tumors (15.8 vs 10.2 cm, P Transfusion was associated with decreased RFS (8.9 vs 24.7 months, P = 0.006) and OS (22.8 vs 91.0 months, P transfusion, stage IV, hormonal hypersecretion, and adjuvant therapy were associated with decreased RFS. On multivariable analysis, only transfusion [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-2.9, P = 0.04], stage IV (HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7-5.9, P transfusion HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.8, P = 0.02; stage 4 HR = 6.2, 95% CI = 3.1-12.4, P 2 units of packed red blood cells in median RFS (8.9 vs 8.4 months, P = 0.95) or OS (26.5 vs 18.6 months, P = 0.63). Perioperative transfusion is associated with earlier recurrence and decreased survival after curative-intent resection of ACC. Strategies and protocols to minimize blood transfusion should be developed and followed.

  2. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  3. Comparative analysis of death by suicide in Brazil and in the United States: descriptive, cross-sectional time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuabara, Alexander; Abuabara, Allan; Tonchuk, Carin Albino Luçolli

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes suicide as a public health priority. Increased knowledge of suicide risk factors is needed in order to be able to adopt effective prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the association between the Gini coefficient (which is used to measure inequality) and suicide death rates over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in Brazil and in the United States (US). The hypothesis put forward was that reduction of income inequality is accompanied by reduction of suicide rates. Descriptive cross-sectional time-series study in Brazil and in the US. Population, death and suicide death data were extracted from the DATASUS database in Brazil and from the National Center for Health Statistics in the US. Gini coefficient data were obtained from the World Development Indicators. Time series analysis was performed on Brazilian and American official data regarding the number of deaths caused by suicide between 2000 and 2013 and the Gini coefficients of the two countries. The suicide trends were examined and compared. Brazil and the US present converging Gini coefficients, mainly due to reduction of inequality in Brazil over the last decade. However, suicide rates are not converging as hypothesized, but are in fact rising in both countries. The hypothesis that reduction of income inequality is accompanied by reduction of suicide rates was not verified.

  4. Estimating daily air temperature across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air temperature (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface temperature (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air temperature. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) daily Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The daily Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  6. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Nandy, Atanu; Herz, Burton L; Little, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Rural residents of the United States (US) and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs) play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD) students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7%) participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been mentioned above. Graduates from Caribbean medical schools have a

  7. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and academic achievement from the beginning to the end of their academic year during their 11th–12th year of age. For both samples, quantitative results demonstrated that fall self-esteem was related to multiple indicators of later year academic achievement. While country differences emerge by the end of the year, math appears to have a consistent relationship with self-esteem in both country contexts. Qualitative analyses found some support for British students’ self-perceptions as more accurately reflecting their academic experience than the students from the United States. PMID:24068853

  8. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE DISCRIMINATION, EDUCATION, AND DIVERSITY TRAINING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES AND THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaudin G. M ujtaba; Frank J. Cavico; Albert A. Williams; Jatuporn Sungkhawan

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript explores age discrimination in employment and the challenges that managers confront in seeking to establish and maintain a legal, ethical, and productive workplace. The data regarding age and older workers comes from 218 respondents in the United States and 379 respondents in Thailand. A factor analysis was done ; and the results demonstrate that race, gender, education, country where you live the most, country where you presently live, and diversity training were statisticall...

  10. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Final Judgment relates to a qui tam action arising from common facts, and settlements with the United... proposed Final Judgment is to settle the qui tam lawsuit. GEC Cmts at 1-2. IV. THE DEPARTMENT'S RESPONSE TO...

  11. Revisiting haboobs in the southwestern United States: An observational case study of the 5 July 2011 Phoenix dust storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F.; Brost, John J.

    2014-06-01

    Convectively-driven dust storms (or haboobs) are common phenomena in the southwestern United States. However, studies about haboobs in this region are limited. Here, we investigate the state and fate of a massive haboob that hit Phoenix, Arizona on 5 July 2011 using satellite, radar, and ground-based observations. This haboob was a result of strong outflow boundaries (with peak wind gusts of 29 m s-1) from storms that were initiated in the southeast of Tucson. In particular, we find three major outflow systems (based on radar data) that were generated by forward propagating storms, ultimately merging near Phoenix. This resulted in peak hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of 1974 μg m-3 and 907 μg m-3 at US EPA stations near Phoenix. The high PM concentration is consistent in space and time with the dust wall movement based on our analysis of radar data on hydrometeor classification. Enhanced aerosol loadings over metropolitan Phoenix were also observed on 6 July from NASA Terra/Aqua MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals (AOD > 0.8). We infer from CALIOP vertical feature masks and HYSPLIT back trajectories that remnants of the haboob were transported to northwest of Phoenix on 6 July at 2-4 km above ground level. Ratios of PM2.5 to PM10 from IMPROVE stations also imply low-level transport to the east of Phoenix on 8 July. Finally, we find that this haboob, which had local and regional impacts, is atypical of other dust events in this region. We note from this analysis that extreme events such as this haboob require an integrated air quality observing system to provide a more comprehensive assessment of these events.

  12. Age at first intercourse and subsequent sexual partnering among adult women in the United States, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Brianna M; Nield, Jennifer A; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-02-07

    Concurrency and serial monogamy may increase risk for STIs when gaps fall within the infectious period. This study examined the association between early sexual debut and concurrent or serial sexual partnering among heterosexual adult women. We identified 6,791 heterosexually active women, ages 21-44, from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, a multi-stage probability sample of women in the United States. Self-reported age at first intercourse was categorized as partnering was defined as concurrency (within the same month), serial monogamy with either a 1-3 month, or ≥4 month gap between partners, or monogamy (referent) in the year prior to interview. Polytomous logistic models provided adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Concurrent partnerships in the year prior to interview were reported by 5.2% of women. Serial monogamy with a 1-3 month gap was reported by 2.5% of women. Compared with women whose sexual debut was ≥18 years, those partners (aOR1-3 months: 2.13; 95% CI 1.15-3.94) as compared to women ≥18 years at sexual debut. Sexual debut at partners in U.S. women aged 21-44.

  13. Late Pleistocene C 4Plant Dominance and Summer Rainfall in the Southwestern United States from Isotopic Study of Herbivore Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connin, Sean L.; Betancourt, Julio; Quade, Jay

    1998-09-01

    Patterns of climate and C 4plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel δ 13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C 4plant consumption for Mammuthusspp., Bisonspp., Equusspp., and Camelopsspp. The δ 13C values were greatest in Bisonspp. (-6.9 to +1.7‰) and Mammuthusspp. (-9.0 to +0.3‰), and in some locales indicated C 4-dominated grazing. The δ 13C values of Antilocaprids were lowest among taxa (-12.5 to -7.9‰) and indicated C 3feeding at all sites. On the basis of modern correlations between climate and C 4grass abundance, the enamel data imply significant summer rain in parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico throughout the last glaciation. Enamel δ 18O values range from +19.0 to +31.0‰ and generally increase to the east. This pattern could point to a tropical or subtropical source of summer rainfall. At a synoptic scale, the isotope data indicate that interactions of seasonal moisture, temperature, and lowered atmospheric pCO 2determined glacial-age C 4abundance patterns.

  14. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  15. Motor vehicle driver injury severity study under various traffic control at highway-rail grade crossings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Daniel, Janice

    2014-12-01

    Based on the Federal Railway Administration (FRA) database, approximately 62% of the collisions at highway-rail crossings occurred at locations with active controls (gate and flashing lights), followed by passive controls (cross bucks and stop signs) with approximately 28% of accidents. The study applied an ordered probit model to explore the determinants of driver injury severity under various control measures at highway-rail grade crossing in the United States. The analysis found that schedule factor (peak hour), visibility, motor vehicle speed, train speed, driver's age, area type, traffic volume and highway pavement impact driver injury severity at both active and passive highway-rail crossings. For both active and passive control highway-rail grade crossings, speed control for both trains and vehicles will significantly reduce driver injury severity. However, the level of influence by vehicle speed and train speed at passive control is higher compared with active control. Paving highways at highway-rail grade crossings will also help to reduce driver injury severity at highway-rail crossing accidents. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Size-appropriate radiation doses in pediatric body CT: a study of regional community adoption in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Katharine L.; Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Pettersson, David R.; Spinning, Kristopher; Beckett, Brooke R. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Koudelka, Caroline W. [Oregon Health and Science University, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Portland, OR (United States); Bardo, Dianna M.E. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-09-15

    During the last decade, there has been a movement in the United States toward utilizing size-appropriate radiation doses for pediatric body CT, with smaller doses given to smaller patients. This study assesses community adoption of size-appropriate pediatric CT techniques. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) in pediatric body scans are compared between community facilities and a university children's hospital that tailors CT protocols to patient size as advocated by Image Gently. We compared 164 pediatric body scans done at community facilities (group X) with 466 children's hospital scans. Children's hospital scans were divided into two groups: A, 250 performed with established pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection; B, 216 performed with addition of iterative reconstruction technique and a 60% reduction in volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). SSDE was calculated and differences among groups were compared by regression analysis. Mean SSDE was 1.6 and 3.9 times higher in group X than in groups A and B and 2.5 times higher for group A than group B. A model adjusting for confounders confirmed significant differences between group pairs. Regional community hospitals and imaging centers have not universally adopted child-sized pediatric CT practices. More education and accountability may be necessary to achieve widespread implementation. Since even lower radiation doses are possible with iterative reconstruction technique than with filtered back projection alone, further exploration of the former is encouraged. (orig.)

  17. Physical child harm and bullying-related behaviors: a comparative study in Japan, South Africa, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussich, John P J; Maekoya, Chie

    2007-10-01

    School bullying is a major social problem in most countries and is especially of concern to school administrators and teachers. The typical place in which bullying occurs is at school. For this reason, school administrators and teachers are often held responsible for its occurrence, prevention, and management. However, in spite of concerted efforts to prevent this problem, bullying continues to plague most schools. Previous research and this study suggest that the etiology of bullying is more directly related to conditions at home rather than to conditions at school. Thus, the authors have hypothesized that bullying is associated with physically harming children in their homes and the coping responses that result from this physical harm. This research surveyed a sample of 852 university students in Japan, South Africa, and the United States. The findings suggest there are significant relationships between physical child harm and three types of bullying related behaviors: offending, being victimized, and offending plus being victimized. Using social coping theory, this research suggests that the manner in which physically harmed children cope with their early victimization has a bearing on their subsequent involvement with bullying-related behaviors.

  18. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasekaran, R; Bulterys, M; Jamal, M M; Quinn, P G; Johnston, D E; Skipper, B; Chaturvedi, S; Arora, S

    1999-05-01

    We performed a case-control study to evaluate risk factors and possible modes of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with no history of blood transfusion or injection drug use. Study subjects were selected from among patients seen in gastroenterology outpatient clinics at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. The study group consisted of 58 patients (12%) with chronic HCV infection who reported no history of transfusion or injection drug use, among a total of 477 patients evaluated for a positive HCV antibody test. These 58 patients were matched by age, ethnicity, and gender with 58 control patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux attending the same clinics. Patients and controls were subjected to structured interviews and review of medical records. A variety of variables were significantly associated with increased risk of sporadic HCV infection, including a history of tattoos, needlestick exposure, a history of sexually transmitted disease, intercourse with an injection drug user, five or more lifetime sexual partners, intercourse during menses (for women), lower income, and heavy alcohol intake (>60 g/day). Multivariate analysis identified a history of sexually transmitted disease, heavy alcohol intake, and the presence of a tattoo as independent risk factors for sporadic HCV. In addition, six cases and one control had a history of needlestick exposure. Of the cases, 88% had at least one of these four risk factors, as compared with 26% of controls (odds ratio = 16.5; 95% confidence interval = 4.0-68.8). A history of sexually transmitted disease, heavy alcohol intake, the presence of tattoos, and a history of needlestick exposure were identified as risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C in this case-control study. If we include all patients with a history of blood transfusion or injection drug use, only 2% of the total 477 HCV patients had no identified risk factors.

  19. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  20. United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, Robin J; Barrett, Marilyn L; Barnes, Joanne; Chavez, Mary L; Gardiner, Paula; Ko, Richard; Mahady, Gail B; Low Dog, Tieraona; Sarma, Nandakumara D; Giancaspro, Gabriel I; Sharaf, Maged; Griffiths, James

    2011-08-01

    The Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee (DSI-EC) of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reviews the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for the purpose of determining whether they should be admitted as quality monographs into the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has enforcement authority to pursue a misbranding action in those instances where a dietary supplement product indicates that it conforms to USP standards but fails to so conform. Recently DSI-EC undertook a safety evaluation of spirulina, a widely used dietary ingredient. DSI-EC reviewed information from human clinical trials, animal studies, and regulatory and pharmacopeial sources and analyzed 31 adverse event reports regarding spirulina to assess potential health concerns. At the conclusion of this review, DSI-EC assigned a Class A safety rating for Spirulina maxima and S. platensis, thereby permitting the admission of quality monographs for these dietary supplement ingredients in USP-NF. DSI-EC continually monitors reports concerning the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for which USP dietary supplement monographs are developed. The DSI-EC may revisit the safety classification of spirulina as new information on this dietary ingredient becomes available.

  1. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. A cross-cultural study of gambling disorder: a comparison between women from Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a cross-cultural comparison of gambling disorder (GD in women from Brazil and the United States, two countries with pronounced social and cultural differences. We hoped to produce insight into the impact of cultural influences on the presentation of GD in women, which may be useful for the development of culturally-sensitive interventions. Method: We assessed 681 women with GD: 406 from a Brazilian sample and 275 from a U.S. sample. We assessed demographic and gambling behavior variables in addition to co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Results: Fewer Brazilian participants were Caucasian (73.3 vs. 91.3%; p = 0.022. Also, Brazilian women had lower levels of education (59.9% with high school or less vs. 44.4%; p < 0.001, and were more likely to have a current partner (54.9 vs. 43.4%; p = 0.003. Brazilian gamblers also reported lower urge scores (6.6±4.3 vs. 11.6±2.4; p < 0.001 and higher chasing rates (89.1 vs. 80.0%; p = 0.002. Brazilian gamblers reported higher rates of bingo gambling (19.2 vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001, but lower rates of card game gambling (5.8 vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001. Finally, Brazilian gamblers were more likely to endorse a history of major depressive disorder (36.9 vs. 24.4%; p = 0.001. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for further general cross-cultural research on GD and particularly for studies investigating how gender mediates these differences. Finally, the differences noted in this analysis suggest that the findings of predominantly Anglo-Saxon cultures may not be generalizable to other world populations.

  3. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  4. The Significance of Language Study in Library and Information Science: A Comparison of Two Programs in the United States and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Charlotte; Faires, Debbie; Hirsh, Sandra; Carranza, Nítida

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study evaluated the role of foreign language study within the Library and Information Science (LIS) curriculum of two programs in the United States and Honduras. The purpose of this research was to understand the significance and usefulness of language courses from the perspective of the students enrolled. Students who had…

  5. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Negras Brewery''), which is located in Mexico near the Texas border, and the assets and companies... States's ``prediction as to the effect of proposed remedies, its perception of the market structure, and...

  6. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  7. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  8. An exploratory study to examine intentions to adopt an evidence-based HIV linkage-to-care intervention among state health department AIDS directors in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Wynne E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread dissemination and implementation of evidence-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV linkage-to-care (LTC interventions is essential for improving HIV-positive patients' health outcomes and reducing transmission to uninfected others. To date, however, little work has focused on identifying factors associated with intentions to adopt LTC interventions among policy makers, including city, state, and territory health department AIDS directors who play a critical role in deciding whether an intervention is endorsed, distributed, and/or funded throughout their region. Methods Between December 2010 and February 2011, we administered an online questionnaire with state, territory, and city health department AIDS directors throughout the United States to identify factors associated with intentions to adopt an LTC intervention. Guided by pertinent theoretical frameworks, including the Diffusion of Innovations and the "push-pull" capacity model, we assessed participants' attitudes towards the intervention, perceived organizational and contextual demand and support for the intervention, likelihood of adoption given endorsement from stakeholder groups (e.g., academic researchers, federal agencies, activist organizations, and likelihood of enabling future dissemination efforts by recommending the intervention to other health departments and community-based organizations. Results Forty-four participants (67% of the eligible sample completed the online questionnaire. Approximately one-third (34.9% reported that they intended to adopt the LTC intervention for use in their city, state, or territory in the future. Consistent with prior, related work, these participants were classified as LTC intervention "adopters" and were compared to "nonadopters" for data analysis. Overall, adopters reported more positive attitudes and greater perceived demand and support for the intervention than did nonadopters. Further, participants varied with

  9. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  10. Pharmaceutical sales representatives and patient safety: a comparative prospective study of information quality in Canada, France and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Lexchin, Joel; Sutherland, Jason M; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Wilkes, Michael S; Durrieu, Geneviève; Reynolds, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    The information provided by pharmaceutical sales representatives has been shown to influence prescribing. To enable safe prescribing, medicines information must include harm as well as benefits. Regulation supports this aim, but relative effectiveness of different approaches is not known. The United States (US) and France directly regulate drug promotion; Canada relies on industry self-regulation. France has the strictest information standards. This is a prospective cohort study in Montreal, Vancouver, Sacramento and Toulouse. We recruited random samples of primary care physicians from May 2009 to June 2010 to report on consecutive sales visits. The primary outcome measure was "minimally adequate safety information" (mention of at least one indication, serious adverse event, common adverse event, and contraindication, and no unqualified safety claims or unapproved indications). Two hundred and fifty-five physicians reported on 1,692 drug-specific promotions. "Minimally adequate safety information" did not differ: 1.7 % of promotions; range 0.9-3.0 % per site. Sales representatives provided some vs. no information on harm more often in Toulouse than in Montreal and Vancouver: 61 % vs. 34 %, OR = 4.0; 95 % CI 2.8-5.6, or Sacramento (39 %), OR = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.7-3.6. Serious adverse events were rarely mentioned (5-6 % of promotions in all four sites), although 45 % of promotions were for drugs with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "black box" warnings of serious risks. Nevertheless, physicians judged the quality of scientific information to be good or excellent in 901 (54 %) of promotions, and indicated readiness to prescribe 64 % of the time. "Minimally adequate safety information" did not differ in the US and Canadian sites, despite regulatory differences. In Toulouse, consistent with stricter standards, more harm information was provided. However, in all sites, physicians were rarely informed about serious adverse events, raising questions about

  11. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Population-Based Study on Incidence and Survival in the United States, 1975 – 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wang, Haijun; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD With the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has changed dramatically. We performed a population-based study of APL in the United States to determine its incidence and relative survival (RS) during a 34-year period. METHODS We identified 1397 patients diagnosed with APL between 1975 and 2008 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were categorized into four age groups and three calendar periods. As a comparison, we also reviewed the outcome of APL patients treated at our institution during approximately the same time interval. RESULTS The incidences of APL increased with the time period and patient age. Short- and long-term RS improved with each calendar period, with the greatest improvement occurring between 1991 and 1999; 5-year RS rates were 0.18 for patients diagnosed in 1975–1990, 0.52 in 1991–1999, and 0.64 in 2000–2008. Age was an important predictor of survival. For example, the 5-year RS rate in patients diagnosed in 2000–2008 was 0.38 for patients aged ≥60 years and 0.73 and 0.75 for patients aged <20 years and 20–39 years, respectively. Similar treads of improvements in the survival were observed in APL patients treated at our institution. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of APL has increased, especially in the last decade. Clinical outcome improved remarkably in patients with APL diagnosed from 1991 to 1999, mainly because of the increased use of ATRA. PMID:22707337

  12. Metabolic syndrome and risk of endometrial cancer in the united states: a study in the SEER-medicare linked database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Felix, Ashley S; Yang, Hannah P; Sherman, Mark E; Brinton, Louise A

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its component feature, central obesity, are associated with endometrial cancer risk. It remains unclear whether associations with the other metabolic factors that comprise metabolic syndrome are independent of the obesity-endometrial cancer association. Furthermore, the link with specific endometrial cancer subtypes remains ill-defined, despite evidence of etiologic heterogeneity among these tumors. In a case-control study within the SEER-Medicare linked database, we examined whether metabolic factors, individually or combined, were associated with endometrial cancer. Cases (n = 16,323) were women diagnosed with endometrial cancer from 1993 through 2007. Controls (n = 100,751) were a 5% sample of female Medicare enrollees residing in the same SEER registry area as cases. Metabolic syndrome was defined using ICD-9-CM codes from inpatient/outpatient diagnoses 1 to 3 years before case diagnosis and a comparable time period in controls. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Endometrial cancer risk was associated with metabolic syndrome [OR (95% CI): 1.39 (1.32-1.47)] and its component factors: overweight/obesity [1.95 (1.80-2.11)], impaired fasting glucose [1.36 (1.30-1.43)], high blood pressure [1.31 (1.25-1.36)], and high triglycerides [1.13 (1.08-1.18)]. After adjusting for overweight/obesity, the increased risks associated with the metabolic syndrome factors remained. Heterogeneity of associations by subtype were not identified (Pheterogeneity = 0.82). Among women age 65 and older in the United States, metabolic syndrome, and its component factors, increased endometrial cancer risk similarly across endometrial cancer subtypes. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome factors might have a favorable effect on endometrial cancer incidence. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Trend analysis and survival of primary gallbladder cancer in the United States: a 1973-2009 population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Simoes, Eduardo J; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-04-01

    Primary gallbladder cancer is an aggressive and uncommon cancer with poor outcomes. Our study examines epidemiology, trend, and survival of gallbladder cancer in the United States from 1973 to 2009. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER). Frequency and rate analyses on demographics, stage, and survival were compared among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African American, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. A total of 18,124 cases were reported in SEER from 1973 to 2009 comprising 1.4% of all reported gastrointestinal cancers. Gallbladder cancer was more common in females than males (71 vs. 29%, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 1.4 per 100,000, significantly higher in females than males (1.7 vs. 1.0). Trend analysis showed that the incidence rate has been decreasing over the last three decades for males. However, among females, the incidence rate had decreased from 1973 to mid-90s but has remained stable since then. Trend analysis for stage at diagnosis showed that the proportion of late-stage cases has been increasing significantly since 2001 after a decreasing pattern since 1973. Survival has improved considerably over time, and survival is better in females than males and in Asian/Pacific Islanders than other racial groups. The highest survival was in patients who received both surgery and radiation. Trend analysis revealed a recent increase of the incidence of late-stage gallbladder cancer. Highest survival was associated with receiving both surgery and radiation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Adult bone strength of children from single-parent families: the Midlife in the United States Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C J; Karlamangla, A S; Merkin, S S; Binkley, N; Carr, D; Greendale, G A; Seeman, T E

    2015-03-01

    Bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental circumstances. We examined the independent associations of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood with adult bone strength indices. Longer exposure to a single-parent household in childhood was associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Because peak bone mass is acquired during childhood, bone health may be negatively impacted by childhood socio-environmental disadvantage. The goal of this study was to determine whether being raised in a single-parent household is associated with lower bone strength in adulthood. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data from 708 participants (mean age 57 years) in the Midlife in the United States Biomarker Project, we examined the independent associations of composite indices of femoral neck bone strength relative to load (in three failure modes: compression, bending, and impact) in adulthood with the experience of single-parent childhood and parental death or divorce in childhood. After adjustment for gender, race, menopause transition stage, age, and body mass index, each additional year of single-parent childhood was associated with 0.02 to 0.03 SD lower indices of adult femoral neck strength. In those with 9-16 years of single-parent childhood, the compression strength index was 0.41 SD lower, bending strength index was 0.31 SD lower, and impact strength index was 0.25 SD lower (all p values divorce during childhood was not by itself independently associated with adult bone strength indices. The magnitudes of these associations were unaltered by additional adjustment for lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status in childhood and adulthood. Independent of parental death or divorce, growing up in a single-parent household is associated with lower femoral neck bone strength in adulthood, and this association is not entirely explained by childhood or adult socioeconomic conditions or lifestyle choices.

  15. Perspectives on learning to cook and public support for cooking education policies in the United States: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Teret, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112). We analyzed focus group data (using grounded theory) and survey data (using multivariable logistic regression). We find that relatively few Americans learn to cook from formal instruction in school or community cooking classes; rather, they primarily learn from their parents and/or by teaching themselves using cookbooks, recipe websites or by watching cooking shows on television. While almost all Americans hold parents and other family members responsible for teaching children how to cook, a broad majority of the public supports requiring cooking skills to be taught in schools either through existing health education (64%) or through dedicated home economics courses (67%). Slightly less than half of all Americans (45%) support increasing funding for cooking instruction for participants in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Broad public support for teaching cooking skills in schools suggests that schools are one promising avenue for policy action. However, school-based strategies should be complemented with alternatives that facilitate self-learning. More research is needed to identify effective means of teaching and disseminating the key cooking skills and knowledge that support healthy eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  17. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  18. Tree planting in the United States - 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Moulton; G. Hernandez

    2000-01-01

    This annual report summarizes tree planting, timber stand improvement, and nursery production activities across all ownerships of forest land in the United States. It includes State-by-State and ownership breakdowns, regional totals, as well as analysis of trends in the data. It does not include tree planting in urban and community environments. As far as we know, it...

  19. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  20. The Influence of Technology Readiness Index in Entrepreneurial Orientation: A Study with Brazilian Entrepreneurs in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Penz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to analyze the influence of the Technology Readiness Index (TRI in the entrepreneurial orientation (EO for Brazilian small-business men who have settled in the United States of America. The exploratory research or quantitative survey was based on a structural equation modeling, using SmartPLS (SEM-PLS. The sample was comprised of 107 Brazilian small-entrepreneurs who live in the United States. The results indicate the predominance of inducing technology factors in dimensions of optimism and innovativeness to the TRI, which suggests making use of new technologies. By excluding the dimensions of discomfort and insecurity on the TRI, it was revealed entrepreneurs feel more comfortable with technology and do not feel uncomfortable or insecure about using them. Regarding the entrepreneurial orientation, it was possible to perceive dimensions of risk propensity, proactive approach and innovativeness among those who participated in the survey. Concerning the relationship of both constructs, the TRI and the OE, the structural model has shown good fitting of 36%, which means the TRI explains the EO in 13%. In outline, it is to say the TRI fairly influences the entrepreneurial orientation of those Brazilian small-business men analyzed.

  1. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) beef study, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stromberg, Bert E.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Lora R. Ballweber; Dargatz, David A.; Rodriguez, Judith M.; Kopral, Christine A.; Zarlenga, Dante S.

    2015-01-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) 2007–2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fres...

  2. The FDA Unapproved Drugs Initiative: An Observational Study of the Consequences for Drug Prices and Shortages in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Dhruva, Sanket S; Fox, Erin R; Ross, Joseph S

    2017-10-01

    Hundreds of drug products are currently marketed in the United States without approval from the FDA. The 2006 Unapproved Drugs Initiative (UDI) requires manufacturers to remove these drug products from the market or obtain FDA approval by demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy. Once the FDA acts against an unapproved drug, fewer manufacturers remain in the market, potentially enabling drug price increases and greater susceptibility to drug shortages. There is a need for systematic study of the UDI's effect on prices and shortages of all targeted drugs. To examine the clinical evidence for approval and association with prices and shortages of previously unapproved prescription drugs after being addressed by the UDI. Previously unapproved prescription drugs that faced UDI regulatory action or with at least 1 product that received FDA approval through manufacturers' voluntary compliance with the UDI between 2006 and 2015 were identified. The clinical evidence was categorized as either newly conducted clinical trials or use of previously published literature and/or bioequivalence studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy. We determined the change in average wholesale price, presence of shortage, and duration of shortage for each drug during the 2 years before and after UDI regulatory action or approval through voluntary compliance. Between 2006 and 2015, 34 previously unapproved prescription drugs were addressed by the UDI. Nearly 90% of those with a drug product that received FDA approval were supported by literature reviews or bioequivalence studies, not new clinical trial evidence. Among the 26 drugs with available pricing data, average wholesale price during the 2 years before and after voluntary approval or UDI action increased by a median of 37% (interquartile range [IQR] = 23%-204%; P Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars program. Ross reports receiving research support through Yale University from Johnson and Johnson to develop methods of clinical

  3. A Study Identifying and Validating Competencies Needed for Mid-Managers That Work in Housing and Residence Life at Colleges and Universities in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hassel Andre

    2016-01-01

    The researcher identified a gap in the knowledge of competencies needed for midmanagers that work in housing and residence life at the southeast colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify and develop a consensus on competencies needed by mid-managers. The review of the literature describes and…

  4. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  5. An Illustrative Case Study for Twentieth Century Defense Planners: The Technology and Politics of United States Coastal Defense, 1880-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-24

    they could be built when ]lWalter Millis, Arms and Men: A Study in American Military History (New York: Putnam , 1956), pp. 151-152. 12Huntington, The...34United States Coast Defenses." Review of Reviews 14 (September 1896): 327-328. 156 Herbert, Hilary A. "The Fifty Million Appropriation and Its

  6. A National Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism in Young Hispanic Children of the United States. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 4, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; And Others

    Six hundred, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old bilingual, rural, and urban children from southwestern, midwestern, eastern, and southern United States participated in a national study of Spanish/English bilingual development. Half of these children completed the English version of CIRCO (1980) sub-test 10-C, a productive language measure that requires…

  7. Preparing Students for College and Career in the United States: The Effects of Career-Themed Programs of Study on High School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marisa E.; Richardson, George B.; Sundell, Kirsten; Stone, James R., III

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, education policy calls for every student to graduate from high school prepared for college and a career. National legislation has mandated programs of study (POS), which offer aligned course sequences spanning secondary and postsecondary education, blending standards-based academic and career and technical education (CTE)…

  8. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  9. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  10. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  11. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  12. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  13. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  14. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  15. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  16. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  17. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  18. United States Security Policy in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Scott R; Wiarda, Howard J

    1993-01-01

    The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter...

  19. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  20. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  1. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  2. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  3. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  4. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  5. Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…

  6. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  7. Bibliographic Databases Outside of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Thomas P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles describe the development, content, and structure of databases outside of the United States. Features discussed include library involvement, authority control, shared cataloging services, union catalogs, thesauri, abstracts, and distribution methods. Countries and areas represented are Latin America, Australia, the United Kingdom,…

  8. FRAGMENTATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITES STATES FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indices measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes from 2....

  9. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  10. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  11. Studie-Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koustrup, Pia

    2004-01-01

    Denne artikel sætter fokus på tilrettelæggelse af klinisk undervisning og læring, hvor et nyere begreb - studie-units er opstået inden for de sidste par år. Studie-unit er en organisationsform, som sygeplejen helt sikkert vil se en del mere til de næste par år frem i tiden. Artiklen inddrager den...... tyske didaktiker og filosof Wolfgang Klafki i diskussionen om indføring af studie-units. Klafki er valgt, fordi han indgående forholder sig til social læring, og finder læring i fællesskab med ligestillede nødvendigt for at dannelsen i et fag skal kunne lykkes...

  12. Dose Estimation for a Study of Nuclear Workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: Methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Chef, I.; Richardson, D. B.; Daniels, R. D.; Gillies, M.; Hamra, G. B.; Haylock, R.; Kesminiene, A.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K.; Moissonnier, M.; O'Hagan, J.; Schubauer-Berigan, M. K.; Cardis, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so, whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses. PMID:26010707

  13. Mexico-United States Migration: Health Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Elena; Wallace, Steven P.; Berumen, Salvador; Castaneda, Xotichl; al., et

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of "Mexico-United States Migration: Health issues" is to present a general overview of the conditions faced by Mexican residents in the United States concerning their health care. Good health constitutes an essential asset for the integral development of an immigrant's capacities for performing labor and for social participation. Enjoying good health not only benefits the immigrants themselves and their descendents, both Mexican and American, but also has larger social...

  14. Homeland Security Lessons for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farr, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    ... world. The People's Republic of China and Singapore are the focus of this thesis in order to determine what if any homeland security policies developed by their governments could be used to better protect citizens of the United States. Several policies such as legislation, education and internal security measures were evaluated for the United States to institute. Each chosen policy is followed by a brief description of how these laws might come into being within the U.S. governmental system.

  15. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  16. National Initiatives to Improve Healthcare Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Health Delivery Systems in Slovakia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Robert; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    While the United States and Slovakia offer different healthcare delivery systems, each country faces the same challenges of improving the health status of their populations. The authors explore the impact of their respective systems on the health of their populations and compare the health outcomes of both nations. They point out that socioeconomic factors play a far more important role in determining population health outcomes than do the structures of the systems surrounding the care delivery. The authors illustrate this finding through a comparison of the poverty and education levels of a selected minority group from each country in relation to the health outcomes for each population group. The comparison reveals that education is a more influential determinant in a population's health outcomes, than the improved access to care offered by a universal system.

  17. College Students’ Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Japan, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thanh Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of cross-cultural differences between the United States, Japan, and China in perceptions of male to female intimate partner violence, and in the extent to which gender and traditional attitudes toward women related to these perceptions. College students (n = 943 read two fictitious scenarios describing marital and dating violence. MANOVA results showed gender differences in the perceptions of violence between the three countries. Male participants had more traditional attitudes toward women and placed more blame on female victims. The magnitude of the difference between women’s and men’s scores was much smaller for Japanese students than for American and Chinese students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the effects of respondent gender were reduced when traditional attitudes toward women were taken into account. Differences in beliefs about appropriate gender roles still exist among college students in these countries and may be related to socially tolerant attitudes toward violence against women.

  18. Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the potential for energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. These energy recovery strategies could help offset the electricity consumption of the wastewater sector and represent possible areas for sustainable energy policy implementation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 million kWh annually in the United States. In Texas, anaerobic digestion could save 40.2 to 460 million kWh annually and biosolids incineration could save 51.9 to 1,030 million kWh annually.

  19. Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 350 years, the eastern half of the United States experienced extensive land cover changes. These began with land clearing in the 1600s, continued with widespread deforestation, wetland drainage, and intensive land use by 1920, and then evolved to the present-day landscape of forest regrowth, intensive agriculture, urban expansion, and landscape fragmentation. Such changes alter biophysical properties that are key determinants of land-atmosphere interactions (water, energy, and carbon exchanges). To understand the potential implications of these land use transformations, we developed and analyzed 20-km land cover and biophysical parameter data sets for the eastern United States at 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 time slices. Our approach combined potential vegetation, county-level census data, soils data, resource statistics, a Landsat-derived land cover classification, and published historical information on land cover and land use. We reconstructed land use intensity maps for each time slice and characterized the land cover condition. We combined these land use data with a mutually consistent set of biophysical parameter classes, to characterize the historical diversity and distribution of land surface properties. Time series maps of land surface albedo, leaf area index, a deciduousness index, canopy height, surface roughness, and potential saturated soils in 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 illustrate the profound effects of land use change on biophysical properties of the land surface. Although much of the eastern forest has returned, the average biophysical parameters for recent landscapes remain markedly different from those of earlier periods. Understanding the consequences of these historical changes will require land-atmosphere interactions modeling experiments.

  20. Attitudes towards the mental disorder and towards the search of professional psychological support. A systematic revision of studies in Europe, United States, Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez; Lizbeth Carolina Pernía Carvajal

    2007-01-01

    The present study had the intention to review like a systematicmethod the studies carried out in countries of Europe, United States,Latin America, and the Caribbean about attitudes towards the mentaldisorder and the search of professional support in case of mentalsdisorders, its convergences, divergences, limitations, tendenciesand profits. The systematic revision followed the methodology ofdocumentary investigation. The search of studies was carried outfrom 1962 to 2006, in the data bases Eb...

  1. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  2. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  3. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  4. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Portuguese forces in Angola in 1972 and that of President Stroessner of Paraguay in 1974. Other appearances include those at state fune- rals and when foreign ambassadors present their credentials to the State President. All the occasions at which the Unit performs, especially the annual official Opening of Parlia-.

  5. The effect of religion on the perception of health states among adults in the United Arab Emirates: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarazi, Iffat; Devlin, Nancy J; Katsaiti, Marina-Selini; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A; Shah, Koonal K; Blair, Iain

    2017-10-05

    Investigate how religion may affect the perception of health states among adults in the United Arab Emirates and the implications for research on self-reported health and quality of life and the use of values in cost-effectiveness analysis. Qualitative analysis of short-structured interviews with adult Emiratis carried out by a market research agency.The COREQ criteria have been used where appropriate to guide the reporting of our findings. Participants were recruited from shopping malls and other public places in the cities of Al Ain and Abu Dhabi. Two hundred adult Emiratis broadly representative of the Emirati population in terms of age and gender. Eighty one per cent of participants said that their perception of health states was influenced by their spiritual or religious beliefs. The two overarching themes that seemed to explain or classify these influences were 'fatalism' and 'preservation of life'. Subthemes included powerlessness to change what is preordained by God, fear of disability (particularly diminished mobility) and appreciation of health and life and the requirement to look after one's health. A final theme was that of acceptance, with respondents expressing a willingness to endure suffering and disability with patience in the expectation of rewards in the hereafter. Our results emphasise the need for further work to establish locally relevant value sets for Muslim majority countries in the Middle East and elsewhere for use in health technology assessment decision-making, rather than relying on value sets from other regions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Effects of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school performance and connection: a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes. State-representative student samples were surveyed in 2002 (grade 7; N = 1858) and followed up annually to 2004 (grade 9) in both sites. Students completed a modified version of the Communities That Care survey to report alcohol use, school outcomes, and risk and protective factors. Response rates were above 74% and retention rates exceeded 98% in both places. Controlling for grade 7 risk factors, grade 7 current alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking were associated with grade 8 school suspension. Grade 7 current and frequent alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking were linked to grade 9 truancy. In fully adjusted analyses, associations between early alcohol use and academic failure and low school commitment did not remain. Although alcohol use is one factor influencing school performance and connection, there are other risk factors that need to be targeted to improve school outcomes. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  7. Terrestrial carbon dynamics. Case studies in the former Soviet Union, the conterminous United States, Mexico and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, M.A.; Phillips, D.L. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis (United States); Winjum, J.K. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement USEPA, Corvallis (United States); Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This research assessed land-use impacts on C flux at a national level in four countries: former Soviet Union, United States, Mexico and Brazil, including biotic processes in terrestrial ecosystems (closed forests, woodlands, and croplands), harvest of trees for wood and paper products, and direct C emission from fires. The terrestrial ecosystems of the four countries contain approximately 40% of the world`s terrestrial biosphere C pool, with the FSU alone having 27% of the global total. Average phytomass C densities decreased from south to north while average soil C densities in all three vegetation types generally increased from south to north. The C flux from land cover conversion was divided into a biotic component and a land-use component. We estimate that the total net biotic flux (Tg/yr) was positive (uptake) in the FSU (631) and the U.S. (332), but negative in Mexico (-37) and Brazil (-16). In contrast, total flux from land use was negative (emissions) in all four countries (TgC/yr): FSU -342; U.S. -243; Mexico -35; and Brazil -235. The total net effect of the biotic and land-use factors was a C sink in the FSU and the U.S. and a C source in both Brazil and Mexico. 2 figs., 6 tabs., 97 refs.

  8. Religiosity, values, and horizontal and vertical individualism-collectivism: a study of Turkey, the United States, and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, Cem Safak; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T; Carlo, Gustavo

    2004-12-01

    The authors examined the links between two dimensions that have been useful in understanding cross-cultural differences and similarities, namely, individualism-collectivism (I-C) and value orientations. The authors examined the relations and parallels between the two variables by directly relating them and examining the patterns of relations that both have with a third variable, religiosity. Participants were 475 college students from the Philippines, the United States, and Turkey who responded to measures of horizontal and vertical I-C, value orientations, and religiosity. The authors found partial support for the parallels between I-C and value types, particularly for collectivism and conservative values. Moreover, religiosity was associated positively with conservative values and collectivism, across all three cultures. The authors found individualism to also relate to openness-to-change values, though the patterns were not as consistent as those that they found between collectivism and conservation. Differences and similarities emerged in links of I-C-values to religiosity across the three samples.

  9. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  10. Orphan drug product regulation--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, M E

    2002-02-01

    The legislative history of the United States Orphan Drug Act began with rare, unanimous approval by the United States Congress. The Act, mid consequently the Regulations, have evolved since then. The two-stage process of Orphan Drug designation and approval is outlined, as well as the incentives that are offered to commercial companies for their implementation. Orphan Drugs are likely to be over-represented among drugs used under "Treatment" INDs. For patent- and "drug-difference" reasons, the benefits under the Orphan Drug Act are especially valuable to those who develop biologics. By any measure, this legislation, which requires only voluntary participation, has been a success; because the human genome is likely to lead to more biologicals than orthodox drugs, this success is likely to continue into the future. But even so, the 18-year experience with Orphan Drugs in the United States has led to some 225 Orphan Product approvals that benefit many millions of patients.

  11. Using air quality modeling to study source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides emissions and ozone exposures over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel Q; Muller, Nicholas Z; Kan, Haidong; Mendelsohn, Robert O

    2009-11-01

    Human exposure to ambient ozone (O(3)) has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. The ozone level at a location is contributed by local production, regional transport, and background ozone. This study combines detailed emission inventory, air quality modeling, and census data to investigate the source-receptor relationships between nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions and population exposure to ambient O(3) in 48 states over the continental United States. By removing NO(x) emissions from each state one at a time, we calculate the change in O(3) exposures by examining the difference between the base and the sensitivity simulations. Based on the 49 simulations, we construct state-level and census region-level source-receptor matrices describing the relationships among these states/regions. We find that, for 43 receptor states, cumulative NO(x) emissions from upwind states contribute more to O(3) exposures than the state's own emissions. In-state emissions are responsible for less than 15% of O(3) exposures in 90% of U.S. states. A state's NO(x) emissions can influence 2 to 40 downwind states by at least a 0.1 ppbv change in population-averaged O(3) exposure. The results suggest that the U.S. generally needs a regional strategy to effectively reduce O(3) exposures. But the current regional emission control program in the U.S. is a cap-and-trade program that assumes the marginal damage of every ton of NO(x) is equal. In this study, the average O(3) exposures caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions ranges from -2.0 to 2.3 ppm-people-hours depending on the state. The actual damage caused by one ton of NO(x) emissions varies considerably over space.

  12. Patterns of Asexuality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Poston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG to ascertain and analyze patterns of asexuality in the United States. We endeavor to extend the earlier work of Bogaert (2004 on this topic, which focused on patterns of asexuality in Great Britain. Using a social constructionist perspective to study asexuality, we conceptualize and measure the phenomenon in several ways, according to behavior, desire, and self-identification. We use the NSFG respondent sampling weights to produce several sets of unbiased estimates of the percentages of persons in the U.S. population, aged 15-44, who are asexual; each set is based on one or more of the various definitions of asexuality. Finally, we describe some of the characteristics of the asexual population using multinomial logistic regression.

  13. Norovirus Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Ben A.; Payne, Daniel C.; Patel, Manish M.; Gastañaduy, Paul A.; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates for the United States. Norovirus causes an average of 570–800 deaths, 56,000–71,000 hospitalizations, 400,000 emergency department visits, 1.7–1.9 million outpatient visits, and 19–21 million total illnesses per year. Persons >65 years of age are at greatest risk for norovirus-associated death, and children norovirus-associated medical care visits. Endemic norovirus disease occurs year round but exhibits a pronounced winter peak and increases by ≤50% during years in which pandemic strains emerge. These findings support continued development and targeting of appropriate interventions, including vaccines, for norovirus disease. PMID:23876403

  14. Children’s Exposures to Pyrethroid Insecticides at Home: A Review of Data Collected in Published Exposure Measurement Studies Conducted in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marsha K. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 published articles from observational exposure measurement studies conducted from 1999 to present that examined children’s (5 months to 17 years of age) exposures to pyrethroids in media including floor wipes, floor dust, ...

  15. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  16. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  17. Benzodiazepine use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; King, Marissa; Schoenbaum, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although concern exists regarding the rate of benzodiazepine use, especially long-term use by older adults, little information is available concerning patterns of benzodiazepine use in the United States. To describe benzodiazepine prescription patterns in the United States focusing on patient age and duration of use. A retrospective descriptive analysis of benzodiazepine prescriptions was performed with the 2008 LifeLink LRx Longitudinal Prescription database (IMS Health Inc), which includes approximately 60% of all retail pharmacies in the United States. Denominators were adjusted to generalize estimates to the US population. The percentage of adults filling 1 or more benzodiazepine prescriptions during the study year by sex and age group (18-35 years, 36-50 years, 51-64 years, and 65-80 years) and among individuals receiving benzodiazepines, the corresponding percentages with long-term (≥120 days) benzodiazepine use, prescription of a long-acting benzodiazepine, and benzodiazepine prescriptions from a psychiatrist. In 2008, approximately 5.2% of US adults aged 18 to 80 years used benzodiazepines. The percentage who used benzodiazepines increased with age from 2.6% (18-35 years) to 5.4% (36-50 years) to 7.4% (51-64 years) to 8.7% (65-80 years). Benzodiazepine use was nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. The proportion of benzodiazepine use that was long term increased with age from 14.7% (18-35 years) to 31.4% (65-80 years), while the proportion that received a benzodiazepine prescription from a psychiatrist decreased with age from 15.0% (18-35 years) to 5.7% (65-80 years). In all age groups, roughly one-quarter of individuals receiving benzodiazepine involved long-acting benzodiazepine use. Despite cautions concerning risks associated with long-term benzodiazepine use, especially in older patients, long-term benzodiazepine use remains common in this age group. More vigorous clinical interventions supporting judicious benzodiazepine use may be needed to

  18. Aerosol from Organic Nitrogen in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a portion of ambient organic aerosol was attributed to isoprene oxidation and organic nitrogen from BVO...

  19. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  20. DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, Part I: study design, sampling strategy, implementation, and analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Narrow, William E; Regier, Darrel A; Kuramoto, S Janet; Kupfer, David J; Kuhl, Emily A; Greiner, Lisa; Kraemer, Helena C

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the design,sampling strategy, implementation,and data analytic processes of the DSM-5 Field Trials. The DSM-5 Field Trials were conducted by using a test-retest reliability design with a stratified sampling approach across six adult and four pediatric sites in the United States and one adult site in Canada. A stratified random sampling approach was used to enhance precision in the estimation of the reliability coefficients. A web-based research electronic data capture system was used for simultaneous data collection from patients and clinicians across sites and for centralized data management.Weighted descriptive analyses, intraclass kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients for stratified samples, and receiver operating curves were computed. The DSM-5 Field Trials capitalized on advances since DSM-III and DSM-IV in statistical measures of reliability (i.e., intraclass kappa for stratified samples) and other recently developed measures to determine confidence intervals around kappa estimates. Diagnostic interviews using DSM-5 criteria were conducted by 279 clinicians of varied disciplines who received training comparable to what would be available to any clinician after publication of DSM-5.Overall, 2,246 patients with various diagnoses and levels of comorbidity were enrolled,of which over 86% were seen for two diagnostic interviews. A range of reliability coefficients were observed for the categorical diagnoses and dimensional measures. Multisite field trials and training comparable to what would be available to any clinician after publication of DSM-5 provided “real-world” testing of DSM-5 proposed diagnoses.

  1. Description and utilization of the United States department of defense serum repository: a review of published studies, 1985-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Perdue

    Full Text Available Specimens in the United States Department of Defense (DoD Serum Repository have accumulated in frozen storage since 1985 when the DoD began universal screening for human immunodeficiency virus. Use of the stored serum for health research has been carefully controlled, but the resulting publications have never been systematically identified or described. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC information systems and open (online sites were used as data sources. Through 2012, the repository contained 54,542,658 serum specimens, of which 228,610 (0.42% have been accessed for any purpose. Between 2001 (the first year that comprehensive, digital records were available and 2012, 65.2% of all approved requests for serum were for healthcare or public health investigations, but greater than 99% of all shipped samples were for research. Using two different methods - a structure search of PubMed and an exhaustive online search based on records from AFHSC - we identified 76 articles published between October 1988 and March 2013 that covered a multitude of infectious diseases, injuries, environmental exposures and mental health conditions through analysis of antibodies, biological metabolic, signaling and regulatory substances, Vitamin D, organochlorines, dioxin, omega-3-fatty acid, and portions of human deoxyribonucleic acid. Despite its operational and scientific value, it appears that the DoD Serum Repository has been underutilized. Changes to policy and increased capacity for specimen processing could increase use of the repository without risking privacy or the availability of specimens for the healthcare of individual service members in the future.

  2. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-03-17

    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  3. Surgical never events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtsun, Winta T; Ibrahim, Andrew M; Diener-West, Marie; Pronovost, Peter J; Makary, Martin A

    2013-04-01

    Surgical never events are being used increasingly as quality metrics in health care in the United States. However, little is known about their costs to the health care system, the outcomes of patients, or the characteristics of the providers involved. We designed a study to describe the number and magnitude of paid malpractice claims for surgical never events, as well as associated patient and provider characteristics. We used the National Practitioner Data Bank, a federal repository of medical malpractice claims, to identify malpractice settlements and judgments of surgical never events, including retained foreign bodies, wrong-site, wrong-patient, and wrong-procedure surgery. Payment amounts, patient outcomes, and provider characteristics were evaluated. We identified a total of 9,744 paid malpractice settlement and judgments for surgical never events occurring between 1990 and 2010. Malpractice payments for surgical never events totaled $1.3 billion. Mortality occurred in 6.6% of patients, permanent injury in 32.9%, and temporary injury in 59.2%. Based on literature rates of surgical adverse events resulting in paid malpractice claims, we estimated that 4,082 surgical never event claims occur each year in the United States. Increased payments were associated with severe patient outcomes and claims involving a physician with multiple malpractice reports. Of physicians named in a surgical never event claim, 12.4% were later named in at least 1 future surgical never event claim. Surgical never events are costly to the health care system and are associated with serious harm to patients. Patient and provider characteristics may help to guide prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  5. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  6. Sheltered Workshops: United States v. Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Prince, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Federal legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 504, and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, mandates that individuals with disabilities be integrated in all aspects of life from education to employment to independent living. A recent development involves a settlement reached between the United States and the…

  7. Pulp capacity in the United States, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett R. Smith; Robert W. Rice; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    Production capacities of all woodpulp mills in the United States are identified by location, ownership, and process type. For each mill, production capacity is reported for the year 2000 by process type; total mill capacities are also reported for 1961, 1965, 1979, 1974, and 1983. In addition, the report summarizes the recent history and current status of woodpulp...

  8. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Relations, ed. Robert O. Freedman (Boulder: Westview Press, 2012), 22. 47 radicals such as Gamal Abdel Nasser to become more defiant. The United...States backed Egypt in the 1956 Suez War, taking on Britain, France, and Israel, but received no credit from Nasser . The aftermath of the Israeli

  9. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  10. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  11. Nonstandard Employment in the Nonmetropolitan United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of nonstandard employment in the nonmetropolitan United States using the Current Population Survey Supplement on Contingent Work (1999 and 2001). We find that nonstandard work is more prevalent in nonmetropolitan than in central city or suburban areas. Logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic and work…

  12. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  13. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  14. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  15. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising ...analyzed, risks can be mitigated as they occur. Partner activities can and will have a significant impact on national security, and the application of

  16. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  17. Forestry Schools in the United States, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This 24-page booklet compiled by the U.S. Forest Service lists 49 colleges and universities in the United States which offer forestry curriculums leading to an undergraduate and/or graduate degree in forestry or related areas. Brief descriptions of each program are included. Schools accredited by the Society of American Foresters are indicated…

  18. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  19. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health issues… CHIP Marketplaces Waivers menu KFF.org Facebook Twitter Email Twitter Facebook Email HIV/AIDS Search Graphics & Interactives Polls Home ... in the United States Published: Jun 23, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print Key Facts HIV testing ...

  20. United States Department of Education Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author provides updates on the various programs of the United States Department of Education. Among others, the Office of Correctional Education is sponsoring training sessions dealing with the utilization of post release outcome data to evaluate institutionally based educational services. Also, a few weeks after the upcoming…

  1. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    Arguably, the US – Nigerian relations before the events on 25th of December, 2009 was a healthy one. However, the attempted suicide ... Consequently, the. United States of America put Nigeria on a watch list of potential terrorist countries. This did not only ... forward by Adeniran, who postulates thus: When statesmen and ...

  2. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  3. Southeast Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Briefly reviews the history, initial problems, and economic adjustment of Southeast Asian refugees residing in the United States today. Provides some figures on yearly arrivals from 1975 to 198l, national origin of the U.S. Southeast Asians, their current level of English proficiency, labor force participation, and percent of households on public…

  4. AED in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) work in the United States includes programs with many of the nation's major foundations on issues of education reform, parental involvement in the schools, youth development and bridging the distance between school, work, and successful university education. The projects described here cover a wide…

  5. The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hien Duc

    1996-01-01

    Presents instructional materials for a unit of study reexamining the effects of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese migration to the United States. These materials discuss the historical background of this migration as well as the development of Vietnamese American communities and their relationship to other Asian American communities. (MJP)

  6. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  7. Disparities in breast cancer survival in the United States (2001-2009): Findings from the CONCORD-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Smith, Judith Lee; Ryerson, A Blythe; Tucker, Thomas C; Allemani, Claudia

    2017-12-15

    Reducing breast cancer incidence and achieving equity in breast cancer outcomes remains a priority for public health practitioners, health care providers, policy makers, and health advocates. Monitoring breast cancer survival can help evaluate the effectiveness of health services, quantify inequities in outcomes between states or population subgroups, and inform efforts to improve the effectiveness of cancer management and treatment. We analyzed breast cancer survival using individual patient records from 37 statewide registries that participated in the CONCORD-2 study, covering approximately 80% of the US population. Females were diagnosed between 2001 and 2009 and were followed through December 31, 2009. Age-standardized net survival at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after diagnosis was estimated by state, race (white, black), stage at diagnosis, and calendar period (2001-2003 and 2004-2009). Overall, 5-year breast cancer net survival was very high (88.2%). Survival remained remarkably high from 2001 through 2009. Between 2001 and 2003, survival was 89.1% for white females and 76.9% for black females. Between 2004 and 2009, survival was 89.6% for white females and 78.4% for black females. Breast cancer survival was more than 10 percentage points lower for black females than for white females, and this difference persisted over time. Reducing racial disparities in survival remains a challenge that requires broad, coordinated efforts at the federal, state, and local levels. Monitoring trends in breast cancer survival can highlight populations in need of improved cancer management and treatment. Cancer 2017;123:5100-18. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  9. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    in the United States. Previously published digital data relating to brackish groundwater resources were limited to a small number of State- and regional-level studies. Data sources for this assessment ranged from single publications to large datasets and from local studies to national assessments. Geochemical data included concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and radionuclides as well as physical properties of the water (pH, temperature, and specific conductance). Additionally, the database provides selected well information (location, yield, depth, and contributing aquifer) necessary for evaluating the water resource.The assessment was divided into national-, regional-, and aquifer-scale analyses. National-scale analyses included evaluation of the three-dimensional distribution of observed dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater, the three-dimensional probability of brackish groundwater occurrence, and the geochemical characteristics of saline (greater than or equal to 1,000 mg/L of dissolved solids) groundwater resources. Regional-scale analyses included a summary of the percentage of observed grid cell volume in the region that was occupied by brackish groundwater within the mixture of air, water, and rock for multiple depth intervals. Aquifer-scale analyses focused primarily on four regions that contained the largest amounts of observed brackish groundwater and included a generalized description of hydrogeologic characteristics from previously published work; the distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations; considerations for developing brackish groundwater resources, including a summary of other chemical characteristics that may limit the use of brackish groundwater and the ability of sampled wells producing brackish groundwater to yield useful amounts of water; and the amount of saline groundwater being used in 2010.

  10. Mexico-United States labor migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1997-01-01

    "International migration from Mexico to the United Sates is viewed very differently depending on from which side of the border this phenomenon is observed and evaluated....[It is] imperative to begin a process of ¿demythifying' migration as a necessary and sufficient condition that would allow both countries to come together within the context of bilateral relations and find ways to act jointly to address the impacts of the issue. Such a demythifying effort must begin with scientific research which can help develop a diagnosis of the costs and benefits that labor migration from Mexico to the United States brings to the two countries." excerpt

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Soong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11 and the US (10. Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  13. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  14. Outpatient oral rehydration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listernick, R; Zieserl, E; Davis, A T

    1986-03-01

    Twenty-nine dehydrated, well-nourished infants, who were 3 to 24 months of age and had acute gastroenteritis, were enrolled in a prospective randomized study that compared the safety, efficacy, and costs of oral vs intravenous rehydration. The study was designed to assess the use of a holding room in the emergency room for the outpatient rehydration of dehydrated infants. The oral solution that was used contained 60 mEq/L of sodium, 20 mEq/L of potassium, 50 mEq/L of chloride, 30 mEq/L of citrate, 20 g/L of glucose, and 5 g/L of fructose. Thirteen of 15 patients were successfully rehydrated orally as outpatients; two patients, who were subsequently discovered to have urinary tract infections, required hospitalization due to persistent vomiting. Orally rehydrated outpatients spent a mean of 10.7 hours in the holding room, as compared with intravenously rehydrated inpatients, who were hospitalized for a mean of 103.2 hours. Outpatient oral rehydration therapy was significantly less costly than inpatient intravenous therapy (+272.78 vs +2,299.50). Our results indicate that oral rehydration is a safe and cost-effective means of treating dehydrated children in an outpatient setting in the United States. The use of a holding room for observation in the emergency room can markedly decrease health care costs and unnecessary hospitalizations.

  15. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First...

  16. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the grounds...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  18. Longitudinal Comparison of the Speech and Language Performance of United States-Born and Internationally Adopted Toddlers With Cleft Lip and Palate: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Baker, Shauna; Kaiser, Ann; Frey, Jennifer R

    2016-10-10

      This study compares the early speech and language development of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with children born in the United States.   Prospective longitudinal description of early speech and language development between 18 and 36 months of age.   This study compares four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were born in the United States, matched for age, gender, and cleft type across three time points over 10 to 12 months.   Children's speech-language skills were analyzed using standardized tests, parent surveys, language samples, and single-word phonological assessments to determine differences between the groups.   The mean scores for the children in the internationally adopted group were lower than the group born in the United States at all three time points for expressive language and speech sound production measures. Examination of matched pairs demonstrated observable differences for two of the four pairs. No differences were observed in cognitive performance and receptive language measures.   The results suggest a cumulative effect of later palate repair and/or a variety of health and environmental factors associated with their early circumstances that persist to age 3 years. Early intervention to address the trajectory of speech and language is warranted. Given the findings from this small pilot study, a larger study of the long-term speech and language development of children who are internationally adopted and have cleft palate with or without cleft lip is recommended.

  19. Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    "Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States, 2011" is the ninth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the College Board. This year's study, like those for…

  20. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    fuel lines to modify cars to run with methanol as a gasoline additive. China is already blending 15% methanol in their fuel . The problem with this...was described by the following: higher fuel standards that will double how far a car can go by the middle of the next decade, creation of thousands...electric cars more affordable. The United States needs to divert subsidies from less useful fuels like solar and wind and invest in the electrical

  1. Nursing in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Vickie A.

    2001-01-01

    Nursing in the United States of America is a diverse and challenging profession. A number of educational programs exist that allow the nurse to obtain not only a basic education in nursing, but also advanced degrees in nursing at both the master's and doctoral level of preparation. Practice sites for nurses are numerous and varied, as are the areas of specialization. The annual salary a nurse earns is determined by the nurse's level of educational preparation, job title and responsibilities, ...

  2. Future Energy and United States Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-13

    from plant and animal matter. Currently, distillers in the United States pro- cess ethanol from cornstarch, local waste, cheese whey , wheat and wood...have a major impact on US energy consumption in the next ten years. The second, the power tower is the leading recipient of research for the central...the methods become more famil- 55iar. For most of the next decade, solar heating will make its principal impact in the form of active systems

  3. Iranian Diaspora in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Havlů, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to explore the social reality of Iranians living in the United States. The main objective is to find out how Iranians (Iranian Americans) maintain, construct and perceive their Iranian identity and to identify factors that could intervene in this process. Another aim is to examine intra-diasporic social relations, social interactions with American society and stance towards Iran. To fulfill the purpose of this dissertation, a qualitative research method was applied. Th...

  4. Race and Rickettsiae: A United States Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; Moonesinghe, Ramal; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    US surveillance programs for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis collect demographic data on patients, including race and ethnicity. Reporting of these diseases among race groups is not uniform across the United States. Because a laboratory confirmation is required to meet the national surveillance case definition, reporting may be influenced by a patient's access to healthcare. Determining the association between race and ethnicity with incidence of rickettsia...

  5. Market manipulation challenges and responses in the United Kingdom, European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, N.

    2017-01-01

    As a response to the financial crisis the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have increasingly focused on the phenomenon of white-collar crime as one of the major causes of the financial crisis. While recent studies have mainly surveyed weak banking regulation, weak credit regulation, inappropriate lending practices and the economic policies of nation states, this paper seeks to investigate the impact of market abuse and insider trading – under...

  6. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kellison, R. C.; Russ Lea; Paul Marsh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation t...

  7. United States Arms Transfers as a Consistent Element of United States Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Organization of American States (OAS) China , Rep. of ilngapore Indonesia Thailand United Nations (UN) and its agencies to in- Japan Vietna1m, lep of...West in terms of an innate antagonism. Comunist dogma had taught them that "the outside world was hostile and that it was their duty eventually to...John King. The United States and China ,. 2nd ed. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press,- 1958. 15. Feige, Peter 2. "ASPR Changes Made to Assist

  8. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study Point Lay Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmi, S.

    1996-03-04

    The United States Air Force (Air Force) has prepared this Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report to present the results of RI/FS activities at four sites located at the Point Lay radar installation. The remedial investigation (RI) field activities were conducted at the Point Lay radar installation during the summer of 1993. The four sites at Point Lay were investigated because they were suspected of being contaminated with hazardous substances. RI activities were conducted using methods and procedures specified in the RI/FS Work Plan, Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and Health and Safety Plan.

  9. The Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Rusin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results show that urbanization can have a measurable but variable impact on the primary productivity of the land surface. Annual productivity can be reduced by as much as 20 days in some areas, but in resource limited regions, photosynthetic production can be enhanced by human activity. Overall, urban development reduces the productivity of the land surface and those areas with the highest productivity are directly in the path of urban sprawl.

  10. Longitudinal study of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a cohort of swine veterinarians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People working with pigs are at elevated risk of harboring methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in their nose, which is attributable to occupational exposure to animals harboring livestock adapted S. aureus. To obtain insight into the biological nature of occupationally related nasal culture positivity, we conducted a longitudinal study of 66 swine veterinarians in the USA. Methods The study cohort resided in 15 US states and worked predominantly with swine. Monthly for 18 months, participants self-collected nasal swabs and completed a survey to report recent exposure to pigs and other animals; the occurrence of work related injuries; and any relevant health events such as skin and soft tissue infections or confirmed staphylococcal infections. Nasal swabs were cultured using selective methods to determine the presence of MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, and isolates were characterized by spa typing and MLST. Results Prevalences of S. aureus (64%, monthly range from 58 to 82% and MRSA (9.5%; monthly range from 6 to15% were higher than reported for the US population (30% and 1.5% respectively. Predominant spa types were t034 (ST398, 37%, t002 (ST5, 17% and t337 (ST9/ST398 13%, a distribution similar to that found in a concurrent study in pigs in the USA. Veterinarians were classified into three groups: Persistent carriers (PC, 52%, Intermittent carriers (IC, 47% and Non-carriers (NC, 1%. Persistent carriage of a single spa type was observed in 14 (21% of participants, and paired (first and last isolates from PC subjects had minor genetic differences. Swabs from PC veterinarians carried higher numbers of S. aureus. Among IC veterinarians, culture positivity was significantly associated with recent contact with pigs. Conclusions Exposure to pigs did not lead to prolonged colonization in most subjects, and the higher numbers of S. aureus in PC subjects suggests that unknown host factors may determine the

  11. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  12. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes. PMID:22726759

  13. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.

  14. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  15. Becoming “Beautiful” … Becoming “American”? A Study on Constructions of Beauty and Identity Among Korean and Filipina Women in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hyeyoung

    2008-01-01

    How do Korean and Filipina women engage in beauty and bodywork, to reconcile issues of ethnicity, identity, and beauty within American society? The minority status of Asians in the United States results in the adoption of basic Anglo-Saxon beauty ideals by Korean and Filipina women. Divergent assimilation experiences in the United States however create different pathways for these women to engage in beauty and bodywork. I analyze interviews conducted in 2005, with 9 Korean and 11 Filipina wo...

  16. A cross-sectional study of emergency care utilization and associated costs of violent-related (assault) injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-11-01

    Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010. Violent injury was defined using International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification, diagnosis and mechanism of injury codes. We calculated rates of ED visits for violent injuries. Medical and work-loss costs accrued by these injuries were calculated for 2005, inflation-adjusted to 2011 dollars using the WISQARS Cost of Injury Reports. An annual average of 1.4 million adults were treated for violent injuries in EDs from 2000 to 2010, comprising 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-1.6%) of all US adult ED visits. Young adults (18-25 years), men, nonwhites, uninsured or publically insured patients, and those residing in high poverty urban areas were at increased risk for ED visits for violent injury. The 1-year, inflation-adjusted medical and work-loss cost of violent-inflicted injuries in adults in the United States was US $49.5 billion. Violent injuries account for over one million ED visits annually among adults, with no change in rates over the past decade. Young black men are at especially increased risk for ED visits for violent injuries. Overall, violent-related injuries resulted in substantial financial and societal costs. Epidemiological study, level III.

  17. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  18. Pain severity and the economic burden of neuropathic pain in the United States: BEAT Neuropathic Pain Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Schaefer,1 Alesia Sadosky,2 Rachael Mann,3 Shoshana Daniel,4 Bruce Parsons,2 Michael Tuchman,5 Alan Anschel,6 Brett R Stacey,7 Srinivas Nalamachu,8 Edward Nieshoff9 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 3Covance Market Access Services Inc., San Diego, CA, 4Covance Market Access Services Inc., Conshohocken, PA, 5Palm Beach Neurological Center, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, 6Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 7Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 8International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 9Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: As with many chronic conditions, patients with neuropathic pain (NeP are high consumers of health care resources. However, limited literature exists on the economic burden of NeP, including its impact on productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize health care resource utilization, productivity, and costs associated with NeP by pain severity level in US adults.Methods: Subjects (n=624 with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-related peripheral NeP, post-trauma/post-surgical NeP, spinal cord injury with NeP, chronic low back pain with NeP, and small fiber neuropathy were recruited during routine office visits to US community-based general practitioners and specialists. Clinicians captured clinical characteristics, NeP-related medications, and health care resource utilization based on 6-month retrospective medical chart review. Subjects completed questionnaires on demographics, pain/symptoms, costs, and productivity. Brief Pain Inventory pain severity scores were used to classify subjects by mild, moderate, or severe pain. Annualized NeP-related costs (adjusted for covariates were estimated, and differences across pain severity groups were evaluated.Results: In total, 624 subjects were recruited (mean age 55.5±13.7 years; 55.4% male

  19. Children’s Exposures to Pyrethroid Insecticides at Home: A Review of Data Collected in Published Exposure Measurement Studies Conducted in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha K. Morgan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 published articles from observational exposure measurement studies conducted from 1999 to present that examined children’s (5 months to 17 years of age exposures to pyrethroids in media including floor wipes, floor dust, food, air, and/or urine collected at homes in the United States. At least seven different pyrethroids were detected in wipe, dust, solid food, and indoor air samples. Permethrin was the most frequently detected (>50% pyrethroid in these media, followed by cypermethrin (wipes, dust, and food. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA, a urinary metabolite of several pyrethroids, was the most frequently (≥67% detected pyrethroid biomarker. Results across studies indicate that these children were likely exposed to several pyrethroids, but primarily to permethrin and cypermethrin, from several sources including food, dust, and/or on surfaces at residences. Dietary ingestion followed by nondietary ingestion were the dominate exposure routes for these children, except in homes with frequent pesticide applications (dermal followed by dietary ingestion. Urinary 3-PBA concentration data confirm that the majority of the children sampled were exposed to one or more pyrethroids.

  20. The impact of emergency department observation units on United States emergency department admission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capp, Roberta; Sun, Benjamin; Boatright, Dowin; Gross, Cary

    2015-11-01

    Prior studies suggesting that the presence of emergency department (ED) observation units decrease overall ED hospital admissions have been either single-center studies or based on model simulations. The objective of this preliminary national study is to determine if the presence of ED observation units is associated with hospitals having lower ED admission rates. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using the 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey and estimated ED risk-standardized hospital admission rates (RSHAR) for each center. The following were excluded from the study: ages unit status were also excluded. We used linear regression analysis to determine the association between ED RSHAR and presence of observation units. There were 24,232 ED visits in 315 hospitals in the United States. Of these, 82 (20.6%) hospitals had an ED observation unit. The average ED risk-standardized hospital admission rates for hospitals with observation units and without hospital observation units were 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.3-16.0) and 16.0% (95% CI: 14.1-17.7), respectively. The difference of 2.3% was not statistically significant. In this preliminary study, we did not find an association between the presence of observation units and ED hospital admission rates. Further studies with larger sample sizes should be performed to further evaluate the impact of ED observation units on ED hospital admission rates. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  1. Childhood Firearm Injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Gutierrez, Carmen; Bacon, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Examine fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries among children aged 0 to 17 in the United States, including intent, demographic characteristics, trends, state-level patterns, and circumstances. Fatal injuries were examined by using data from the National Vital Statistics System and nonfatal injuries by using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Trends from 2002 to 2014 were tested using joinpoint regression analyses. Incident characteristics and circumstances were examined by using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Nearly 1300 children die and 5790 are treated for gunshot wounds each year. Boys, older children, and minorities are disproportionately affected. Although unintentional firearm deaths among children declined from 2002 to 2014 and firearm homicides declined from 2007 to 2014, firearm suicides decreased between 2002 and 2007 and then showed a significant upward trend from 2007 to 2014. Rates of firearm homicide among children are higher in many Southern states and parts of the Midwest relative to other parts of the country. Firearm suicides are more dispersed across the United States with some of the highest rates occurring in Western states. Firearm homicides of younger children often occurred in multivictim events and involved intimate partner or family conflict; older children more often died in the context of crime and violence. Firearm suicides were often precipitated by situational and relationship problems. The shooter playing with a gun was the most common circumstance surrounding unintentional firearm deaths of both younger and older children. Firearm injuries are an important public health problem, contributing substantially to premature death and disability of children. Understanding their nature and impact is a first step toward prevention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the United States: Strategies for Monitoring Trends and Results from the First Two Decades of Study: 1991-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, B.; McMahon, P.; Rupert, M.; Tesoriero, J.; Starn, J.; Anning, D.; Green, C.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was implemented in 1991 to provide long-term, consistent, and comparable information on the quality of surface and groundwater resources of the United States. Findings are used to support national, regional, state, and local information needs with respect to water quality. The three main goals of the program are to 1) assess the condition of the nation's streams, rivers, groundwater, and aquatic systems; 2) assess how conditions are changing over time; and 3) determine how natural features and human activities affect these conditions, and where those effects are most pronounced. As data collection progressed into the second decade, the emphasis of the interpretation of the data has shifted from primarily understanding status, to evaluation of trends. The program has conducted national and regional evaluations of change in the quality of water in streams, rivers, groundwater, and health of aquatic systems. Evaluating trends in environmental systems requires complex analytical and statistical methods, and a periodic re-evaluation of the monitoring methods used to collect these data. Examples given herein summarize the lessons learned from the evaluation of changes in water quality during the past two decades with an emphasis on the finding with respect to groundwater. The analysis of trends in groundwater is based on 56 well networks located in 22 principal aquifers of the United States. Analysis has focused on 3 approaches: 1) a statistical analysis of results of sampling over various time scales, 2) studies of factors affecting trends in groundwater quality, and 3) use of models to simulate groundwater trends and forecast future trends. Data collection for analysis of changes in groundwater-quality has focused on decadal resampling of wells. Understanding the trends in groundwater quality and the factors affecting those trends has been conducted using quarterly sampling, biennial sampling

  3. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration o...

  4. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of webcams . Today there is a much greater chance that someone working in the corporate sector is working or keeping up to date with their office...all American adults had high-speed Internet connections at home in the United States. In March 2005, that number was only 30 percent.47 Many new...Project’s combined January-March tracking survey of 4,402 adults ; 1,265 were home broadband users. 2006 data comes from the Pew Internet Project’s February

  5. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  6. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  7. Reoccurring Financial Crises in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2011-01-01

    The economic history of the United States is riddled with financial crises and banking panics. During the nineteenth-century, eight major such episodes occurred. In the period following World War II, some believed that these crises would no longer happen, and that the U.S. had reached a time of everlasting financial stability and sustainable growth. The Savings and Loans Crisis of the 1980s, the 2001 dot-com bust and the 2007 housing bubble that led to the current global financial crises demo...

  8. Contraceptive failure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. PMID:21477680

  9. Knowledge ecologies, "supple" objects, and different priorities across women's and gender studies programs and departments in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine Virginia

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the evolving connections between local conditions and knowledge processes in women's and gender studies, a research field in the social sciences and humanities. Data are historical records from five early-adopting women's and gender studies units in the United States and interviews with affiliated professors. In their formative years, these programs were consistent in their intellectual content. Scholars across sites defined the purpose of women's studies similarly: to address the lack of research on women and social problems of sex inequality. Gradually, scholars incorporated a range of analytic categories into women's studies' agenda, including gender identities and masculinities, leading to diverse understandings and redefinitions of the central objects of analysis. Analytic shifts are reflected in differences in the institutional and intellectual composition of programs and departments. To explain how local departmental conditions affect the conception of core objects of study in gender research, the author builds on the literature on knowledge ecologies and introduces the concept of the "supple object." © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ownership of copyright in works created in employment relationships: comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Herrera Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Great quantities of copyrighted works around the world are produced in the context of labor law Relationships. The ownership of these works has been regulated in different ways by the national laws of each country, and the only attempt of legal harmonization has been found in the European Community regarding computer programs created in the course of employment. The sovereignty and territoriality principles by with each country can enact its own laws in its territory to rule on the ownership question has been applied by countries. As an example, Germany and United States have regulated the subject in their respective national copyright laws. Nonetheless, there are similarities and differences in the ways that these two countries regulate the ownership of economic rights. In other countries, such as Colombia, lawmaker have established a legal rule regarding the ownership of moral rights in copyrighted works, but does not define a clear rule on the important issue of the economic rights in such works. This ambiguity has caused legal uncertainty, raising the question as to whether these types of rights belong to employees, private contractors, freelancers or employers. Taking into account the current issues that can arise in works created in employment relationships, this paper will make a comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America.

  11. Ownership of Copyright in Works Created in Employment Relationships: Comparative Study of the Laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Herrera Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Great quantities of copyrighted works around the world are produced in the context of labor law Relationships. The ownership of these works has been regulated in different ways by the national laws of each country, and the only attempt of legal harmonization has been found in the European Community regarding computer programs created in the course of employment. The sovereignty and territoriality principles by with each country can enact its own laws in its territory to rule on the ownership question has been applied by countries. As an example, Germany and United States have regulated the subject in their respective national copyright laws. Nonetheless, there are similarities and differences in the ways that these two countries regulate the ownership of economic rights. In other countries, such as Colombia, lawmaker have established a legal rule regarding the ownership of moral rights in copyrighted works, but does not define a clear rule on the important issue of the economic rights in such works. This ambiguity has caused legal uncertainty, raising the question as to whether these types of rights belong to employees, private contractors, freelancers or employers. Taking into account the current issues that can arise in works created in employment relationships, this paper will make a comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America.

  12. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  13. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  14. Ethnic Studies in the United States: A Guide to Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Gretchen M.; And Others

    This book provides brief descriptions of over 800 ethnic studies programs or departments in U.S. colleges or universities. More than 600 ethnic-specific programs, mainly African American, are listed. Other such programs include Asian American, Chicano/Latino, Native American, and Puerto Rican studies, as well as programs in Jewish studies,…

  15. Challenges Faced by Korean Transnational Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Adrian; Nam, Sang; Han, Shini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help parents, educators, and policymakers understand how to help transnational children adjust to their psychological challenges at school in the United States. A total of 109 Korean transnational adolescents aged 11 to 19 participated in this study. They had been staying in the country alone or with one of their…

  16. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  17. Gypsum karst in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is one of the most soluble of common rocks; it is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites. The four basic requirements for gypsum karst to develop are: (1 a deposit of gypsum; (2 water, unsaturated with CaSO4 (3 an outlet for escape of dissolving water; and (4 energy to cause water to flow through the system. Gypsum deposits are present in 32 of the 48 conterminous United States, and they underlie about 35-40% of the land area; they are reported in rocks of every geologic system from the Precambrian through the Quaternary. Gypsum karst is known at least locally (and sometimes quite extensively in almost all areas underlain by gypsum, and commonly extends down to depths of at least 30 m below the land surface. The most widespread and pronounced examples of gypsum karst are in the Permian basin of southwestern United States, but many other areas also are significant. Human activities may also cause, or accelerate, development of gypsum karst.

  18. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of a national sample of Native American students: results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Recent mathematics assessment findings indicate that Native American students tend to score below students of the ethnic majority. Findings suggest that students' beliefs about mathematics are significantly related to achievement outcomes. This study examined relations between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a national sample of 130 Grade 8 Native American students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States sample of (M age = 14.2 yr., SD = 0.5). Multiple regression indicated several significant relations of mathematics beliefs with achievement and accounted for 26.7% of the variance in test scores. Students who earned high test scores tended to hold more positive beliefs about their ability to learn mathematics quickly, while students who earned low scores expressed negative beliefs about their ability to learn new mathematics topics.

  19. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk: a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Kee, F.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing

  20. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk : a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Kee, Frank; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Wilsgaard, Tom; May, Anne Maria; Bueno de Mesquita, Hendrik Bas; Tjønneland, Anne; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Bray, Freddie; Jenab, Mazda; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing

  1. Using long-term datasets to study exotic plant invasions on rangelands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Morris; L. R. Morris; A. J. Leffler; C. D. Holifield Collins; A. D. Forman; M. A. Weltz; S. G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by exotic species are generally described using a logistic growth curve divided into three phases: introduction, expansion and saturation. This model is constructed primarily from regional studies of plant invasions based on historical records and herbarium samples. The goal of this study is to compare invasion curves at the local scale to the logistic growth...

  2. Implementing a prospective study of women seeking abortion in the United States: understanding and overcoming barriers to recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Loren M; Gould, Heather; Barar, Rana E; Ferrari, Michaela; Weiss, Elisette I; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    The Turnaway Study is designed to prospectively study the outcomes of women who sought-but did not all obtain-abortions. This design permits more accurate inferences about the health consequences of abortion for women, but requires the recruitment of a large number of women from remote health care facilities to a study a sensitive topic. This paper explores the Turnaway Study's recruitment process. From 2008 to 2010, the staff at 30 abortion-providing facilities recruited eligible female patients. Eight interventions were evaluated using multilevel logistic regression for their impact on eligible patients being approached, approached patients agreeing to go through informed consent by phone, and enrolled patients completing the baseline interview. After site visits, patients had roughly twice the odds of being approached by facility staff and twice the odds of then agreeing to go through informed consent. When all recruitment steps were considered together, the net effect of site visits was to increase the odds that eligible patients participated by nearly a factor of six. After the introduction of a patient gift card incentive, patients had over three times the odds of agreeing to go through informed consent. With each passing month, however, staff demonstrated a 9% reduced odds of approaching eligible patients about the study. Prioritizing scientific rigor over the convenience of using existing datasets, the Turnaway Study confronted recruitment challenges common to medical practice-based studies and unique to sensitive services. Visiting sites and communicating frequently with facility staff, as well as offering incentives to patients to hear more about the study before informed consent, may help to increase participation in prospective health studies and facilitate evaluation of sensitive women's health services. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  3. Are coastal managers ready for climate change? A case study from estuaries along the Pacific coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Freeman, Chase; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Powelson, Katherine; Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge for coastal resource managers is to plan and implement climate change adaptation strategies inlight of uncertainties and competing management priorities. In 2014, we held six workshops across estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America with over 150 participants to evaluate resource managers' perceived level of understanding of climate change science, where they obtain information, how they use this knowledge, and their preparedness for incorporating climate change into their management decisions. We found that most resource managers understood the types of climate change impacts likely to occur in their estuaries, but often lacked the scientific information to make decisions and plan effectively. Managers stated that time, money, and staff resources were the largest obstacles in their efforts. Managers identified that they learned most of their information from peers, scientific journals, and the Internet and indicated that sea-level rise was their greatest concern. There was, however, variation in managers' levels of readiness and perceived knowledge within and among workshop locations. The workshops revealed that some regions don't have the information they need or the planning capacity to effectively integrate climate change into their management, with eight out of fifteen site comparisons showing a significant difference between their level of preparedness (F5,26 = 6.852; p = 0.0003), and their willingness to formally plan (F5,26 = 12.84; p = 0.000002). We found that Urban estuaries were significantly different from Mixed Use and Rural estuaries, in having access to information and feeling more prepared to conduct climate change planning and implementation (F2,29 = 17.34; p = 0.00001). To facilitate climate change preparedness more comprehensive integration of science into management decisions is essential.

  4. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Melina; Jiang, Luohua; Stefanick, Marcia L; Johnson, Karen C; Lane, Dorothy S; LeBlanc, Erin S; Prentice, Ross; Rohan, Thomas E; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    .... While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity...

  5. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Janet M.; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed s...

  6. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  7. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  8. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  9. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  10. 78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United States...

  11. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  12. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  13. Benchmarking academic plastic surgery services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Elaine Horibe; Shirazian, Afshin; Binns, Brian; Fleming, Yuedi; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Rohrich, Rod J; Azari, Kodi

    2012-06-01

    Rising health care costs and increasingly demanding patients are only some of the challenges faced by academic plastic surgery services in their pursuit of excellence in education, research, and patient care. Benchmarking, when correctly applied, is a powerful tool that can help services learn from each other's experiences. This study aimed at creating the first benchmarking report summarizing performance indicators and management practices of some of the most complete academic plastic surgery units in the United States. Results provide an opportunity for plastic surgery leaders to benchmark against their own units, identify eventual gaps, and improve their performance as needed.

  14. Discrimination versus specialization: a survey of economic studies on sexual orientation, gender and earnings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elizabeth Dunne

    2008-01-01

    Several studies examine the link between sexual orientation and earnings using large data sets that distinguish sexual orientation through questions about sexual behavior and/or by allowing respondents to self-identify as part of a same-sex cohabitating couple. After controlling for other earnings-related characteristics these studies generally show an earnings penalty for gay/bisexual men relative to heterosexual men and an earnings premium for lesbian/bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Explanations for this gender disparity include gender differences in sexual orientation discrimination, greater labor force attachment for lesbian/bisexual women, and the effects of the overall gender earnings gap.

  15. Are Religiosity and Spirituality Associated with Obesity Among African Americans in the Southeastern United States (the Jackson Heart Study)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roy R.; Adams, Claire E.; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2017-01-01

    There are several lines of evidence that suggest religiosity and spirituality are protective factors for both physical and mental health, but the association with obesity is less clear. This study examined the associations between dimensions of religiosity and spirituality (religious attendance, daily spirituality, and private prayer), health behaviors and weight among African Americans in central Mississippi. Jackson Heart Study participants with complete data on religious attendance, private prayer, daily spirituality, caloric intake, physical activity, depression, and social support (n = 2,378) were included. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. We observed no significant association between religiosity, spirituality and weight. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality and obesity was not moderated by demographic variables, psychosocial variables, or health behaviors. However, greater religiosity and spirituality were related to lower energy intake, less alcohol use and less likelihood of lifetime smoking. Although religious participation and spirituality were not cross-sectionally related to weight among African Americans, religiosity and spirituality might promote certain health behaviors. The association between religion and spirituality and weight gain deserves further investigation in studies with a longitudinal study design. PMID:22065213

  16. Cost and time study for constructing raised wood floor systems in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Del Bianco; David B. McKeever; Lance Barta

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a co-operative effort between the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) Advanced Housing Research Center, the National Assocation of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center, and builder members of the Metropolitan Mobile and Baldwin County Home Builders Associations. The study was undertaken to further knowledge that will...

  17. RDA Implementation and Training Issues across United States Academic Libraries: An In-Depth E-Mail Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-ran; Tosaka, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at providing in-depth perspectives on the ways in which cataloging and metadata professionals have coped with RDA training and implementation through an e-mail interview method. Results show that the performance-based, "learn-as-you-go," peer learning method is found by practitioners to be most effective in acquiring and…

  18. Growth and Yield Relative to Competition for Loblolly Pine Plantations to Midrotation- A Southeastern United States Regional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; M. Boyd Edwards; Ray A. Newbold

    2003-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations were studied across 13 southeastern sites grown for 1.5 yr with near-complete control of woody, herbaceous, and woody plus herbaceous components during the first 3-5 yr. This multiple objective experiment (the COMProject) documents stand dynamics at the extreme corners of the response surface that...

  19. Research Study Measuring Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction, and Intention to Turnover in Universities across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Aspen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the relationship between employee engagement with chosen engagement drivers (quality of life, company practices, total rewards, work, people, and opportunities) along with the consequence of intention to turnover and job satisfaction. An experimental survey was carefully designed to examine employee…

  20. Attitudes to Diversity: A Cross-Cultural Study of Education Students in Spain, England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, M. Cristina Cardona; Florian, Lani; Rouse, Martyn; Stough, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that university students enrolled in teacher education programmes in Spain, England and the US (Texas) hold about individuals who differ. A beliefs and attitudes toward difference scale (BATD) was constructed using nine dimensions of diversity; culture, language, socioeconomic status/social class,…

  1. The Convergence of Business and Medicine: A Study of MD/MBA Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Timothy J.; Martin, William Marty

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the convergence of business and medical education and describe the curricula of MD/MBA (Medical Doctor/Master of Business Administration) programs in the US. The focus of this study is to provide a guide to dual MD/MBA programs for physicians, aspiring physicians, policy makers and healthcare organizations.…

  2. A Study of the Need for Cross-Cultural Capability Development in the Members of the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    awareness, and intercultural communicative competence . For the purposes of this study, only one term will be used--cross-cultural capability (2005, 2... communicative competence are all being used to identify essentially the same set of skills (Killick 2005, 3). This lack of standardized terminology has

  3. Best Technology Practices of Conflict Resolution Specialists: A Case Study of Online Dispute Resolution at United States Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kimberli Marie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to remedy the paucity of knowledge about higher education's conflict resolution practice of online dispute resolution by providing an in-depth description of mediator and instructor online practices. Telephone interviews were used as the primary data collection method. Eleven interview questions were relied upon to…

  4. Addressing the Teaching of English Language Learners in the United States: A Case Study of Teacher Educators' Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.; Meineke, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses teacher educators' response to how teacher education programs should prepare prospective teachers to be teachers of English language learners. In the case study presented, the authors note that discussions have ensued about whether teaching English language learners (ELLs) should be addressed through separate coursework or…

  5. The Experience of African Students Studying Nursing in the United States in Relation to Their Use of Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Donald Lee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the critical thinking experiences of African nursing students enrolled in several universities in the U.S. Using a semi-structured interview approach, twelve African students discussed their experiences using and learning a western critical thinking approach, as well as described their educational experiences in…

  6. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

  7. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Arnold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High body mass index (BMI has become the leading risk factor of disease burden in high-income countries. While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity during the life course on cancer risk remain scarce. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the impact of adulthood overweight and obesity duration on the risk of cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women.Participants from the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI with BMI information from at least three occasions during follow-up, free of cancer at baseline, and with complete covariate information were included (n = 73,913. Trajectories of BMI across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, obesity duration (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, and weighted cumulative overweight and obese years, which take into account the degree of overweight and obesity over time (a measure similar to pack-years of cigarette smoking, were calculated using predicted BMIs. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to determine the cancer risk associated with overweight and obesity duration. In secondary analyses, the influence of important effect modifiers and confounders, such as smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, and ethnicity, was assessed. A longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of all obesity-related cancers (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-y increment: 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.09. For postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer, every 10-y increase in adulthood overweight duration was associated with a 5% and 17% increase in risk, respectively. On adjusting for intensity of overweight, these figures rose to 8% and 37%, respectively. Risks of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer related to overweight duration were much more pronounced in women

  8. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  9. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Jiang, Luohua; Stefanick, Marcia L; Johnson, Karen C; Lane, Dorothy S; LeBlanc, Erin S; Prentice, Ross; Rohan, Thomas E; Snively, Beverly M; Vitolins, Mara; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-08-01

    High body mass index (BMI) has become the leading risk factor of disease burden in high-income countries. While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity during the life course on cancer risk remain scarce. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the impact of adulthood overweight and obesity duration on the risk of cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women. Participants from the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) with BMI information from at least three occasions during follow-up, free of cancer at baseline, and with complete covariate information were included (n = 73,913). Trajectories of BMI across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), obesity duration (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and weighted cumulative overweight and obese years, which take into account the degree of overweight and obesity over time (a measure similar to pack-years of cigarette smoking), were calculated using predicted BMIs. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to determine the cancer risk associated with overweight and obesity duration. In secondary analyses, the influence of important effect modifiers and confounders, such as smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, and ethnicity, was assessed. A longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of all obesity-related cancers (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-y increment: 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.09). For postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer, every 10-y increase in adulthood overweight duration was associated with a 5% and 17% increase in risk, respectively. On adjusting for intensity of overweight, these figures rose to 8% and 37%, respectively. Risks of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer related to overweight duration were much more pronounced in women who never

  10. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Mexican-American adults in the United States and Mexico: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Leo S; Flores, Yvonne N; Leng, Mei; Sportiche, Noémie; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-04-01

    To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a cohort of Mexican health workers with representative samples of US-born and Mexico-born Mexican-Americans living in the US. Data were obtained from the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study (MHWCS) in Mexico and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) IV 1999-2006 in the US. Regression analyses were used to investigate CVD risk factors. In adjusted analyses, NHANES participants were more likely than MHWCS participants to have hypertension, high total cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, and abdominal obesity, and were less likely to have low HDL cholesterol and smoke. Less-educated men and women were more likely to have low HDL cholesterol, obesity, and abdominal obesity. In this binational study, men and women enrolled in the MHWCS appear to have fewer CVD risk factors than US-born and Mexico-born Mexican-American men and women living in the US.

  11. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Mexican-American adults in the United States and Mexico: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Leo S. Morales; Flores, Yvonne N; Mei Leng; Noémie Sportiche; Katia Gallegos-Carrillo; Jorge Salmerón

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a cohort of Mexican health workers with representative samples of US-born and Mexico-born Mexican-Americans living in the US. Materials and methods. Data were obtained from the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study (MHWCS) in Mexico and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) IV 1999-2006 in the US. Regression analyses were used to investigate CVD risk factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, NHANES participa...

  12. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk: a study of cohorts in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Kee, Frank; O'Doherty, Mark George; Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Wilsgaard, Tom; May, Anne Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Hendrik Bas; Tjønneland, Anne; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Bray, Freddie; Jenab, Mazda; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing different forms of cancer. Study participants from seven European and one US cohort study with two or more weight assessments during follow-up were included (n = 329,576). Trajectories of body mass index (BMI) across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25) and cumulative weighted overweight years were calculated. In multivariate Cox models and random effects analyses, a longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of obesity-related cancer [overall hazard ratio (HR) per 10-year increment: 1.36; 95 % CI 1.12-1.60], but also increased the risk of postmenopausal breast and colorectal cancer. Additionally accounting for the degree of overweight further increased the risk of obesity-related cancer. Risks associated with a longer overweight duration were higher in men than in women and were attenuated by smoking. For postmenopausal breast cancer, increased risks were confined to women who never used hormone therapy. Overall, 8.4 % of all obesity-related cancers could be attributed to overweight at any age. These findings provide further insights into the role of overweight duration in the etiology of cancer and indicate that weight control is relevant at all ages. This knowledge is vital for the development of effective and targeted cancer prevention strategies.

  13. The Uses of Communication in Decision-Making; A Comparative Study of Yugoslavia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Alex S.

    Undertaken as a situational, cross-cultural study to determine the importance of various mass media in individual problem-solving and decision-making, 2,500 adults in Seattle, Belgrade, and Ljubljana were interviewed and asked to indicate those problems he/she perceived as personally important in the city he/she was living in a and in the world.…

  14. Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Differences in Alcohol-Related Harm: A Population-Based Study of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Lopez, G. B.; Antai, J.; Anthony, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and associated alcohol-related harm (ARH) are a prevalent and important public health problem, with alcohol representing about 4% of the global burden of disease. A discussion of ARH secondary to alcohol consumption necessitates a consideration of the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking pattern. This study examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and self-reported ARH. Pearson chi-square test (χ 2) and logistic regression analyses were used on data from t...

  15. Trends in mortality and causes of death among women with HIV in the United States: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Audrey L; Gawel, Susan H; Hershow, Ronald; Benning, Lorie; Hessol, Nancy A; Levine, Alexandra M; Anastos, Kathryn; Augenbraun, Michael; Cohen, Mardge H

    2009-08-01

    To assess trends in mortality and cause of death for women with HIV, we studied deaths over a 10-year period among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a representative US cohort. Deaths were ascertained by National Death Index Plus match, and causes of death determined by death certificate. From 1995 through 2004, 710 of 2792 HIV-infected participants died. During this interval, the standardized mortality ratio fell from a high of 24.7 in 1996 to a plateau with a mean of 10.3 from 2001 to 2004. Over the decade, deaths from non-AIDS causes increased and accounted for the majority of deaths by 2001-2004. The most common non-AIDS causes of death were trauma or overdose, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy. Independent predictors of mortality besides HIV-associated variables were depressive symptoms and active hepatitis B or C. Women who were overweight or obese were significantly less likely to die of AIDS than women of normal weight. In the Women's Interagency HIV Study, the death rate has plateaued in recent years. Although HIV-associated factors predicted AIDS and non-AIDS deaths, other treatable conditions predicted mortality. Further gains in reducing mortality among HIV-infected women may require broader access to therapies for depression, viral hepatitis, and HIV itself.

  16. The Variation in the Absence of the Palmaris Longus in a Multiethnic Population of the United States: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Soltani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the palmaris longus (PL has been shown to vary based on body side, gender, and ethnicity. In prior studies, homogenous ethnic populations have been shown to have differences in rates of absence. However, no study thus far has analyzed the differences in palmaris longus prevalence in a multiethnic population. We prospectively collected data on 516 patients visiting the outpatient hand clinics at LAC+USC Medical Center and Keck Medical Center. Analysis of the data was then performed for variables including ethnicity, laterality, and gender. There were no differences in the absence of the PL based on laterality or gender. Ethnically, there was no difference between white (non-Hispanic and white (Hispanic patients, with prevalence of 14.9% and 13.1%, respectively. However, African American (4.5% and Asian (2.9% patients had significantly fewer absences of the PL than the Caucasian, Hispanic reference group ( and , resp.. African Americans and Asians have a decreased prevalence of an absent PL. The Caucasian population has a relatively greater prevalence of an absence of the PL. This epidemiological study demonstrates the anatomic variation in this tendon and may be taken into account when planning an operation using tendon grafts.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making among Asian Immigrant Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rose; Chang, Michelle Milee; Chen, Margaret; Rohde, Christine Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Despite research supporting improved psychosocial well-being, quality of life, and survival for patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction, Asian patients remain one-fifth as likely as Caucasians to choose reconstruction. This study investigates cultural factors, values, and perceptions held by Asian women that might impact breast reconstruction rates. The authors conducted semistructured interviews of immigrant East Asian women treated for breast cancer in the New York metropolitan area, investigating social structure, culture, attitudes toward surgery, and body image. Three investigators independently coded transcribed interviews, and then collectively evaluated them through axial coding of recurring themes. Thirty-five immigrant East Asian women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer were interviewed. Emerging themes include functionality, age, perceptions of plastic surgery, inconvenience, community/family, fear of implants, language, and information. Patients spoke about breasts as a function of their roles as a wife or mother, eliminating the need for breasts when these roles were fulfilled. Many addressed the fear of multiple operations. Quality and quantity of information, and communication with practitioners, impacted perceptions about treatment. Reconstructive surgery was often viewed as cosmetic. Community and family played a significant role in decision-making. Asian women are statistically less likely than Caucasians to pursue breast reconstruction. This is the first study to investigate culture-specific perceptions of breast reconstruction. Results from this study can be used to improve cultural competency in addressing patient concerns. Improving access to information regarding treatment options and surgical outcomes may improve informed decision-making among immigrant Asian women.

  18. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack--I: England and Wales and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killalea, D; Ward, L R; Roberts, D; de Louvois, J; Sufi, F; Stuart, J M; Wall, P G; Susman, M; Schwieger, M; Sanderson, P J; Fisher, I S; Mead, P S; Gill, O N; Bartlett, C L; Rowe, B

    1996-11-02

    To identify the source of an international outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella agona phage type 15 and to measure how long the underlying cause persisted. Case-control study of 16 primary household cases and 32 controls of similar age and dietary habit. Packets of the implicated foodstuff manufactured on a range of days were examined for salmonella. All isolates of the epidemic phage type were further characterised by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. 27 cases were identified, of which 26 were in children. The case-control study showed a strong association between infection with S agona phage type 15 and consumption of a peanut flavoured ready to eat kosher savoury snack imported from Israel. S agona phage type 15 was isolated from samples of this snack. The combined food sampling results from the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and Israel showed that contaminated snacks were manufactured on at least seven separate dates during a four month period between October 1994 and February 1995. Voluntary recalls of the product successfully interrupted transmission. Rapid international exchanges of information led to the identification of the source of a major outbreak of S agona in Israel and of associated cases in North America. The outbreak showed the value of the Salm-Net surveillance system and its links outside Europe, both for increasing case ascertainment and for improving the information on the duration of the fault at the manufacturing plant.

  20. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Mexican-American adults in the United States and Mexico: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo S Morales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a cohort of Mexican health workers with representative samples of US-born and Mexico-born Mexican-Americans living in the US. Materials and methods. Data were obtained from the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study (MHWCS in Mexico and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV 1999-2006 in the US. Regression analyses were used to investigate CVD risk factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, NHANES participants were more likely than MHWCS participants to have hypertension, high total cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, and abdominal obesity, and were less likely to have low HDL cholesterol and smoke. Less-educated men and women were more likely to have low HDL cholesterol, obesity, and abdominal obesity. Conclusions. In this binational study, men and women enrolled in the MHWCS appear to have fewer CVD risk factors than US-born and Mexico-born Mexican-American men and women living in the US.

  1. Disproportionate sales of crime guns among licensed handgun retailers in the United States: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, G J

    2009-10-01

    To determine risk factors among licensed firearm retailers for disproportionate sales of handguns that are later subjected to ownership tracing, generally after use in crime. Case-control; the study period was 1998-2003. Cases were all eligible firearm retailers whose handguns were later traced at a rate that significantly (por= 50 handguns annually during the study period. Status as a case. Odds ratios were used to measure relative risk. In multivariate analyses, cases had larger sales volumes, sold inexpensive handguns more often, had a higher percentage of sales denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms, and were more likely to be in an urban area, in or near a city with a policy of tracing all recovered crime guns. The effects of several risk factors, including status as a pawnbroker and sales to law enforcement personnel, appeared to be mediated by purchaser characteristics for which denied sales are a proxy measure. A number of factors-most of them characteristics of the retailers or of their handgun purchasers, and most of them available in existing data-were linked to disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in crime.

  2. Frequency and Character of Extreme Aerosol Events in the Southwestern United States: A Case Study Analysis in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses more than a decade’s worth of data across Arizona to characterize the spatiotemporal distribution, frequency, and source of extreme aerosol events, defined as when the concentration of a species on a particular day exceeds that of the average plus two standard deviations for that given month. Depending on which of eight sites studied, between 5% and 7% of the total days exhibited an extreme aerosol event due to either extreme levels of PM10, PM2.5, and/or fine soil. Grand Canyon exhibited the most extreme event days (120, i.e., 7% of its total days. Fine soil is the pollutant type that most frequently impacted multiple sites at once at an extreme level. PM10, PM2.5, fine soil, non-Asian dust, and Elemental Carbon extreme events occurred most frequently in August. Nearly all Asian dust extreme events occurred between March and June. Extreme Elemental Carbon events have decreased as a function of time with statistical significance, while other pollutant categories did not show any significant change. Extreme events were most frequent for the various pollutant categories on either Wednesday or Thursday, but there was no statistically significant difference in the number of events on any particular day or on weekends versus weekdays.

  3. The association of family history of liver cancer with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Manal M; Spitz, Margret R; Thomas, Melanie B; Curley, Steven A; Patt, Yehuda Z; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Glover, Katrina Y; Kaseb, Ahmed; Lozano, Richard D; El-Deeb, Adel S; Nguyen, Nga T; Wei, Steven H; Chan, Wenyaw; Abbruzzese, James L; Li, Donghui

    2009-02-01

    The study aimed at addressing the connection between positive family history of liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in the USA. At The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 347 patients with pathologically confirmed HCC and 1075 healthy controls were studied. All subjects were interviewed for their family history of cancer, including the number of relatives with cancer, the type of cancer, the individual's relationship with the relative, and the age at which the relative was diagnosed. Independently of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), a history of liver cancer in first degree relatives was significantly associated with HCC development (AOR=4.1 [95% CI, 1.3-12.9]). Multiple relatives with liver cancer were only observed among HCC patients with chronic HBV/HCV infection. Affected siblings with liver cancer is significantly associated with HCC development with and without HBV/HCV infection; (AOR=5.7 [95% CI, 1.2-27.3]) and (AOR=4.3 [95% CI, 1.01-20.9]), respectively. Individuals with HBV/HCV and a family history of liver cancer were at higher risk for HCC (AOR=61.9 [95% CI, 6.6-579.7]). First degree family history of liver cancer is associated with HCC development in the USA. Further research exploring the genetic-environment interactions associated with risk of HCC is warranted.

  4. Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier David A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD or cerebral degeneration (CD (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991–2000 within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR=1.59, p<0.00001, first two-months-of-life (OR=1.59, p<0.00001, and first six-months-of-life (OR=2.97, p<0.00001. Male TD cases were significantly more likely than male controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (OR =1.65, p<0.0001, first two-months-of-life (OR=1.64, p<0.0001, and first six months-of-life (OR=2.47, p<0.05, where as female TD were significantly more likely than female controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first six-months-of-life (OR=4.97, p<0.05. By contrast, CD cases were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB administered at any period studied within the first six-months-of-life. Although routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to combat infectious diseases, the present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis.

  5. Cultural competency in the physician assistant curriculum in the United States: a longitudinal study with two cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbra Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many Physician Assistant (PA programs have recently integrated cultural competency into their curricula. However, there is little evidence tracking the longitudinal effectiveness of curricula on culture competency. This study tested whether amount of exposure to a cultural competency curriculum affected self-assessments of cultural awareness among two cohorts of students. Method: Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program and retook the survey at three intervals during the first year. Results: Regression analyses confirmed significant linear relationships (two-tailed α < .05 between responses and interval number on all questions for each cohort, with exception of Question 8 for Cohort 2. Conclusion: Results from Cohort 2 replicated those from Cohort 1 suggesting that cultural awareness among PA students benefits from repeated exposure to lessons on cultural competency. Schools attempting to develop or expand cultural awareness among students should consider integrating cultural competency training throughout the PA curriculum.

  6. Material Use in the United States - Selected Case Studies for Cadmium, Cobalt, Lithium, and Nickel in Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the changes that have taken place in the consumer electronic product sector as they relate to (1) the use of cadmium, cobalt, lithium, and nickel contained in batteries that power camcorders, cameras, cell phones, and portable (laptop) computers and (2) the use of nickel in vehicle batteries for the period 1996 through 2005 and discusses forecasted changes in their use patterns through 2010. Market penetration, material substitution, and technological improvements among nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries are assessed. Consequences of these changes in light of material consumption factors related to disposal, environmental effects, retail price, and serviceability are analyzed in a series of short case studies.

  7. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  8. Timing of femoral shaft fracture fixation following major trauma: A retrospective cohort study of United States trauma centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Byrne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Femoral shaft fractures are common in major trauma. Early definitive fixation, within 24 hours, is feasible in most patients and is associated with improved outcomes. Nonetheless, variability might exist between trauma centers in timeliness of fixation. Such variability could impact outcomes and would therefore represent a target for quality improvement. We evaluated variability in delayed fixation (≥24 hours between trauma centers participating in the American College of Surgeons (ACS Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP and measured the resultant association with important clinical outcomes at the hospital level.A retrospective cohort study was performed using data derived from the ACS TQIP database. Adults with severe injury who underwent definitive fixation of a femoral shaft fracture at a level I or II trauma center participating in ACS TQIP (2012-2015 were included. Patient baseline and injury characteristics that might affect timing of fixation were considered. A hierarchical logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of delayed fixation. Hospital variability in delayed fixation was measured using 2 approaches. First, the random effects output of the hierarchical model was used to identify outlier hospitals where the odds of delayed fixation were significantly higher or lower than average. Second, the median odds ratio (MOR was calculated to quantify heterogeneity in delayed fixation between hospitals. Finally, complications (pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, decubitus ulcer, and death and hospital length of stay were compared across quartiles of risk-adjusted delayed fixation. We identified 17,993 patients who underwent definitive fixation at 216 trauma centers. The median injury severity score (ISS was 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 9-22. Median time to fixation was 15 hours (IQR 7-24 hours and delayed fixation was performed in 26% of patients. After adjusting

  9. Attitudes regarding perioperative care of patients with OSA: a survey study of four specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auckley, Dennis; Cox, Robynn; Bolden, Norman; Thornton, J Daryl

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for significant perioperative complications. This national survey study sought to determine the attitudes of physicians involved in the perioperative care of OSA patients. We modified the perioperative survey used by Turner et al. among Canadian anesthesiologists. We mailed the survey to 3,000 US physicians practicing in the following specialties (750 of each specialty): anesthesiology (A), primary care (family practice or internal medicine) (PC), sleep (SM), and general surgery (S). The survey asked questions about attitudes and practice patterns regarding OSA in the perioperative setting. Of 2,730 eligible subjects, 783 questionnaires (28.7 %) were returned. Overall, 94 % felt OSA was a risk factor for perioperative complications (no difference by specialty) and 90 % felt it was a moderate to major risk factor (A = 91 %, PC = 81 %, SM = 94 %, S = 72 %; p OSA in the perioperative setting. Despite this, only 71 % reported regularly screening for OSA preoperatively, mostly by history and physical examination (A = 89 %, PC = 52 %, SM = 88 %, S = 49 %; p OSA, 32 % would delay surgery pending a sleep study (A = 4 %, PC = 41 %, SM = 54 %, S = 27 %; p OSA patients. The majority of physicians in this survey felt OSA was a significant risk factor for perioperative complications and most reported experience with OSA patients having an adverse outcome. Perioperative management guidelines for OSA are not available at most institutions. Further work is needed to help physicians identify and intervene on patients with OSA in the perioperative setting before adverse events develop.

  10. Varicella seroepidemiology in United States air force recruits: A retrospective cohort study comparing immunogenicity of varicella vaccination and natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Joshua R; Witkop, Catherine T; Webber, Bryant J; Costello, Amy A

    2017-04-25

    Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) produces lifelong immunity, but duration of post-vaccination immunity has not been established. The purpose of this study is to determine if a difference exists in the long-term seropositivity of anti-VZV antibodies in a cohort of young adults who were vaccinated against varicella as compared to a similar cohort with a history of chickenpox disease, and to determine which variables best predict waning seropositivity following varicella vaccination. This retrospective cohort study captures immunization and serology data from approximately 10,000 recruits who entered basic military training between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015, and who have childhood immunization records in the Air Force Aeromedical Services Information Management System. Varicella vaccine immunogenicity was determined relative to the immunogenicity of chickenpox disease, as measured by multiplex flow immunoassay. Among vaccine recipients, waning seroimmunity was modeled and adjusted for several important covariates. Basic military trainees who received varicella vaccine in childhood were 24% less likely to be seropositive to VZV than trainees who were exempt from vaccine due to a history of chickenpox disease. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female trainees. The odds of a vaccinated trainee being seropositive to VZV decreased by 8% with each year elapsed since vaccination. Seroprevalence declined below estimated herd immunity thresholds in vaccinated trainees born after 1994, and in the cohort as a whole for trainees born after 1995. Despite prior vaccination, seroimmunity in a large cohort of young adults unexposed to wild-type VZV failed to meet the estimated threshold for herd immunity. If vaccination in accordance with the current US VZV vaccination schedule is inadequate to maintain herd immunity, young adults not previously exposed to wild-type VZV may be at increased risk for varicella outbreaks

  11. Chronic kidney disease and use of dental services in a United States public healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Plantinga, Laura C; Tuot, Delphine S; Powe, Neil R

    2012-04-02

    As several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), regular dental care may be an important strategy for reducing the burden of CKD. Access to dental care may be limited in the US public health system. In this retrospective cohort study of 6,498 adult patients with (n = 2,235) and without (n = 4,263) CKD and at least 12 months of follow-up within the San Francisco Department of Public Health Community Health Network clinical databases, we examined the likelihood of having a dental visit within the observation period (2005-2010) using Cox proportional hazards models. To determine whether dental visits reflected a uniform approach to preventive service use in this setting, we similarly examined the likelihood of having an eye visit among those with diabetes, for whom regular retinopathy screening is recommended. We defined CKD status by average estimated glomerular filtration rate based on two or more creatinine measurements ≥ 3 months apart (no CKD, ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2; CKD, dental visit. Those with CKD had a 25% lower likelihood of having a dental visit [HR = 0.75, 95% CI (0.64-0.88)] than those without CKD after adjustment for confounders. Among the subgroup of patients with diabetes, 11.8% vs. 17.2% of those with and without CKD had a dental visit, while 58.8% vs. 57.8% had an eye visit. Dental visits, but not eye visits, in a US public healthcare setting are extremely low, particularly among patients with CKD. Given the emerging association between oral health and CKD, addressing factors that impede dental access may be important for reducing the disparate burden of CKD in this population.

  12. Escherichia coli transfer from simulated wildlife feces to lettuce during foliar irrigation: A field study in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel L; Kovac, Jasna; Kent, David J; Roof, Sherry; Tokman, Jeffrey I; Mudrak, Erika; Kowalcyk, Barbara; Oryang, David; Aceituno, Anna; Wiedmann, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Wildlife intrusion has been associated with pathogen contamination of produce. However, few studies have examined pathogen transfer from wildlife feces to pre-harvest produce. This study was performed to calculate transfer coefficients for Escherichia coli from simulated wildlife feces to field-grown lettuce during irrigation. Rabbit feces inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of non-pathogenic E. coli were placed in a lettuce field 2.5-72 h before irrigation. Following irrigation, the E. coli concentration on the lettuce was determined. After exclusion of an outlier with high E. coli levels (Most Probable Number = 5.94*10 8 ), the average percent of E. coli in the feces that transferred to intact lettuce heads was 0.0267% (Standard Error [SE] = 0.0172). Log-linear regression showed that significantly more E. coli transferred to outer leaves compared to inner leaves (Effect = 1.3; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.4, 2.1). Additionally, the percent of E. coli that transferred from the feces to the lettuce decreased significantly with time after fecal placement, and as the distance between the lettuce and the feces, and the lettuce and the sprinklers increased. These findings provide key data that may be used in future quantitative risk assessments to identify potential intervention strategies for reducing food safety risks associated with fresh produce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cornea preservation time study: methods and potential impact on the cornea donor pool in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Jonathan H; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Ayala, Allison R; Benetz, Beth A; Gal, Robin L; Aldave, Anthony J; Corrigan, Michelle M; Dunn, Steven P; McCall, Ty L; Pramanik, Sudeep; Rosenwasser, George O; Ross, Kevin W; Terry, Mark A; Verdier, David D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the aims, methods, donor and recipient cohort characteristics, and potential impact of the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). The CPTS is a randomized clinical trial conducted at 40 clinical sites (70 surgeons) designed to assess the effect of donor cornea preservation time (PT) on graft survival 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Eyes undergoing surgery for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema were randomized to receive donor corneas stored ≤7 days or 8 to 14 days. Donor and patient characteristics, tissue preparation and surgical parameters, recipient and donor corneal stroma clarity, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, complications, and a reading center-determined central endothelial cell density were collected. Surveys were conducted to evaluate pre-CPTS PT practices. The 1330 CPTS donors were: 49% >60 years old, 27% diabetic, had a median eye bank-determined screening endothelial cell density of 2688 cells/mm, and 74% eye bank prepared for DSAEK. A total of 1090 recipients (1330 eyes including 240 bilateral cases) had: median age of 70 years, were 60% female, 90% white, 18% diabetic, 52% phakic, and 94% had Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Before the CPTS, 19 eye banks provided PT data on 20,852 corneas domestically placed for DSAEK in 2010 to 2011; 96% were preserved ≤7 days. Of 305 American Academy of Ophthalmology members responding to a pre-CPTS survey, 233 (76%) set their maximum PT preference at 8 days or less. The CPTS will increase understanding of factors related to DSAEK success and, if noninferiority of longer PT is shown, will have great potential to extend the available pool of endothelial keratoplasty donors.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01537393.

  15. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described in...

  17. 77 FR 6774 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Agriculture (USDA), is soliciting comments on the proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades... current United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant will be available either through the address cited...

  18. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower... United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade... www.regulations.gov Web site. The current United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower will be...

  19. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule effective...

  20. 28 CFR 0.124 - United States Parole Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Parole Commission. 0.124 Section 0.124 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.124 United States Parole Commission. The U.S. Parole Commission is composed of nine Commissioners of whom one is...