WorldWideScience

Sample records for studies saudi arabia

  1. Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambart, A.

    1998-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)

  2. Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan. Priv...... silver. Later in 2016 the Vision 2030 plan was followed by the National Transformation Plan 2020 which is a far more detailed plan or operational plan, posting specific benchmarks and targets for the economy in order to fulfill the aims of the Vision 2030.......In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan...

  3. Phytogeography of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlNafie, Abdulatif H

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)

  4. Saudi Arabia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...

  5. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Cader, Akram; Anthony, Peter John

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia's highest education industry…

  6. Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    . Private sector focus, privatization of state owned entities and salary cuts in the public sector were proposed. But the item that drew most attention was the plan to sell a 5 per cent stake in the oil company Saudi Aramco, the national pride of the Kingdom, which was seen by many as selling the family...

  7. Burnout Among Otolaryngology Residents in Saudi Arabia: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrees, Turki; Badri, Motasim; Islam, Tahera; Alqahtani, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, burnout among otolaryngologist residents in Saudi Arabia. A cross-section study of multicenter hospitals in Saudi Arabia conducted in March 2013. Registered residents in Saudi Otolaryngology Board Program. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout status. Questions supplementary to the Maslach Burnout Inventory were also included to identify associated potential risk factors such as demographic data, resident satisfaction, and work conditions. Of the initial 123 questionnaires that were distributed, 85 yielded responses, a rate of 69%. The mean age (standard deviation [SD]) of respondents was 29 (2.3) years. Of those, 67% (57/85) were men and 66% (55/85) were married. Resident levels were delineated: level 2, 19%; level 3, 33%; level 4, 29%; and level 5, 19%. The mean number of on-call days/month (SD) was 7 (2), clinics/week (SD) was 3 (1), sleep hours/day (SD) was 6 (1), and operations/week (SD) was 2 (1). The mean emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization scores were high at 29.5 (SD = 9.6) and 10.7 (SD = 6), respectively. The mean personal accomplishment was low at 32.33 (SD = 6). The mean of all subscales did not differ by sex (EE p = 0.5; depersonalization p = 0.09; personal accomplishment p = 0.4). Mean EE differed by marital status, which was 31.2, 31.3, and 25.6 for married, divorced, and single, respectively, analysis of variance test p = 0.045. Burnout prevalence was found to be high among otolaryngologist residents in Saudi Arabia. The associated variables examined in this study should be addressed to decrease this level of burnout and provide residents with a less stressful work environment. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Hersi, Ahmad; Mashhoud, Walid; Arafah, Mohammed R; Abreu, Paula C; Al Rowaily, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia, particularly in relation to the differences between Saudi nationals and expatriates in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics across Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, abdominal obesity) was evaluated in adults attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Group comparisons were made between patients of Saudi ethnicity (SA nationals) and patients who were not of Saudi ethnicity (expatriates). A total of 550 participants were enrolled from different clinics across Saudi Arabia [aged (mean ± standard deviation) 43 ± 11 years; 71% male]. Nearly half of the study cohort (49.8%) had more than three cardiovascular risk factors. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent risk factor (68.6%). The prevalence of hypertension (47.5%) and dyslipidemia (75.5%) was higher among expatriates when compared with SA nationals (31.4% vs. 55.1%, p  = 0.0003 vs. p  Saudi Arabia. Improving primary care services to focus on risk factor control may ultimately decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  10. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  11. Nuclear power planning study for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.; Matin, Abdul.

    1984-05-01

    The prospects of application of nuclear energy for production of electricity and desalinated water in the Kingdom are evaluated. General economic development of the country and data on reserves, production and consumption of oil and natural gas are reviewed. Electrical power system is described with data on production and consumption. Estimates of future power demand are made using Aoki method. Costs of production of electricity from 600 MW, 900 MW and 1200 MW nuclear and oil-fired power plants are calculated along with the costs of production of desalinated water from dual purpose nuclear and oil-fired plants. The economic analysis indicates that the cost of production of electricity and desalinated water are in general cheaper from the nuclear power plants. Suggests consideration of the use of nuclear energy for production of both electricity and desalinated water from 1415 H. Further detailed studies and prepartory organizational steps in this direction are outlined. 38 Ref

  12. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Najlaa Aljefree; Patricia Lee; Faruk Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using ...

  13. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhalife, Ibrahim S.; Hassan, Rafiaa R.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A.; Al-Khayal, Laila A.

    2006-01-01

    We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Saudi Arabia: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunizan, Muath; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Basudan, Loay

    2018-01-01

    The age of the population in Saudi Arabia is shifting toward elderly, which can lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia) among elderly patients in a community-based setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, we included patients aged 60 years and above who were seen in the Family Medicine Clinics affiliated with King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre. Patients with delirium, active depression, and patients with a history of severe head trauma in the past 3 months were excluded. Patients were interviewed during their regular visit by a trained physician to collect demographic data and to administer the validated Arabic version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. One hundred seventy-one Saudi patients were recruited based on a calculated sample size for the aim of this study. The mean age of included sample was 67 ± 6 years. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 45%. The prevalence of MCI was 38.6% and the prevalence of dementia was 6.4%. Age, low level of education, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were risk factors for cognitive impairment. Prevalence of MCI and dementia in Saudi Arabia using MoCA were in the upper range compared to developed and developing countries. The high rate of risk factors for cognitive impairment in Saudi Arabia is contributing to this finding.

  15. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  16. Research Map of Research Priorities in HE Studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSumih, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a research map for the key research priorities of higher education (HE) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study diagnoses and analyzes the research reality in HE studies in KSA in terms of strength points and improvement opportunities. It also explores the research map fields of current and prospective research priorities in…

  17. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  18. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary peri...

  19. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  20. The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBaker, Abdulaziz A; Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman H; AlShehri, Mohammed; Alshuwairikh, Samar

    2017-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has shown steady growth in the dental workforce over the last 20 years. Although the number of dental colleges has significantly increased in the last decade, there is not any study so far that described the status of the licensed dentist workforce in the kingdom. The present study aimed to explore the demographic distribution and professional characteristics of licensed dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) database to identify the number of licensed dentists in Saudi Arabia as well as their professional and demographic characteristics as of December 2016. The data was categorized based on gender, nationality, dental specialty, health sector, geographic location, and professional rank. The number of licensed dentists working in the kingdom as of December 2016 was 16887 dentists, and the vast majority of them are professionally registered as general dentists (70.27%). The percentage of general dentists among the professionally registered female dentists is significantly higher than their male counterparts (79.71% vs. 64.80%; P  sector in comparison to only 20.46% of the non-Saudi dentists ( P  sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

  1. Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

    1995-01-01

    The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qudsi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  3. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyami, Ali M.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Hart, C. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

  4. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  5. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  6. Saudi Arabia: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granata, V.; Palermo, M.

    1993-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market

  7. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  8. Cultural competence among nursing students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in

  9. The characteristics and distribution of dentist workforce in Saudi Arabia: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. AlBaker

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Most of the dental care in Saudi Arabia is provided by non-Saudi dentists in both private and public health sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.

  10. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M

    1985-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...

  11. Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive finding. ... This study was conducted to determine the effects of SM on Saudi females. ... hence more effort should be undertaken to encourage more uptake of SM for ...

  12. Study of the thermoluminescence properties and kinetics of local natural calcium fluoride in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarie, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of local natural calcium fluoride that show light yellowish appearance obtained from a fluoride mine west of Saudi Arabia have been studied. TL glow peaks were observed at 160, 260 and 334 degree C. Thermal treatment and fading effects had been studied. The TL response was observed to increase with increasing dose, as expected, over the dose range used. The kinetic parameters were calculated to satisfy the feasibility of using the present sample as gamma -ray dosimetry

  13. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...

  14. Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain A.Hady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.

  15. THE DYNAMICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION AMONG WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.

  16. Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia: A seismic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljohani, M.S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.; Almarshad, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the selection criteria generally and seismic criteria specifically to select a suitable site in Saudi Arabia for a nuclear desalination plant. These criteria include geological, meteorological, cooling water supply discharge, transport infrastructure, population, electric grid, water network capacity, environmental impact and airport movement. The seismicity of the Arabian peninsula for the locations of seismic activity along the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastlines from 1973 to 2000 was studied carefully. This study included towns and locations along the east and west coastlines and their distances from the seismic event site. The results showed that Rabigh City along the west coast of Saudi Arabia is a good site to build a nuclear desalination plant. This is because of the following reasons: good seismic stability; good weather statistics; no flooding; mild wave conditions; good supply and discharge; good transportation infrastructure; low population area; very close to the huge electric grid. (author)

  17. Erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Al-Turki

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  18. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulkareem O Alsuwaida

    2010-01-01

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  19. Adherence to COPD treatment in Turkey and Saudi Arabia: results of the ADCARE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokturk N

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Kokturk,1 Mehmet Polatli,2 I Kivilcim Oguzulgen,1 Sarfraz Saleemi,3 Mohammed Al Ghobain,4 Javed Khan,5 Adam Doble,6 Luqman Tariq,7 Fayaz Aziz,7 Abdelkader El Hasnaoui7 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey; 3Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Medicine, King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Foxymed, Paris, France; 7GlaxoSmithKline, Dubai, UAE Background: COPD affects millions of people worldwide. Poor treatment adherence contributes to increased symptom severity, morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate adherence to COPD treatment in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study in adult COPD patients in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Through physician-led interviews, data were collected on sociodemographics and disease history, including the impact of COPD on health status using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; quality of life, using the EuroQol Five-Dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D; and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Treatment adherence was measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the predictors of non-adherence and the impact of adherence on symptom severity. Results: Four hundred and five COPD patients participated: 199 in Turkey and 206 in Saudi Arabia. Overall, 49.2% reported low adherence (MMAS-8 <6. Of those, 74.7% reported high disease impact (CAT >15 compared to 58.4% reporting medium/high adherence (p=0.0008. Patients with low adherence reported a lower mean 3-level EQ-5D

  20. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse

  1. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  2. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  3. Study of Stroke Incidence in the Aseer Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzani, Adel A; Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Abolyazid, Ahmed Y; Awadalla, Nabil J; Aftab, Razia; Faraheen, Aesha; Khalil, Shamsun Nahar

    2018-01-26

    Recent data regarding first-stroke incidence in Saudi Arabia in general and in the Aseer region in particular are scarce and even lacking. The aim of this work was to study the first-time stroke incidence in the Aseer region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. All first-stroke patients admitted to all hospitals in the Aseer region over a one-year period (January through December 2016) were included. Stroke patients outside the Aseer region were excluded from the study. The incidence per 100,000 patients and the concomitant 95% CI (Confidence Intervals) were computed. The present study included 1249 first-time stroke patients and calculated an overall minimal incidence rate of hospitalized first-time stroke of 57.64 per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI: 57.57-57.70). A steady increase was noticed depending on the patients' age, reaching a figure of 851.81 (95% CI: 849.2-854.5) for those patients aged 70 years and more. Overall, the incidence rate for females (48.14; 95% CI: 48.04-48.24) was lower compared to males (65.52; 95% CI: 65.1-66.0). Taking into consideration the expected rise of the elderly because of the prominent medical services provided by the Saudi government, leading to a subsequent change in the horizontal and vertical age distribution structure of the population, an increase in the number of stroke patients is expected. It is suggested to establish a nationwide stroke surveillance system in the Kingdom, with the objective to report, analyze, and maintain an updated overview of the stroke status in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Lead Exposure: A Summary of Global Studies and the Need for New Studies from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning (plumbism can cause irreversible genetic and reproductive toxicity, hematological effects, neurological damage, and cardiovascular effects. Despite many efforts to minimize lead poisoning, it continues to be a major health concern in many developing and developed countries. Despite efforts to control lead exposure and toxicity, serious cases of lead poisoning increasingly occur as a result of higher vehicular traffic and industrialization. The biomarkers for identification of genetic susceptibility to a particular disease are useful to identify individuals who are at risk for lead poisoning. Although many such studies have been taken up elsewhere, very few studies were performed in Saudi Arabia to assess susceptibility to lead poisoning. This indicates an urgent need for testing of susceptible individuals. The present paper was planned to understand the genetic susceptibility to lead toxicity in the various population studies conducted worldwide and also to correlate it with the current scenario in Saudi Arabia. Such studies are necessary for appropriate precautions in terms of diet and avoiding exposure to be used in order to prevent adverse health effects.

  5. The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  6. Ecological study on Uyun Layla in Saudi Arabia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Arabia, but there are some coastal or lowland areas receiving great amount of rainfall leaving ponds or sometimes lakes behind. Uyun Laila was an example .... poisonous effect on plant growth (Al-Haish,. 1985). This increase in copper contents may be due to the pollution from urbanization and human activities in the area.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.

    2014-01-01

    The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208

  8. Case Study of Science Teachers' Professional Development in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehry, Amel

    2018-01-01

    Professional development has a major role in addressing the skill gaps of teachers. Recently, much effort has been focused on improving teaching practices in Saudi Arabia. Here we aim to determine Saudi teachers professional development needs in the higher educational system. We also focus on skill needs, training programs, factors affecting…

  9. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M

    1985-03-01

    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site of injury was the knee. We believe that specialised Sports Injury Clinics, initially based at the University Hospitals should be established here, to give guidance and education concerning avoidance of injuries, and for the treatment and follow-up of those injured and enable them to return to sports early.

  10. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  11. Mobile Phone Services in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed T. Simsim

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses telecominication market developments in Saudi Arabia. Empirical research was carried in the holy city of Makkah to study the customer's preference for mobile cellular service and the factor influencing their subscription of the mobile phone service. Results indicate that the financial factor sicnificantly influence the customer's selection of the service provider.

  12. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  13. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first b...

  14. DIVIDEND POLICY IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dialdin Osman; Elsaudi Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We examine dividend policy in a unique environment in Saudi Arabia, where (1) firms distribute almost 100% of their profits in dividends, (2) firms are highly levered mainly through bank loans, and (3) there are no income or capital gains taxes. Some common factors that affect dividend policy of both financial and non-financial firms, we found some factors that affect only non-financial firms. In particular, the common factors are profitability, size, and business risk. Government ownership, ...

  15. Contractor Selection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Bajaber; M. A. Taha

    2012-01-01

    Contractor selection in Saudi Arabia is very important due to the large construction boom and the contractor role to get over construction risks. The need for investigating contractor selection is due to the following reasons; large number of defaulted or failed projects (18%), large number of disputes attributed to contractor during the project execution stage (almost twofold), the extension of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into construction industry, and finally the few ...

  16. Comparative study on three locally developed live orf virus vaccines for sheep in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahdel M. Housawi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of orf virus infection in Saudi Arabia (SA has been researched since 1990. The results obtained during this period indicate that the disease is widespread, has great economic impact and that no vaccine has been used against it. The present study compares the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three locally developed live orf virus vaccines. Two of them differ in their passage history in Vero cell culture and the third was used as a virulent virus in glycerine buffer. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no similar comparative study has been conducted in the Middle East utilising three types of vaccines prepared from the same virus strain. Selection of the candidate seed orf virus and performance of the quality control tests were as laid out by the OIE for veterinary vaccine production. The vaccine seed virus was a field orf virus isolated from a previous orf outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A simple novel formula was developed to calculate the rate of reduction in the healing time (RHT % in the challenged sheep. This allowed direct comparison of the efficacy of the three types of vaccines employed in the present study. The efficacy of each vaccine was tested on a cohort of local Noemi sheep.

  17. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  18. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  19. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  20. Wither Saudi Arabia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren

    2018-01-01

    The article examines the foundational elements of the Saudi state: idea, governing institutions and physical basis. The author notes, that its supra-national ideas will be challenged by on-going reforms without attenuating tensions with its Shia minority population. Governing institutions of it...

  1. An assessment of job satisfaction: A cross-sectional study among orthodontists of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser D Alqahtani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the level of job satisfaction among professional orthodontists in relation to some significant intrinsic and extrinsic factors that generally affect their performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among orthodontists working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using an online survey questionnaire through Survey Monkey. A total of 161 responses were received; among those, 57.8% of the respondents were Saudi and 42.2% were non-Saudi. RESULTS: On an overall satisfaction basis, a majority of orthodontists (80.7% were satisfied with orthodontics as their profession irrespective of their gender. Only 4.4% showed dissatisfaction, whereas the remaining 14.9% were moderately satisfied with orthodontics as a profession. In-depth analysis revealed that a majority of the respondents (56.2% showed reservations over having ample time for their family life. 52.8% of the respondents strongly agreed that they are assigned significant paperwork. Likewise, 66.5% of the orthodontists showed moderate to dissatisfaction over time adherence by the patients. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present investigations depicted a higher level of passion and commitment among the male and female respondents for the profession in spite of the fact that they do not have adequate time for their personal life. The working efficiency of orthodontists may be significantly enhanced by sparing them from too much paperwork and ensuring that their patients appear on time.

  2. The Use of Avatars in Gender Segregated Online Learning within MOOCs in Saudi Arabia--A Rwaq Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Raniah; Parslow, Pat; Dimitriadi, Yota; Lundqvist, Karsten Øster

    2018-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, gender-segregation is a known issue within higher education that often deprives female tutors from providing online learning and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). As well, students may not be getting the benefit of their experience and teaching. The purpose of this study is to develop an Avatar tool to represent a female tutor…

  3. Early Childhood Education in Saudi Arabia: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…

  4. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  5. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  6. Patients' attitudes toward the attire of male physicians: a single-center study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batais, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship has been influenced by the appearance of physicians, and there is an association between a physician's physical appearance and the patients' initial perceptions of physician competence. This study aims to explore patients' preferences toward the attire of a male physician, and to examine if a physician's choice of uniform influences the degree of trust, confidence, and follow-up care among respondents. A cross-sectional survey conducted among patients of the Alwazarat family medicine center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 300 patients (50% were male and 83.6% had received a secondary education; the mean age was 33.4 [10.1] years) in the Alwazarat family medicine center in Riyadh. The questionnaire was also customized for the local setting with the inclusion of photos of a male doctor in Saudi Arabian national costume, and 3 other dress styles (Western dress with white coat, scrubs with white coat, and scrubs only). Overall, across all questions regarding physician dress style preferences, participants significantly preferred Western dress (39.9%, P patients (P=.002). Respondents were more likely to favor a physician wearing Western attire with a white coat. However, Saudi national dress, followed by Western dress, is the preferred attire when physicians are dealing with social, sexual, and psychological problems.

  7. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1996-01-01

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  8. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Husson

    2014-01-01

    This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary peri...

  9. KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE – AN INITIAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Alsultan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al. implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  10. Saudi Arabia and Regional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and Kuwait to the north; by the Persian Gulf, Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, and Oman to the east; by Oman and Yemen to the South; and by the Red Sea...on both the east and west coasts, primary and secondary aquifers that may not be renewable, and a growing system of dams that attempt to capture the...water plants producing 230 million gallons of water per day. (1:1289) More than 20 deep aquifers have been discovered in Saudi Arabia with 340

  11. A clinical study of mentally retarded children with fragile X syndrome inSaudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Husain, M.; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Zaki, Osama K.; Al-Othman, L.; Al-Nasser, Mohammed N.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)

  12. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....

  13. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).

  14. Body mass index and obstetric outcomes in pregnant in Saudi Arabia: a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question.This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n=187) and obese (n=226) women were at increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension (RR=4.9 [95% CI 1.6-11.1] and 6.1 [95% CI 2.1-17.8], respectively), gestational diabetes (RR=4.4 [95% CI 1.2-16.3] and 8.6 [95% CI 2.6-28.8]), preeclamptic toxemia (RR=3.8 [95% CI 1.1-14.6] and 5.9 [95% CI 1.7-20.4]), urinary tract infections (RR=1.4 [95% CI 0.5-3.9] and 3.7 [95% CI 1.7-6.2]), and cesarean delivery (RR=2.0 [95% CI 1.3-3.0] in obese women). Neonates born to obese women had an increased risk for postdate pregnancy (RR=3.7 [95% CI 1.2-11.6]), macrosomia (RR=6.8 [95% CI 1.5-30.7]), low 1-minute Apgar score (RR=1.9 [95% CI 1.1-3.6]), and admission to neonatal care units (RR=2.1 [95% CI 1.2-2.7]). On the other hand, low birth weight was less frequent among obese women (RR=0.5 [95% CI 0.3-0.9]) while the risk was high among underweight women (RR=2.3 [95% CI 1.4-3.8]). Even with adequate prenatal care, overweight and obesity can adversely affect pregnancy outcomes (Author).

  15. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis(TB is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  16. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  18. Efficacy of Insulin Pump Therapy on Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction and Glycemic Control Among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Dawish, Mohamed A.; Braham, Rim B.; Goudeh, Hanouf S.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the impact of insulin pump therapy on diabetes treatment satisfaction and glycemic control among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. Methods A 6-month, prospective study was conducted among 47 patients (aged 17?24?years) with T1DM who attended the Insulin Pump Clinic at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2014 and November 2014. The respondents were purposively and conveniently se...

  19. Healthcare Finance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study of Householders' Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hanawi, Mohammed Khaled; Alsharqi, Omar; Almazrou, Saja; Vaidya, Kirit

    2018-02-01

    The public sector healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, essentially financed by oil revenues and 'free at the point of delivery', is coming under increasing strain due to escalating expenditure and an increasingly volatile oil market and is likely to be unsustainable in the medium to long term. This study examines how satisfied the Saudi people are with their public sector healthcare services and assesses their willingness to contribute to financing the system through a national health insurance scheme. The study also examines public preferences and expectations of a future national health insurance system. A total of 36 heads of households participated in face-to-face audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. The participants were purposefully selected based on different socio-economic and socio-demographic factors from urban and rural areas to represent the geographical diversity that would presumably influence individual views, expectations, preferences and healthcare experiences. The evidence showed some dissatisfaction with the provision and quality of current public sector healthcare services, including the availability of appointments, waiting times and the availability of drugs. The households indicated a willingness to contribute to a national insurance scheme, conditional upon improvements in the quality of public sector healthcare services. The results also revealed a variety of preferences and expectations regarding the proposed national health insurance scheme. Quality improvement is a key factor that could motivate the Saudi people to contribute to financing the healthcare system. A new authority, consisting of a partnership between the public and private sectors under government supervision, could represent an acceptable option for addressing the variation in public preferences.

  20. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  1. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.

  2. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  3. Knowledge and practice of recreational tanning among female college students in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Najla A. Al-Dawsari; Rana K. Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Recreational tanning has become popular among young Saudi women. This study investigates whether Saudi female college students are practicing recreational tanning and analyzes the level of their awareness regarding the consequences of tanning as a cause for skin cancer and photoaging. A cross-sectional study of randomly selected female college students from two non-medical universities from the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The total number of participants was n = 249. About 21.5% of part...

  4. Teachers' Attitudes toward Children with Autism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Abdulrahman; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia (Saudi) and the United States (U.S.) both have procedures in place for identifying and serving individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general classroom setting. To determine differences in teachers' attitude towards autism in Saudi and the U.S., data were gathered, compared, and contrasted from both general education…

  5. Comparative Study of 11 Honey Samples Sold in Riyadh Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Tufail, M. A. [محمد عبد الله الطفيل; Al Araidh, I. A. [ابراهيم عبد الله العريض

    2006-01-01

    11 honey various samples commercially available in Saudi Arabia, were subjected to chemical, toxicological and bacteriological tests. The samples were checked for As and CN, presence of pollens, and for bacteria contamination. The carbohydrate profile was analyzed with HPLC. Fe, P, Ca, K, and Mg were measured with colorimetry. Toxic metals, As, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Hg were determined with ICP-MS. The samples were investigated by GC-MS. The investigation revealed the presence of syringaldehyde, men...

  6. A Strategic Study of Assembly Plant Establishment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaria, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Preface: Traditionally, assembly plant establishment in foreign countries has been a way for corporations to avoid high import duties and/or gain access to free-trade zones. With World Trade Organization (WTO) membership rising, and consequently import duties falling, the role of the assembly plant is changing. Purpose Statement: This thesis concentrates on companies that contemplate on, or have ambitions of establishing industrial assembly facilities in the country of Saudi Arabia. The main ...

  7. Critical Success Factors For M-Commerce In Saudi Arabia's Private Sector: A Multiple Case Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norah Suliman Alturaigi

    2018-01-01

    Many developing country firms are investing huge money in the sector of mobile commerce (m-commerce). Simplifying and understanding the factors which can impact on m-commerce success enables the organisations’ managers to focus their efforts on the key areas of their m-commerce businesses, thereby contributing to the successful implementation of m-commerce. This study provides a clear understanding of m-commerce in the private sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identifies the critical ...

  8. Market Orientation Impact on Radical and Incremental Marketing Innovation: A Study of Saudi Arabia Hospital Marketing Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahry Abdullah saeed A; Wang Aimin

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study to measure influence of market orientation on marketing innovation in hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The sample includes 109 hospital workers that have been identified as having an adequate knowledge of the subject of research. In particular we explain the impact of customer orientation, inter-functional orientation and competitor orientation on marketing innovation. Furthermore the moderating effects of centralization and formalization on those relationships are e...

  9. Modeling dependence structure between stock market volatility and sukuk yields: A nonlinear study in the case of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Naifar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the dependence structure between sukuk (Islamic bonds yields and stock market (returns and volatility in the case of Saudi Arabia. We consider three Archimedean copula models with different tail dependence structures namely Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank. This study shows that the sukuk yields exhibit significant dependence only with stock market volatility. In addition, the dependence structure between sukuk yields and stock market volatility are symmetric and linked with the same intensity.

  10. Cultural acceptance of robotic telestroke medicine among patients and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia. Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khathaami, Ali M; Alshahrani, Saeed M; Kojan, Suleiman M; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A; Alamry, Ahmed A; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers.

  11. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-10-17

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7-15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  12. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa M. Aljefree

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD. Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 10 ng/mL was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 20 ng/mL was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7–15, p < 0.001. The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  13. Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A preliminary study in Asir region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Alqahtani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design : Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. Results : About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs′ identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. Conclusion : This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ

  14. Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in saudi arabia: a preliminary study in asir region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M; Salmon, Peter

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs' identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ.

  15. A field study on the anthelmintic resistance of Parascaris spp. in Arab foals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdullah D; Mukbel, Rami M; Alyousif, Mohamed S; AlShehri, Zafer S; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics has been recorded in many countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are limited data available on Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics. To determine the current status of ivermectin, abamectin and praziquantel combined, and fenbendazole resistance to Parascaris spp. in horses in Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and forty-one foals from eleven different farms were examined by faecal egg count (FEC). The foals were all Arab horses aged 17.2 ± 4.5 (SD) months. Ivermectin (n = 46 foals), abamectin and praziquantel combined (n = 46), and fenbendazole (n = 46) were administered on day 0 and faeces were collected on day 14. The study comprised 41 untreated foals as controls. Animals that have FEC of ≥100 eggs per gram (EPG) were used to measure anthelmintic efficacy. Parascaris spp. populations were considered susceptible when faecal egg count reduction (FECR) was ≥95% associated with a lower 95% confidence limit (LCL) >90%, suspected resistant when FECR ≤90% or LCL Saudi Arabia.

  16. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Lee, Patricia; Ahmed, Faruk

    2017-10-16

    Abstract : Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants' knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study participants showed a reasonable level of knowledge in different areas about vitamin D, including the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health and exposure to sunlight as the main source of vitamin D. Participants were also knowledgeable about vitamin D supplements as another source of this vitamin. Nevertheless, there was a shortage of knowledge in relation to dietary sources of vitamin D. In respect to attitudes toward sun exposure, some participants had positive attitudes toward sunlight and were willing to expose themselves to sunlight, but it was restricted to the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat. These participants who liked exposure to sunlight were largely exposing only their faces and hands to sunlight. Other participants had negative attitudes toward sun exposure and were avoiding sunlight. Moreover, the study participants identified several barriers to sun exposure, including hot climate, living in high-rise buildings, limited public areas allowing outdoor activities, lifestyle issues such as physical inactivity, and some religious concerns such as wearing the hijab. The study results also demonstrate that females were more enthusiastic about taking actions to improve their vitamin D status in comparison with males. Recommendations for health education interventions that increase awareness about vitamin D sources, especially food sources, are made. Also, educational interventions should focus on increasing awareness

  17. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa Aljefree

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study participants showed a reasonable level of knowledge in different areas about vitamin D, including the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health and exposure to sunlight as the main source of vitamin D. Participants were also knowledgeable about vitamin D supplements as another source of this vitamin. Nevertheless, there was a shortage of knowledge in relation to dietary sources of vitamin D. In respect to attitudes toward sun exposure, some participants had positive attitudes toward sunlight and were willing to expose themselves to sunlight, but it was restricted to the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat. These participants who liked exposure to sunlight were largely exposing only their faces and hands to sunlight. Other participants had negative attitudes toward sun exposure and were avoiding sunlight. Moreover, the study participants identified several barriers to sun exposure, including hot climate, living in high-rise buildings, limited public areas allowing outdoor activities, lifestyle issues such as physical inactivity, and some religious concerns such as wearing the hijab. The study results also demonstrate that females were more enthusiastic about taking actions to improve their vitamin D status in comparison with males. Recommendations for health education interventions that increase awareness about vitamin D sources, especially food sources, are made. Also, educational interventions should focus on

  18. Customer Satisfaction and Brand Switching Intention: A Study of Mobile Services in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate first, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and brand switching intention into the Saudi Arabian mobile-service market, and second, the association of service quality, customer service, service pricing, and value-added services with the customer satisfaction. Because of the difficulty of having a frame for the mobile-service customers from their providers, a convenience sample of 350 online respondents with the proper surveying techniques was used in data analysis and testing of the research hypotheses. The findings of the study confirm a significant negative relationship between customer satisfaction and brand switching intention. A 4% percent of the change in brand switching intention could be explained by the change in the customer satisfaction. Only three variables; customer service, service pricing, and service quality are critical determinants for mobile-service customer satisfaction. Customer service explained about 22%, whereas service pricing and service quality explained about 5% and 1% of the change in customer satisfaction respectively. The practical value of this study could be enabling the mobile-service providers in Saudi Arabia to well understand the determinants of the customer satisfaction and its negative relationship with brand switching intention. They may take these findings into account when setting marketing strategies to differentiate their brands to satisfy the customer needs and wants, to retain the existing customers and to attract new customers. These strategies have a positive effect on the company’s customer satisfaction that deter brand switching intention, hence increase the company’s competitiveness, market share and profitability.

  19. A Study of the Spelling Errors committed by Students of English in Saudi Arabia: Exploration and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paikar Fatima Mazhar Hameed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The craziness of English spelling has undeniably perplexed learners, especially in an EFL context as in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In these situations, among other obstacles, learners also have to tackle the perpetual and unavoidable problem of MT interference. Sadly, this perplexity takes the shape of a real problem in the language classroom where the English teacher has a tough time rationalizing with the learners why ‘cough’ is not spelt as /kuf/ or ‘knee’ has to do with a silent /k/. It is observed that students of English as second/foreign language in Saudi Arabia commit spelling errors that cause not only a lot of confusion to the teachers but also lower the self-esteem of the students concerned. The current study aims to identify the key problem areas as far as English spelling ability of Saudi EFL learners is concerned. It aims to also suggest remedial and pedagogical measures to improve the learners’ competence in this crucial, though hitherto, nascent skill area in the Saudi education system. Keywords: EFL; error-pattern, spelling instructions, orthography, phonology, vocabulary, language skills, language users

  20. Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Jumah K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder

  1. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current work were to 1 determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of male college students in KSA and 2 determine the relationship between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating habits. Methods A total of 357 male students aged 18-24 years were randomly chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (BF%, and visceral fat level (VFL were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for variables. Results The current data indicated that 21.8% of the students were overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal limits in 55.2% of the participants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct correlations were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight, obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

  2. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rethaiaa, Abdallah S; Fahmy, Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2010-09-19

    During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current work were to 1) determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of male college students in KSA and 2) determine the relationship between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating habits. A total of 357 male students aged 18-24 years were randomly chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI), body fat percent (BF%), and visceral fat level (VFL) were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for variables. The current data indicated that 21.8% of the students were overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal limits in 55.2% of the participants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct correlations were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

  3. Integrated geomechanical, petrographical and petrophysical study of the sandstones of the Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed

    2018-07-01

    The Cambro-Permian siliciclastic succession in southwestern Saudi Arabia is represented by the Wajid Group, which consists mainly of fluvial, shallow marine, aeolian, and glacial sandstones. The Wajid Group comprises the Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Qalibah, Khusayyayn, and Juwayl Formations. It is exposed in the Wadi Al-Dawasir area and extends to Najran City. The sandstones of the Wajid Group serve as groundwater aquifers in the Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas and host hydrocarbon (mainly gas) reservoirs in the Rub' Al-Khali Basin. This study aims to characterize the geomechanical properties (rock strength and Young's modulus) of the sandstones of the Wajid Group using field and experimental techniques. A further objective is to investigate the relationships between the geomechanical properties and the petrographical and petrophysical properties of the studied sandstones. The geomechanical properties of the studied sandstones vary from glacial to non-glacial sandstones, as the glacial sandstones display high values of the geomechanical properties with high variability indices. Four geological factors including grain size, cement content, porosity and permeability were observed as the main controls on the geomechanical behaviour of the studied sandstones except for the Khusayyayn sandstone, where the mineral composition was also important. Significant correlations were observed between the petrographical and petrophysical properties and the geomechanical properties of the glacial sandstones. Predictive models of the geomechanical properties (RN, UCS, and E) were generated using regression analysis to account for the glacial sandstones.

  4. Self-Directed Learning Readiness among Undergraduate Students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, Mousa S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) among undergraduate students at Saudi Electronic University in Saudi Arabia. Also, investigated were potential relationships between the level of self-directed learning readiness and selected demographic variables such as gender and specific college within the…

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children from Western Saudi Arabia: Relative Frequency, Clinical, Pathological, Endoscopic, and Immunological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is an evolving allergic disease with an accelerated incidence. The purpose of this study was to delineate the relative frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EE in children from western Saudi Arabia. Methods. Children with EE were studied retrospectively between October 2002 and December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and International Medical Center. Results. The relative frequency of EE was 0.85% of 2127 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed during the study period. Eighteen patients were identified with EE. The median age was 8.6 years (range, 1.5–18 years. Thirteen (72.2% were males. Dysphagia and vomiting were the most common symptoms. Ten (55.6% children had history of atopy. Testing for food allergy by skin prick test was positive in 11 (61.1%. The most common endoscopic abnormalities were mucosal longitudinal furrow and loss of vascular pattern followed by patchy specks and strictures. The histopathological findings included increased intraepithelial eosinophils, eosinophilic degranulation, lamina propria fibrosis, and eosinophilic microabscesses. Treatment was initiated by swallowed topical corticosteroids in 12 (66.7% and oral prednisolone in 6 (33% patients, followed by low dose of topical corticosteroids and dietary elimination. Conclusions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an uncommon but evolving problem. A high index of suspicion is required for early identifications and intervention to avoid possible complications.

  6. Isotope methods as a tool for Quaternary studies in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Job, C.; Moser, H.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.

    1980-01-01

    Within the framework of a combined sedimentological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, geomorphical and climatological investigation in central and eastern Saudi Arabia various environmental isotope studies were performed. 14 C measurements on shells from different shell banks in the Gulf coastal region confirmed the existence of sea-level fluctuations during the Wuerm time and during the Holocene. Measurements of 2 H, 18 O, and 3 H contents of water samples from the Al Qatif and Al Hasa areas gave valuable information on the origin and the fate of these waters as well as on hydraulic connections between aquifer strata. 14 C measurements on calcite crusts in the region As Sulb Plateau confirm that the precipitation of the ''Neolithic Pluvial'' reactivated the karst development in this region. In its southwestern part, different 14 C values of stalactites and of duricrust cementing the stalactites show the development of duricrust during late Pleistocene and/or Holocene. In the upper part of Wadi Ar Rimah, a close insight into the causes of salination of groundwaters was obtained by studying their contents of 2 H, 18 O, and 3 H in combination with hydrochemical data. It is shown that secondary and tertiary evaporation during irrigation and infiltration must be taken into consideration. In Wadi Ad Dawasir and its hinterland the 2 H and 18 O enrichment and that of the mineralization in hand-dug wells were explained by an admixture of recent shallow groundwater with old sandstone water. (author)

  7. The work engagement of nurses in multiple hospital sectors in Saudi Arabia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Hamadi, Hanadi Y; Salem, Olfat A; Zakari, Nazik M A

    2016-05-01

    To examine the differences in work engagement among nurses in Saudi Arabia and its relationship with personal characteristics across different hospital affiliations. Quality care requires an adequate supply of engaged nurses who are dedicated, energised and absorbed in their work. In the nursing profession, work engagement is of considerable importance, owing to the shortage of nurses and the continuing reduction in healthcare costs. An analytic comparative cross-sectional design was used. Eight hospitals from three provinces and different affiliation types participated in the study. The Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES) was used to measure 980 nurses' work engagement. The findings indicate that nurses' total engagement scores were closer to the higher end of the Likert scale. The findings indicate generally high levels of work engagement, particularly regarding the element of dedication. Furthermore, the study shows significant differences in nurses' engagement among the various work settings and in nurses' age and experience. A number of nurses' personal characteristics have independent influences on their work engagement. Nurse leaders should acknowledge that a statement of professional nursing scope of practice is a necessity to encourage and fulfil engagement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards total knee arthroplasty among the public in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Alshammari, Faris O; Aljuraisi, Abdulrahman M; Bin Amer, Lujain A; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S

    2018-04-01

    Studies on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Saudi Arabia are scarce, and none have reported the knowledge and attitude of the procedure in Saudi Arabia. Our study aims to measure the knowledge and attitude of TKA among the adult Saudi population. To encompass a representative sample of this cross-sectional survey, all 13 administrative areas were used as ready-made geographical clusters. For each cluster, stratified random sampling was performed to maximize participation in the study. In each area, random samples of mobile phone numbers were selected with a probability proportional to the administrative area population size. Sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 50% of the participants would have some level of knowledge, with a 2% margin of error and 95% confidence level. To reach our intended sample size of 1540, we contacted 1722 participants with a response rate of 89.4%. The expected percentage of public knowledge was 50%; however, the actual percentage revealed by this study was much lower (29.7%). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to assess the factors that positively affected the knowledge score regarding TKA. Age [P = 0.016 with OR of 0.47], higher income [P = 0.001 with OR of 0.52] and participants with a positive history of TKA or that have known someone who underwent the surgery [P Saudi Arabia concerning TKA, its indications and results. We recommend that doctors use the results of our survey to assess their conversations with their patients, and to determine whether the results of the procedure are adequately clarified.

  9. A preliminary study on HTGR with air-cooled condenser at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Wonjae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical.

  10. Economic Models of OPEC Behaviour and the Role of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nourah A. Al-Yousef

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of OPEC have suggested ways of explaining the behaviour of OPEC as a group. The specific role of Saudi Arabia in the market and within OPEC has received attention from some authors. This study analyses the role of Saudi Arabia in these models and tries to find how much they explain the role of Saudi Arabia in the period from 1973 to the present. Models of OPEC behaviour are divided into four sets. The first set of models does not address the role of Saudi Arabia; they include...

  11. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia : Urgent call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Algahtani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. Results: A total of 1,292 neurologyrelated publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67% and the university sector (≈47%. However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of <1 (55%. Conclusion: Neurology research in Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.

  12. Neurology Research in Saudi Arabia: Urgent call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Boker, Faisal; Algamdi, Albaraa; Alkahtani, Abdulah

    2017-08-01

    Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed ® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. A total of 1,292 neurology-related publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67%) and the university sector (≈47%). However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.

  13. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  14. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  15. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and has an area of 872,722 sq miles, or 2,260,350 sq km. The ancient Arabian Shield of igneous and metamorphic rocks comprises most of the western third of the country. The shield contains many extinct volcanoes surrounded by lava beds. Sloping eastwards are the newer sedimentary areas in which rich oil fields are found. In Saudi Arabia oil is paramount and less effort has been put into searching for mineral deposits than in other countries of similar size and geology. Pour aerial radiometric surveys have been undertaken and some of the anomalies discovered in the earlier ones were ground checked by an IAEA expert in 1963-64. Two anomalies warranted more detailed work, these were the Jabal Said anomaly in the Central Shield area and the Al Ghrayyat in Wadi Sawawin about 70 miles from the Jordan border. The Jabal Said anomaly consists of a zone of altered rocks consisting largely of pegmatite and pegmatite granite= Allanite, pyrochlore, cyrtolite, xenotime and monazite are the ore minerals,, The deposit was estimated to have 2.2 million tons of ore grading 0.2 - 0.3 percent Nb 2 O 5 and 0.03 - 0,05% U 3 O 8 . The other occurrence at Al Ghrayyat is similar but with much lower grade uranium content. In view of the huge size of Saudi Arabia, the existence of many geologically favourable rock types and the poor coverage by sophisticated uranium exploration techniques, the Speculative Potential is placed between 10,000 and 50,000 Tonnes uranium. (author)

  16. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Hart, C.A.; Beeching, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  17. Histopathologic Patterns of Breast Lesions in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence rates of common types of breast cancer in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was carried out over a five-year period in two referral hospitals. In this study 257 files were retrieved from departments of Surgery from different hospitals in Hail region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Results: Of the 257 samples diagnosed using Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC, histopathological diagnosis was confirmed for 158 patients. Of the 158 diagnosed samples, 46/158 (23.2% were ductal carcinoma, 7/158 (4.4% were lobular carcinoma, 3/158 (1.9% were mixed tumours, and 102/158 (64.6 were fibroadenoma. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma are the prevalent breast lesions in Hail Region of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Issues engulfed Saudi Arabia construction workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Emad, N. H.; Rahman, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study conducted in Makkah city to uncover issues faced by construction workers from the construction leaders’ perspective. Eleven construction leaders/experts were interviewed to unleash their experiences on handling the foreign workers working in Makkah construction projects. Most of the experts are senior management staffs with more than 10 years’ working experience in Saudi Arabia construction industry. The interviews were carried out in semi structured mode where all the information was captured manually and also electronically. The identified issues were sorted based on its commonality into 10 clusters. Hence in each cluster, the numbers of issue considered by the experts are reflecting the importance of that particular cluster. The result of the clusters according to the number of issues mentioned by the experts are safety issues, restricted government regulation, demotivated issues, lack of quality workers, poor living quality, communication barriers, adaption issues, poor attitudes, lack of logistical arrangements and lack of education. With these identified issues it will assist the construction players in the construction industry of Saudi Arabia in dealing with their workers.

  19. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamjoom, Hana M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  20. Patient’s medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Alshammari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s and their medication(s which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  1. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  2. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality assurance study for dosimetry of Radiation Therapy equipment in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mokhlef, Jazi M.; Nabaz, Noori

    2003-01-01

    International standards address the accuracy of dose delivery for radiation therapy machines as well as quality assurance and staffing levels for radiation therapy centers. We performed absolute calibrations of gamma ,X-ray and electron radiotherapy beams in all radiation therapy centers in Saudi Arabia. We also assessed quality assurance and staffing levels Dosimetric measurements were made with a portable dosimetry system, which consisted of a calibrated Farmer ionization chamber and an electrometer, small water phantom, barometer and thermometer. Differences between the measured and the expected output (c Gy/MU or c Gy/min) were found to be in the range of -11%+5%. About 17% of radiotherapy beams were not within the acceptable tolerance level (+/-3%). Quality assurance in some radiation centers was poor and staffing levels were inadequate. We found poor compliance with internationally accepted tolerance levels for dose calibration of radiotherapy beams at radiation therapy centers in Saudi Arabia. Analysis of medical physics staffing revealed severe discrepancies from those recommended by international guidelines .We recommend that radiation therapy centers be adequately staffed with qualified medical physics personnel and that periodic audit programs be required a governmental body. (author)

  4. Use Of Vertical Electrical Sounding Survey For Study Groundwater In NISSAH Region, SAUDI ARABIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhenaki, Bander; Alsoma, Ali

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate groundwater depth in desert and dry environmental conditions area . The study site located in Wadi Nisah-eastern part of Najd province (east-central of Saudi Arabia), Generally, the study site is underlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks of the western edge of the Arabian platform, which rests on Proterozoic basement at depths ranged between 5-8km. Another key objective of this research is to assess the water-table and identify the bearing layers structures study area by using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) 1D imaging technique. We have been implemented and acquired a sections of 315 meter vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger field arrangements . These dataset were conducted along 9 profiles. The resistivity Schlumberger sounding was carried with half-spacing in the range 500 . The VES survey intend to cover several locations where existing wells information may be used for correlations. also location along the valley using the device Syscal R2 The results of this study concluded that there are at least three sedimentary layers to a depth of 130 meter. First layer, extending from the surface to a depth of about 3 meter characterized by dry sandy layer and high resistivity value. The second layer, underlain the first layer to a depth of 70 meter. This layer has less resistant compare to the first layer. Last layer, has low resistivity values of 20 ohm .m to a depth of 130 meter blow ground surface. We have observed a complex pattern of groundwater depth (ranging from 80 meter to 120 meter) which may reflect the lateral heterogeneity of study site. The outcomes of this research has been used to locate the suitable drilling locations.

  5. Entrepreneurship ecosystem evolution strategy of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rahatullah Khan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In majority of times when a potential start-up strikes a brilliant business idea, he/she has little knowledge of ‘how to move from there’. They lack information on the stakeholders of entrepreneurship ecosystem who can help and assist these startups in numerous ways and help them materialize their concepts. Availability of this information will help the ecosystem stakeholders to avoid replication and duplication of efforts. Similarly, knowledge of status quo helps identify opportunities and supports plan development to endeavor through right strategy for the start-up. Critical review of existing initiatives of Saudi Arabia for entrepreneurship growth and identification of the existing stakeholders of the entrepreneurship in the country is conducted. Similarly their work and potential for practicable interventions to further entrepreneurship reflecting country’s economic development process is examined. This paper benefits from a cross sectional basic study of Saudi Arabia that utilized primary and secondary sources to discover the initiatives, understand entrepreneurship growth and then map the national entrepreneurship ecosystem. A number of interviews from CEO’s, General Managers and other senior executives were carried out to know the role of the different organizations in entrepreneurship growth. It was coupled with a detailed secondary research from existing resources. It has been identified that the ecosystem is swiftly expanding but yet under development and infancy stage where the institutions are prospering. The research is based on country analysis. The paper also shows that the Saudi Arabian government has taken proactive stance in developing the entrepreneurship ecosystem and startup landscape and highlights the transformation of the ecosystem strategy.

  6. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  7. Satisfaction of Patients Attending in Primary Healthcare Centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Random Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to determine the level of satisfaction of patients who visit primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted in twenty randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from October to December 2014. A descriptive data analysis was performed. Eligible participants had visited at least one of the selected primary healthcare centers within the past 12 months. A total of 1741 participants completed the survey, providing a response rate of 87 % (43 % male, 57 % female). The highest satisfaction rates were in the following areas: comprehensiveness and coordination 76.2 % (95 % CI 74.8 ± 77.5), communication 72.7 % (95 % CI 71.3 ± 74) and attitude of staff 73.4 % (95 % CI 72.1 ± 74.8) The areas of greatest concern expressed by the participants were the length of the wait and the quality of the facility 55.4 % (95 % CI 53.3 ± 57.5), 50.5 % (95 % CI 48.3 ± 52.7), respectively. The majority of the patients attending primary healthcare centers in Riyadh showed high levels of satisfaction; however, there are still some factors that need to be considered and improved upon. These include the accessibility of primary healthcare centers as well as waiting time of patients. The results of the current study showed relative improvement in other factors such as comprehensiveness and coordination, communication and attitude of staff. The level of satisfaction of patients and stakeholders shows the progress of the quality of care in healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  8. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Cracking the walls of leadership : women in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the obstacles to women's advancement in Saudi Arabia. The paper addresses the question ‘what are women’s experiences of becoming leaders and what influences their leadership practice ?’ It does this by drawing on gender and Middle Eastern literature, as well as empirical evidence of the perceptions, experience and challenges of women in Saudi. Design/methodology/approach The study contributes a consideration of the academic literature,...

  10. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altannir, Mohamad A; Almansor, Mohammed A; Almohaya, Mohammed S; Onazi, Atallah S; Marei, Mohammed A; Aldossary, Oweida F; Obeidat, Sadek A; Obeidat, Mustafa A; Riaz, Muhammad S; Tleyjeh, Imad M

    2011-07-07

    Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI) in childbearing aged women). A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6%) of 327, of which 231 (95%) were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90%) of encounters, followed by UTI (75%), acute bronchitis (73%), otitis media (51%) and acute sinusitis (40%). Metronidazole (89%) and ciprofloxacin (86%) were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51%) for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  11. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  12. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  13. Saudi Arabia’s Counterterrorism Methods: A Case Study on Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SAUDI ARABIA’S COUNTERTERRORISM METHODS: A CASE STUDY ON HOMELAND SECURITY Majed M...examined in the previous chapter with examples from the case studies related to terrorist attacks and Saudi Arabia’s responses. Furthermore, the...COUNTERTERRORISM METHODS: A CASE STUDY ON HOMELAND SECURITY by Majed M. Bin Madhian June 2017 Thesis Advisor: James Russell Co-Advisor

  14. Detection of genetically modified rice: Collaborative validation study of a PCR based detection of genetically modified rice Oryza sativa commercially available in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Alaraidh, Ibrahim; Amid, Azura; Farouk, Abd-El Aziem; Bazaid, Salih; Greiner, Ralf; Alghunaim, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative trial study has been conducted for validation of an extraction method and a subsequent PCR for  the detection of transgenic rice sold in Saudi Arabia. The tests were carried out in Saudi Arabia using Real-Time PCR and the positive samples were validated in another lab in Malaysia using PCR and agarose gel visualization.  The samples were tested for the existence of the NOS Terminator. A total of 150 samples were tested out of which three samples tested positi...

  15. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  16. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  17. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Aarts, P.; Wagemakers, J.; Kanie, M.; Geel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features

  18. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  19. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F.; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    . This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling

  20. Cost containment: the Middle East. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R W

    1994-08-01

    The 1970s and early 1980s saw the phenomenal growth and development of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. This growth was unique in that it took place in a country that lacked basic infrastructure and trained personnel, but had recently acquired great wealth. Developments that took hundreds of years to occur in other countries took only 20 yrs to attain in Saudi Arabia. This growth posed unique challenges and required novel solutions. Recently, the country has had to cope with a drastic decrease in oil revenue, as well as cutbacks in healthcare funding. Now that the basic foundations of a national healthcare service have been constructed, it remains to be seen whether gains can be consolidated and steady progress made as more and more Saudi nationals take over and run their own public and private healthcare services.

  1. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  2. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  3. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, Nahid Y; AlAjaji Norah; AlMozainy, Mayyadah; AlSourani, Rasha

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  4. Environmental isotopes in North African groundwaters; and the Dahna sand-dune study, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C.; Thoma, G.; Muennich, K.O.; Dincer, T.; Klitzsch, E.

    1980-01-01

    I. North Saharian palaeowaters were mainly formed during a long humid period between 50,000 and 20,000 years BP., which was followed by a cool dry period from 20,000 to 14,000 years BP. These palaeowaters show a significant west-east decrease in deuterium and 18 O because of past groundwater formation by local rainfall from the western drift. Sahel zone groundwaters seem to show meridional variation of deuterium and 18 O due to a tropical convective influence. II. A computer model estimate of the alternate play between rainwater infiltration and evaporation in the Dahna sand-dune (near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) yields a mean annual groundwater recharge of 20 mm annually which agrees with that obtained from bomb tritium vertical profiles of the sand moisture. The model also describes the deuterium and 18 O profiles. (author)

  5. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Houborg, Rasmus; Rosas, Jorge; Ershadi, Ali; Anderson, Martha; Hain, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  6. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-11-12

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  7. Healthy dietary patterns decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in the Mecca Region, Saudi Arabia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alshammari, Eyad M; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; El-Taani, Hani A; Obeidat, Ahmed A; Kattan, Fayrooz A; Tashtoush, Sufyan H

    2017-06-29

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the first most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females in Saudi Arabia. Dietary habits are strongly associated with the inhibition or proliferation of malignancy. Therefore, this study is aiming to investigate the risks and protective benefits of dietary factors affecting CRC in the Mecca region of Saudi Arabia. A case-control study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. One hundred thirty-seven patients with colon and/or rectal cancer were recruited in the case group, while 164 healthy participants were recruited in the control group. A questionnaire was completed with the help of trained dietitians to study the effects of several dietary patterns on the risk of CRC. Dairy product intake of 1-5 servings/day, legume intake of 3-5 servings/week, leafy vegetables intake of 1-5 servings/week, olive oil intake of 1-5 servings/week, black tea intake of three or more cups/day, and coffee intake of one or more cups/day was found to decrease the risk of CRC in participants. This study highlights the importance of changing dietary habits to decrease CRC incidence in the Mecca region.

  8. Healthy dietary patterns decrease the risk of colorectal cancer in the Mecca Region, Saudi Arabia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas S. Azzeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the first most common cancer in males and the third most common cancer in females in Saudi Arabia. Dietary habits are strongly associated with the inhibition or proliferation of malignancy. Therefore, this study is aiming to investigate the risks and protective benefits of dietary factors affecting CRC in the Mecca region of Saudi Arabia. Methods A case-control study was conducted from June 2014 to March 2015. One hundred thirty-seven patients with colon and/or rectal cancer were recruited in the case group, while 164 healthy participants were recruited in the control group. A questionnaire was completed with the help of trained dietitians to study the effects of several dietary patterns on the risk of CRC. Results Dairy product intake of 1–5 servings/day, legume intake of 3–5 servings/week, leafy vegetables intake of 1–5 servings/week, olive oil intake of 1–5 servings/week, black tea intake of three or more cups/day, and coffee intake of one or more cups/day was found to decrease the risk of CRC in participants. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of changing dietary habits to decrease CRC incidence in the Mecca region.

  9. Energy Consumption Trends in Energy Scarce and Rich Countries: Comparative Study for Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Uneb

    2017-11-01

    Energy crisis is raising serious concerns throughout the world. There has been constant rise in energy consumption corresponding to the increase in global population. This sector affects the other pillars of national economy including industries and transportation. Because of these reasons, the traditional fossil-based energy sources are depleting rapidly, resulting in high and unstable energy prices. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, although different from each other in terms of their economic stability and political systems, still rely heavily on the traditional fossil fuels. This paper presents the comparison of these two countries in terms of their energy consumption and factors affecting it. These factors include, but not limited to, economic development, and growth in population and other sectors such as; industries, transportation, etc. The comparison is also made with the regional and global energy consumption trends and these countries. Moreover, regression models were built to predict energy consumption till 2040 and compare the growth in this sector and share in global energy demand. Energy consumption in oil-rich countries (Saudi Arabia) has been driven through its economic development, while for energy insecure country (Pakistan) it is mainly because of population growth. It was also found that in the next two decades the share of Pakistan in the global energy demand will increase. This concludes that population growth will have more impact on energy consumption than economic growth. It could mean that the shift in energy sector would shift towards sustenance instead of using energy for commercial or industrial usage. Conference Track: Policy and Finance and Strategies

  10. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  11. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Alam, Mohammed S.; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M.; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources

  12. Towards User Acceptance of Biometric Technology in E-Government: A Survey Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussain, Thamer; Drew, Steve

    The paper discussed an exploratory study of government employees’ perceptions of the introduction of biometric authentication at the workplace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We suggest that studying the factors affecting employees’ acceptance of new technology will help ease the adoption of biometric technology in other e-government applications. A combination of survey and interviews was used to collect the required data. Interviews were conducted with managers and questionnaires were given to employees from two different government organisations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to investigate the employees’ perceptions of using biometrics. The results of this study indicate a significant digital and cultural gap between the technological awareness of employees and the preferred authentication solutions promoted by management. A lack of trust in technology, its potential for misuse and management motives reflect the managers’ need to consider their responsibilities for narrowing these gaps. It was apparent that overcoming employees’ resistance is an essential issue facing biometric implementation. Based on the research we recommend that an awareness and orientation process about biometrics should take place before the technology is introduced into the organisation.

  13. Female university students' physical activity levels and associated factors--a cross-sectional study in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa

    2013-08-09

    The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. This study raises four important determinants for female university students' PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Örjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23939387

  15. Are nurses verbally abused? A cross-sectional study of nurses at a university hospital, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamlan, Nouf A; Jayaseeli, Nithya; Al-Shawi, Moneera M; Al-Joudi, Abdullah S

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence against health-care workers is a significant problem worldwide. Nurses are at a higher risk of exposure to violence. Studies available in Saudi Arabia are few. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of verbal abuse of nurses at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and to identify consequences and the demographic and work-related characteristics associated with it. This cross-sectional study of 391 nurses by total sample was conducted between November and December 2015, using a modified self-administered questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Data was entered, and analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. The descriptive statistics were reported using frequency and percentages for all categorical variables. Chi-squared tests or Fisher's Exact test, as appropriate, were performed to test the associations of verbal abuse with the demographic and work-related characteristics of the participants. Variables with p violence in their workplace were more vulnerable to workplace verbal abuse. Workplace verbal abuse is a significant challenge in KFHU. For decision makers, it is rather disturbing that a lot of cases go unreported even though procedures for reporting exist. Implementation of an efficient transparent reporting system that provides follow-up investigations is mandatory. In addition, all victims should be helped with counseling and support.

  16. Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Khalaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Rainfall Climatology over Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H.; Furl, C.; Al-Zahrani, M.

    2012-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid lands occupy about one-third of the land surface of the earth and support about one-fifth of the world population. The Asir area in Saudi Arabia is an example of these areas faced with the problem of maintaining sustainable water resources. This problem is exacerbated by the high levels of population growth, land use changes, increasing water demand, and climate variability. In this study, the characteristics of decade-scale variations in precipitation are examined in more detail for Asir region. The spatio-temporal distributions of rainfall over the region are analyzed. The objectives are to identify the sensitivity, magnitude, and range of changes in annual and seasonal evapotranspiration resulting from observed decade-scale precipitation variations. An additional objective is to characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall. The rainfall data is obtained from more than 30 rain gauges spread over the region.

  18. Nursing in Saudi Arabia: Reflections on the experiences of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to describe and reflect on the lived experiences of the South African nurses residing and working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design with a phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected by means of individual ...

  19. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  20. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  1. Study cast measurements in the assessment of incisor crowding among patients attending dental clinics in Abha city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Shahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Demand for orthodontic treatment is increasing in Saudi Arabia. An observational study was planned to assess the incisor crowding in maxillary and mandibular arch among Saudi males and females reporting to different dental clinics in Abha city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Five hundred and thirty-two study casts of males and females aged between 16 and 35 years without a previous history of extraction of permanent teeth were included in the study. Labiolingual linear displacement of anatomic contact points of each maxillary and mandibular incisor from the adjacent tooth was measured. Right canine mesial aspect to the left canine mesial aspect was examined for five displacements. Results: There was a high prevalence of incisor crowding observed in the study population. Sixty-four percent (342 out of 532 casts showed bi-maxillary crowding, 14% (75 out of 352 showed mandibular, and 8.1% (43 out of 532 showed maxillary crowding. About 13.6% (72 out of 532 of the study population had well-aligned maxillary and mandibular incisors while 86.4% (460 out of 532 had some degree of incisor crowding. Females had more incisor crowding (48.5%-258 out of 532 than males (37.9%-202 out of 532. Conclusion: High prevalence of incisor crowding in Abha region reported in this study necessitates long-term planning and preventive measures for the adolescent population and treatment of the adult population of the Abha city, KSA.

  2. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  3. Firearm fatalities in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madni, Osama; Kharosha, Magdy Abdel Azim; Shotar, Ali M

    2008-07-01

    This paper provides a database representing injury mortality in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, with the aim of establishing a system which will record information about the incidence of such deaths, identify new trends and give priority to violence prevention. The retrospective study was carried out on 64 fatalities from gunfire injuries at the Forensic Medicine Centre in Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 - December 2006. The deaths included 55 cases of homicide, seven cases of suicide and two accidental shootings. Twenty-six victims were aged between 16-30 years and 24 victims were between 31-45 years. Fifty-nine of the cases were male. A handgun was the weapon used in 49 cases. The most common sites for the firearm entrance wounds were the head (45 cases) and the chest (35 cases). In the majority of cases (56.3%) a single shot was fired while in 15.6% of cases there were two shots. In 51.5% of cases no bullet was recovered from the body while a single bullet was recovered in 31.5% and two bullets in 6.2% of the cases. Distant range fire was observed in 65.6% of cases. Exit wounds were found on the head in 36.7% and on the chest in 28.7% of cases. The majority of victims were young males living in urban areas. This result should help in forming a strategy to improve the livelihoods of this group. The low incidence of alcohol abuse (one case, 1.56%) and only three cases (4.68%) of amphetamine abuse is significant.

  4. Mapping Intraplate Volcanic Fields: A Case Study from Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, D. T.; Stelten, M. E.; Champion, D. E.; Dietterich, H. R.

    2017-12-01

    Continental intraplate mafic volcanoes are typically small-volume (200 volcanic fields proposed to be active worldwide during the Holocene. Their small individual eruption volumes make any hazards low, however their high prevalence offsets this by raising the risk to populations and infrastructure. The western Arabian Plate hosts at least 15 continental, intra-plate volcanic fields that stretch >3,000 km south to north from Yemen to Turkey. In total, these volcanic fields comprise one of the largest alkali basalt volcanic provinces on Earth, covering an area of 180,000 km2. With a total volume of 20,000 km3, Harrat Rahat in western Saudi Arabia is one of the largest of these volcanic fields. Our study focused on mapping the northern third of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field using a multidisciplinary approach. We have discriminated >200 individual eruptive units, mainly basaltic lava flows throughout Harrat Rahat that are distinguished through a combination of field observations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar radiometric and 36Cl cosmogenic surface-exposure dating. We have compiled these results into a high-resolution geologic map, which provides new information about the timing, compositions, and eruptive processes of Quaternary volcanism in Harrat Rahat. For example, prior mapping and geochronology undertaken during the 1980s suggested that the majority of mafic and silicic volcanics erupted during the Miocene and Pliocene, whereas several of the youngest-appearing lava flows were interpreted to be Neolithic ( 7,000 to 4,500 years BP) to post-Neolithic. New mapping and age-constrained stratigraphic relations indicate that all exposed volcanic units within the northern third of Harrat Rahat erupted during the Pleistocene, with the exception of a single Holocene eruption in 1256 AD. This new multidisciplinary mapping is critical for understanding the overall spatial, temporal, and compositional evolution of Harrat Rahat, timescales of

  5. Health technology assessment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2018-05-16

    The Saudi government, similar to any other government, is committed to making public spending more efficient, using resources more effectively, and limiting waste. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool that informs policy and decision makers regarding the formulation of safe and effective policies that are patient-focused and help to achieve efficiency when allocating limited health-care resources. Areas covered: After a brief description of HTA in the international context, this review provides a brief introduction to Saudi Arabia's health-care system, followed by a delineation of the decision maker(s) and influencers and the decision-making process for pricing and reimbursement. The article then discusses the current status of HTA in Saudi Arabia and proposes four strategic objectives that can form the first step in the development of a formal HTA process. Expert commentary: In Saudi Arabia, facilitators for incorporating HTA into the decision-making process exist. Future local research is needed to guide the implementation of full HTA.

  6. An Exploratory, Descriptive Study of the Attitudes of Instructors and Students toward the Use of Asynchronous Online Discussion at a Female University in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Hamed A.; Walker, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory, descriptive study examined instructor and female student attitudes toward asynchronous online discussion (AOD) in Saudi Arabia. Preliminary results, derived from an attitudinal-based survey, indicated that, in aggregate, instructors and students had positive attitudes toward using AOD at a female institution of higher education…

  7. Examining the relationship between child maltreatment and school performance in public schools in Saudi Arabia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Dana; Almuneef, Maha; Albuhairan, Fadia; Saleheen, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment (CM) and school performance among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014. The enrolment criteria included both male and female Saudi students ( n=674; 52.7% male) aged 12-19 years ( M age =15.6±1.6 years), attending intermediate and secondary schools belonging to the Ministry of National Guard. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on different forms of abuse that had occurred in the past or were currently occurring. Poor school performance was more likely in students who lived among substance-use family members or guardians compared with those who did not (33.3% vs. 11.4%; p<0.01), those with an imprisoned family member compared with those without (26.5% vs. 11.2%; p<0.01), those who were psychologically abused compared with those who were not abused (21.0% vs. 10.1%; p<0.01), those who were physically abused compared with those who were not abused (18.9% vs. 9.3%; p<0.01), and those suffering multiple forms of abuse compared with those not abused (23.4% vs. 9.7%; p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that household dysfunction was the most predisposing factor to poor performance in school, and included living among substance-use family members or guardians (odds ratio=4.0; 95% confidence interval=1.7-9.5) and living with imprisoned family member (odds ratio=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.5-6.3). CM, along with family structure and dynamics, has an adverse relationship with students' school performance. These findings highlight the importance of increasing awareness of the impact of CM on school performance among families, schools and the community.

  8. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  9. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Tariq A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

  10. The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyousef, Yousef; Stevens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: → How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? → How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? → What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? → What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

  11. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christoper M; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    According to the U.S. State Department 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Saudi donors and unregulated charities have been a major source of financing to extremist and terrorist groups over the past 25 years...

  12. Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melibary, A.R.; Wirtz, K.

    1980-11-01

    The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.) [de

  13. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women

  15. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almalki Mohammed J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of work life (QWL is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585 was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area. Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging

  16. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Mohammed J; Fitzgerald, Gerry; Clark, Michele

    2012-09-13

    Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks' survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community's view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces. Significant differences were found

  17. Saudi Arabia: the French nuclear sector mobilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikh-Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is preparing itself to replace half fossil energies by a mix of nuclear and renewable energies. Although the nuclear program is not yet well implemented, Saudi Arabia and France have signed an agreement to develop cooperation in the nuclear sector. A joint committee was created to give a frame to assess the best practices in terms of nuclear regulations, waste management, scientific cooperation and training. Concerning nuclear regulations, waste management and scientific cooperation the French contacts of KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy) are respectively IRSN, ANDRA and CEA. Concerning scholar and professional training, a cooperation involving I2EN (International Institute for Nuclear Energy), EDF and AREVA on one side and the King Saud University, the Prince Mohammad University, the EFFAT University and the Dar Al Hekma College on the other side, has been set to develop training in nuclear engineering in Saudi Arabia. In parallel, AREVA and EDF have developed a program to find and qualify local subcontractors. (A.C.)

  18. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor

  19. An Evaluative Study of Machine Translation in the EFL Scenario of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raneem Khalid Al-Tuwayrish

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation (MT have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in the current paradigm because new translation technologies, such as, translation memories, data-based machine translation, and collaborative translation, far from being just additional tools, are changing the very nature of the translators’ cognitive activity, social relations, and professional standing. In fact, in some translation situations such as when translating technical materials or subject matter that are not a specialization with human translators, one potentially needs technology.  The purview of this paper, however, is limited to the role of MT in day to day situations where the generic MT tools like Google Translate or Bing Translator are encouraged. Further, it endeavours to weigh and empirically demonstrate the pros and cons of MT with a view to recommending measures for better communication training in the EFL set up of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: AI, MT, translation, technology, necessity, communication

  20. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Residential water usage: A case study of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rizaiza, Omar S.

    1991-05-01

    Socioeconomic and climatological data of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia have been used to develop several models to estimate the residential water usage for different kinds of houses. The developed models correlate the residential water usages with temperature, income, family size, price of water, and availability of a garden within the house. The study shows that the residential water uses in houses supplied by a public pipe network are 1.4-2 times greater than the residential water uses in houses supplied by tankers. It also shows that the price elasticities are very similar to those estimated in the United States. Income elasticities, on the other hand, are lower than those typically found in more industrialized countries.

  2. Pilot-scale study of the radiation-induced silica removal from underground brackish water in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Silica scaling deposition in industrial water systems is one of the biggest challenges facing the water treatment industry due the low solubility of the scalants in the feed waters. In this preliminary work, we investigated the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation induced removal of silica in water sample from the Salbukh, Saudi Arabia, water treatment plant by using metallic iron as the source of ferric hydroxide to co-precipitate the silica. The influence of several reaction parameters, i.e. iron powder dosage, radiation dose, initial pH and equilibrium pH effect were investigated. In the optimum conditions, up to 75% of silica was removed. This preliminary study showed that this environmentally friendly process is effective in silica removal from underground water.

  3. Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.

    2007-01-01

    Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran

  4. Psychological well-being status among medical and dental students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboalshamat, Khalid; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Strodl, Esben

    2015-04-01

    Medical and dental students experience poor psychological well-being relative to their peers. This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being among medical and dental students in Saudi Arabia, identify the high-risk groups and assess the association between the psychological well-being and the academic performance. In this cross-sectional study, 422 preclinical medical and dental students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia, were recruited to assess their depression, anxiety, stress, self-efficacy and satisfaction with life levels using 21-items Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Students' academic weighted grades were obtained later. Descriptive statistics and univariate general linear model were used to analyse data. High levels of depression (69.9%), anxiety (66.4%) and stress (70.9%) were indicated, whereas self-efficacy (mean = 27.22, sd = 4.85) and life satisfaction (mean = 23.60, sd = 6.37) were within the normal range. Female medical students had higher psychological distress in contrast to dental students. In general, third-year students were more depressed and stressed in comparison with second-year students, except for stress among dental students. Moreover, all females had higher self-efficacy than males. Life satisfaction was higher within the second-year and high family income students. Depression was the only psychological variable correlated with the academic performance. High levels of psychological distress were found. Female medical students had higher psychological distress than males, whereas male dental students had higher distress than female. Medical students at third year were more depressed and stressed. Dental students were more depressed in the third year, but more stressed in the second year. Attention should be directed towards reducing the alarming levels of depression, anxiety and stress among medical and dental students.

  5. Adalimumab impact on fatigue measured by FACIT-F: a study of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janoudi N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nahed Janoudi,1 Narges Omran,2 Waleed Hussain,3 Hanan Al-osaimi,4 Matouqa Baamer,5 Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui,6 Omar Fathaldin,7 Hani Almoallim1,4,8 1Department of Medicine, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine, Alnoor General Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, Heraa General Hospital, 4Alzaidi Chair of Research in Rheumatic Diseases, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 5Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital & Oncology Center, Jeddah, 6Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 8Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of adalimumab as a treatment for fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods: Fatigue was monitored in patients with RA who were already on an adalimumab treatment regimen. Fatigue, general well-being, comorbidities, and disease activity were measured at baseline and ~8, 16, and 24 weeks, thereafter. Results: Significant reductions in fatigue scores and disease activity were observed from baseline to 6 months after. A predictive regression model of fatigue severity was proposed and was found to be significant, with RA disease activity as the most significant predictor of fatigue severity. Conclusion: This quasi-experimental study is a good starting point for research on the efficacy of adalimumab in treating fatigue in RA patients. The results here suggest that a randomized controlled trial assessing adalimumab as a treatment option for RA patients suffering from fatigue is warranted. Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, fatigue, adalimumab, disease activity, Saudi Arabia, FACIT-F 

  6. Presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies in Saudi Arabia: a nationwide, cross-sectional, serological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Meyer, Benjamin; Corman, Victor M; Al-Masri, Malak; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Ritz, Daniel; Sieberg, Andrea; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend-J; Lattwein, Erik; Alhakeem, Raafat F; Assiri, Abdullah M; Albarrak, Ali M; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Wikramaratna, Paul; Alrabeeah, Abdullah A; Drosten, Christian; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-05-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that dromedary camels are the intermediary host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, the actual number of infections in people who have had contact with camels is unknown and most index patients cannot recall any such contact. We aimed to do a nationwide serosurvey in Saudi Arabia to establish the prevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies, both in the general population and in populations of individuals who have maximum exposure to camels. In the cross-sectional serosurvey, we tested human serum samples obtained from healthy individuals older than 15 years who attended primary health-care centres or participated in a national burden-of-disease study in all 13 provinces of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, we tested serum samples from shepherds and abattoir workers with occupational exposure to camels. Samples were screened by recombinant ELISA and MERS-CoV seropositivity was confirmed by recombinant immunofluorescence and plaque reduction neutralisation tests. We used two-tailed Mann Whitney U exact tests, χ(2), and Fisher's exact tests to analyse the data. Between Dec 1, 2012, and Dec 1, 2013, we obtained individual serum samples from 10,009 individuals. Anti-MERS-CoV antibodies were confirmed in 15 (0·15%; 95% CI 0·09-0·24) of 10,009 people in six of the 13 provinces. The mean age of seropositive individuals was significantly younger than that of patients with reported, laboratory-confirmed, primary Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (43·5 years [SD 17·3] vs 53·8 years [17·5]; p=0·008). Men had a higher antibody prevalence than did women (11 [0·25%] of 4341 vs two [0·05%] of 4378; p=0·028) and antibody prevalence was significantly higher in central versus coastal provinces (14 [0·26%] of 5479 vs one [0·02%] of 4529; p=0·003). Compared with the general population, seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies was significantly increased by 15 times in shepherds (two [2·3%] of 87, p=0·0004) and by 23

  7. Investigation of hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks: One of the pioneer studies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Ali El Hadi Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and March 2016. Methods: Ticks were identified depending on their morphological features using classical keys then grouped into pools. Ticks in each pool were processed separately using the sterile pestles and mortars. Viral RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and Qiagen RNAeasy Columns (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany according to the instructions of manufacturers. A total number of 1 282 hard ticks were collected, and 582 of them were precisely identified then screened for the presence of arboviruses using quantitative real-time PCR. The four species were screened for six viruses: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Alkhurma virus (INKV, Sindbis virus (SINV, and Pan Hanta virus (HANTA. CT value for the negative control (RNA free water was zero. Negative and positive controls were tested for each test to confirm the specificity of the selected primer pairs. SYBR Green One step RT-PCR Master Mix (KAPA Biosystems, Boston, MA was tested along with primers. Results: Ticks identification resulted into four species: Hyalomma schulzei, Hyalomma onatoli, Boophilus kdhlsi, and Hyalomm dromedarii. All the ticks’ species (except Boophilus kdhlsi were positive for the following viruses: SINV, RVFV, CHIKV, and CCHFV. While HANTA viruses have been detected in a single species (Hyalomm dromedarii. Conclusions: According to our knowledge this research may be one of the pioneer studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Incrimination of the above mentioned ticks species as well as their vectorial capacity are highly recommended for investigation in the upcoming researches.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  9. Self-reported cheating among medical students: An alarming finding in a cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Haque, Shafiul; Almusalam, Yousef Abdullah; Alanezi, Saleh Lafi; Alsulaiman, Yazeed Abdulaziz; Irshad, Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahmed; Khamis, Nehal

    2018-01-01

    Academic misconduct/dishonesty has become widespread behavior among many university students across the globe, and medical education is not an exception. Until recently, few efforts have been made to study the dishonest behavior in Middle-Eastern universities. This study examined the prevalence and predisposing factors of cheating among medical students in Saudi Arabia and suggests suitable preventive measures. A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted at a government medical college during the 2014-2015 academic year. The response rate was 58.5% (421/720). The overall cheating behavior practiced by the participants was 29%, predominantly by male students. High GPA scoring students were the least likely to cheat. The participants living with their families were more likely to cheat compared to those who were living apart from their families. The reasons participants gave to justify their cheating behavior included getting better grades, passing the course, and lacking preparation while still recognizing that cheating is a 'mistake.' Overall, significant academic misconduct concerning cheating was found among the Saudi medical students; this misconduct is alarming in a reputable government institution. The implementation of strict punishments, requiring ethical courses and creating ethical awareness by exploiting the potential of Islamic religious belief might help to control this problem.

  10. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  11. Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A.F.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2001-01-01

    The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

  12. Princes, priests, and people is Saudi Arabia the next Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Waltermire, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed violent attacks in Saudi Arabia against the monarchy, combined with growing concern over royal corruption has led some analysts to predict that Saudi Arabia is likely to be "the next Iran"-that Islamist revolutionaries will come to power in Riyadh. I test this theory through the lens of network analysis in order to measure the degree of state-society integration in Pahlavi Iran and Saudi Arabia. My analysis finds that a) the Saudi state is far more integrated in society through so...

  13. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  14. Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Mohamed S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

  15. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  16. Nursing work environment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the work environment as perceived by nurses in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The quality of patient care services has been associated with the quality of work environment of nurses. It is therefore important to assess the work environment in order to acquire baseline data and enable the institution to benchmark their status from established quality standards. This study used a descriptive survey with 1007 staff nurses across service units of a 1000-bed government-operated hospital. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Healthy Work Environment Assessment Questionnaire was used for data collection. Scores were aggregated and interpreted. Effective decision making, authentic leadership, appropriate staffing, true collaboration, skilled communication and meaningful recognition were rated as good (mean range 3.53-3.76). Healthy work environments mutually benefit patients, nurses, nurse managers, health care providers, the health team, administration, the institution and the community at large. Valuable baseline data on the status of the work environment in this setting were generated. This should allow administrators and staff to work together in improving weaknesses and strengthening further whatever gains that are attained to ensure consistent provision of safe and quality patient care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Gamil

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  18. Period prevalence, risk factors and consequent injuries of falling among the Saudi elderly living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almegbel, Faisal Yousef; Alotaibi, Ibrahim Muthyib; Alhusain, Faisal Ahmed; Masuadi, Emad M; Al Sulami, Salma Lafyan; Aloushan, Amairah Fahad; Almuqbil, Bashayer Ibrahim

    2018-01-10

    Approximately 28% to 35% of people aged 65 and over fall each year. The consequent injuries of falls are considered a major public health problem. Falls account for more than half of injury-related hospitalisations among old people. The aim of this study was to measure a 1-year period prevalence of falling among old people in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, this study described the most common risk factors and consequent injuries of falls. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Riyadh, using a convenient sampling. The targeted population were Saudi citizens who were 60 years or above. Over a 6-month period, 1182 individuals were sampled (545 men and 637 women). The 1-year prevalence of falling among old Saudis (>=60 years) was 49.9%. Our results show that 74% of the participants who experienced falls had postfall injuries. Old participants who were uneducated and those with middle school certification were associated with falls (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.72; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.56, aOR 1.81; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.85, respectively). Those who live in rented houses had a higher risk of falls. Interestingly, having a caregiver was significantly associated with more falls (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.79). However, not using any medications was significantly related to fewer falls. In addition, old individuals using walking aids were more likely to fall than those who did not. Participants who mentioned 'not having stressors were associated with less frequent falls (aOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). Cerebrovascular accidents were strongly associated with falls with an estimated OR of 2.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 6.43). Moreover, osteoporosis, poor vision and back pain were found to be predictors for falls among the elderly. 49.9% of elderly Saudis had experienced one or more falls during a 12-month period. Several preventable risk factors could be addressed by routine geriatric assessment. Research on the impact of these risk factors is needed. © Article author(s) (or their

  19. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Health ATMs in Saudi Arabia: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Bakheet

    2017-06-01

    Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients' electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization.

  1. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat; Yusuf A. Adenle; Bilal Saghir

    2016-01-01

    Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i) Teaching and Curriculum; (ii) Research and Scholarship; (iii) Campus Operations; ...

  2. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  3. Financial Analysis for Replacement of Construction Equipment in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Shash

    2012-01-01

    This study report results of a survey conducted in the EasternProvince of Saudi Arabia to explore the procedures and financialtechniques that large-size contractors utilise in replacingequipment. The results indicated that contractors set severalreplacement alternatives that they evaluate by using a set ofvarious qualitative and quantitative factors. The contractors’business objectives, employee safety and morale, and, contractors’image in the industry were found to be the most influentialqua...

  4. The Prevalence of Organized Retail Crime in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Dabil

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...

  5. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  6. Molecular epidemiology of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki

    2010-10-24

    Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest frequency of adenovirus types 37 and 8

  7. Interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Alkaabba, Abdulaziz; Qadi, Mahdi; Albahlal, Abdullah; Alabdulkarim, Yasir; Alabduljabbar, Mohammad; Alqahtani, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representative (PR) is a major component of the promotional activities by pharmaceutical companies. The lack of studies examining the magnitude of this interaction in Saudi Arabia is evident. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and associated characteristics of physician-PR interaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians working in the different regions of Saudi Arabia between March and July of 2012. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and July of 2012 in the different regions of Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and handed to all participants, both in paper and electronic formats. A total of 663 participants completed the questionnaire. The participation rate was 66.3% (663/1000). The majority of the participants (72.9%) reported interaction with PRs. This was lower among residents/interns compared to higher ranking employees (55.6% vs 83.6%, P strategy to reduce negative impact.

  8. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Al Mahyijari, Nawal; Shaik, Shaik A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used.  Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle  (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60.  University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance.

  9. Different treatment modalities for refractory vaginismus in western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2011-06-01

    Although vaginismus is a common sexual dysfunction in Saudi Arabia, there are limited data concerning the treatment modalities associated with patients with symptoms of vaginismus. This study is aimed to evaluate the presentation and different modalities of management in patients with severe refractory vaginismus in western Saudi Arabia. Successful penetrative sexual intercourse suggesting that common elements of the therapies used were successful. A retrospective study of patients presenting with severe refractory vaginismus treated in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The subjects were 15 women with third to fourth degree vaginismus who presented to King Abdulazziz University Hospital between January 1, 2008 and January 1, 2009. The mean age of the participants was 23 years. The mean duration of marriage before seeking medical advice was 12 months. Six patients had undergone conventional therapy successfully. The other six cases, four of which had a previous history of treatment failure, and two who were unresponsive to 4 months of conventional therapy were offered botulinum toxin type A. Five patients who received the Botox therapy had satisfactory intercourse on the same day of the treatment. One patient required a repeat injection after 2 months for recurrent vaginismus. Three of the 15 patients refused the treatment as they were already divorced and had only come in to exclude organic causes for their condition. Vaginismus is an overlooked topic in conservative societies such as Saudi Arabia. For most patients, not knowing who to confide in or where to turn to plays a major role in the under diagnosis of vaginismus. Conventional therapy proved effective in mild and moderate cases, while botulinum toxin has a more rapid effect and was thus more effective in severe cases. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. An overview of nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Saleh AlYami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.

  11. The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

    The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

  12. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  13. The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Afify, Ahmed R.; Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

  14. Obesity and associated risk factors among students of health colleges of King Saud University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Elshazaly; Assiri, Asaad Mohammed; AwadEljack, Ibrahim; Aljasser, Abdullah S; Alhuzimi, Abdulrahman Mohammed; Assiri, Ahmed Assad; Alqahtani, Nasser Ali; Alshahrani, Saud Amer; Al-Ammar, Yousif A

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (pobesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors.

  15. The relationship of bullying and physical violence to mental health and academic performance: A cross-sectional study among adolescents in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadia AlBuhairan; Oraynab Abou Abbas; Donna El Sayed; Motasim Badri; Sulieman Alshahri; Nanne de Vries

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Bullying and physical violence are serious public health concerns witnessed during adolescence and are associated with several health and behavioral problems that can persist into adulthood. The relationship between bullying/physical violence and mental health/academic performance in Saudi Arabia is unknown. This study aims at filling this gap through identifying the association of these health risk behaviors and mental health and academic performance. Materials ...

  16. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Frayh, A.; Gad-el-Rab, Mohammed O.; Al-Mobeireek, K.; Al-Turki, T.; Hasnain, Syed M.; Al-Sedairy, Sultan T.

    1999-01-01

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  17. eHealth in Saudi Arabia: Current Trends, Challenges and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulame, Khaled; Khalifa, Mohamed; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the current status of eHealth in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of health informatics professionals. We used a case study approach and analyzed participant data using thematic analysis. The study took place between July and August 2013. Data collection included interviews with nine senior health information professionals in Saudi Arabia. The findings describe participant views on current eHealth trends in Saudi Arabia and show differences among Saudi healthcare organizations in terms of eHealth adoption. Participants also describe the challenges relating to organizational and cultural issues, end user attitudes towards eHealth projects, and the lack of specialized human resources to implement eHealth systems. Two main recommendations made by the participants were to form a new national body for eHealth and to develop a unified plan for the implementation of Saudi eHealth initiatives.

  18. The effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy with traumatised firefighters in Saudi Arabia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed; Hunt, Nigel; Thomas, Shirley

    2015-03-01

    Firefighters are exposed to many traumatic events. The psychological costs of this exposure increase the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for reducing PTSD symptoms among Saudi firefighters. A randomized waiting-list control study was conducted with 34 traumatized firefighters were randomly allocated to NET or Waiting-list Control (WLC). The NET group received four therapy sessions of 60-90 min over a three-week period; those in the WLC condition received the same sessions after a three-week waiting period. Participants in both groups were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 6 month follow ups. NET led to significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression compared with WLC. After the WLC group received treatment, it showed the same improvements as the NET group. This occurred immediately post-treatment in both groups, but was not sustained at 3 and 6 month follow ups. Coping strategies and social support led to significant changes only in follow up times. NET was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in traumatised Saudi firefighters. This finding could be helpful in the management of PTSD among people who work as first responders such as firefighters, police officers and emergency medical personal, as well as security officers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Management of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by growing petunia hybrida (l.) mill. as an ornamental plant in saudi arabia - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qarawi, A.A.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Alghamdi, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)

  20. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    influence of the Islamic State and Iran. 44 However, in conjunction with the government’s expanded efforts to dissuade Saudi citizens from supporting...Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant global influence through its administration of the birthplace...Administration has endorsed Saudi citizens ’ rights to free assembly and free expression. Saudi leaders reject foreign interference in the country’s internal

  1. Identifying Twitter influencer profiles for health promotion in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2017-06-01

    New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sarah's birth. How the medicalisation of childbirth may be shaped in different settings: Vignette from a study of routine intervention in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamell, Mandie; Altaweli, Roa; McCourt, Christine

    2017-02-01

    The expansion of the medicalisation of childbirth has been described in the literature as being a global phenomenon. The vignette described in this paper, selected from an ethnographic study of routine intervention in Saudi Arabian hospitals illustrates how the worldwide spread of the bio-medical model does not take place within a cultural vacuum. To illuminate the ways in which the medicalisation of birth may be understood and practised in different cultural settings, through a vignette of a specific birth, drawn as a typical case from an ethnographic study that investigated clinical decision-making in the second stage of labour in Saudi Arabia. Ethnographic data collection methods, including participant observation and interviews. The data presented in this paper are drawn from ethnographic field notes collected during field work in Saudi Arabia, and informed by analysis of a wider set of field notes and interviews with professionals working in this context. While the medicalisation of care is a universal phenomenon, the ways in which the care of women is managed using routine medical intervention are framed by the local cultural context in which these practices take place. The ethnographic data presented in this paper shows the medicalisation of birth thesis to be incomplete. The evidence presented in this paper illustrates how local belief systems are not so much subsumed by the expansion of the bio-medical model of childbirth, rather they may actively facilitate a process of localised reinterpretation of such universalised and standardised practices. In this case, aspects of the social and cultural context of Jeddah operates to intensify the biomedical model at the expense of respectful maternity care. In this article, field note data on the birth of one Saudi Arabian woman is used as an illustration of how the medicalisation of childbirth has been appropriated and reinterpreted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives

  3. Conservation in Saudi Arabia; moving from strategy to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichievy, Chris; Sheldon, Rob; Wacher, Tim; Llewellyn, Othman; Al-Mutairy, Mohammed; Alagaili, Abdulaziz

    2018-02-01

    Conservation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is relatively young, yet have made considerable gains in conservation through strategic proclamation and reintroductions. Changes in land use, illegal hunting and competition with domestic stock has decimated the native ungulates, meaning that the survival of the native ungulate species is now completely dependent on protected area network. The challenge is to sustain this network to make meaningful conservation impact into the future. We review the status of ungulate conservation in Saudi Arabia and highlight that the conservation strategy is well developed. The major challenge faced in conservation in Saudi Arabia now is to implement what has been sanctioned.

  4. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of dengue type 1 virus isolated from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Esam I; Hashem, Anwar M; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abol-Ela, Said; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Norah A; Ben-Helaby, Huda G; Ashshi, Ahmed; Madani, Tariq A; Jamjoom, Ghazi

    2015-01-16

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne viruses which can cause disease ranging from mild fever to severe dengue infection. These viruses are endemic in several tropical and subtropical regions. Multiple outbreaks of DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3) have been reported from the western region in Saudi Arabia since 1994. Strains from at least two genotypes of DENV-1 (Asia and America/Africa genotypes) have been circulating in western Saudi Arabia until 2006. However, all previous studies reported from Saudi Arabia were based on partial sequencing data of the envelope (E) gene without any reports of full genome sequences for any DENV serotypes circulating in Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the isolation and the first complete genome sequence of a DENV-1 strain (DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011) isolated from a patient from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2011. Whole genome sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and D1/H/IMTSSA/98/606 isolate (Asian genotype) reported from Djibouti in 1998. Further analysis of the full envelope gene revealed a close relationship between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and isolates reported between 2004-2006 from Jeddah as well as recent isolates from Somalia, suggesting the widespread of the Asian genotype in this region. These data suggest that strains belonging to the Asian genotype might have been introduced into Saudi Arabia long before 2004 most probably by African pilgrims and continued to circulate in western Saudi Arabia at least until 2011. Most importantly, these results indicate that pilgrims from dengue endemic regions can play an important role in the spread of new DENVs in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Therefore, availability of complete genome sequences would serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies of DENV-1 viruses.

  5. Revisiting the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS): The Anxiety of Female English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saraj, Taghreed M.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in globalization, the study of English has become common in Saudi Arabia, but students' experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) have been underexamined. Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries are culturally distinct from the Western world, where the most popular assessments of FLA were developed. Through a qualitative and…

  6. Assessment of Hypogonadism in Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study From Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abdullah Al Hayek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: A high incidence of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes (T2D has been globally reported. This study aimed to determining the frequency of hypogonadism and related risk factors among men with T2D in a single-site hospital in Saudi Arabia. Design and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 157 men with T2D (between 30 and 70 years of age. Using a prestructured questionnaire, the demographic features of these patients were gathered and their medical records were referred to gather information regarding the duration of the diabetes, smoking habits, and the presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Besides these, the biochemical parameters, total testosterone (TT, free testosterone, sex hormone–binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also recorded. All the patients submitted the fully completed Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM questionnaire. The combination of symptoms (positive ADAM score plus a TT level ⩽8 nmol/L constituted the condition of hypogonadism. Results: The total frequency of hypogonadism was 22.9% (36/157. Of the 157 total patients, 123 (78.3% were shown to be ADAM positive, and of these, 90 (73.2% exhibited decreased libido, 116 (94.3% had weak erections, and 99 (80.5% reported more than 3 symptoms of ADAM. Of these hypogonadic patients, 22.2% (n = 8 revealed primary hypogonadism, whereas 77.8% (n = 28 showed secondary hypogonadism. From the univariate analysis conducted, significant relationship was observed between treatment type, body mass index (BMI, and hypogonadism. The regression analysis showed BMI acting an independent risk factor of hypogonadism. Conclusions: Saudi men with T2D revealed a high incidence of hypogonadism. Body mass index was identified as an independent risk factor for hypogonadism.

  7. Assessment of Hypogonadism in Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study From Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hayek, Ayman Abdullah; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Alshammari, Ghazi; Hakami, Husain; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A high incidence of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been globally reported. This study aimed to determining the frequency of hypogonadism and related risk factors among men with T2D in a single-site hospital in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed on 157 men with T2D (between 30 and 70 years of age). Using a prestructured questionnaire, the demographic features of these patients were gathered and their medical records were referred to gather information regarding the duration of the diabetes, smoking habits, and the presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Besides these, the biochemical parameters, total testosterone (TT), free testosterone, sex hormone–binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also recorded. All the patients submitted the fully completed Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire. The combination of symptoms (positive ADAM score) plus a TT level ⩽8 nmol/L constituted the condition of hypogonadism. RESULTS The total frequency of hypogonadism was 22.9% (36/157). Of the 157 total patients, 123 (78.3%) were shown to be ADAM positive, and of these, 90 (73.2%) exhibited decreased libido, 116 (94.3%) had weak erections, and 99 (80.5%) reported more than 3 symptoms of ADAM. Of these hypogonadic patients, 22.2% (n = 8) revealed primary hypogonadism, whereas 77.8% (n = 28) showed secondary hypogonadism. From the univariate analysis conducted, significant relationship was observed between treatment type, body mass index (BMI), and hypogonadism. The regression analysis showed BMI acting an independent risk factor of hypogonadism. CONCLUSIONS Saudi men with T2D revealed a high incidence of hypogonadism. Body mass index was identified as an independent risk factor for hypogonadism. PMID:28579862

  8. A STUDY OF COLOR AS A MARKETING CUE IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar OmarAlkhamisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors have powerful effects and prompt reactions based on both instincts andconnotations. Colors have a subtle but pervasivelyeffective element in graphicdesign. Colors alter the meanings of the objects orsituations with which they areassociated and color inclinations can predict consumers’ behavior. Colors instilgraphic representations in packaging, advertising,and branding. Colors are alsoconsidered a significant part of our psychologicaland biological heritage. Thecultural and social trends greatly influence the meaning of a color. Therefore, it isboth challenging and rewarding to study the color psychology because of thevarious figurative meanings of colors in the various cultures. In this paper we willstudy the color psychology in marketing based on survey of 75 mostly Saudirespondents from different age groups and both genders. We will consider theimpact of color on dependability, quality and inexpensiveness of the items beingmarketed. We argue that a cultural perspective of color research and application isvital for developing marketing strategies for the Saudi market.

  9. Geotechnical studies for evaluation and limitations of environmental and engineering hazards that affect the economic infrastructure in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.

    2014-12-01

    Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas

  10. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham I Al-Khashan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%, and the southern region the lowest (27.5%. Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%, and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%. Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit.

  11. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwat, Obaidallah Buraykan; Alzahrani, Abdulrahman Ahmad; Alzhrani, Mohammed Abdullah; Alkhathami, Ali Mesfer; Mahfouz, Mohammad Eid Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal tract disease. The incidence is higher in Asian and Arab countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are few studies that have assessed the prevalence of GERD among some cities' communities. Hence, this study aims to study the prevalence of GERD among the general population of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of GERD among the community of Saudi Arabia. The sample was randomly gathered through self-administered validated GERD questionnaire (GerdQ) to diagnose GERD, during the period from November to December 2016. The sociodemographic data was assessed for all participants. The data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS); the t -test was used to assess the association of GERD and sociodemographic data. The sample was comprised of 2,043 participants. Female and male were 51.8% and 48.2%, respectively. Mean age was 29.6 years with the standard deviation of 10.5 years. The GERD prevalence was 28.7%. It was found statistically significant among divorced/widow (34.9%, P = 0.003). In contrast, there was no association between GERD's prevalence and gender, age, residence status, education level, occupation, and blood group (P > 0.05). The prevalence of GERD among Saudi population is higher than that in Western countries and East Asia. It affects divorced/widow, obese and those with a sedentary lifestyle. It is advocated that national programs and educational campaigns for prevention of this disease and its complications should be established.

  12. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background . Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion . The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  13. Eating Disorders Among Female Students of Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azeem Taha, Azza Ali; Abu-Zaid, Hany Ahmed; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia

    2018-03-01

    Eating disorders are a common health problem among adolescents, and females are especially vulnerable to them. There is lack of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in Saudi Arabia. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among female undergraduate university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in the female section at Taif university from November 1, 2016 to March 30, 2017. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of eating disorders. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students and their anthropometric measurements were assessed after obtaining their consent. The sample included 1200 university students with a median age of 21 years (range 17-33). Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationship between variables. Chi-squared test was used to compare items of the disordered eating attitudes and behaviors between positive and negative EAT respondents. Using the cutoff score of 20 on EAT-26 test, 35.4% of the students were classified at risk for eating disorders. Medical and obese students achieved the highest significant EAT scores. A high prevalence of eating disorders was found among females at Taif university, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our findings call for prevention of these disorders and we recommend establishing a national screening program among Saudi university female students for early detection and management of these problems. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant political and economic influence as the birthplace of the Islamic faith and by virtue of its large energy reserves...

  15. Barriers to the widespread adoption of health data standards: an exploratory qualitative study in tertiary healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Although health data standards are perceived to be the essential solution for interoperability barriers within medical IT systems, the level of adoption of those standards still remains frustratingly low. Little is known about the barriers facing their adoption within the healthcare organizations context. In addressing this gap in the literature, based on IT related standards adoption theories such as Diffusion of Innovation Theory and the theories surrounding the Economics of Standards, a qualitative multiple-case study was undertaken in Saudi Arabia to investigate those barriers. The results exposed that few standards were adopted because of four broad reasons, managerial, technical, educational and governmental. While some of the findings can be rooted to those related standards theories, others can be underpinned through the normative literature. Core barriers are the lack of a national regulator and a data exchange plan, and the lack of an adequate policy regarding medical IT systems and information management and national healthcare system; also important are technical barriers and the switching costs to the standards. The outcome of this study can be used in forming effective interventions when planning to use health data standards and, in particular those in developing countries.

  16. A Study of the Inter-Cultural Sensitivity among the Faculty of English Language Centre of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

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    Saeed Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available study explored intercultural sensitivity of 103 faculty members of the English Language Centre (ELC of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. A quantitative and non-experimental design was adopted for this study in which intercultural sensitivity of the English language teachers was evaluated on five demographic variables (e.g. gender, education, religion, total teaching experience, and experience of teaching in intercultural context. The results revealed that the international faculty of ELC abreast the basic canons of Intercultural adjustments. This suggests that the teachers are not only familiar with different cultural patterns (like beliefs, values and communication styles they are willing to minimize these differences and adopt universal set of values for effective educational practices. The results indicate the participants’ higher level of empathy, respect for others’ culture, tolerance on differences and high willingness to integrate with other cultures. The data reveals no statistically significant difference between the two groups in three variables, i.e. gender (Male & Female, qualification (Masters' & Ph.D and religion (Muslims & Non-Muslims. However, there was found a statistically significant difference in the two groups (Less than ten years & More than ten years in two variables, i.e. total teaching experience and teaching experience in intercultural context.

  17. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.

  18. Medical residents’ attitudes and emotions related to Middle East respiratory syndrome in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study

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    Turki Aldrees

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine medical residents’ emotions, attitudes, and knowledge related to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS outbreaks. Methods: In this is a cross sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were distributed and collected before resident education activities in 4 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between November 2015 and January 2016. The questionnaire included questions related to residents’ demographic data and their emotions, attitudes, and knowledge related to an MERS outbreak. Results: Of the 228 participants analyzed, 85.5% believed their work put them at risk of infection, and two-thirds believed their family was exposed to a greater risk of infection. However, only 2.6% would change their job. Nearly half of the residents indicated that their hospital had a clear plan, and only 28% considered themselves not well prepared for an MERS outbreak. Conclusions: Our study highlights medical residents’ attitude and emotions related to MERS outbreaks. Residents’ concerns and emotions in relation to MERS should be considered in greater detail by hospital policymakers.

  19. Dentists awareness and action towards domestic violence patients. A cross-sectional study among dentists in Western Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa S. AlAlyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the potential factors that would predict a dentist’s awareness of domestic violence (DV, as well as the factors that influence the probability of dentists to take the required action. Also, to list the common barriers that dentists face when managing DV victims. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered, structured questionnaire was sent randomly to dentists practicing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The online survey link was emailed with a cover message that illustrated the study context. Responses were accepted from January 2016 until the end of February 2016. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis carried out to identify significant variables at p<0.05 level of significance. Results: A sample size of 151 responses were recruited. The result of multivariate models indicated that the odds of dentists’ awareness and taking actions towards DV victims were influenced by their education, clinical experience, gender, practicing sector, and qualification. Lack of training in identifying DV and embarrassment to bring up DV with patients were the most common barriers for the respondents when treating DV victims. Conclusion: Continuing education with regards to DV was found to be the most relevant predictor. More educational courses in this regard would empower dentists to support DV victims.

  20. Dentists awareness and action towards domestic violence patients. A cross-sectional study among dentists in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAlyani, Wafa S; Alshouibi, Ehab N

    2017-01-01

    To identify the potential factors that would predict a dentist's awareness of domestic violence (DV), as well as the factors that influence the probability of dentists to take the required action. Also, to list the common barriers that dentists face when managing DV victims. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered, structured questionnaire was sent randomly to dentists practicing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The online survey link was emailed with a cover message that illustrated the study context. Responses were accepted from January 2016 until the end of February 2016. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis carried out to identify significant variables at p less than 0.05 level of significance.  Results: A sample size of 151 responses were recruited. The result of multivariate models indicated that the odds of dentists' awareness and taking actions towards DV victims were influenced by their education, clinical experience, gender, practicing sector, and qualification. Lack of training in identifying DV and embarrassment to bring up DV with patients were the most common barriers for the respondents when treating DV victims. Conclusion: Continuing education with regards to DV was found to be the most relevant predictor. More educational courses in this regard would empower dentists to support DV victims.

  1. A pilot study of faith healers' views on evil eye, jinn possession, and magic in the kingdom of saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habeeb, Tariq A

    2003-09-01

    Faith healers usually offer unorthodox therapies to their clients who present with an array of physical and psychological symptoms suggestive of the evil eye, jinn possession, and magic. This exploratory pilot study aims to analyse the pattern of narrated symptoms and treatments given by faith healers practising in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Forty five faith healers who consented to this study were given a predesigned, self-administered, semistructured questionnaire to collect the relevant data. Notably, most faith healers have a poor repertoire of psychiatric symptoms, which could not specifically differentiate the three spiritual disorders. They tend to recommend an array of therapies rooted in religious concepts for the treatment of their clients who, they claim, show substantial improvement in their mental suffering. The revealed symptomatology of each disorder alone may not be specific but it certainly helps them not only to identify these disorders but also to prescribe unconventional therapies. Future research should look systematically into the diagnostic and treatment methods for these disorders.

  2. A PILOT STUDY OF FAITH HEALERS’ VIEWS ON EVIL EYE, JINN POSSESSION, AND MAGIC IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habeeb, Tariq A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Faith healers usually offer unorthodox therapies to their clients who present with an array of physical and psychological symptoms suggestive of the evil eye, jinn possession, and magic. Objective: This exploratory pilot study aims to analyse the pattern of narrated symptoms and treatments given by faith healers practising in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Method: Forty five faith healers who consented to this study were given a predesigned, self-administered, semistructured questionnaire to collect the relevant data. Results: Notably, most faith healers have a poor repertoire of psychiatric symptoms, which could not specifically differentiate the three spiritual disorders. They tend to recommend an array of therapies rooted in religious concepts for the treatment of their clients who, they claim, show substantial improvement in their mental suffering. Conclusion: The revealed symptomatology of each disorder alone may not be specific but it certainly helps them not only to identify these disorders but also to prescribe unconventional therapies. Future research should look systematically into the diagnostic and treatment methods for these disorders. PMID:23012035

  3. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnot Ubaldo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a concepts about pregnancy and health care, b experience with health services and health providers, and c opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

  4. Urban Unrest and Non-Religious Radicalization in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Menoret , Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The expressions of dissent in contemporary Saudi Arabia, whether through violent action or ideological and theological constructions, are well documented today. The very contexts within which violence appears and develops are less well known. If it is essential to read and analyse the Islamic discourses and to observe and interpret the history of Islamic activism in Saudi Arabia, such an elitist focus may overlook more discrete events that might explain the way ordinary people refer to state ...

  5. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  6. Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah Government Hospitals: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

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    Hasan Salih Suliman Al-Qudah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospital care broadly covers and encompasses complete range of personal health service like promotion of health service, prevention of disease, early detection of disease, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation of the patient. This study will try to identify the" Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah government hospitals: Case Study of Saudi Arabia”. The study will examine the demographic aspects of employees (Gender and experience and the value of what can deferent training programmes can have deep impact on their performance. The total study sample was 291 of identify employees, but 275 were suitable for statistical analysis, descriptive and analytical approach was also used to achieve the study objectives. The study major finding that there was a medium degree of effective and efficient training programs held’s in Jeddah public hospitals, also the study found that there are no statistically significant differences at  α ≤ 0.05 related to training of human resources. The study has recommended the need to improve employee’s skills in Jeddah government hospitals through actual employees participation at any training courses on a regular basis, also there is a need for continue training program for employee’s to qualify them at any future development in the deferent department of  the  hospital.

  7. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  8. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Adgaba, Nuru; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Al-Maktary, Anwer A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations ( P  bee colonies were able to hoard three times more ( P  pollen and built more ( P  bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double ( P  bees had greater ( P  bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year's adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  9. Automatic Classification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery - a Case Study for Urban Areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, A.; Alrajhi, M.; Alobeid, A.; Heipke, C.

    2017-05-01

    Updating topographic geospatial databases is often performed based on current remotely sensed images. To automatically extract the object information (labels) from the images, supervised classifiers are being employed. Decisions to be taken in this process concern the definition of the classes which should be recognised, the features to describe each class and the training data necessary in the learning part of classification. With a view to large scale topographic databases for fast developing urban areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia we conducted a case study, which investigated the following two questions: (a) which set of features is best suitable for the classification?; (b) what is the added value of height information, e.g. derived from stereo imagery? Using stereoscopic GeoEye and Ikonos satellite data we investigate these two questions based on our research on label tolerant classification using logistic regression and partly incorrect training data. We show that in between five and ten features can be recommended to obtain a stable solution, that height information consistently yields an improved overall classification accuracy of about 5%, and that label noise can be successfully modelled and thus only marginally influences the classification results.

  10. A detailed study on chemical characterization of essential oil components of two Plectranthus species grown in Saudi Arabia

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    Merajuddin Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Plectranthus arabicus grown in Saudi Arabia were analyzed using gas chromatography techniques (GC–MS, GC–FID, Co-GC, LRI determination, and database and literature searches using two different stationary phase columns (polar and nonpolar. The analysis led to the characterization of a total of 157 different compounds from both oils. In the oil derived from P. cylindraceus, 79 compounds were identified, whereas 132 compounds were identified in the oil derived from P. arabicus; these compounds account for 95.2% and 98.4% of the total oil compositions, respectively. The major constituents of P. cylindraceus oil were patchouli alcohol (55.5 ± 0.01%, 1,8-cineole (6.0 ± 0.01% and valerianol (3.8 ± 0.18%, whereas, the main compounds of the P. arabicus oil were 1,8-cineole (50.5 ± 1.37%, β-pinene (7.0 ± 0.08%, camphor (6.3 ± 0.19% and β-myrcene (4.1 ± 0.10%. To the best of our knowledge, patchouli alcohol found in high concentration in the P. cylindraceus oil has never been reported from the genus Plectranthus. Moreover, this is the first phytochemical study of P. arabicus.

  11. A study on the radon concentrations in water in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and the associated health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, Z.A.; Kinsara, A.R.; Farid, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have shown that water-borne 222 Rn contributes to indoor air concentrations. A passive radon measurement method was employed to determine radon activity concentrations in the water of Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia). Tap water, flushing water and drinking water, including natural mineral water, artificial mineral water and distilled water, have been investigated for their radon concentrations. It is observed that the radon concentration in natural mineral water samples is the highest and that in flush water, it is the lowest. From these measurements, the corresponding annual effective dose for the stomach and the lung are determined. It is found that the annual effective dose resulting from direct consumption of water is far greater than that due to inhalation of radon emanated from tap water and flushing water. Moreover, it is also seen that the annual effective dose resulting from inhalation of radon emanated from tap water and flushing water is negligible compared to the total annual effective dose for indoor radon in Jeddah. (author)

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene TCF7L2 is strongly associated with hyperglycemia in the Saudi Arabia Population of the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Al-Elq, A; Al-Nafaie, A; Muzaheed, M; Al-Ali, A

    2015-08-01

    We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7903146, rs12255372 and rs4506565 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility gene, transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) with T2DM among the population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. In a case-control study, blood samples were collected from 359 T2DM patients and 351 age and sex-matched normoglycemic controls. Genotyping was done by allele specific PCR assay. Our results revealed a strong association between risk T alleles in variants rs12255372 (OR: G/T=1.4233; T/T=2.0395) and rs4506565 (OR: A/T=1.6066; T/T=3.1301) and T2DM among the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This is the first time that this association has been identified in a Saudi population. However, a common variant, rs7903146, often found to be associated with T2DM in other populations failed to demonstrate any association to T2DM with the present population. These data further strengthens the hypothesis that Saudi populations might carry a distinct risk allele in T2DM susceptibility gene TCF7L2. The present results confirm that rs12255372 and rs4506565 variants of TCF7L2 show an association, but not rs7903146, with T2DM for the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Aging in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study of Contemporary Older Persons' Views About Daily Life, Health, and the Experience of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nancy J; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults' own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  14. The relationship of bullying and physical violence to mental health and academic performance: A cross-sectional study among adolescents in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia AlBuhairan

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Bullying and physical violence among adolescent students in Saudi Arabia is prevalent and deserves special attention due to its harmful impact on the other aspects of students’ wellbeing.

  15. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S; Amin, Rubina

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims at presenting details of the application of assisted reproductive technology and the impact of the Islamic law (Sharia) on its practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Analysis of the data sourced from manual searches of bibliographies from key articles showed that this technology in KSA is practiced in a strictly religious manner and certain aspects of the technology are completely forbidden. It further showed that lack of an official government in-vitro fertilization (IVF) registry to gather information on the activities of IVF clinics has limited the data available for international comparisons. Sharing information internationally could allow religiously concerned infertile couples to have access to the reproductive services in the Kingdom. It would further improve the quality of care, enhance certain techniques like in-vitro maturation and experimentation on embryos, by providing resources that are currently unavailable, keeping in view the religious beliefs and avoiding conflicts.

  17. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of major congenital anomalies in Saudi Arabia: A hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Al-Hoshan, Manal S.; Attyyaa, Rehman A.; Al-Suleimat, Abdelmane A.

    2008-01-01

    The exact antenatal prevalence of congenital anomalies in Saudi society is unknown. Early antenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies is crucial for early counseling, intervention and possible fetal therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antenatal frequency of major congenital anomalies and malformations patterns in our hospital population and to evaluate the outcome and perinatal mortality rates for major congenital anomalies. This was a prospective study of the antenatal diagnosis of major fetal congenital anomalies conducted in the ultrasound Department of the Women's Specialized Hospital at King Fahd Medical City from for 7762 patients and 5379 babies delivered in our institution. We diagnosed 217 cases of fetal anomalies. The antenatal prevalence of congenital anomalies was 27.96 per 1000. The median maternal age at diagnosis was 27.5 years. Te median gestational age at diagnosis was 31 weeks. Genitourinary and cranial anomalies were the commonest; for 186 patients delivered in our institution, the birth prevalence was 34.57 per 1000 births. The median gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. The perinatal mortality arte was 34.9% (65/186), including all cases of intrauterine fetal and neonatal deaths. The prevalence of major congenital anomalies in our population appears to be similar to international figures. Major congenital anomalies are a major cause of perinatal mortality. (author)

  18. A Study of the Spelling Errors committed by Students of English in Saudi Arabia: Exploration and Remedial Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Paikar Fatima Mazhar Hameed

    2016-01-01

    The craziness of English spelling has undeniably perplexed learners, especially in an EFL context as in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In these situations, among other obstacles, learners also have to tackle the perpetual and unavoidable problem of MT interference. Sadly, this perplexity takes the shape of a real problem in the language classroom where the English teacher has a tough time rationalizing with the learners why ‘cough’ is not spelt as /kuf/ or ‘knee’ has to do with a silent /k/. It...

  19. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    rights. 21 Ambassador Chas Freeman, President of the Middle East Policy Council, served as U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1989 to 1992. Tabassum ...U.S. Policymakers Conference, Washington, DC, October 15, 2009. 24 Tabassum Zakaria, “Analysis—Saudi smile likely for Bush on oil plea, not more

  20. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions…

  1. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Abanmy

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  2. The ecological context of child health in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenius, F; Hofvander, Y

    1988-01-01

    The general background to child health in Saudi Arabia is reviewed. Information is provided on the social and demographic characteristics of the population, on common health indicators, on the health care system and its utilization, and on the general pattern of childhood morbidity and mortality. The unprecendented socioeconomic development has transformed the health care system. In 15 years the number of nurses have increased from 3261 to 29896, physicians from 1172 to 14335, primary health care centers from 591 to 1821, and hospital beds from 9036 to 30707. In spite of this progress, the disease pattern seems to resemble that of some developing countries with more limited resources. Parasitic diseases are still widespread, and sample surveys have indicated suboptimal nutrition of rural preschool children. Recent estimates on the infant mortality rate have ranged from 65 to 120 per 1000 live births. The preferred marriage partner is a close relative, and genetic diseases, such as hemoglobin disorders, are common in certain areas. Thus, the prevalence of alpha thalassemia is reported at 50 percent, and the sickle cell trait at 4.4-20 percent in sample surveys from the Eastern Province. The modest educational attainment of the mother, the heavy reliance on foreign manpower in all sectors, including the health sector, and the further development of the primary health care system are key issues today. It is emphasized that demographic and epidemiological information from Saudi Arabia is scarce and frequently uncertain, and that further studies are needed to identify the health needs of Saudi children.

  3. Effect of price and information on the food choices of women university students in Saudi Arabia: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimic, Aida; Gage, Heather; Raats, Monique; Williams, Peter

    2018-04-01

    To explore the impact of price manipulation and healthy eating information on intended food choices. Health information was provided to a random half of subjects (vs. information on Saudi agriculture). Each subject chose from the same lunch menu, containing two healthy and two unhealthy entrees, deserts and beverages, on five occasions. Reference case prices were 5, 3 and 2 Saudi Arabian Reals (SARs). Prices of healthy and unhealthy items were manipulated up (taxed) and down (subsidized) by 1 SAR in four menu variations (random order); subjects were given a budget enabling full choice within any menu. The number of healthy food choices were compared with different price combinations, and between information groups. Linear regression modelling explored the effect of relative prices of healthy/unhealthy options and information on number of healthy choices controlling for dietary behaviours and hunger levels. University campus, Saudi Arabia, 2013. 99 women students. In the reference case, 49.5% of choices were for healthy items. When the price of healthy items was reduced, 58.5% of selections were healthy; 57.2% when the price of unhealthy items rose. In regression modelling, reducing the price of healthy items and increasing the price of unhealthy items increased the number of healthy choices by 5% and 6% respectively. Students reporting a less healthy usual diet selected significantly fewer healthy items. Providing healthy eating information was not a significant influence. Price manipulation offers potential for altering behaviours to combat rising youth obesity in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qari, Faiza A.; Maimani, Abdulroaf A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated

  5. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  6. Communicating with cancer patients in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, D; Moreau, P; Ezzat, A; Gray, A

    1997-02-20

    The following factors are relevant to the communication problems that exist in this country: 1. The impression is that patients here cope better with terminal illness at home than do patients elsewhere. The extended family, with its strong ties, and the strong Islamic faith that encourages its members to provide for parents and children in case of need mean that any input by health professionals is magnified by the family in the care of the patient. At first, it was uncertain if foreign health professionals would be accepted into Saudi homes (which are intensely private and protected for the family) for the purpose of caring for patients. This has proved unfounded. Hospitality is a very important part of Saudi society; nurses and doctors are welcomed and respected. Much of this success is due to the use of Saudi men as drivers and translators. These people provide 24-hour service, act as social workers assessing the needs of the family, and are the link between the patient and family, the nurse, and the doctor. 2. "CURE" OR "PALLIATION": The emphasis for cancer patients in Saudi Arabia is still on "curative treatment," even after any realistic hope of a cure is gone. The problem this causes is compounded by many patients being excluded from the decision-making process. Decisions made by the family may not always reflect the patient's wishes. Greater communication is needed to guide treatment decisions. 3. TRUTH-TELLING: Denying information of the patient's illness is probably more a historical than a cultural phenomenon. Similar attitudes prevailed until very recently in practically all other countries. In this very conservative country, people are committed to preserving Islamic culture in the face of Western technology. As medicine continues to demonstrate its effectiveness as well as its limitations, people will come to realize that the right of patients to know and understand their illness allows them to cope much better, and is compatible with the

  7. Barriers to effective feedback in undergraduate medical education: Case study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrebish, Saleh Ali

    2018-01-01

    Students' feedback is an essential source of data for evaluation and improvement of the quality of education. Nonetheless, feedback may be routinely practised for accreditation purposes, and it is considered as a ritual employed by students, which makes its effectiveness questionable. The aim of this study is to explore and analyze the students' perceptions about the importance of feedback and the barriers for effective feedback and suggest proper ways to overcome these barriers. This cross-sectional, anonymous, questionnaire-based study was conducted in the College of Medicine, Qassim University. A total of 299 medical students, composed of 185 male and 114 female, from different levels during December 2015 participated. Mean value, standard deviation, and proportion were used to quantify the quantitative and categorical study and outcome variables. 47% of students responded to the questionnaire with more participation of juniors and females. Half of the students believed that feedback is not important and agreed for the presence of barriers for effective feedback. 5 th level students exhibited higher resistance for participation in feedback, and there was a significant difference between male and female students. Promisingly, most of the participant did not believe the presence cultural barrier for feedback. Saudi medical students are willing to involve in effective feedback. Some barriers that make feedback practised as tokenistic is present. They can be overcome through proper orientation and appropriate closing the loop with response to the feedback declared to students. Further investigation is needed to explore barriers to feedback in higher education settings and help designing an approach to enhance the effectiveness of feedback on a national level.

  8. Research progress and prospects of Saudi Arabia in global medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Hassan, A; Usmani, A M

    2013-12-01

    Since last decade, Saudi Arabia has been swiftly moving ahead to promote an education and research in the country. This study aimed to investigate the research outcome of Saudi Arabia in medical sciences during the period 1996-2012. In this study, the research papers published in various global science journals during the period 1996-2012 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with Saudi Arabia. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters and SCI-mago/Scopus. In global science data base, Saudi Arabia contributed 103804 documents in all science and social sciences. In medicine the total number of research papers from Saudi Arabia are 16196, citable documents 14732, total citations 102827, citations per documents 6.36 and Hirsch index (h-index) is 92. However, in combined medical and allied health sciences the total number of research papers are 27246, citable documents 25416, total citations 181999, mean citations per documents 7.07 and mean h-index is 41.44. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research documents in ISI indexed journals only and also 151 research documents in highly reputable and towering science journals. Saudi Arabia's research performance in global medical sciences has markedly increased during the period 2006-2012. The research publications are continuously on mounting path; however, the number of citations has decreased. The country improved its regional as well as international research rankings and graded 45 in the world in year 2012.

  9. Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A vision of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Asiri, Yousef; Albogami, Yaser; Spratto, George; Alshehri, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for

  10. Pattern of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children living in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jameela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS remains a challenge facing pediatric nephrologists. The underlying histopathology usually affects the course of the disease and the response to treatment. We studied the pattern of histopathology in children with SRNS who presented to the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital (KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The records of all children with primary SRNS, who were seen between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Only patients who had undergone a renal biopsy were included in the study. The histopathology slides were reviewed by two renal pathologists independently. Patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome, lupus or sickle cell disease, were excluded from the study. Thirty-six children fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and included 25 girls and 11 boys with female to male ratio of 2.3:1. Fifty percent of the children (n=18 were Saudi and the remaining 50% were from various other racial backgrounds (9 Asians, 4 Arabs, 2 Africans and 3 from the Far East. Their mean age at presentation was 4.3 ± 3.0 years (range 1-12 years. The mean serum albumin at presentation was 15.6 ± 7.1 g/L and all of them had 4+ proteinuria on urinalysis. Five children had elevated serum creatinine at presentation while the mean serum creatinine was 50.4 ± 45.6 µmol/L. Three children had low serum complement levels at presentation and none were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen or antinuclear antibody (ANA. The renal histopathology was compatible with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS in 39% (n=14, IgM nephro-pathy in 28% (n=10, mesengioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN in 17% (n=6, mini-mal change disease (MCD and C1q nephropathy (C1qNP in 8% each (n=3 + 3 and IgA nephro-pathy in 3% (n=1. Our retrospective review shows that FSGS was the commonest underlying histopathology in children who presented with SRNS followed by IgM nephropathy and other variants of MCD such as MesPGN. C1qNP was the underlying cause in some

  11. Causes of uveitis at a referral center in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam Hussein; Elkum, Naser; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the causes of uveitis at the Eye Center in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective review. The causes of uveitis were analyzed according to various patient characteristics. A total of 488 cases were encountered. The age range was 3 to 99 years (mean age: 38 years). The most common causes of uveitis included anterior uveitis 60%, panuveitis 24%, posterior uveitis 11%, and intermediate uveitis 6%. The authors found a high prevalence of acute anterior nongranulomatous uveitis. The most commonly encountered infectious uveitis included herpes virus, tuberculosis, and toxoplasmosis.

  12. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Beheiry, M.A.H

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  13. Human sensitization to Prosopis juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Frayh, A; Hasnain, S M; Gad-El-Rab, M O; Al-Turki, T; Al-Mobeireek, K; Al-Sedairy, S T

    1999-01-01

    Allergenicity to Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported from only a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. In some parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by the millions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasons during which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role of Prosopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or triggering agent of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has never been evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from bronchial asthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf and Gizan), and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university and Ministry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis juliflora allergens. Airborne pollen grains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetric sampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29% in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiple sensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. The level of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m -3 of air. In view of the documented evidence of Prosopis-involved allergenicity, the role of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizing factor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However, the cause of elicitation of symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the question of cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitro confirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopis as one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia.

  14. Integration of simulation in postgraduate studies in Saudi Arabia: The current practice in anesthesia training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Arab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational programs in the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties are developing rapidly in the fields of technical development. Such development is witnessed, particularly in the scientific areas related to what is commonly known as evidence-based medicine. This review highlights the critical need and importance of integrating simulation into anesthesia training and assessment. Furthermore, it describes the current utilization of simulation in anesthesia and critical care assessment process.

  15. Acid leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: kinetic and thermodynamics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorouq I. Alghanmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban soils polluted with heavy metals are of increasing concern because it is greatly affecting human health and the ecological systems. Hence, it is mandatory to understand the reasons behind this pollution and remediate the contaminated solid. The removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil samples collected from the vicinity of the sewage lake in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was explored. The leaching process was studied kinetically and thermodynamically for better understanding of the remediation process. The results showed that the soil samples were slightly basic in nature, and tend to be more neutral away from the main contaminated sewage lake area. The total metal content in the soil samples was measured using the aqua regia extractions by ICP-OES and the results showed that many of the heavy metals present have significant concentrations above the tolerable limits. In general, the metal concentrations at different sites indicated that the heavy metal pollution is mainly due to the sewage discharge to the lake. The results showed excellent correlation between the concentrations of Co, As, and Hg with the distance from the main contaminated area. The leaching of Co, As, and Hg using 1.0 M hydrochloric acid from the soil was studied kinetically at different temperatures and the experimental results were fitted using different kinetics models. The experimental data were best described with two-constant rate and Elovich equation kinetic models. Also, the thermodynamic study showed that the leaching process was spontaneous, endothermic and accompanied with increase in the entropy. In general, the polluted soil could be remediated successfully from the heavy metals using the acid leaching procedure in a short period of time.

  16. Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, S. I.

    2012-04-01

    We have carried out a seismic noise study in order to understand the noise level at three selected locations at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The main purpose is to select a suitable site with low seismic noise and good signal-to-noise ratio for our new broadband seismic station. There are several factors involved in the selection of a site location for a new station. Most importantly, we need to strike a balance between a logistically convenient site versus a technically suitable site. As a starting point, we selected six potential sites due to accessibility and proximity to the seismic processing center laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences (ESD) at KFUPM. We then eliminated two sites that are relatively close to possible low-frequency noise sources. We have considered many possible noise sources which include: vehicle traffic / heavy machinery, the direct path of air flowing from air conditioning vent, tall trees / power poles and metal doorways. One more site was eliminated because the site was located in the open where it experiences maximum wind speed which is considered a major source of noise. All three potential sites are situated within the Dammam Dome where both lower middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. The upper Rus is mainly made up of fine grained chalky limestone and the lower Rus is made up of alternation of marls and thin dolomitic limestone. The area is not known for any major faults and considered very low seismicity and hence the identification of seismoteconic features is not required. Before conducting the noise study, we calibrated and tested the seismic recording system, which was recently acquired by the ESD at KFUPM. The system includes a seismic recorder and a sensor with a GPS device. We deployed the system in order to measure the low-frequency background noise. Knowing the low frequency noise will help in predicting the high-frequency noise. The recording systems were

  17. A prospective study of congenital malformations among live born neonates at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Al-Aama, J.; Nichols, W.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to estimate the incidence of major and minor congenital malformations among live born infants at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Estimation of risk factors was also evaluated. Between March 2004 and May 2005, a total of 5356 babies born at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, were enrolled in this study for malformations. Details of cases were recorded after parent's interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. One hundred and forty-seven (27.06/1000 livebirth) and 13 (2.39/1000 birth) stillbirth have congenital anomalies. In all livebirth, incidences of major anomalies were 93.9% and minor were 6.1%. Mothers of 95.9% with congenital malformation were healthy, 3.4% were diabetic and 0.7% had cardiac malformation. In 38.8% of cases parents were consanguineous. Among the liveborn births, the most common system involved was cardiovascular (7.1/1000), followed by musculoskeletal/limb (4.1/1000), external genitilia (2.8/1000), urinary (2.6/1000),multiple chromosomal (2.2/1000), orofacial (1.9/1000), central nervous system (1.9/1000), skin (1.7/1000), multiple single gene (1.3/1000), multiple sequence (0.75/1000), eyes (0.56/1000), unclassified (0.19/1000), musculoskeletal/abdominal (0.19/1000), endocrine (0.19/1000). High incidence of major malformation was found in Jeddah. Importance of Genetic Counseling is revealed in our study since more than three quarters of mothers were under 36 years and may well plan future pregnancies. (author)

  18. A pragmatic approach to study the groundwater quality suitability for domestic and agricultural usage, Saq aquifer, northwest of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Yousef; Ahmed, Izrar; Al-Arifi, Nassir S N; Ghrefat, Habes; Zaidi, Faisal K; El-Waheidi, Mahmud M; Batayneh, Awni; Zumlot, Taisser

    2014-08-01

    The present study deals with detailed hydrochemical assessment of groundwater within the Saq aquifer. The Saq aquifer which extends through the NW part of Saudi Arabia is one of the major sources of groundwater supply. Groundwater samples were collected from about 295 groundwater wells and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), and NO3 (-). Groundwater in the area is slightly alkaline and hard in nature. Electrical conductivity (EC) varies between 284 and 9,902 μS/cm with an average value of 1,599.4 μS/cm. The groundwater is highly mineralized with approximately 30 % of the samples having major ion concentrations above the WHO permissible limits. The NO3 (-) concentration varies between 0.4 and 318.2 mg/l. The depth distribution of NO3 (-) concentration shows higher concentration at shallow depths with a gradual decrease at deeper depths. As far as drinking water quality criteria are concerned, study shows that about 33 % of samples are unfit for use. A detailed assessment of groundwater quality in relation to agriculture use reveals that 21 % samples are unsuitable for irrigation. Using Piper's classification, groundwater was classified into five different groups. Majority of the samples show Mix-Cl-SO4- and Na-Cl-types water. The abundances of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) over alkalis infer mixed type of groundwater facies and reverse exchange reactions. The groundwater has acquired unique chemical characteristics through prolonged rock-water interactions, percolation of irrigation return water, and reactions at vadose zone.

  19. Pediatric hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Shaea A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the levels of blood pressure (BP) between male and female adolescents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and reference percentiles for Saudi adolescents. A secondary aim was to explore the distribution of BP among the participants based on age and gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 146 boys and girls attending intermediate and secondary schools in 2 regions (Al-Mallaha and Al-Mubarraz) in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Weight, random blood glucose, and BP were collected by a team of health educators in the morning of the school day between April and May 2014. Results: Of the current sample of adolescents originally from the Eastern Province, 30% had systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥140 mm Hg and 22% had diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. For girls between 13 and 16 years old, the SBP was greater than the 95th percentile of Saudi national norms. Participants were classified by gender and school stage, and one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the means of SBP between intermediate boys (127±2.5 mm Hg) and secondary boys (136±2.1 mm Hg) (p<0.05), and between intermediate boys and intermediate girls (138±1.6 mm Hg) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The increased level of BP among adolescents originally from the Eastern Province raises the need to update the current BP nomograms, considering possible differences for specific geographic areas across the country. Implementing therapeutic life style management in girls’ schools is recommended. PMID:25987114

  20. The proportion of expenditure on children to family’s income in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Banawi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has witnessed enormous socio-economic changes for the last two decades. Due to this, the standard living of most Saudi people has been improved noticeably. Accordingly, that affects on the consumption expenditure of the Saudi family particularly on the children which has been increased substantially. However, no studies with respect to cost of children have yet been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This study is to estimate the proportion of expenditure on children, to family’s income in Saudi Arabia by estimating the cost of children in Saudi Arabia; using Jeddah as a case study. In the study, the cost of children is taken to be money expenditure that is the amount that parents actually spent on their children. The study involves a sample of (1500 respondents from the city of Jeddah. Also, explores attitudes and opinions towards certain topics related to cost of children and the family. The study highlights that cost of children rise proportionately to family income, children age, and their numbers.

  1. An evaluation of E. coli in urinary tract infection in emergency department at KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; Aleanizy, Fadilah S

    2018-02-09

    Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), cefazolin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin, and cefpodoxime was determined for 101 E. coli urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen contributing to UTIS representing 93.55, 60.24, and 45.83% of all pathogen isolated from urine culture of pediatric, adult, and elderly, respectively. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (82.76, 58, and 63.64%) and co-trimoxazole (51.72, 42, and 59.09%), among E. coli isolated from pediatric, adult and elderly respectively. Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent, followed by ciprofloxacin, augmentin and cefazolin. 22.77% of E. coli isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR). Among 66 and 49 isolates resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, respectively, 34.84 and 42.85% were MDR. In contrast, all isolates resistant to augmentin and nitrofurantoin were MRD, while 72.7 and 82.4% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin were MDR. High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.

  2. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each for one year (April 2013 through March 2014, and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0.05 than introduced honeybee colonies and produced more (P < 0.05 honey. The local bee colonies were able to hoard three times more (P < 0.05 pollen and built more (P < 0.05 queen cells than introduced bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double (P < 0.05 than that of introduced honeybee colonies. Moreover, local bees had greater (P < 0.05 adult bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year’s adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  3. Diet, Physical Activity, Marital Status and Risk of Cancer: A Case Control Study of Adults from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaeed, Eyad Fawzi; Tunio, Mutahir A

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the dietary habits, engagement in various sports, smoking habits, marital status and other demographic characteristics, between cancer patients and healthy adults (control) at our institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 500 participants (237 cancer patients and 263 healthy adults). A well-structured questionnaire was given to these participants regarding the life style, dietary habits, and marital status through interviews. Mean age of whole cohort was 39.3 years (range: 14-85). Among the cancer patients, breast cancer was predominant (45.6%). Compared to controls, higher percentage of married (72.6% vs. 55.5%) and divorced (10.2% vs.4.2%) was noticed in cancer patients (P = 0.002). In cancer patients, majority were unemployed (housewives = 49.3%; retired = 16.0%) as compared to controls (housewives = 14.1%; retired = 2.0%) P = 0.0001. Use of computer laptops/tablets and internet surfing was significantly higher in controls as compared to cancer patients (80.3% vs. 42.2%) P = 0.0001. Similarly, cancer patients started smoking at early age and were relatively heavy smokers with P = 0.03 and P = 0.001 respectively. Cancer patients consumed < 3 cups of coffee/day as compared to control (42.4% vs. 21.5%) P = 0.02. More cancer patients got married at early age between 11-20 years (58.7% vs. 37.7%) P = 0.01. Unemployment, marital status, lack of nutritional knowledge through internet, heavy smoking, heavy coffee consumption and early age at marriage were associated with the risk of various cancers in both genders.

  4. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  5. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A

    2006-02-15

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.

  6. Changes in dietary habits, physical activity and status of metabolic syndrome among expatriates in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Mandil, Ahmed A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Ullah, Anhar A

    2018-03-05

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.

  7. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Computing in the Government Sector: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Majed alsanea; Jennifer Barth

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing technology can play an important role in the public sector organisations since it decreases the cost of using information technology (IT) services and also has several other benefits. This paper aims to examine a range of factors affecting the cloud computing adoption by governments. In a case study of Saudi government organasations, a survey was conducted and four Saudi organisations participated in the study. The survey was theoretically designed based on the literature. An ...

  8. Ground Motion Prediction Equations for Western Saudi Arabia from a Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, R.; Mooney, W. D.; Mori, J. J.; Zahran, H. M.; Al-Raddadi, W.; Youssef, S.

    2017-12-01

    Western Saudi Arabia is surrounded by several active seismic zones such as the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba where a destructive magnitude 7.3 event occurred in 1995. Over the last decade, the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has deployed a dense seismic network that has made it possible to monitor seismic activity more accurately. For example, the network has detected multiple seismic swarms beneath the volcanic fields in western Saudi Arabia. The most recent damaging event was a M5.7 earthquake that occurred in 2009 at Harrat Lunayyir. In terms of seismic hazard assessment, Zahran et al. (2015; 2016) presented a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) for western Saudi Arabia that was developed using published Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) from areas outside of Saudi Arabia. In this study, we consider 41 earthquakes of M 3.0 - 5.4, recorded on 124 stations of the SGS network, to create a set of 442 peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) records with a range of epicentral distances from 3 km to 400 km. We use the GMPE model BSSA14 (Boore et al., 2014) as a reference model to estimate our own best-fitting coefficients from a regression analysis using the events occurred in western Saudi Arabia. For epicentral distances less than 100 km, our best fitting model has different source scaling in comparison with the GMPE of BSSA14 adjusted for the California region. In addition, our model indicates that the peak amplitudes have less attenuation in western Saudi Arabia than in California.

  9. Leadership style and organisational commitment among nursing staff in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yami, Mansour; Galdas, Paul; Watson, Roger

    2018-03-23

    To examine how nurse managers' leadership styles, and nurses' organisational commitment in Saudi Arabia relate. Effective leadership is influential in staff retention; however, recruiting and maintaining nurses is an increasing problem in Saudi Arabia. Using a survey design, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire were distributed to a sample of 219 nurses and nurse managers from two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Transformational leadership was the most dominant leadership style. After controlling for the influence of manager/staff status, nationality and hospitals, transformational leadership was the strongest contributor to organisational commitment. Perceptions of both transformational and transactional leadership styles, increased with age for nurse managers and nursing staff. Introducing the Full Range of Leadership model to the Saudi nursing workforce could help to prepare Saudi nurses for positions as nurse managers and leaders. The study provides insight into the type of leadership that is best suited to the dynamic and changing health care system in Saudi Arabia. It is possible that transformational leaders could influence and induce positive changes in nursing. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Conflict and professionalism: perceptions among nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakari, N M; Al Khamis, N I; Hamadi, H Y

    2010-09-01

    To examine the relationship between nurses' perceptions of conflict and professionalism. In Saudi Arabia, health-care sectors are constantly undergoing major changes because of social, consumer-related, governmental, technological and economic pressures. These changes will influence the nature of health-care organizations, such as hospitals' work environment. The ability of nurses to practise in a professional manner may be influenced by their work environment and conflict level. A cross-sectional design was conducted in this study. A simple random selection of three health-care sectors in Saudi Arabia was performed and 346 nurse managers, as well as bedside nurses participated to provide information about conflict levels and professionalism. The Perceived Conflict Scale was used to assess the level of conflict, and the Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale was used to assess the professionalism perception among nurses. The intragroup/other department type of conflict had a statistically significant correlation with the perception of professionalism. In addition, the findings point to a low perception among the participating nurses regarding their professionalism. A number of factors might explain the low level of perception of professionalism. These relate to the workplace itself, as well as to the personal background of the nurses, which includes the personal interest in the nursing profession, as well as the family's, society's and the consumers' views of the profession. Given the findings of this study, nurse managers are encouraged to create a work environment that supports professionalism and minimizes conflict.

  11. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Swiahb, Jamil N.; Al-Ammar, A.; Al-Dousary, Surayie H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Azhar Q; Sawan Ali S

    2009-01-01

    To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

  13. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  14. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm -3 . The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm -3 . However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm -3 . Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  15. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  16. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.

  17. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarkandi, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

  18. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  19. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmy, Norah

    2017-09-01

    Online pharmacies sell medicine over the Internet and deliver them by mail. The main objective of this study is to explore the extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia which will be useful for the scientific community and regulators. An Arabic survey questionnaire was developed for this study. The questionnaire was distributed via email and social media. Four sections were created to cover the objectives: experience with online shopping in general, demographics, awareness of the existence and customer experiences of buying medicine online, and reasons for buying/not buying medicine online. A total of 633 responses were collected. Around 69% (437) of them were female and the majority (256, 40.4%) was in the age range 26-40. Only 23.1% (146) were aware of the existence of online pharmacies where 2.7% (17) of them had bought a medicine over the Internet and 15 (88.2%) respondents out of the 17 was satisfied with the process. Lack of awareness of the availability of such services was the main reason for not buying medicines online. Many respondents (263, 42.7%) were willing to try an online pharmacy, although majorities (243, 45.9%) were unable to differentiate between legal and illegal online pharmacies. The largest categories of products respondents were willing to buy them online were nonprescription medicines and cosmetics. The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  20. Isotopes based assessment of groundwater renewal and related anthropogenic effects in water scarce areas: Sand dunes study in Qasim area, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sagaby, A.; Moallim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of recharge in the sand dune, Qasim, Saudi Arabia, with the help of chloride concentration and isotope content has revealed inconsistent pattern and less homogeneity. Monotonic chloride concentration and isotope content was the result of seasonal recharge occurrence in the study area. In addition, applying chloride mass-balance method, recharge rate calculation in the sand dune site, Qasim, Saudi Arabia, was made. The results (1.80 and 1.84mmy -1 - dune site) estimated during this project using this method was a long way below the recharge rates (30mmy -1 , 13.4mmy -1 in the dune site and 5mmy -1 in the swale site) obtained with the application of tritium method in the previous years (1994 and 1996). 1.80 and 1.84mmy -1 was for CRP-Saud-9405 project and was calculated 1997 and 1998 respectively. The reason for the lower recharge rate with the application of chloride mass-balance method could be the source of chloride input and high evaporation, which causes accumulation of chloride salts in the area. (author)

  1. Obesity and associated risk factors among students of health colleges of King Saud University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, E.; Assiri, A.M.; Awadeljack, I.; Aljasser, A.S.; Alhuzimi, A.M.; Assiri, A.A.; Alqahtani, N.A.; Alshahrani, S.A.; Ammar, Y.A.A

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Results: Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (p<0.05) and among those who had chronic diseases (p<0.001). Family history of obesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). Conclusions: There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors. (author)

  2. Saudi Arabia exporting Salafi education and radicalizing Indonesia's Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Salafis, who defend a very conservative, literal interpretation of Islam and treat Shia Muslims with hostility, are not just a phenomenon in the Middle East. They are increasingly pressuring Shias and other religious minorities in Indonesia, too. Saudi Arabia is the world’s main provider of Islamic education. In addition to promoting Salafism and maligning other religious communities, Saudi educational materials present the kingdom in a favorable light and can also exacerba...

  3. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described

  4. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Srinivas, C.V.; Langodan, Sabique; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011

  5. Dynamics Of The Relationship Between Bank Loans And Stock Prices In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saud Almutair

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find the dynamics of the relationship between bank loans and stock prices in Saudi Arabia using quarterly data for the period 1998 to 2013. The estimation methodology consists of a cointegration test, an error correction model estimation, and VAR Granger Causality. The study confirms the long-run relationship between credit card loans (CCLOAN) and Saudis stock market index (SSPI). We found a positive relationship between SSPI and bank loans, supporting the ec...

  6. Outcomes of road traffic injuries before and after the implementation of a camera ticketing system: a retrospective study from a large trauma center in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghnam, Suliman; Alkelya, Muhamad; Alfraidy, Moath; Al-Bedah, Khalid; Albabtain, Ibrahim Tawfiq; Alshenqeety, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the third leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia. Because speed is a major risk factor for severe crash-related injuries, a camera ticketing system was implemented countrywide in mid-2010 by the traffic police in an effort to improve traffic safety. There are no published studies on the effects of the system in Saudi Arabia. To examine injury severity and associated mortality at a large trauma center before and after the implementation of the ticketing system. Retrospective, analytical. Trauma center of a tertiary care center in Riyadh. The study included all trauma registry patients seen in the emergency department for a crash-related injury (automobile occupants, pedestrians, or motorcyclists) between January 2005 and December 2014. Associations with outcome measures were assessed by univariate and multivariate methods. Injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and mortality. The study included all trauma registry patients seen in the emergency department for a crash-related injury. All health outcomes improved in the period following implementation of the ticketing system. Following implementation, ISS scores decreased (-3.1, 95% CI -4.6, -1.6) and GCS increased (0.47, 95% CI 0.08, 0.87) after adjusting for other covariates. The odds of death were 46% lower following implementation than before implementation. When the data were log-transformed to account for skewed data distributions, the results remained statistically significant. This study suggests positive health implications following the implementation of the camera ticketing system. Further investment in public health interventions is warranted to reduce preventable RTIs. The study findings represent a trauma center at a single hospital in Riyadh, which may not generalize to the Saudi population.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Syed M

    2016-12-01

    Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words: Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia.

  8. The Role of Organizational Design in Enhancing Employee Motivation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dasseh, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reveals that the centralized, bureaucratic and rigid authority lines are the main features in the Saudi work environment. Researchers have studied several HRM topics in Saudi Arabia such as leadership, regulations and the impact of culture on employees. However, there seems to be a lack of attention to topics related to motivation, empowerment and organizational design. This paper aimed to explore the factors that motivate employees, investigate the relationship between orga...

  9. Patterns and determinants of stress among consultant physicians working in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosaimi FD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Hossam S Alawad,2 Ayedh K Alamri,2 Abdullah I Saeed,2 Khalid A Aljuaydi,2 Alwaleed S Alotaibi,2 Khalid M Alotaibi,2 Eiad A Alfaris3 1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University Chair for the Development of Medical Education, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS.Results: A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14–21, which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85% considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress

  10. Clinical profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Faifa-Gizan, South west province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Raghu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to know the age, sex distribution and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in a remote hilly area, Faifa, Gizan situated in the South West region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. C L accounted for nearly 5% of the new outpatient attendance in the study period (1988-90 of 20 months. Out of the 140 new patients who formed the study group, 82 were males (58.57% and 58 females (41.43% in the age range of 9 months to 60 years. Ninety two patients were children (65.71% below 15 years. including 58 boys and 34 girls and CL is a major public health problem in children of this area. The fact that out of 140 affected individuals, 134 were local Saudis and 6 non-Saudis reveals the autochthonous nature of the disease in this region. The clinical spectrum included dry crusted ulcers, erythematous indurated plaques, nodules, papules, and oozing shallow ulcers. The lesions were distributed mostly on face and extremities. Response to pentostam (Sodium stibogluconate was highly satisfactory.

  11. A Proposed Perspective for Developing Science Curriculum for the Upper Primary Grades in Accordance to Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030: An Analytical and Descriptive Study According to Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomairi, Abdulqadir Obaidallah A.

    2018-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's Vision for 2030 in development is exceedingly concerned with curriculum development. It believes that the current curriculum does no longer support the students' preparation for both life and work. Therefore, the present study aimed to reach a consensus by a set of educational experts on the importance of providing the science…

  12. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar

  13. Decadal Variation of Precipitation in Saudi Arabia induced by Agricultural Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, M. H.; Wey, H. W.; Wada, Y.; IM, E. S.; Chien, R. Y.; Wu, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Decadal variation of wet-season precipitation has been found in the arid region of central Saudi Arabia. 1980s has been a rather wet decade compared with the decades before. Previous studies have mentioned that the irrigation moisture may contribute to the precipitation anomalies in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, we show from observational data that the contribution of the variation comes mostly from February to May. As the irrigation is a localized forcing, we therefore use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to simulate the response of the land-atmosphere interaction to the wet soil moisture resulted from additional irrigation moisture supply. Preliminary result shows in the irrigated simulation that precipitation in central Saudi Arabia is enhanced, indicating the possible link between irrigation expansion in the 1980s and the decadal precipitation variation over central Saudi Arabia. We propose it is the anomalous convergence induced by irrigation as well as additional moisture that contribute to the enhanced precipitation over heavily irrigation region in the central Saudi Arabian. In addition, analysis on the daily precipitation from the WRF outputs indicates that positive rainfall anomalies tend to happen when there is rainfall originally; that is, irrigation enhances rainfall but not creates rainfall.

  14. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaid AI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ali I Swaid,1 Abdelkhalig H Elhilu,2 Mohamed S Mahfouz3 1Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85 enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results: Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively. Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32, while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39. Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively. The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%, while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion: It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Jazan University, internship program, gynecology and

  15. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  16. Nurse turnover in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatah, Rawaih; Salem, Olfat A

    2018-04-06

    To appraise and synthesise existing literature on nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context. Saudi Arabia is notably one of the nations with a health care system that is bombarded by high rates of turnover and turnover intention. Moreover, rapid population growth and the expansion of the health care system increase the demand on registered nurses in the kingdom. Eleven primary sources were reviewed using Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005; 52, 546-553) integrative review method. There is variation in the reported turnover rates across the studies. The identified determinants of nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context included nurses' demographics, satisfaction, leadership and management, and job-related factors. There is a need for more studies that focus on the cost and outcome of nurse turnover and turnover intention in the Saudi Arabian context. The review highlights the alarming rates of nurse turnover and its determinants in Saudi Arabia. Nurse managers in Saudi Arabia should consider this information, as they make daily assignments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  18. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Riyadh and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the trade mission. Proposed Mission... (Sipchem) complex, which will produce synthetic fibers. The planned expansion at Jubail Industrial City II.... Among Saudi Arabia's super-projects are as many as six ``economic cities,'' to be completed by the year...

  19. Academic Libraries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameem, Jamal A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the status of higher education and academic libraries in Saudi Arabia. Topics covered include the role of academic libraries, use patterns, library education, the availability of professional librarians and administrators, library automation, academic cooperation with the United States, and the impact of social influences on library…

  20. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Soaring Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asirvatham Alwin Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is quite prevalent in the world, with a proportion of 1 in every 300 persons and steadily rising frequency of incidence of about 3% every year. More alarmingly, the incidence of T1DM among infants is also increasing, with children as young as 6 months succumbing to it, instead of that at a rather established vulnerable age of around seven and near puberty, when the hormones antagonize the action of insulin. These reports pose a unique challenge of developing efficient T1DM management system for the young children. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is the largest country in the Middle East that occupies approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 33.3 million people, of whom 26% are under the age of 14 years. As per the Diabetes Atlas (8th edition, 35,000 children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia suffer from T1DM, which makes Saudi Arabia rank the 8th in terms of numbers of TIDM patients and 4th country in the world in terms of the incidence rate (33.5 per 100,000 individuals of TIDM. However, in comparison with that in the developed countries, the number of research interventions on the prevalence, incidence, and the sociodemographic aspects of T1DM is woefully inadequate. In this review we discuss different aspects of T1DM in Saudi Arabia drawing on the published literature currently available.

  1. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  2. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  3. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  4. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  5. Barriers to Accountability Implementation in the Education Directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…

  6. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K Alhowaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our

  7. An Analysis of Variables Related to Biology Achievement at the 12th Grade Level in the Southwestern Region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrani, Amer A. S.

    Saudi Arabia has not ignored the fact that education is the key to a nation's progress. It considers education as a first priority and is trying to catch up with more advanced nations in this area. One way Saudi Arabia has planned to reduce the risk of complete reliance on the oil revenues is by improving education. This study was designed to…

  8. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  9. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Alshammari, Thamir M; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Le Louet, Herve; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice.  Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training.  The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance.

  10. The Attitudes and Motivation of Children towards Learning Rarely Spoken Foreign Languages: A Case Study from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofaie, Haifa

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the attitudes and motivations of two Saudi children learning Japanese as a foreign language (hence JFL), a language which is rarely spoken in the country. Studies regarding children's motivation for learning foreign languages that are not widely spread in their contexts in informal settings are scarce. The aim of the study…

  11. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  12. Cytological pattern of cervical papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Hassan Balaha

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years.

  13. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  14. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  15. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  16. Radiation balance of an alfalfa crop in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yemeni, M.N.; Grace, J.

    1995-01-01

    Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)

  17. Four viruses infecting figs in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. ALDHEBIANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are compromising fig production in Saudi Arabia and in particular those caused by viruses. RT-PCR assays were conducted on 80 samples collected from four fig-growing provinces in the West Mecca region of Saudi Arabia, including the Fatima, Khulais, Rabigh and Alshifa valleys. Samples consisted of leaf tissues taken from caprifig and common fig trees. The presence of Fig mosaic virus (FMV, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 1 (FLMaV-1, Fig leaf mottle-associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2 and Fig mild mottle-associated virus (FMMaV was assessed from the samples. RT-PCR results showed that all four viruses were present in the surveyed areas with different proportions of infection. Incidence was 69% of samples, with a peak of 80%, from the Alshifa and Fatima valleys, 60% from Rabigh and 55% from Khulais valley. FLMaV-1 was the prevailing virus (55% of samples, followed by FMV (34%, whereas FLMaV-2 (11% of samples and FMMaV (6% were less common. Most of the mosaic symptoms observed in surveyed fig orchards occurred with the presence of FMV. However, many other symptoms remained unexplained because of the arduous task of determining the involvement of other fig-infecting viruses with mosaic disease. This is the first report of FMMaV and FLMaV-2 in Saudi Arabia, and of FMV and FLMaV-1 in western Saudi Arabia. The virus status of this crop is probably compromised and a sanitation programme is required to produce healthy plant material in Saudi Arabia.

  18. The safety of H1N1 vaccine in children in Saudi Arabia: a cohort study using modern technology in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Alyabsi, Mesnad; Alrwisan, Adel; Alqahtani, Nasser; Almutairi, Reem; Al Tawil, Esraa; Adam, Mansour; Shakir, Saad; Aljeraisy, Majed; Al-Blowi, Ali; Alkhashan, Hesham; Albogami, Yasser; Murray, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    With its rapid introduction in 2009, concerns about the safety of the H1N1 vaccines have been raised. Data were especially limited on the pediatric safety of H1N1 vaccine in Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this study were to investigate the safety of the H1N1 vaccine (Pandemrix(®)) in children and examine the feasibility of obtaining information on possibly associated adverse reactions using mobile telephone contact with child caregivers. A cohort study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients were included if they were aged between 6 and 18 years and had received one dose of the H1N1 vaccine. A control group involved children from the same school system who had not received the vaccine. Six months following vaccination, a clinical pharmacist called the caregiver of the child to ask about hospitalization, emergency room visits and events related to H1N1 vaccine administration using a standardized questionnaire. Caregivers of 372 school-age children were contacted. The response rate was 97% (n = 359). A total of 169 children who received at least one dose of the H1N1 vaccine were compared with 190 children in the control group who had not received the vaccine. Controlling for age, sex, education and use of medications, the odds ratio (OR) of hospitalization or emergency room visits for children within the 6 months after vaccination relative to the unvaccinated children was 1.25 (95% CI 0.47, 3.35). The risk of influenza-like symptoms was significantly reduced in vaccinated children compared with unvaccinated children (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.41, 0.99). School-age children in Saudi Arabia who received the H1N1 vaccine did not have an increased risk of hospitalization or emergency room visits. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results. Proactive pharmacovigilance is important in assessing the safety of vaccines and other medications. It is feasible to collect information on adverse drug reactions using mobile telephones, a method that can be of benefit in

  19. Measuring Digital Competence and ICT Literacy: An Exploratory Study of In-Service English Language Teachers in the Context of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khateeb, Ahmed Abdulteeef M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure in-service English language teachers' digital competence, particularly for the enhancement of teaching English as a second/foreign language in schools in Saudi Arabia. Information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge is currently considered as a vital skill for foreign language teachers in…

  20. Financial Analysis for Replacement of Construction Equipment in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study report results of a survey conducted in the EasternProvince of Saudi Arabia to explore the procedures and financialtechniques that large-size contractors utilise in replacingequipment. The results indicated that contractors set severalreplacement alternatives that they evaluate by using a set ofvarious qualitative and quantitative factors. The contractors’business objectives, employee safety and morale, and, contractors’image in the industry were found to be the most influentialqualitative factors affecting the decision of equipment replacement.Inflation, downtime, obsolescence, salvage value, and depreciationare among the top quantitative factors that contractors considerwhile making a decision to replace equipment. Because of theirsimplicity and practicality, the net present value, payback period,and the economic life are the most popular techniques that areutilised for analysing the financial issues of proposed replacementalternatives.

  1. Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Solaiman, K.M.; Al-Arfaj, A.M.; Farouk, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

  2. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  3. Investigating Students' Attitudes towards Private Sector Work during Study in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-asqah, Amnah

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the students' attitudes towards private sector work during study. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a comprehensive social survey (including questionnaire and interviewing) distributed to experts in departments and colleges in King Saud University and Princess Nora University. Findings:…

  4. Eliciting students′ perceptions of integrated clinical dental education in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In the integrated curriculum, our study highlights the importance of clinical training not only in making dental students competent but also in increasing their confidence in performing clinical procedures.

  5. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  6. Personal networks in Saudi Arabia : The role of ascribed and achieved characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tubergen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534; Ali Al-Modaf, Obaid; Almosaed, Nora F.; Said Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Ben

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how ascribed characteristics (gender and nationality) and achieved characteristics (SES) are related to the extensity and occupational resources of personal networks in Saudi Arabia. Using large-scale survey data from Jeddah, results show that networks of women are smaller and

  7. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  8. Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, America and the World: September 11th from Another Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Niki

    This paper employs an autobiographical method using biographical elements from narrated experiences from Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, where she has come to study. The paper offers perspectives on the September 11, 2001 tragedy and other acts of terrorism, violence, and mass destruction. It describes how the author's Cyprus…

  9. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  10. The Barriers to the Use of ICT in Teaching in Saudi Arabia: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mulhim, Ensaf

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports some of the reasons behind the low use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by teachers. The paper has reviewed a number or studies from different parts of the world and paid greater attention to Saudi Arabia. The literature reveals a number of factors that hinder teachers' use of ICT. This paper will focus on lack…

  11. Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth order,…

  12. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  13. Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, Majid A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Qayad, Mohammed; Saleheen, Hassan; Runyan, Desmond; Almuneef, Maha

    2015-04-01

    Studies in other countries, including countries with mandated reporting by professionals and a long history of recognition of the problem, have found child abuse to be seriously under reported. This population-based pilot study was conducted to determine the magnitude of adolescents' exposure to CAN at home, and to identify ethical and methodological challenges to conducting a survey on a culturally sensitive subject. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Kharj city in 2011-2012. Through a stratified multistage cluster random sampling of schools, a sample of adolescents (15-18 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child: Home version (ICAST-CH) was used for data collection. The previous year's incidence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to violence were assessed. A total of 2,043 students participated in the study (mean age, 16.6 years; 58%, female). The incidence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect, and sexual abuse were 74.9%, 57.5%, 50.7%, 50.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Female participants were at higher risk for psychological and physical abuse, exposure to violence, and neglect, but not for sexual abuse. The rates and gender distribution of CAN at home differ from findings of health-based records. Our results are comparable to other regional population-based studies. Thus, population-based data are necessary to inform and guide professionals and decision makers for prevention policies and resource allocation. Insights to ethical and methodological challenges surrounding the sensitive nature of this type of study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultural challenges to implementation of formative assessment in Saudi Arabia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wassia, Rolina; Hamed, Omayma; Al-Wassia, Heidi; Alafari, Reem; Jamjoom, Reda

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates challenges that students and faculty face to implement assessment for learning; and the activities, capabilities, enablers, and indicators which could impact performance. The study is a mixed methods research, cross-sectional, exploratory study. The study was organized through two phases of data collection and analysis (QUAL → quan). Based on qualitative focus group discussions (FGD), we first gathered data through field notes. Later, we engaged in analysis using techniques drawn from qualitative data including categorization, theme identification, and connection to existing literature. Based on this analysis, we developed a questionnaire that could provide quantitative measures based on the qualitative FGD. We then administered the questionnaire, and the quantitative data were analyzed to quantitatively test the qualitative findings. Twenty-four faculty and 142 students from the 4th and 5th clinical years participated voluntarily. Their perception of FA and the cultural challenges that hinder its adoption were evaluated through a FGD and a questionnaire. The mean score of understanding FA concept was equal in faculty and students (p = 0.08). The general challenge that scored highest was the need to balance work and academic load in faculty and the need to balance study load and training and mental anxiety in students. There was no difference between faculty and students in perceiving "learning is teacher-centered" (p = 0.481); and "past learning and assessment experience" (p = 0.322). There was a significant difference between them regarding interaction with opposite gender (p discrimination by same faculty gender". The authors suggested a "Framework of Innovation in Endorsing Assessment for Learning". It emphasizes a holisitic approach through all levels of the System: Government, Accreditation Bodies, Policy makers; Institution, and Classroom levels.

  15. Fuzzy Logic Based Multi-Criteria Wind Turbine Selection Strategy—A Case Study of Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiqur Rehman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of wind energy as a potential alternative to traditional sources of fuel has prompted notable research in recent years. One primary factor contributing to efficient utilization of wind energy from a wind farm is the type of turbines used. However, selection of a specific wind turbine type is a difficult task due to several criteria involved in the selection process. Important criteria include turbine’s power rating, height of tower, energy output, rotor diameter, cut-in wind speed, and rated wind speed. The complexity of this selection process is further amplified by the presence of conflicts between the decision criteria. Therefore, a decision is desired that provides the best balance between all selection criteria. Considering the complexities involved in the decision-making process, this paper proposes a two-level decision turbine selection strategy based on fuzzy logic and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM approach. More specifically, the fuzzy arithmetic mean operator is used in the decision process. The proposed approach is applied to wind data collected from the site of Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the proposed approach was effective in finding the optimal turbine from a set of 20 turbines of various capacities.

  16. Pattern of congenital brain malformations at a referral hospital in Saudi Arabia: An MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A.

    2006-01-01

    More than 2000 different congenital cerebral malformations have been described in the literature, for which several classification systems have been proposed. With the help of these classification systems, it is now possible, with neuroimaging, to time neuroembtyologic events. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in particular, is useful in studying these malformations. This study evaluated the pattern of congenital brain malformations in a university referral hospital setting. The records of all MRI brain examinations at our hospital over a period of 3 years for children younger than 15 years of age were reviewed. Cases of congenital cerebral malformations were analyzed by sex, age at presentation, type of congenital cerebral malformation and other associated congenital cerebral malformations. Of the 808 MR examinations of different parts of the body for children in the study period, 719 (89%), on 581 patients, were of the brain. Eighty-six children (14.8%) were found to have single or multiple congenital brain malformations. In these children, 114 congenital brain malformations were identified, the commonest being cortical migrational defects (25 patients, 22%), neural tube closure defects (22 patients, 19%), and corpus callosum dysgenesis (22 patients 19%). The least common was vascular malformation. Sixteen patients (18.6%) had more than one congenital brain malformations. Neural tube closer defects, cortical migrational abnormalities, and corpus callosum anomalies were the commonest congenital brain malformations, while vascular malformations were the least common. Most of the identified malformations demonstrated the usual pattern, but a few showed unusual patterns and associations. (author)

  17. Seismicity of the Tihamat-Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghelani, Habib M.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the seismicity of the west coast of Saudi Arabia is vitally important to the Kingdom. The eastern margin of the Red Sea, which includes all of the west coast of Saudi Arabia, is possibly cut by transform faults that may be capable of producing earthquakes large enough to cause damage in the heavily populated areas or in the industrial complexes under construction. Prior to this study, there were no seismic stations in Saudi Arabia and no studies of microearthquake activity. It was generally assumed that there were no active faults along the west coast. During the period 20 January to 22 February, 1978, five portable seismic stations were deployed in the Tihamat Asir in the southwest part of the country. A significant level of microearthquake activity was detected at a location that approximately coincides with the landward extension of the proposed transform fault. The recording of these earthquakes demonstrates that there are active faults at this location, probably associated with the currently active Red Sea tectonic system. The practical significance of these earthquakes cannot be evaluated from the few data available, and further studies should be undertaken to determine if there are significant seismic hazards along the west coast of Saudi Arabia

  18. DETERMINANTS OF BACKACHE- A CASE-CONTROL STUDY AT RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodkumar Balakrishna Pillai Padmakshiamma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low back pain is the second most common symptom related reason for clinician visits in the United States. Up to 84 percent of adults have low back pain at some time in their lives. Low back pain poses an economic burden to society mainly in terms of the large number of work days lost by a small percentage of patients who develop chronic back pain. Lifestyle diseases are defined as those problems that evolve due to changes in lifestyle. The contributing factors are bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body postures, habits and personality including sleep and disturbed biological clock. Spinal disorders contribute to loss more than 20 million of productive life years. Wrong sitting and standing posture while working gives stress to backbone and leads to chronic backache. Regularly spending a lot of time in front of computer may also lead to muscular pain of neck and back. People who lift heavy weight are predisposed to disc diseases and sciatica. In this background this study was conducted to 1. Determine the obesity as a risk factor for back ache 2. Find out other factors that contribute to backache. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Case-Control Study. Study Period- April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. Study Site- KMCR, Al-Malaz, Riyadh, KSA. All persons coming to Orthopaedics OP during the study period with back pain both males and females for the first time constituted the cases and a person coming to orthopaedics OP without backache Exclusion criteria- Acute trauma with RTA and fall. Data was collected by self-administered structured questionnaire and personal examination and investigation evaluation. Software support- Excel, SPSS RESULTS 1 BMI with OR (odds ratio 4.85(p=0.000, 95%; CI 2.30-10.19; 2 Stress-OR=2.82(p=0.002, 95%; CI 1.45-5.50; 3 Personality-OR=2.94 (p=0.003, 95%; CI 1.45-5.96. The other factors tested having OR more than one were-1 Age, OR=1.15; 2 Exercises, OR=1.24; 3 Existences of comorbid conditions, OR=1

  19. Study of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-09-25

    The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC₅₀ Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL) and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  20. IgA nephropathy: A clinicopathologic study from two centers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawajah Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 patients, who were diagnosed to have primary Immunoglobulin A neph-ropathy (IgAN at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Jeddah over the last seven years, were studied. The objective was to analyze their clinical and pathological fea-tures and to classify them according to Hass Classification by using light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Majority of the study cases were males in the second, third and fourth decades of life. Hematuria was the most common clinical complaint followed by proteinuria. There were varying degrees of mesangial proliferation. Majority of the cases presented with class-2 followed by class-3. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diffuse granular deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium in majority of the cases. Ultrastructural analysis showed electron dense deposits within the matrix of the mesangium and paramesangium in majority of the cases. Sub-endothelial deposits and mesangial interposition were demonstrated in few cases. Extensive effacement with fusion of the visceral epithelial foot processes was detected in only few patients while focal effacement was demonstrated in many cases. Irregularities of the glomerular basement membrane were seen in some cases. We conclude that IgA nephropathy is an immune-complex glomerular disease, which occurs at all ages and with higher frequency in males and presents mostly with hematuria and proteinuria. Public health awareness is seriously needed to perform the investigations at an early stage.

  1. Medical teachers' perception towards simulation-based medical education: A multicenter study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabnam; Al-Mously, Najwa; Al-Senani, Fahmi; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the perception of medical teachers toward the integration of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in undergraduate curriculum and also identify contextual barriers faced by medical teachers. This cross-sectional observational study included medical teachers from three universities. A questionnaire was used to report teachers' perception. SBME was perceived by medical teachers (basic sciences/clinical, respectively) as enjoyable (71.1%/75.4%), effective assessment tool to evaluate students' learning (60%/73.9%) and can improve learning outcome (88.8%/79.7%). Similarly, (91.1%/71%) of teachers think that simulation should be part of the curriculum and not stand alone one time activity. Teachers' training for SBME has created a significant difference in perception (p medical curriculum are major perceived barriers for effective SBME. Results highlight the positive perception and attitude of medical teachers toward the integration of SBME in undergraduate curriculum. Prior formal training of teachers created a different perception. Top perceived barriers for effective SBME include teachers' formal training supported with time and resources and the early integration into the curriculum. These critical challenges need to be addressed by medical schools in order to enhance the integration SBME in undergraduate curricula.

  2. APPLICATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY TO REDUCE MEDICATION ERRORS IN THE OUTPATIENT PHARMACY UNIT: A CASE STUDY FROM THE KING FAHD UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Kuwaiti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors will affect the patient safety and quality of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology in reducing medication errors in the outpatient pharmacy of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted through the five phases of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC model using various quality tools. The goal was fixed as to reduce medication errors in an outpatient pharmacy by 20%. After implementation of improvement strategies, there was a marked reduction of defects and also improvement of their sigma rating. Especially, Parts per million (PPM of prescription/data entry errors reduced from 56,000 to 5,000 and its sigma rating improved from 3.09 to 4.08. This study concluded that the Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology is found to be more significant in reducing medication errors and ensuring patient safety.

  3. Economic feasibility study of potato preservation by irradiation in saudi arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Comprehensive studies were carried out to investigate the economic feasibility of the preservation of potato crop by cobalt-60 gamma irradiation sprout inhibition by potato irradiation was approved by international organization and concerned authorities in many countries. The dose level range authorized for potato sprout inhibition extends from about 80-150 Gy depending on potato variety, time of irradiation after harvest, and post irradiation storage temperature. Sprout inhibition is most effective by irradiation after harvest, and after healing of any inflicted injuries, that when the potatoes are dormant. Irradiation at the recommended doses minimizes storage losses of potatoes that are refrigerated or stored on shelves. Despite the limited data available, an attempt was made to quantify the monetary value of preserving potato by irradiation. With economy scale taken in consideration, potato preservation by irradiation is economically feasible since at the local consumption rates there will be lot of potatoes that ned storage for off season use. 5 tabs.

  4. Factors affecting the willingness to pay for implants: A study of patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Garni, Bishi; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Almaaz, Adel; Al Qeshtaini, Ehsan; Abu-Haimed, Hamad; Al Sharif, Khalid

    2012-11-01

    One of the factors that dissuade patients needing tooth replacement from choosing dental implants is the prohibitive cost. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a useful tool to determine the ideal cost of an expensive procedure. The aim of this study was to study the factors that influence the willingness to pay (WTP) among patients attending a private clinic and compare them to those attending a government setup. A total of 100 patients (38 male, 62 female) who had one or more missing teeth were presented with different cost-benefit scenarios and then asked if they were willing to pay the median cost of a single implant in Riyadh city. The mean WTP price was compared using the one way-ANOVA, factors which could possibly influence patients' WTP were grouped together in a Binomial logistic regression model. Of the 100 individuals surveyed 67% said they would be willing to pay the median price for the placement of an implant. A comparison of socio-demographic factors showed that significant differences were found between gender, income groups and setting of the clinic in the mean WTP price of the patients (P difference in the mean WTP price between groups with regard to the area of the missing tooth, the patients' perception of their oral health and the their desire to want an implant (P pay the median price for an implant. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a multifactorial variable which is significantly influenced by the income of the patient, the setting of the clinic and the gender; the most significant factor being the acceptability of the implant to the patient.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment of Dumpsite: Case Study from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, H. J.; Alhumidan, S. M.; Kahal, A. Y.; Abdel Rahman, K.; Al-Qadasi, B.

    2017-12-01

    The dumpsite is underlain by highly fractured Precambrian basement complex of metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary rocks. Minor Tertiary, Quaternary basalts and Quaternary alluvial deposits overlie the basement rocks. Structurally, the area is affected by intersected series of north-to northwest trending faults. Hydrogeological setting of the study area is characterized by shallow groundwater aquifers in the fractured and weathered basement rocks. Moreover, the area exposes heavy rains especially during summer seasons, which may accelerate the transferring of contaminated water to the neighbouring valleys and low land. At present, the residential and Khamis Mushait new industrial zone are situated close to the dumpsite. The main objective of this study is to assess the leachate intrusion and groundwater contamination in the urban area of Khamis Mushait. Geophysical and geochemical techniques have been successfully applied in the assessment of environmental impact of dumpsites globally. Near-surface geophysical investigations such as Seismic refraction tomography, Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) and ground magnetic survey have been conducted to detect the controlling structures and lithological variation of the dumpsite. In addition, four water samples from hand dug wells and two surface water samples were collected from and around dumpsite. These water samples were analysed geochemically to inspect the presence of heavy metals, salts (sulphates, nitrates and chlorides), radioactive elements and physically to assess pH, TDS, DO, salinity, total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity and temperature. Results of VES illustrate low resistivity zones (≤ 30 Ohm-m) due to conductive leachate from dumpsite while seismic models and ground magnetic intensity map delineated fractures beneath the weathered basement layer which may provide pathways for the contaminants. The physico-chemical analysis of the collected groundwater samples revealed that

  6. Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahim, S E

    1997-07-01

    Aspects of sexual development and attainment of sexual and breeding maturity were studied in two groups of Najdi camels (Mojaheem and Wadah), maintained in stalls under good nutritional conditions. Body weight, testes diameter and degree of penile freedom were recorded weekly. Sexual maturity was assessed by the examination of semen collected by an artificial vagina. Puberty was defined as the stage when the animal was able to produce viable sperms. Mating, followed by strong jerks and ejaculation of mature sperms, was taken to indicate onset of breeding maturity. Mojaheem camels reached sexual maturity at a significantly younger age and heavier weight (164 weeks and 360 kg) than Wadah camels (182 weeks and 336.5 kg) (P penis from preputial adhesions occurred at an average age of 138.6 weeks in both breeds. At the point of sexual maturity, the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was 65.1 +/- 5.2 while percentage of abnormal sperms was 17.6 +/- 2.2; total motility was 40 +/- 16% and progressive motility (48 +/- 2.2% (semen pH range 7.8-8.2). The percentage of live sperm was 65 +/- 1.5 (normal sperms 82 +/- 4). It is suggested that the encouragement of rapid growth during the pubertal period in camels managed under good nutritional and environmental conditions could assist early sexual development and breeding maturity.

  7. Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism): a clinical and radiological study of 14 cases from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Rashed, A A; al-Jarallah, A A; Salih, M A; Kolawole, T; al-Jarallah, J

    1999-06-01

    Fourteen children (of Arab ethnic origin) with Sotos syndrome are described. They were referred to King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh between July 1992 and June 1997. Their phenotypic characteristics were compared with established diagnostic criteria. There was a male:female ratio of 1.3:1 and a high rate of consanguinity (36%) among parents. At birth, 54% were large and about one-third showed increased height and occipitofrontal head circumference (OFHC). The neonatal histories revealed respiratory and feeding problems in 21%, followed later by delayed motor milestones and speech development in 57%. During childhood, weight, height and OFHC increased further to > 97th centile in 71%, 71% and 93%, respectively. A seizure disorder affected 43%, and 75% had mental retardation (IQ < 70). A non-specific EEG abnormality was found in half of those with seizures. Cranial CT/MRI showed ventricular dilatation in 15% and one patient had corpus callosum dysgenesis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydronephrosis in two patients. Radiological cephalometric measurements showed relative prognathism in cases of Sotos syndrome compared with controls (p = 0.003). The study highlights the importance of considering Sotos syndrome in children who present with psychomotor delay.

  8. A Two Years Study of Ticks infesting Goats and Sheep in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKhalifa, Mohamed S.; Khalil, Galila M.; Diab, Fathi M.

    2007-01-01

    The weather in Abha was characterized by a temperature of 11.7-23.7 degree C, a relative humidity 0f 40-92% and rainfall of 0.2-275mm during a study period of 1990 and 1991. More ticks infested the goats in 1990 than in 1991 while more ticks infested sheep in 1991 than in 1990. The tick species collected monthly from 10 goats during these years were, respectively, Rhipicephalus turanicus (95.1 and 67.1%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.0 and 25.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (0.2 and 1.0%) and H. impeltatum (0.7 and 6.1%). Goat infestation rate with R. turanicus was 60-100% in 1990 with peaks in January, April, July, November and December when 90-100% of the goats were infested with 6.3-8.3 ticks/goat. In 1991, goat infestation rate was 10-100% with peaks in April, July and December when all goats were infested with 5.6-9.0 ticks/goat, with a sex ratio of 0.40:1-2.00:1 in both years, respectively. The ticks collected monthly from 10 sheep during these years were, respectively, R. turanicus (89.2 and 86.2%), Haem. sulcata (5.7 and 4.9%), H. a. anatolicum (1.2 and 1.0%), H. a. excavatum (0.7 and 1.2%), H. dromedarii (0.9 and 0.4%), H. marginatum rufipes (1.4 and 4.1%), H. m. turanicum (0.0 and 1.2%) and H. impeltatum (0.9 and 1.0%). Sheep infestation rate with R. turanicus was 30-100% in both years with a peak in June in 1990 when all sheep were infested with 13.8 ticks/sheep and 2 peaks in April and June in 1991 when all sheep were infested with 25.0-29.6 ticks/sheep, with a sex ratio of 0.2:1-2.6:1 and 0.6:1-4.5:1 in these years, respectively. The change in R. turanicus infestation in goats and sheep was not correlated with temperature, relative humidity or rainfall during both years except for the infestation in sheep in 1991, which was positively correlated with rainfall. With the exception of R. turanicus and Haem. sulcata, the other tick species infest primarily animals other than sheep and goats. It is recommended that control measures be directed toward the

  9. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zahrani, Alhusain J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  10. Insomnia in chronic renal patients on dialysis in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hejaili Fayez F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out over a period of five months in two hemodialysis centers in Saudi Arabia. To assess the prevalence of insomnia, we used the ICSD-2 definition. We also examined the association between insomnia and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, dialysis duration, dialysis shift, and other demographic data. Results Out of 227 enrolled patients, insomnia was reported by 60.8%. The mean patient age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years; 53.7% were male and 46.3% were female. Insomnia was significantly associated with female gender, afternoon hemodialysis, Restless Legs Syndrome, high risk for obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness (P-values: 0.05, 0.01, Conclusion Insomnia is common in dialysis patients and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders. Greater attention needs to be given to the care of dialysis patients with regard to the diagnosis and management of insomnia and associated sleep disorders.

  11. Working environment and specialty of choice chosen by the dental students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I; Alaskar, Ziyad A

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A passion for orthodontics (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by intellectual stimulation/challenge (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia.

  12. Referral system in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia: knowledge, attitude, and practice of physicians working in urban areas--a comparative study of governmental and private health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Erian, R A; Mahfouz, A A; Alakija, W; al-Khozayem, A A

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding referral system was undertaken among all governmental primary health care and private dispensary physicians (56 and 50 respectively) in Abha and Kamis, Asir Region. Results show that knowledge about referral is adequate in both groups, but the attitudes and practice of both groups need to be positively modified specially among the private sector physicians. The paper recommends more orientation programs for both groups of physicians and urges the private sector physicians to be more involved in Ministry of Health training programs and activities. Cooperation in referral between the private sector and government hospitals is seen as one way of improving health care in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  14. Prevalence of Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Saudi Arabia; Population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhy, Hanan H; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2017-07-01

    The annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) data in Saudi Arabia has not been updated since 1993. To estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia using Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013. Participants were randomly selected from the population served by the primary healthcare centers of the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh, Jeddah, Alhassa and Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1369 participants were included. The overall prevalence of LTBI was similar using TST and QFT-GIT (9.3% and 9.1% respectively, p=0.872) but stratified prevalence rates were variable in all sociodemographic groups except marital status. Additionally, the prevalence rates of LTBI using either test alone showed significant differences by several sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. The overall ARTI was 0.36% using TST and 0.35% using QFT-GIT. We are reporting much lower estimates for the prevalence of LTBI and the ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia relative to the data that have been used for more than two decades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the knowledge and attitudes of group of mothers living in Saudi Arabia with regards to their children’s oral health: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlBandary AlJameel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The knowledge of mothers with respect to health can affect their children’s health either directly by promoting health practices or indirectly by influencing the health-related attitudes and behaviours of children. Aims The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of a group of mothers living in Saudi Arabia with regard to their children’s oral health. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 614 mothers living across Saudi Arabia. An electronic web-based questionnaire was developed and distributed among the participants using different social media outlets. Results Almost 80 per cent of study participants were knowledgeable regarding their child’s primary and permanent teeth’s eruption time and agreed that their child’s primary teeth were as important as the permanent teeth. The results also indicated that 79 per cent of the participants were aware that bottle feeding during sleep causes tooth decay and 73.7 per cent knew that the frequency of sugar consumption has a greater impact on oral health than the quantity of sugar consumed. Almost all participants (97 per cent reported that they watch and help their children to brush their teeth. More than half (55.8 per cent of them reported that they take their children for their first dental check-up when the children are one-year old, and almost three-quarters (73 per cent reported they take their children to regular dental check-ups. Conclusion Most mothers had a positive attitude toward their children’s oral health and were reasonably knowledgeable about it; however, further health education is required among some groups and in some aspects particularly those concerning oral and systemic health.

  16. Awareness and Knowledge Towards Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bin Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia and it is a risk factor for many comorbid diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the awareness and knowledge towards type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM risk factors in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a crosssectional survey conducted in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Data of T2DM awareness was obtained from 1530 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail. Results: Out of the 1530 participants, around 59% were males and 41% were females. Out of 1530 participants 60.8% know nothing about DM and about 48% were not sure whether they know something about symptoms of DM. The lack of knowledge about the relationship between obesity and DM was statistically significant among this study group, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is low awareness and knowledge levels toward baseline DM related information among Northern Saudi Arabian population, which necessitates the need for comprehensive awareness program. Women are more in need to be targeted by DM prevention and control programs

  17. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  18. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh A. Alzaheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  19. Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hussan, K.A.; Al-Suliman, K.M.; Wafa, N.F.

    1993-01-01

    Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF 2 Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137 Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 μR h -1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 μR h -1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

  20. Learning and self-regulation in translation studies: the experience of students’ in three contrasting undergraduate courses in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sahli, Fahad Saad; Alsahli, Fahad Saad

    2012-01-01

    A great expansion is underway in the Saudi higher education system as it moves from an elite to a mass form of higher education. The number of universities, for example, has jumped from eight universities in 2000 to more than 24 in 2011. Given the scale of investment called for, questions are being increasingly asked about the effectiveness of the higher education system. As a contribution to those processes of greater scrutiny, the present study explores the perceptions of Sau...

  1. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Gosadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS.

  2. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  3. The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Hassan; Khalil, Mohamed S; Al-Almaie, Sameeh M; Kurashi, Nabil Y; Wahas, Saeed

    2005-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was conducted in 2000/2001 and the study population comprised Saudi primary school boys aged 9-10 years from a middle class background. A 2 stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected using student data sheet, a family questionnaire and the Standard Progressive Raven Matrices Test of intellectual ability, standardized for use in Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. More than 90% of children born after a birth interval greater than 35 months were classified as average and above according to the Raven Matrices Test, compared to 79% of children born after a birth interval of less than 19 months (pRaven Matrices Test to be family income and height. Longer birth intervals were shown to be associated with higher general intelligence levels in the 9-10 year olds. These results confirm those obtained in a previous study in Singapore conducted more than 2 decades ago. Our results have also shown that the succeeding birth interval is more significant than the preceding interval in relation to perceptive ability of children. The findings enable us to advise parents that by observing a birth interval between 2-3 years would make their children grow and do better at school.

  4. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Alfarraj; Steve Drew; Rayed Abdullah AlGhamdi

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its ...

  5. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  6. Utilization of penile prosthesis and male incontinence prosthetics in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwaal, Amjad; Al-Sayyad, Ahmad J

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent disease affecting over 50% of men between the ages of 40 and 70 years. Penile prosthesis represents the end of the line treatment when other less invasive therapies fail or are contraindicated. Male stress urinary incontinence can significantly diminish quality of life and lead to embarrassment and social withdrawal. Surgical therapies, such as male urethral slings and artificial urinary sphincters (AUS), are considered effective and safe treatments for male stress incontinence. No data exist on the utilization of penile prosthesis or male incontinence surgical treatment in Saudi Arabia. Generally, urological prosthetic surgery is performed either in private hospitals or in government hospitals. Our aim was to assess the trend of penile prosthesis and male incontinence device utilization in Saudi Arabia. We utilized sales' data of penile prosthetics, male slings, and AUS from the only two companies selling these devices in Saudi Arabia (AMS ® and Coloplast ® ), from January 2013 to December 2016. There were 2599 penile prosthesis implantation procedures done in the study period, with 67% of them performed in private institutions. There was a progressively increased use of penile prosthetics which nearly doubled from 2013 to 2016. The main type of prosthesis utilized was the semirigid type 70% versus 11% of the 2-piece inflatable and 17% of the 3-piece inflatable device. Only 10 slings and 31 AUS were inserted during the same study period. There is an increased utilization of penile prosthetics in Saudi Arabia. The private sector performs the majority of penile prosthesis procedures, and most of them are of the semirigid type. The governmental sector is more likely to perform inflatable penile prosthesis and male incontinence device procedures. Male incontinence prosthetics' use is very limited in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First reported case in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, N.A.; Hamid, M.H.; Bokhari, E.; El-Tayeb, A.

    2006-01-01

    Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)

  8. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  9. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  10. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  11. Performances of solar water pumping system using helical pump for a deep well: A case study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K.O.; Joraid, A.A.; Alamri, S.N.; Jaber, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best performance of helical pump has been reached for a deep well. ► Very high potential of solar energy at Saudi Arabia. ► Performance of solar water pumping system for a deep well of 120 m. ► We get the best efficiency of helical pump for the head of 80 m. ► The best configuration of PV generator (24 panels) has been obtained. - Abstract: The photovoltaic water pumping systems (PVWPS) constitute a potential option to draw down water in the remote desert locations for domestic usage and livestock watering. However, the widespread of this technique requires accurate information and experiences in such system sizing and installation. The aim of this work is to determine an optimum photovoltaic (PV) array configuration, adequate to supply a DC Helical pump with an optimum energy amount, under the outdoor conditions of Madinah site. Four different PV array configurations have been tested (6S × 3P, 6S × 4P, 8S × 3P and 12S × 2P). The tests have been carried for a head of 80 m, under sunny daylight hours, in a real well at a farm in Madinah site. The best results have been obtained for two PV array configurations (6S × 4P) and (8S × 3P) which are suitable to provide the optimum energy. Powered by the selected PV array configurations, the helical pump (SQF2.5-2) delivered a maximum daily average volume of water needed (22 m 3 /day).

  12. Descriptive scientific analysis: progress of the educational system of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie PROFANTER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has set itself the goal of developing a knowledge-based society. Demographic changes and economic growth within short time in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia led to radical changes of the educational system. Higher education institutions are in expansion and international collaborations are being intensified. The policy of gender segregation based on a neopatriarchal society favored by the tribal system is an important cultural element of Saudi society and influences the Saudi educational culture.This article provides a scientific description and analyzes the main elements of the Saudi higher education system using the few data available due to the limited release of official statistics. Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University is analyzed as a case study based on the author’s experience who taught there as an academic years of 2006 and 2008. Being the first private institution to admit both male and female students it had to face several challenges. Furthermore, the impact of international collaborations is identified by exploring the «King Abdullah Scholarship Programme» which gives thousands of students the opportunity to study abroad.Education while having a global function also fulfills a national function. Therefore, collaborations with Western universities in the Kingdom have created challenges for the recent generations in balancing Western values imposed throughout their higher education with their traditional culture. Due to the policy of gender segregation, the Saudi educational system represents different obstructions and opportunities particularly for female students.

  13. Understanding cultural competence in a multicultural nursing workforce: registered nurses' experience in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, S.H.

    2001-01-15

    Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

  15. Coronavirus infections in horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Chu, D K W; Perera, R A P M; Ko, R L W; So, R T Y; Ng, B C Y; Chan, S M S; Chu, S; Alnaeem, A A; Alhammadi, M A; Webby, R J; Poon, L L M; Balasuriya, U B R; Peiris, M

    2017-12-01

    Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Institute for Scientific Information-indexed biomedical journals of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565

  17. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  18. Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

  19. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  1. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  2. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the

  3. Diversity of dengue virus-3 genotype III in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Anwar M; Sohrab, Sayed S; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; El-Ela, Saeid Abo; Abujamel, Turki S; Hassan, Ahmed M; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Noura A; Charrel, Remi N; Azhar, Esam I

    2018-07-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia. It has been suggested that pilgrims could play a significant and unique role in DENV-1 and DENV-2 introduction into Saudi Arabia, especially in the cities of Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah during Hajj and Umrah seasons. However, only limited data on DENV-3 in Saudi Arabia are available. All available DENV-3 sequences published and unpublished from Saudi Arabia and other countries were retrieved from Genbank and gene sequence repository and phylogenetically analyzed to examine the diversity of DENV-3 into the city of Jeddah. Based on the analysis of the envelope gene and non-structural 1 (E/NS1) junction sequences, we show that there were at least four independent introductions of DENV-3, all from genotype III into Jeddah. The first introduction was most probably before 1997 as Saudi virus isolates from 1997 formed a cluster without any close relationship to other globally circulating isolates, suggesting their local circulation from previous introduction events. Two introductions were most probably in 2004 with isolates closely-related to isolates from Africa and India (Asia), in addition to another introduction in 2014 with isolates clustering with those from Singapore (Asia). Our data shows that only genotype III isolates of DENV-3 are circulating in Jeddah and highlights the potential role of pilgrims in DENV-3 importation into western Saudi Arabia and subsequent exportation to their home countries during Hajj

  4. Social Determinants of Domestic Violence Among Saudi Married Women in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies

  5. Duration of untreated psychosis and pathway to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fayez, Hanan; Lappin, Julia; Murray, Robin; Boydell, Jane

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies of 'duration of untreated psychosis' (DUP) indicate that some patients remain untreated in the community for some time. Considerable emphasis has been placed on reducing the DUP. However, most studies investigating DUP have been conducted in Western countries, where well-developed primary care systems are available. This study aims to describe DUP and its association with both demographic factors and pathways to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study of 421 new case records of all Saudi schizophrenia patients over a 2-year period in six governmental hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The median DUP was 1.41 years (interquartile range 0.35-2.81 years). The longest time to contact was 9.86 years but 90% had a DUP shorter than 5 years. Older age at onset, single marital status and higher educational level were associated with shorter DUP. Long DUP was associated with help seeking from traditional healers. In Saudi Arabia, it usually takes longer for patients to seek help from psychiatric services after their first psychosis onset than it does in Western countries. The results suggest that the DUP is influenced by both demographic factors and pathways to care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Relationship between chronic lead toxicity and plasma neurotransmitters in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ansary, Afaf K; Bacha, Abir Ben; Ayahdi, Layla Y Al-

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to clarify the relationship between blood Pb(2+) concentration as a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and plasma neurotransmitters as biochemical parameters that reflect brain function in Saudi autistic patients. RBC's lead content together with plasma concentration of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) were measured in 25 Saudi autistic patients and compared to 16 age-matching control samples. The obtained data recorded that Saudi autistic patients have a remarkable higher levels of Pb(2+) and significantly elevated levels of GABA, 5HT and DA compared to healthy subjects. ROC analysis revealed satisfactory values of specificity and sensitivity of the measured parameters. This study suggests that postnatal lead toxicity in autistic patients of Saudi Arabia could represent a causative factor in the pathogenesis of autism. Elevated GABA, 5HT and DA were discussed in relation to the chronic lead toxicity recorded in the investigated autistic samples. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Saudi Arabia’s National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-27

    A-A236 930 The views a--pressed ina dis papaer an or of the aaadkoe and do not necessauily Welset the view of the Depaju nt of Defense or any of its...Bandar 0. Nahil Al Harbi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT ( Year , Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Individual FROM TO 1991 March 27...festival introduces to the Saudi generation the past history of their forefathers and the way they used to live. It also educates the Saudi youth about

  8. A review of 33 years (1980-2013) of data indicating a rise in ectopic pregnancy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Haifa A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the trend in ectopic pregnancy (EP) at a single center in Saudi Arabia and to compare the data with those from the rest of Saudi Arabia. In a retrospective study, data were analyzed from patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, with a diagnosis of EP between January 2011 and December 2013. The prevalence of EP was calculated as a percentage of the number of live births during the study period. A 30-year review of publications on EP in Saudi Arabia was done via search engines. During the study period, there were 58 EPs among 3818 deliveries, giving an overall incidence of 1.5% at the study center; the incidence of EP in the rest of the country during this period was 0.5%. Between 2002 and 2004, the country's incidence was 0.6% as compared with 1% at the study center. The incidence of EP in Saudi Arabia has increased in the past few decades. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  10. The emerging role of respiratory physiotherapy: A profile of the attitudes of nurses and physicians in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mohammedali, Zainab; O'Dwyer, Tom K; Broderick, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory physiotherapy plays a key role in the management and treatment of patients with respiratory diseases worldwide, yet this specialty is not well established in Saudi Arabia. To profile the attitudes among physicians and nurses toward physiotherapists working in respiratory care settings in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. A questionnaire was developed consisting of 23 items, which was distributed both electronically and in paper form to physicians and nurses working in hospitals and health-care centers in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses working outside of Saudi Arabia, and other health professionals, were excluded from the study. A total of 284 questionnaires were returned (nurses: n = 158; physicians: n = 126). The majority believed that physiotherapists have the skills to be involved in respiratory care (79.9%, n = 226) and that physiotherapists are an important member of the Intensive Care Unit team (90.4%, n = 255). Most respondents ( n = 232, 82.9%) felt in need of more information regarding the role of physiotherapy within respiratory care; significantly more nurses than physicians believed they needed additional education ( P = 0.002). Specialized physicians were more likely than nonspecialized physicians to refer respiratory patients to physiotherapy ( P Saudi Arabia. The need for further education for physicians and nurses on the role of physiotherapy in respiratory care was highlighted; this would enable physiotherapy to develop and be further integrated into the respiratory care multidisciplinary team.

  11. Vocational Education to Meet the Needs of a Changing Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Faced with sizable oil revenues and the need and desire to expand and diversify its industrial potential, Saudi Arabia is improving its vocational training efforts and attempting to involve as many of its citizens in vocational training programs as possible. At present, Saudi Arabia is having to import skilled workers to keep up with necessary…

  12. Utilization of penile prosthesis and male incontinence prosthetics in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Alwaal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There is an increased utilization of penile prosthetics in Saudi Arabia. The private sector performs the majority of penile prosthesis procedures, and most of them are of the semirigid type. The governmental sector is more likely to perform inflatable penile prosthesis and male incontinence device procedures. Male incontinence prosthetics' use is very limited in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Stroke in Saudi Arabia: a review of the recent literature | Asirvatham ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest country in the Middle East occupying approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 28 million. Stroke is becoming a rapidly increasing problem and an important cause of illness and deaths in Saudi Arabia. However, compared with ...

  14. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine...

  15. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Intercultural Awareness and the Iowa Air National Guard Elf One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    IL Sleraes Editor . j .: Briefing on Saudi Arabia for 133rd Oil-rich Saudi Arabia, which will also warned against having porno - Air Force Base, Okla...Pornography (Playboy, Oui, etc., are cons;idered porno ). (d) Ficearms. (e) Pork or Pork by-products. (5) Return address must be included and clearly

  16. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8281] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia...

  17. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8471] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  18. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  19. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Gelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586

  20. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  1. Phylogenetic characterization of circulating Dengue and Alkhumra Hemorrhagic Fever viruses in western Saudi Arabia and lack of evidence of Zika virus in the region: A retrospective study, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saeed, Moneerah S; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Farraj, Suha A; Al-Subhi, Tagreed L; Othman, Norah A; Alsultan, Arwa; Ben Helaby, Huda G; Alshawdari, Mustafa M; Hassan, Ahmed M; Charrel, Remi N; Azhar, Esam I; Hashem, Anwar M

    2017-08-01

    Flaviviruses represent a global public health concern. They consist of ∼70 viruses with almost half of them causing human diseases with unspecified febrile illnesses. Cities in western Saudi Arabia are endemic for viruses (DENV) with sporadic infections due to Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV). They also represent a major destination for travelers coming for annual religious pilgrimages (Hajj and Umrah) from all over the world. However, whether other flaviviruses are circulating is not known because of the limited number of surveillance studies. Here, we retrospectively screened 690 samples for flaviviruses in samples from patients with unexplained febrile illnesses between 2010 and 2015 in western Saudi Arabia using a pan-flaviviruses RT-PCR assay. Despite Zika virus RNA was not detected, this study confirms circulation and/or sporadic spread of DENV-2, DENV-3, and AHFV, higher prevalence of DENV-2, and a role for visitors from DENV endemic countries in DENV importation into the Kingdom. Further analysis also showed very low genetic diversity of AHFV confirming its slow microevolution. Accordingly, continuous and prospective surveillance for flaviviruses using such assay are warranted in Saudi Arabia which receives millions of Muslims annually to implement effective control measures in light of the global widespread and outbreaks of several flaviviruses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rainfall: Features and Variations over Saudi Arabia, A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosny Hasanean

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Arabia (SA climate varies greatly, depending on the geography and the season. According to K ppen and Geiger, the climates of SA is “desert climate”. The analysis of the seasonal rainfall detects that spring and winter seasons have the highestrainfall incidence, respectively. Through the summer,small quantities of precipitation are observed, while autumn received more precipitation more than summer season considering the total annual rainfall. In all seasons, the SW area receives rainfall, with a maximum in spring, whereas in the summer season, the NE and NW areas receive very little quantities of precipitation. The Rub Al-Khali (the SE region is almost totally dry. The maximum amount of annual rainfall does not always happen at the highest elevation. Therefore, the elevation is not the only factor in rainfall distribution.A great inter-annual change in the rainfall over the SA for the period (1978–2009 is observed. In addition, in the same period, a linear decreasing trend is found in the observed rainfall, whilst in the recent past (1994–2009 a statistically significant negative trend is observed. In the Southern part of the Arabian Peninsula (AP and along the coast of the Red Sea, it is interesting to note that rainfall increased, whilst it decreased over most areas of SA during the 2000–2009 decade, compared to 1980–1989.Statistical and numerical models are used to predict rainfall over Saudi Arabia (SA. The statistical models based on stochastic models of ARIMA and numerical models based on Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies of Hadley Centre (PRECIS. Climate and its qualitative character and quantified range of possible future changes are investigated. The annual total rainfall decreases in most regions of the SA and only increases in the south. The summertime precipitation will be the highest between other seasons over the southern, the southwestern provinces and Asir mountains, while the wintertime

  3. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  4. SCIENTIFIC POLICY OF SAUDI ARABIA: INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Tyukaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In less than a century of its existence Saudi Arabia has developed from mass illiteracy and lack of education of its population into the current state of complex structure of educational and research institutions and organizations equipped with most modern and advanced technologies and top world specialists in accordance with the highest international standards. It is especially important that the Kingdom has managed to achieve such success in no time. Until lately scientifi c development in Saudi Arabia was mostly concentrated on applied research, especially in the Kingdom’s key economic sphere – energy. Despite the country’s abundant financial resources, science was considerably underfunded and lacked any development strategy. Meanwhile, in the last 15 years the Saudi Kingdom has made a huge leap in scientifi c development with a clear action plan worked out, a solid structure of scientifi c institutes formed and the world experience effi ciently used. The success came with the Saudi authorities’ realization of the importance of scientifi c and technical progress both for the national economy and political positions of the state in the region and in the world. The article aims to analyze the scientifi c policy of Saudi Arabia on the stage of its birth and in the current state by means of studying offi cial documents, statistics and the existing institutes in the scientifi c system of the Kingdom. The author concludes that the key features of the Saudi scientifi c policy are prevailing role of the state, priority of applied over fundamental research and internalization with serious dependency on foreign support in the absence of a national scientifi c tradition.

  5. Knowledge and Awareness of Colorectal Cancer among Undergraduate Students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alsulami, Salhah S; Atta, Magdi; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge and awareness about colorectal cancer (CRC) among undergraduate students of one of the leading universities in Saudi Arabia, along with the mode of information access. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, among students of different faculties. The study questionnaire, containing 28 items, was adapted from surveys identified in the relevant literature. The CRC awareness questionnaire consisted of an awareness section (early CRC signs and symptoms, and risk factors) and a knowledge section. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0. A total of 525 undergraduate students participated in the study. The majority were females (63.0%) and approximately half (56.8%) were medical students. The majority of the students (82.3%) were aware of CRC, and 68% thought that CRC is a preventable disease. Regarding colorectal cancer screening tests, only one-third of students (33%) had actual knowledge, while the majority of the students (77.0%) thought that there are tests which help in early detection. Only 4% of the participants had a family history of CRC. The majority of the participants (84%) thought that CRC is a disease that can be cured. Almost 50-60% participants had good awareness level regarding risk factors, and signs and symptoms. Regarding knowledge, participant responses varied for family history (52%), age (59%), chronic infection of the colon (72%), obesity and lack of exercise (66%). More than one-third of the students had received information material regarding CRC from their curriculum followed by social media (20.4%), and nearly 40% from other sources such as TV, hospital and mass media. Female participants had significantly better awareness in a few questions regarding CRC awareness as compared to their male counterparts. There was a significant difference observed between medical and non-medical students (knowledge about CRC while no significant

  6. Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research.

  7. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its associated risk factors among Saudi female patients attending the primary healthcare centers in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahrani, Turki A.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.; Ramadan, Iman K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female patients, age 18-60 years, attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) and to measure its determinants, and reporting behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using validated, translated, and self-administered questionnaire among 497 Saudi female patients attending PHCCs in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from January to February 2015 was employed. A 2-stage probability sampling was ad...

  8. Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in t...

  9. Video game addiction and psychological distress among expatriate adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the...

  10. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi A. Jamjoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. Methods Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939 and 37% (68/184 in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1% reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others

  11. Study on the radioactivity and soil-to-plant transfer factor of 226Ra, 234U and 238U radionuclides in irrigated farms from the northwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F.; Alkhomashi, N.; Almasoud, Fahad I.

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of 226 Ra, 234 U and 238 U for 13 types of vegetables and agricultural crops planted under semi-arid environment in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. Crop plants along with plant-growing soils were collected from selected farms, which are irrigated from the non-renewable Saq aquifer, and investigated for their radioactivity content by means of alpha spectrometry after applying a radiochemical separation procedure. Hence, TF data for plant roots, green parts (stem and leaves) and fruits were calculated and contrasted to those reported in the literature. Substantial differences were observed in the TFs of Ra and U radioisotopes among plant species. In crop fruits, eggplant exhibited the highest uptake of 226 Ra (TF value of 0.11), while beans (0.16) have the highest TF for 234 U and 238 U. The geometric mean TF values indicated that the crop roots tend to accumulate Ra and U about four to six-folds higher than fruits. The relation between TF values and soil concentrations showed a weak correlation. Activity ratios between radionuclides in crop plants indicated the preferential translocation of U in fruits than Ra even though Ra is more available for root uptake. The fruit/root (F/R) ratios obtained for the investigated plants shown that pepper had the smallest F/R ratios (0.07 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.02 for 226 Ra, 234 U and 238 U, respectively), while the highest F/R ratios were observed in potatoes (0.71 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.10 and 0.40 ± 0.08 for 226 Ra, 234 U and 238 U, respectively). The TF and F/R ratios data of natural radionuclides in the study region can hopefully improve the scientific knowledge for future studies. - Highlights: • Ra and U isotopes were measured in soils and plant crops in farms in Saudi Arabia. • Ra and U activities in plant roots (R) slightly exceeded that in their fruits (F). • Ra/U activity ratios showed preferential translocation of U

  12. Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia: 2012 Data from the Saudi Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan

    2017-09-27

    Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  14. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills.   In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%.  The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group.   Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.

  15. Managing the change during e-learning integration in higher education: a case study from Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Khalid

    2016-12-19

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) that are already familiar components in business environments are fi nding their way into education at all levels in many parts of the world. Such technologies, however, disrupt education (Christensen, Horn and Johnson, 2008; Bonk, Lee, Kim and Lin, 2010) as they require changes in the teaching approaches and structure of institutions (McPherson and Nunes, 2008). People, on the other hand, can resist change because it challenges them and drives them out of their comfort zone (Latchem and Jung, 2010). Therefore, managing the change during the transition phase is crucial (Kotter, 1996) and a challenging task for any leader (Tibi and McLeod, 2010). Universities experience such challenges during the transition from a traditional way of teaching to more e-learning-based teaching and learning, and this chapter has taken one Saudi Arabian university as a case study.

  16. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...

  17. Spatial and Temporal Strain Distribution Along the Central Red Sea Rift - A Study of the Hamd-Jizil Basin in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D.; Johnson, P.; Kattan, F. H.; Al Shamari, A.

    2006-12-01

    Numerous models exploring the rupturing modes and mechanisms of continental lithosphere are based on geological evidence from the Red Sea/Gulf of Suez rift system. Individually, the Red Sea basin is the prototype for many models of orthogonal continental rifting. Despite being a classic example of continental extension, many temporal and spatial strain distribution aspects, as well as the dynamic evolution of the rift architecture of the Red Sea, remain poorly constrained. Critical data come mostly from the Gulf of Suez and the Egyptian and Yemeni margins of the Red Sea; the rift flanks in Sudan and Saudi Arabia have remained largely unstudied, leaving a large information gap along the central portions of the rift system. Improving continental lithosphere rupture models requires an absolute understanding of the timing and magnitude of strain partitioning along the full rift flank. This study focuses on the development of extensional structures, syn- extensional sedimentary deposits, and rift-related Tertiary basaltic volcanism along the central flank of the rift system in Saudi Arabia. Geo- and thermochronometric techniques are used to elucidate the evolution of inboard and outboard strain markers manifested by structurally-controlled extensional basins that parallel the trend of the main Red Sea rift. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of thermochronometric transects that traverse both the entire Arabian shield and individual normal faults that bound inland basins. Preliminary results show inland basins as asymmetric half-grabens filled by tilted Cenozoic sedimentary strata and separated by exhumed basement fault blocks. The most prominent extensional basin is the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, located north of Madinah, measuring ~200 km along strike and up to 20 km in width. The Hamd-Jizil basin is structurally characterized by two half-grabens exposing a series of syn-rift siliciclastic sedimentary sections

  18. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  19. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, pservices showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  20. Communication with the seriously ill: physicians' attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobeireek, A F; al-Kassimi, F A; al-Majid, S A; al-Shimemry, A

    1996-10-01

    To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. Senior and junior physicians from departments of internal medicine and critical care in six hospitals in the above cities. A total of 249 physicians participated in the study. Less than half (47%) indicated they provided information on diagnosis and prognosis of serious illnesses all the time. Physicians who were more senior and those who spoke Arabic fared better than other groups. The majority (75%) preferred to discuss information with close relatives rather than patients, even when the patients were mentally competent. Most of the physicians (72%) felt patients had the right to refuse a specific treatment modality, and 68% denied patients the right to demand such a treatment if considered futile. Further analysis showed that physicians' attitudes varied along a spectrum from passive (25%) to paternalistic (21%) with the largest group (47%) in a balanced position. In traditional societies where physicians are regarded as figures of authority and family ties are important, there is a considerable shift of access to information and decision-making from patients to their physicians and relatives in a manner that threatens patients' autonomy. Ethical principles, wider availability of invasive medical technology and a rise in public awareness dictate an attitude change.

  1. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Ashshi, A.M.; Mahomed, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  2. Waste to biodiesel: A preliminary assessment for Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, M; Gardy, J; Demirbas, A; Rashid, U; Budzianowski, W M; Pant, Deepak; Nizami, A S

    2018-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary assessment of biodiesel production from waste sources available in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for energy generation and solution for waste disposal issues. A case study was developed under three different scenarios: (S1) KSA population only in 2017, (S2) KSA population and pilgrims in 2017, and (S3) KSA population and pilgrims by 2030 using the fat fraction of the municipal solid waste. It was estimated that S1, S2, and S3 scenarios could produce around 1.08, 1.10 and 1.41 million tons of biodiesel with the energy potential of 43423, 43949 and 56493 TJ respectively. Furthermore, annual savings of US $55.89, 56.56 and 72.71 million can be generated from landfill diversion of food waste and added to the country's economy. However, there are challenges in commercialization of waste to biodiesel facilities in KSA, including waste collection and separation, impurities, reactor design and biodiesel quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  4. Characteristics of Neonatal Pneumothorax in Saudi Arabia: Three Years’ Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Matary

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, predisposing factors, morbidity, and mortality among hospitalized neonates with pneumothorax. Methods: The records of 2 204 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia, between 2011 and 2014 were reviewed. All newborns hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit with pneumothorax were included in the study. Participants were evaluated for baseline characteristics, predisposing factors of neonatal pneumothorax (NP, accompanying disorders, and mortality. Results: Pneumothorax was diagnosed in 86 patients, with an incidence of 3.9%. The most common predisposing factors of NP were bag mask ventilation, followed by hypoplastic lung disease, and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-five (29.1% newborns with pneumothorax died. The most common accompanying disorder was premature rupture of membrane. On multivariate analysis, pulmonary hemorrhage, a birth weight < 2 500 g, and low Apgar score (< 7 at one minute were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions: This study highlights the extent of NP problems among hospitalized neonates and the most common predisposing factors of NP.

  5. Using SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics in assessment, monitoring and proposing environmental restoration tools in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Hennekens, Stephan; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Thomas, Jacob; Schaminee, Joop; El-Keblawy, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Successful restoration of degraded habitats requires information about the history and factors led to the deterioration of these habitats. This study analyzed SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics, which is a big phytosociological database about plant communities and other environmental factors affecting them in the Najd-Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A phytosociological survey with more than 3000 vegetation relevés was conducted during 2013. The data were used to correlate the plant community attributes, such as abundance and species diversity in natural and ruderal habitats with environmental factors, such as human impacts, soil physical and chemical properties, and land uses. The data were subjected to multivariate analyses using programs, such as TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA, via Juice package. Fourteen vegetation associations were described under provisional classification of the Central Saudi Arabia deserts. These associations were broadly grouped into desert vegetation types. One alliance group, Haloxylonion salicornici, is the most widespread and contains four associations on the wadis and desert plains. Three associations are dominant on the depression habitats (raudhas) and two associations of Tamarixidetum spp. on the wetland and salt pan habitats. Four associations inhabit the man-made habitat and abandoned field habitats and one association, the Neurado procumbentis-Heliotropietum digyni, dominates the overgrazed sandy dunes. As human impact is huge and increasing, the vegetation ecoinformatics of the present study would form a baseline description that could be used as a vital tool for future monitoring and for proposing environmental restoration processes in central Saudi Arabia. It could also help both Governmental and Non-governmental organizations (NGO) in formulating strategies and on-ground plans for protection, management and restoration of the natural vegetation.

  6. Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osoba, A.O.; Ibrahim, M.; Abdelaal, M.A.; Al-Mowallad, A.; Al-Shareef, B.; Hussein, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

  7. Health professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Badrya H.; Xiao, Lily D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. PMID:28251216

  8. Health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Badrya H; Xiao, Lily D

    2017-03-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Stratigraphy and macrofauna of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Gameil, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled M.

    2017-10-01

    The stratigraphy and macrofaunal content of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation was studied at Khashm adh Dhibi, central Saudi Arabia. The studied succession is dominated by limestones and dolomites, with subordinate occurrences of sandstones, siltstones and claystones. The formation is highly fossiliferous with brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves, ammonites and echinoids, particularly the lower and upper members. Twenty nine species are identified, they include 7 species of brachiopods, 8 gastropods, 8 bivalves, 4 ammonites and 2 echinoids. Many of the identified fauna are correlated with Jurassic equivalents in Jordan, Italy, Morocco, Egypt and India. Three gastropod species: Globularia subumbilicata, Ampullospira sp., Purpuroidea peristriata and seven bivalve species: Palaeonucula lateralis, Chlamys (Radulopecten) fibrosa, Eligmus weiri, E.integer, E. asiaticus, Musculus somaliensis and Pholadomya orientalis were recognized for the first time in the Lower Jurassic deposits of Saudi Arabia.

  10. First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.

  11. Family medicine practice in Saudi Arabia: The current situation and Proposed Strategic Directions Plan 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A; Al-Mogbil, Tariq I; Al-Khashan, Hesham I

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of the teaching and training of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in family medicine in KSA, assess the current practice of family medicine, and draw a roadmap to achieve Saudi vision 2020. This study was conducted with the support and collaboration of the Primary Health Care Department of the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, and World Health Organization (EMRO) in November 2015. Based on the literature review of previous studies conducted for similar purposes, relevant questionnaires were developed. These consisted of four forms, each of which was directed at a different authority to achieve the above-mentioned objectives. Data of all questionnaires were coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 16. There are 2282 primary health-care centers (PHCCs), 60% of which are in rural areas. More than half of the PHCCs have a laboratory and more than one-third have a Radiology Department. Out of the 6107 physicians, 636 are family physicians (10%). All medical colleges have a family medicine department with a total staff of 170 medical teachers. Thirteen departments run family medicine courses of 4-8 weeks' duration for students. Fourteen colleges have internship programs in family medicine and four colleges have postgraduate centers for family medicine (27%). There are 95 training centers for Saudi Board (Saudi Board of Family Medicine [SBFM]) and 68 centers for Saudi Diploma (Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine [SDFM]). The total number of trainers was 241, while the total trainees were 756 in SBFM and 137 in SDFM. This survey showed that there is a shortage of qualified family physicians in all health sectors in Saudi Arabia as a result of the lack of a strategic plan for the training of family physicians. A national strategic plan with specific objectives and an explicit budget are necessary to deal with this shortage and improve the quality of health-care services at PHCCs.

  12. Depression and Associated Factors among Adolescent Females in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheel, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.

  13. Structural evolution of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Yousef; Kassem1, Osama M. K.

    2017-04-01

    Neoproterozoic basement complex comprises a metamorphic/igneous suite (Abt schist and sheared granitoids) with syn-accretionary transpressive structures, unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence. This study aims to attempt to exposed post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. The Rf/ϕ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It indicates that the contacts between various lithological units in the Halaban area were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Keywords: Finite strain analysis, volcanosedimentary sequence, Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia.

  14. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

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    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  15. Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; Zabramawi, Yasser A; El-Kaliouby, Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole–dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole. (paper)

  16. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Abdullah I.; Al-Abdulwahab, Ahmed H.; Al-Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  17. Epidemiology of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShail, Essam; De Vol, Edward; Yassen, Ahsan; Elgamal, Essam A

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the distribution and pattern of neural tube defects in Saudi Arabia by creating a hospital based registry. All cases registered in the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) neural tube defect (NTD) registry since it was established in October 2000 until December 2012 were studied through active surveillance comprising a registrar who collects NTD information by reviewing the patient's medical records, and interviewing patient's families. The total number of patients registered from October 2000 to December 2012 was 718 patients. There were more females (417, 58%) than males (301, 42%). Of 620 mothers who underwent antenatal ultrasonography; 392 (63%) were diagnosed at birth, and 204 (33%) were diagnosed with antenatal hydrocephalus. In our registry sample, most mothers (95%) did not take folic acid 3 months prior to pregnancy, and 76% did not take folic acid during the 3 months after conception with the affected child. Only 5% received folic acid prior to conception. The KFSH&RC-NTD registry has met its objectives as a source of data that may significantly contribute to the prevention of NTDs, and improving quality of care for NTD patients through active publication of registry findings and management approaches.

  18. Paleomagnetic investigations at Mahd adh Dhahab, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of 25 oriented bedrock specimens from Jabal Mahd adh Dhahab, located 160 km southeast of Al Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, have yielded important structural information relating to the geologic history of this base and precious metal deposit. Samples were collected along one traverse away from the mineralized zones, across the northeast-plunging antiform that constitutes the dominant regional structure of the area, and along another traverse down the axis of the mineralized zones. Lithologies range from andesite flows through andesitic to rhyodacitic tuffs, lapilli tuffs, and volcaniclastic sediments. Measurements of remanent magnetization direction and intensity before and after stepwise alternating-field demagnetization ranging from 25 Oersted (Oe) to 1000 Oe were carried out on all samples. Three classes of demagnetization behavior were observed: A very stable class with little change in direction and intensity of magnetization; a class in which rapid changes were observed at first but which then settled on a high coercivity stable component of magnetization; and a class in which the magnetization was composed of a spectrum of low coervicity components, and continuous variation of direction and intensity of magnetization occurred.

  19. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to faith healers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients.

  20. Prevalence of Smoking and Its Associated Factors Among Male College Students in Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Mohaithef

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of smoking has reduced over a period of time in the developed countries. However, the consumption of tobacco is rapidly increasing in the developing nations which further raises burden of various diseases. The prevalence of consumption of tobacco among the adolescent population is vigorously growing across the world. There are several studies in Saudi Arabia that report the smoking rate and pattern among the secondary school students, but very limited data is available about the prevalence of smoking among the college students. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of smoking among the male college students and to evaluate the relationship between the smoking habit and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in selected colleges in King Khalid University, Abha during August 2016 to December 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information and about smoking habit among the college students. Results: The study showed 18.7% of prevalence of smoking among the male college students with a positive association between employment and smoking habit. However, no positive association between other socio-demographic variables and smoking. Conclusion: Though the prevalence rate of smoking among the male college students is less but still there is a need to create awareness among the college students and their parents for decreasing the burden of tobacco related diseases.

  1. New Records of some Filth Flies Species (Diptera: Milichiidae) in Southwest Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawah, H.A; Abdullah, M.A

    2007-01-01

    A Malaise trap was used during different time periods between 2002 and 2006, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia at different localities. Nine known species of Milichiidae (some of them of medical importance) have been identified. These are: Desmometopa m-nigrum (Zetterstedt, 1848); D. varipalpis Malloch 1927; D. singaporensis Kertesz 1899; Leptometopa rufifrons Becker 1903; L. latipes (Meigen 1830); L. nilssoni Sabrosky, 1987; Milichia pubescens Becker 1907; Milichiella lacteipennis (Loew 1866); Enigmilichia dimorphica Deeming, 1981, from South-Western Saudi Arabia, the last seven species of the above are recorded for the first time. Biological information and distribution of these species are included. The fauna of Milichiidae found in this study is much more of Afrotropical than Palaearctic origin. (author)

  2. Soil Erosion Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Wadi Yalamlam Basin, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrawi, Jarbou A.; Elhag, Mohamed; Aldhebiani, Amal Y.; Galal, Hanaa K.; Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Alghailani, Ebtisam

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major environmental problems in terms of soil degradation in Saudi Arabia. Soil erosion leads to significant on- and off-site impacts such as significant decrease in the productive capacity of the land and sedimentation. The key aspects influencing the quantity of soil erosion mainly rely on the vegetation cover, topography, soil type, and climate. This research studies the quantification of soil erosion under different levels of data availability in Wadi Yalamlam. ...

  3. Health professionals? knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alamri, Badrya H.; Xiao, Lily D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the ...

  4. Workplace violence in the emergency department in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    ALSHEHRI, WALEED MOHAMMED A.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored workplace violence among emergency department nurses and doctors in public hospitals in Saudi Arabia for the first time. Workplace violence is prevalent among nurses and doctors and it has physical, psychological and emotional impact. There is a lack of safety measures, precautions and management support for victims. Most staff feel vulnerable to violence in the next 12 months of employment. The findings will inform Emergency Department managements and the Ministry of H...

  5. A screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ahmad M.; Al-Haidar, Fatima; Al-Alim, Fateh; Al-Hag, Othman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A clinically validated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scale in Arabic for evaluating children in Saudi Arabia who might be suspected of having ADHD is lacking. Thus, we studied the validity of an Arabic version of the ADHD Rating Scale in discriminating children with an ADHD diagnosis from normal children or from those with non-ADHD psychiatric diagnoses, including mental retardation. METHODS: The guardians of 119 children provided demographic data ...

  6. Reassessment of osteoporosis-related femoral fractures and economic burden in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Dakheel, Dakheel A; Azam, Md Q; Al-Bluwi, Mohammed T; Al-Farhan, Mohammed F; AlAmer, Hussein A; Al-Meer, Zakaria; Al-Mohimeed, Abdallah; Tabash, Ibrahim K; Karry, Maher O; Rassasy, Yaseen M; Baragaba, Mohammed A; Amer, Ahmed S; AlJawder, Abdallah; Al-Bouri, Kamil M; ElTinay, Mohammed; Badawi, Hamed A; Al-Othman, Abdallah A; Tayara, Badar K; Al-Faraidy, Moaad H; Amin, Ahmed H

    2015-01-01

    The current study reassesses the prevalence of fragility fractures and lifetime costs in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Forty-two percent (391) of the fractures were at the neck of the femur, and 38.6 % (354) were inter-trochanteric fractures. The overall incidence was assessed to be 7528 (1,300,336 population 55 years or older) with the direct cost of SR564.75 million ($150.60 million). A National Fracture Registry and osteoporosis awareness programs are recommended. Proximal femur fragility fractures are reported to be increasing worldwide due to increased life expectancy. The current study is carried out to assess the incidence of such fractures in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and to assess the costs incurred in managing them annually. Finally, by extrapolating the data, the study can calculate the overall economic burden in Saudi Arabia. The data of fragility proximal femur fractures was collected from 24 of 28 hospitals in the Eastern Province. The data included age, sex, mode of injury, type of fracture, prescribed drug (and its cost), and length of hospital stay. Population statistics were obtained from the Department of Statistics of the Saudi Arabian government Web site. Twenty-four hospitals (85 %) participated in the study. A total of 780 fractures were sustained by 681 patients. Length of stay in the hospital averaged 23.28 ± 13.08 days. The projected fracture rate from all the hospitals would be 917 (an incidence of 5.81/1000), with a total cost of SR68.77 million. Further extrapolation showed that the overall incidence could be 7528 (1,300,336 population 55 years or older) with the direct cost of SR564.75 million ($150.60 million). Osteoporosis-related femoral fractures in Saudi Arabia are significant causes of morbidity besides incurring economic burden. We believe that a National Fracture Registry needs to be established, and osteoporosis awareness programs should be instituted in every part of Saudi Arabia so that these patients can

  7. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Creating a healthy built environment for diabetic patients: the case study of the eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidawi, Bhzad; Alhariri, Mohamed Taha; Albaker, Walid Ibrahim

    2014-04-14

    Many studies worldwide have demonstrated the negative impact of an unhealthy built environment on citizens. In the case of diabetes, studies have concentrated on the environmental impact and accessibility issues of a place i.e. the home and neighborhood, whereas few studies have addressed the comfort of the type and spatial arrangement of a household and linked it with the prevalence of diabetes. Also, little research has tackled the place's impact on diabetic patients and their views concerning their environments. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of survey that was carried out on diabetic individuals who usually visit the King Fahd teaching hospital of the University of Dammam, Al-Khober, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients were surveyed and physically examined. The present researchers found significant links between patients' diabetes symptoms such as reported paresthesia and blurred vision, and medical investigations results such as lipid profile, blood glucose and blood pressure with the environmental conditions of their homes and neighborhoods. The paper shows that the prevalence of the disease is not only caused by an unhealthy lifestyle but also by an unhealthy built environment. Moreover, it illustrates that unhealthy built environment promotes unhealthy life styles. It makes recommendations on how to improve the built environment in the KSA to be healthier for all citizens including the diabetic patients.

  9. Factors affecting performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmadi, Hanan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were to estimate self-reported performance, and determine whether differences in employee demographics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, influenced performance. In total, 15 hospitals were randomly selected. The questionnaire was sent to all nurses (1,834) in these facilities and 923 nurses responded. Statistical analysis included correlation, t-test, and regression analysis. The study finds that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses' performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance. The findings of this study have a limited generalisability due to the fact that all measures used are based on self-reports. Future research may be directed to other objective measures of performance. Emphasis should be placed on effective supervision, empowerment, and a better reward system. Cultural diversity is a reality for most health organizations in Saudi Arabia; therefore, they need to adopt effective human resources strategies that aim to improve commitment and retention of qualified workers, and build a high performance organizational culture based on empowerment, open communication, and appreciation of impact of national culture on work attitudes. This study fulfills a research gap in the area of nursing performance, and its relationship with work attitudes in Saudi Arabia. The paper also highlights the impact of national culture on job performance and work attitude among nurses in Saudi Arabia, and other countries facing the issue of multi-national work force.

  10. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  11. Evaluation and Preliminary Design of a Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) System at the Wadi Khulays Dunefield in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2013-01-01

    . The construction of dams along wadi channels enables the retention of stormwater, however the reservoirs are still subject to huge evaporative losses and contamination. In this study, the hydraulic properties of a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia are evaluated

  12. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance.

  13. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Fasiza; Al-Raddadi, Ali; Satti, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  14. Patterns and determinants of stress among consultant physicians working in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alawad, Hossam S; Alamri, Ayedh K; Saeed, Abdullah I; Aljuaydi, Khalid A; Alotaibi, Alwaleed S; Alotaibi, Khalid M; Alfaris, Eiad A

    2018-01-01

    Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS). A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14-21), which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level) was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85%) considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress. In multivariate analysis, the following factors were independently associated with stress: female gender (odds ratio [OR]=2.41, 95% CI 1.58-3.70) and perceived stressful working environment (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.87-7.17). Consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia experience moderate to high levels of perceived stress that are relatively comparable to physicians worldwide. A significant association was found between stress levels and both female gender and perception of a stressful working environment. Further studies are required to assess physician-based interventions and organization

  15. A study of the prevalence and risk factors for cardiovascular disorders among patients registered with the primary health centres in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al Mansour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs are considered among the most common co-morbidities especially in developed countries that are easily preventable by controlling its risk factors and developing a healthy life style. Aims To identify the magnitude and risk factors of CVDs among PHC patients in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Methods This was an interviewee based cross-sectional study conducted among the patients who were chosen through a one–stage cluster sampling method. Data was collected through a pre – structured close ended questionnaire. Results The study included 397 participants with mean age of 44.5±13.7 years. About 22 per cent of the participants had one of the CVDs and hypertension was the most commonly recorded one (20.4 per cent. Statistically significant risk factors associated with CVDs were smoking (Odds ratio – 2.9, DM (OR–2.1 and obesity (OR–3.5. Triglycerides readings were higher among those having CVDs as compared to those who were healthy. Conclusion It was found that one out of five participants were affected with CVDs in spite of their young age. Obesity, smoking, age, diabetes mellitus and elevated blood pressure were the most important predictors.

  16. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

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    Amoudi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study

  17. Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings From "Jeeluna".

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammad; AlDhukair, Shahla; Al Shehri, Sulieman; Tamimi, Waleed; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; de Vries, Nanne; Al Alwan, Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia's population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations. A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient. Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of evidence-based practice among hospital pharmacists in Saudi Arabia: attitude, awareness, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazaq S; Alharbi, Reem

    2017-08-01

    Background Many studies have previously looked at the perceptions, attitude, and use of Evidence-based Practice (EBP) among healthcare providers. However, limited data is available on the implementation of EBP among pharmacists in general, and Saudi Arabia in particular. Objective To evaluate the awareness, attitude, and practice of EBP among hospital practicing pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. Setting Secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia with a bed capacity of ≥200 Methods This is a cross sectional, survey-based study where a validated selfadministrated questionnaire was utilized. Pharmacists working in secondary and tertiary care hospitals with a bed capacity of ≥200 were targeted. The descriptive data consisted of percentages for discrete and medians for continuous statistics. Results The survey was distributed to a total of 1136 pharmacists. Total number of respondents is 228 which represent a response rate of 20%. Most of them (75% median score = 8) have a positive attitude toward EBP. In addition to clinical expertise, only 48.6% of them were able to identify EBP resource as the second component of EBP concept, while only 1.7% of the respondents were able to identify patient preference as a third component. Lack of personal time, critical appraisal skills, and resources, (40%, 15.6% and 13.9% respectively) are considered as the major barriers to implementing EBP in pharmacy. Conclusion The majority of pharmacists in Saudi Arabia hold a positive attitude of EBP. Unfortunately, most of pharmacists do not consider patients' values as a component of EBP. The major barriers to practicing EBP are lack of personal time, critical appraisal skills, and resources availability.

  19. Television watching, diet and body mass index of school children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-04-01

    Watching television has been widely associated with various health and psychological outcomes in children. Excessive intake of carbonated, sweetened beverages and fast foods, inadequate intake of fruit and dairy products; and reduced levels of physical activity also pose a risk to healthy lifestyle among youth. Limited literature is available, however, on the cross-cultural aspects of duration of television viewing, diet preferences and their effect on weight in school children in the Middle East, especially in Saudi Arabia. We conducted an online survey in school children in Saudi Arabia (age 12-16 years) to determine whether there is any association between duration of daily television watching, body mass index (BMI), eating habits and diet preferences. A self-administered questionnaire was uploaded online and the link was sent to school children, inviting them to participate in the study. It included questions on demographic data; family medical status; daily routine in and after school; number of hours of daily TV watching, self-perception of health and daily diet habits and preferences. A total of 220 children aged between 12 and 16 years participated in the present study. There was a higher duration of television viewing, and higher consumption of high-fat fast foods and high-sugar drinks, and this was significantly associated with BMI (P Saudi Arabia seems to be the major cause of the association between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits, which needs to be checked and limited. Parents and teachers need to be trained because they can play a major role in its prevention. Saudi Arabia is a growing country banking on its youth. Their awareness can prevent the incidence and lower the prevalence of such ill health habits among them. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Taweel, Waleed; Alkhayal, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  1. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia

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    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  2. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  3. Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah A; Rahman, Ghousia; Al Mahmoud, Noura; Al Shamasi, Ebtehaj; Al Khuwaileidi, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data were analyzed by χ(2) -tests, with the level of significance set at P disease could be prevented through toothbrushing and flossing. Approximately 97% of the respondents knew the negative effect of smoking, while only 12% knew there was a possible relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results of this cross-sectional study found that there is limited knowledge and awareness about periodontal disease and its possible effects on pregnancy among pregnant women attending maternal health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Nurses' Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture in Three Hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquwez, Nahed; Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Almoghairi, Ahmed Mohammed; Al-Otaibi, Raid Salman; Almutairi, Khalid Obaid; Alicante, Jerico G; Colet, Paolo C

    2018-05-14

    To assess the present patient safety culture of three general hospitals in Saudi Arabia, as perceived by nurses. This study utilized a descriptive, cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 351 nurses working in three general hospitals in the central region of Saudi Arabia was surveyed in this study using the Hospital Survey of Patients' Safety Culture (HSOPSC) from October 2016 to April 2017. From the 12 composites of the HSOPSC, the nurses perceived only the following two patient safety areas as strengths: teamwork within units and organizational learning-continuous improvement. Six areas of patient safety were identified as weaknesses, namely overall perception of patient safety, handoffs and transitions, communication openness, staffing, frequency of events reported, and nonpunitive response to errors. Nationality, educational attainment, hospital, length of service in the hospital, work area or unit, length of service in the current work area or unit, current position, and direct patient contact or interaction were significant predictors of the nurses' perceived patient safety culture. The findings in this study clarify the current status of patient safety culture in three hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The present findings should be considered by policymakers, hospital leaders, and nurse executives in creating interventions aimed at improving the patient safety culture in hospitals. A multidimensional network intervention targeting the different dimensions of patient safety culture and involving different organizational levels should be implemented to improve patient safety. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Management of heatstroke in Malaysian pilgrims in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, M I

    1989-09-01

    Heat stroke is hardly seen in Malaysia. However, it occurs commonly in Saudi Arabia during the Haj season. Many Malaysian pilgrims are affected every year and some die. Having faced this environmental hazard for eight years, the Malaysian Medical Mission, sent each year to look after our pilgrims, modified its treatment strategy in 1988 and successfully decreased the overall morbidity and mortality of affected patients without the use of sophisticated equipment. A brief account of the management of 17 cases seen in 1988 is given. Only one died following treatment. The rest recovered fully without any residual neurological deficit or other complications.

  6. Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

  7. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almtairi, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  8. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  9. Assessment of physicians' awareness and knowledge of familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia: Is there a gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batais, Mohammed Ali; Almigbal, Turky H; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altaradi, Hani B; AlHabib, Khalid F

    2017-01-01

    The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians. To assess physicians' awareness, practice, and knowledge of FH in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among physicians at four tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2016 and May 2016 using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 294 physicians completed the survey (response rate 90.1%). Overall, 92.9% of the participants have poor knowledge of FH while only 7.1% have acceptable knowledge. The majority (68.7%) of physicians rated their familiarity with FH as average or above average, and these had higher mean knowledge scores than participants with self-reported below average familiarity (mean 3.4 versus 2.6) (P knowledge scores compared to those without FH patients in their care (3.5 versus 2.9) (P = 0.006). In addition, there were statistically significant differences between physicians' mean knowledge scores and their ages, levels of training, and years in practice. Moreover, a substantial deficit was identified in the awareness of various clinical algorithms to diagnose patients with FH, cascade screening, specialist lipid services, and the existence of statin alternatives, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. A substantial deficit was found in the awareness, knowledge, practice, and detection of FH among physicians in Saudi Arabia. Extensive educational programs are required to raise physician awareness and implement best practices; only then can the impact of these interventions on FH management and patient outcome be assessed.

  10. A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in saudi arabia: a survey of junior residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadani, Fahad; Alrushood, Aziz; Altokhy, Hisham; Alasbali, Tariq

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80%) responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%), while others (25%) planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%). Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77%) and research (75%). The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%), while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001). Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

  11. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Cultural acceptance of robotic telestroke medicine among patients and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khathaami, Ali M.; Alshahrani, Saeed M.; Kojan, Suleiman M.; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A.; Alamry, Ahmed A.; El-Metwally, Ashraf A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i® (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Conclusion: Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers. PMID:25630777

  13. Epidemiological aspects of prematurity in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

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    Faisal O. Al-Qurashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and seventy-six preterm infants were admitted with a total prevalence of 7.5%. Descriptive analysis revealed 55% were males. Extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks’ gestation comprised 9% and very preterm infants (28 to <32 weeks’ gestation comprised 20%. Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW infants (<1000 g comprised 11%. One hundred and fifty-seven (32% infants were small for gestational age. Out of the total number of ELBW infants, 58% of them were discharged. The overall mortality was 7.6%. The mortality rate of male infants was 53%. The survival to discharge according to gestational age ranged from 30-97.6%. Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of preterm births in a university hospital in eastern province of Saudi Arabia, is consistent with various studies from different parts of the world.

  14. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten N. Al-Zaben

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total. No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42. Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women.

  15. How Jordan and Saudi Arabia are avoiding a tragedy of the commons over shared groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marc F.; Müller-Itten, Michèle C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2017-07-01

    Transboundary aquifers are ubiquitous and strategically important to global food and water security. Yet these shared resources are being depleted at an alarming rate. Focusing on the Disi aquifer, a key nonrenewable source of groundwater shared by Jordan and Saudi Arabia, this study develops a two-stage game that evaluates optimal transboundary strategies of common-pool resource exploitation under various assumptions. The analysis relies on estimates of agricultural water use from satellite imagery, which were obtained using three independent remote sensing approaches. Drawdown response to pumping is simulated using a 2-D regional aquifer model. Jordan and Saudi Arabia developed a buffer-zone strategy with a prescribed minimum distance between each country's pumping centers. We show that by limiting the marginal impact of pumping decisions on the other country's pumping costs, this strategy will likely avoid an impeding tragedy of the commons for at least 60 years. Our analysis underscores the role played by distance between wells and disparities in groundwater exploitation costs on common-pool overdraft. In effect, if pumping centers are distant enough, a shared aquifer no longer behaves as a common-pool resource and a tragedy of the commons can be avoided. The 2015 Disi aquifer pumping agreement between Jordan and Saudi Arabia, which in practice relies on a joint technical commission to enforce exclusion zones, is the first agreement of this type between sovereign countries and has a promising potential to avoid conflicts or resolve potential transboundary groundwater disputes over comparable aquifer systems elsewhere.

  16. Is the epidemiology of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever changing?: A three-year overview in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease is yet to be fully understood since the virus was isolated in 1994 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SETTING: Preventive Medicine department, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all laboratory confirmed cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease collected through active and passive surveillance from 1(st-January 2009 to December, 31, 2011. RESULTS: Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV disease increased from 59 cases in 2009 to 93 cases in 2011. Cases are being discovered outside of the region where it was initially diagnosed in Saudi Arabia. About a third of cases had no direct contact with animals or its products. Almost all cases had gastro-intestinal symptoms. Case fatality rate was less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this study showed the mode of transmission of AHFV virus may not be limited to direct contact with animals or its products. Gastro-intestinal symptoms were not previously documented. Observed low case fatality rate contradicted earlier reports. Close monitoring of the epidemiology of AHFV is recommended to aid appropriate diagnosis. Housewives are advised to wear gloves when handling animals and animal products as a preventive measure.

  17. Expanded Newborn Screening Program in Saudi Arabia: Incidence of screened disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhel, Majid; Al Othaim, Ali; Al Saif, Saif; Al Mutairi, Fuad; Alsayed, Moeenaldeen; Rahbeeni, Zuhair; Alzaidan, Hamad; Alowain, Mohammed; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair; Saeedi, Mohamad; Aljohery, Saeed; Alasmari, Ali; Faqeih, Eissa; Alwakeel, Mansour; AlMashary, Maher; Almohameed, Sulaiman; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Migdad, Abeer; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Rashed, Mohamed; Alamoudi, Mohamed; Jacob, Minnie; Alahaidib, Lujane; El-Badaoui, Fahd; Saadallah, Amal; Alsulaiman, Ayman; Eyaid, Wafaa; Al-Odaib, Ali

    2017-06-01

    To address the implementation of the National Newborn Screening Program (NBS) in Saudi Arabia and stratify the incidence of the screened disorders. A retrospective study conducted between 1 August 2005 and 31 December 2012, total of 775 000 newborns were screened from 139 hospitals distributed among all regions of Saudi Arabia. The NBS Program screens for 16 disorders from a selective list of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) and endocrine disorders. Heel prick dry blood spot samples were obtained from all newborns for biochemical and immunoassay testing. Recall screening testing was performed for Initial positive results and confirmed by specific biochemical assays. A total of 743 cases were identified giving an overall incidence of 1:1043. Frequently detected disorders nationwide were congenital hypothyroidism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with an incidence of 1:7175 and 1:7908 correspondingly. The highest incidence among the IEM was propionic acidaemia with an incidence rate of 1:14 000. The article highlights the experience of the NBS Program in Saudi Arabia and providing data on specific regional incidences of all the screened disorders included in the programme; and showed that the incidence of these disorders is one of the highest reported so far world-wide. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. I.; Fazal ur, Rehman

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia was carried out using passive radon dosemeters. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data of Al-Jauf region. The study is a continuation of radon survey in main cities of Saudi Arabia which constitutes a baseline for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. A total of 318 passive radon dosemeters were distributed randomly in the region and placed for a period of 1 y starting from April 2004 to April 2005. The results of indoor radon concentration measurement in 136 dwellings distributed in Al-Jauf region are presented. The remaining dosemeters were lost in the dwellings or mishandled. The results showed that the average, minimum, maximum radon concentrations and standard deviation were 35, 7, 168 and 30 Bq m -3 , respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the radon distribution were found to be 28 and 1.83, respectively. (authors)

  19. Attitude of Saudi Female Math Teachers toward Integrating E-Learning in Teaching Math at High Schools in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Aishah M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaders in government and education have launched an extensive program to reform general education in Saudi Arabia. This initiative was designed to achieve many goals with a major emphasis being the enhancement of the Saudi curriculum to take advantage of the use of technology to improve education. A goal of this project was for e-learning to be a…

  20. Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Braham, Rim; Al Hayek, Ayman Abdallah; Al Saeed, Abdulghani; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed; Al Sabaan, Fahad Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that Saudi Arabia ranks the second highest in the Middle East, and is seventh in the world for the rate of diabetes. It is estimated that around 7 million of the population are diabetic and almost around 3 million have pre-diabetes. Even more worrying perhaps, is the increasing pattern of diabetes noted in Saudi Arabia in the recent past. In fact, diabetes has approximately registered a ten-fold increase in the past three eras in Saudi Arabia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been found to be related to high mortality, morbidity and vascular complications, accompanied by poor general health and lower quality of life. In Saudi Arabia, DM is quickly reaching disturbing proportions and becoming a significant cause of medical complications and even death. However, when compared with the developed countries, the research work conducted, focusing particularly on the incidence, prevalence and socio-demographic properties of DM is woefully inadequate. The health burden due to DM in Saudi Arabia is predicted to rise to catastrophic levels, unless a wide-ranging epidemic control program is incorporated, with great emphasis laid on advocating a healthy diet, including exercise and active lifestyles, and weight control. To properly manage the DM in Saudi Arabia, a multidisciplinary approach is required. In this review we discuss all the aspects of DM in Saudi Arabia drawing from the published literature currently available.