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Sample records for students reported symptoms

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)

  2. Self-Reported Bruxism and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Finnish University Students.

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    Huhtela, Outi S; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Joensuu, Tiina; Raustia, Aune; Kunttu, Kristina; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of self-reported bruxism and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to investigate their association in academic and applied science university students in Finland. The data were gathered from 4,403 Finnish students included in the Finnish Student Health Survey 2012. The comprehensive questionnaire included five questions concerning bruxism and TMD symptoms. Bivariate associations between self-reported bruxism and TMD symptoms were evaluated using chi-square tests, and logistic regression model was used with age and gender as factors. Sleep bruxism was reported by 21.0% of women and by 12.5% of men, awake bruxism by 2.0% of women and by 2.8% of men, and both sleep and awake bruxism by 7.2% of women and by 3.2% of men. TMD pain was reported by 25.9% of women and by 11.4% of men and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain on jaw movement by 9.6% of women and by 4.2% of men. Report of sleep bruxism increased the risk for all TMD symptoms in both genders. Among women, report of awake bruxism increased the risk for TMD pain and TMJ pain on jaw movement. Reporting stress as a perpetuating factor for TMD pain increased the risk for both sleep and awake bruxism in both genders. The logistic regression analysis (including age and gender) showed that report of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism was associated with TMD pain (Odds Ratio [OR] = 5.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.86-6.70), TMJ pain on jaw movement (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 3.54-5.69), and TMJ locking (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 2.17-4.10). Bruxism and TMD symptoms are frequent in Finnish university students. Self-reported bruxism is associated with TMD symptoms, confirming earlier findings.

  3. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  4. Factors related to self-reported social anxiety symptoms among incoming university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao Chin; Tsai, Chung Hung; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi Ching

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lifestyle/social, personality trait and mental factors among incoming university students with higher self-reported social anxiety symptoms (SAS). A total of 5126 incoming university students were recruited. The test battery included a self-administered questionnaire that examined personal lifestyle, the Measurement of Support Functions, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale, the Social Phobia Inventory, the suicide ideation from the Brief Symptoms Rating Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire. SAS (23.7%) were prevalent. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the significant predictors of higher levels of SAS were being an undergraduate student and a non-smoker, having lower Measurement of Support Functions score (poorer social support), having higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision score (Internet addiction), having lower Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Scale score (less altruistic behaviour), having suicide ideation and having higher Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire score (poorer sleeper). Given the high prevalence of SAS among university students, it is necessary to build a better strategy to detect students with potential social anxiety-related problems/disorders or other mental problems early on. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Formaldehyde-related clinical symptoms reported by medical students during gross anatomy cadaver dissection

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    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Formaldehyde is a noxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in autopsy rooms. Therefore, exposure to higher concentrations applies particularly to laboratory staff, anatomists and medical students. Prolonged exposure to formaldehyde is associated with clinical complications. Objective. To assess whether exposure to repeated inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde (FA experienced during a gross anatomy course triggers subjective clinical symptoms in medical students. Material and methods . All 198 first-year medical students of the Medical University of Lublin, Poland (28% with allergy history and 72% without allergy history; 69% male and 31% female responded to a questionnaire concerning their subjective FA-related clinical symptoms. Differences in proportions of experienced symptoms between allergic vs. nonallergic, and female vs. males were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Even though formaldehyde concentrations in the gross anatomy laboratory were relatively low (0.47–0.57 mg/m3, medical students experienced various reactions (lacrimation in 85.9%, red eyes, dry and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, and headache in > 50% of students, cough in 44%, and dry throat or throat irritation in 42% of students. Among students with a history of allergy, eye, nose, skin and respiratory system symptoms occurred more frequently in comparison to nonallergic students. Female individuals demonstrated higher sensitivity to FA exposure. Conclusions . Exposure to formaldehyde may result in development of clinical symptoms in medical students. Particularly unpleasant symptoms may be experienced by individuals with allergy history. It is necessary to decrease formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection laboratory.

  6. Examining the Effects of Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Positive Relations with Others on Self-Regulated Learning for Student Service Members/Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived positive relations with others, self-regulation strategy use, and academic motivation among student service members/veterans (SSM/V) enrolled in postsecondary education. Participants: SSM/V (N = 214), defined as veterans, active…

  7. ADHD Dimensions and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms in Relation to Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Neuropsychological Functioning in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A; Rapport, Hannah F; Rondon, Ana T; Becker, Stephen P

    2017-06-01

    This study examined ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms in relation to self-report and laboratory measures of neuropsychological functioning in college students. College students ( N = 298, aged 17-25, 72% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, SCT, depression, sleep, functional impairment, and executive functioning (EF). Participants also completed a visual working memory task, a Stroop test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms were strong predictors of self-reported EF, with inattention the strongest predictor of Time Management and Motivation and SCT the strongest predictor of Self-Organization/Problem Solving. SCT (but not inattention) was associated with Emotion Regulation. No relationships were found between self-reported symptoms and laboratory task performance. Between-group analyses were largely consistent with regression analyses. Self-reported ADHD and SCT symptoms are strongly associated with college students' self-reported EF, but relationships with laboratory task measures of neuropsychological functioning are limited.

  8. Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-03

    Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.

  9. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhambh, Ishani; Arun, Priti; Garg, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Cross-sectional study. A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ); Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES);and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) were administered on all participants. A total of 13 students (5.48%) fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224). The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  10. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

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    Ishani Jhambh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  11. Anxiety Symptoms and Disorders in College Students With ADHD.

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    O'Rourke, Sarah R; Bray, Allison C; Anastopoulos, Arthur D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined anxiety symptoms and disorders in college students with ADHD. Forty-six college students with ADHD and a matched group of students without ADHD participated. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms and associated features, including worry, maladaptive beliefs about worry, panic symptoms, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and self-efficacy. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview to assess lifetime and current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD endorsed more maladaptive beliefs about worry, more obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and poorer self-efficacy compared with comparison participants. There were no group differences in rates of current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD were over 2 times more likely than comparison participants to endorse this lifetime history. College students with ADHD are more likely to have a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and are at greater risk for some anxiety symptoms and associated features.

  12. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit

  13. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

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    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of

  14. The pattern of mobile phone use and prevalence of self-reported symptoms in elementary and junior high school students in shiraz, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-06-01

    The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. RESULTS obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit symptoms from using mobile phones. The

  15. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  18. Self reported symptoms of anxiety associated with coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the psychophysiological effects of coffee consumption on anxiety as reported by University students. . It was hypothesized that heavy caffeine users would report significantly higher anxiety and more psychophysical symptoms of caffenism more than non-users. A sample size of 447-university students ...

  19. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  20. EVALUATION OF NURSING STUDENTS' PREMENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS

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    Kerime Derya TASCI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the kinds of premenstrual symptoms that Denizli Health Sciences School Nursing Students experience and what they do to treat them. The research population included the 126 female students in the Pamukkale University Denizli Health Sciences School Nursing School. Data collects in the classroom. In the examination of the students' menstrual complaints, 47.5% experienced back pain, 59% experienced abdominal pain, 44.3% experienced irritability, 39.3% experienced breast sensitivity/pain, 41% experienced facial or body acne and 32.8% experienced increased appetite every cycle. An examination of the students' responses about procedures during menstruation, 86.9% stated that having a bath was not contraindicated and 60.7% that aspirin-type analgesics should not be used for dysmenorrhea. 77.9% of the students stated that it was normal to have pain during menstruation and 63.9% that walking is beneficial for decreasing menstrual pain. There was a significant difference in the students' answers based on age group and class for experience of menstrual complaints and procedures used (p<0.05. The students' were lived premenstrual symptoms and they had insufficient knowledge of procedures for relief. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 434-443

  1. Anxiety symptoms in regular school students in Mumbai City, India.

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    Karande, S; Gogtay, N J; Bala, N; Sant, H; Thakkar, A; Sholapurwala, R

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders usually remain undiagnosed in school students owing to the internalized nature of their symptoms. The present study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in school students in Mumbai. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables (age, gender, presence of sibling, and type of school curriculum or school) on anxiety symptoms. Study cases (8-15 year olds) were recruited by nonprobability sampling from four English-medium schools. Anxiety was measured using Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)-child self-report questionnaire. T-scores (total and subscales) were calculated and cut-off scores of> 60 were considered as significant. Symptoms of overall anxiety were present in 10.8% (53/493) of the students. Older students (12-15 year olds) had greater odds of having overall anxiety symptoms (crude OR = 4.36, 95% CI 2.27 to 8.39, P < 0.0001). Symptoms of all anxiety disorders were present in the 493 participants, with obsessions/compulsions and fears of physical injury being the most common (in 29.6% and 27.2%, respectively). Older students and boys had greater odds of having obsessions/compulsions (crude OR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.44, P < 0.0001; and crude OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.27, P= 0.035, respectively]. Students with sibling (s) had greater odds of having fears of physical injury (crude OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.78, P= 0.003). There is an urgent need to screen school students in our city for anxiety disorders.

  2. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

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    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  3. The relationship between perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing and midwifery students

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    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, such as the pressure of academics with an obligation, an uncertain future and difficulties of integrating into the system. Although nursing and midwifery students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing and midwifery students and to examine the association between the perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: This performed using cross-sectional descriptive study design study enrolled a total of 449 students participates in the study in a university degree program was carried out on 366 nursing and midwifery students accepted. A personal information questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale and a Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire were administered through a self-reported system. Results: Seventy point two percent of the nursing and midwifery students experienced at least one gastrointestinal symptom, with 35.8% of students reporting at least three gastrointestinal symptoms. Most of the nursing and midwifery students complained of upper dysmotility and bowel symptoms. In addition, students who reported higher perceived stress were significantly more likely to complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. Compared to students with the lowest perceived stress level, the adjusted odds ratio for gastrointestinal symptoms in students with the highest perceived stress level was 6.45 times higher. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal symptoms that are highly prevalent among nursing and midwifery students are significantly associated with the perceived stress level. High perceived stress should be considered a risk factor for gastrointestinal symptoms. Based on the study findings, there is a critical need of instructing the nursing and midwifery students

  4. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

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    Caroline M. Pittard,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socioemotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students. First-time college freshmen completed the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ, Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. While completing the TBQ, participants reported on a teacher from prior education to college. Multiple regression analysis found significant effects of the independent variables (four teaching behavior types, inferential style, and interactions between the four teaching behavior types and inferential style on the dependent variable (depressive symptoms. More specifically, negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior were positively associated with depressive symptoms and instructional and organizational teaching behavior were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Both organizational and negative teaching behavior interacted significantly with inferential style. Organizational and negative teaching behavior shared different relationships with depressive symptoms depending upon an individual‟s level of inferential style. Promotion of instructional and organizational teaching behavior in school as well as the reduction of negative teaching behavior may be useful in reducing students‟ depressive symptoms.

  5. Association of psychological stress with skin symptoms among medical students

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    Ghada A. Bin Saif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the association between psychological stress and skin symptoms among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and June 2015. Electronic survey consists of Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ and Self-Reported Skin Complaints Questionnaire were distributed to all 1435 undergraduate students at College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Final analysis was performed on data from 529 (36.9% students. Students were divided into three groups: least stressed students, n=135, PSQ index less than 0.39; highly stressed students, n=136, PSQ index greater than 0.61; and moderately stressed students, n=258. Older age, female gender, during exam weeks, and fourth and fifth years of medical school (all p less than 0.01 were associated with the highest perceived stress levels. When compared to least stressed students, highly stressed students suffered from more oily, waxy patches or flakes on scalp (p≤0.0001, dry/sore rash (p≤0.0001, warts (p≤0.0001, pimples (p≤0.0001, itchy skin (p≤0.0001, hands itchy rash (p≤0.0001, hair loss (p≤0.0001, pull-out own hair (p=0.008, scaly skin (p=0.012, troublesome sweating (p=0.016, nails biting (p=0.028, and other rashes on face (p= 0.028. Conclusion: Various common skin conditions could appear in context of psychological stress among medical students.

  6. Stress and symptoms of depression among medical students at the University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldorsen, Hilde; Hasle Bak, Nanna; Dissing, Agnete

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to assess the levels of stress and symptoms of depression among Danish medical students, as well as explore the effect of social support on psychological distress. The results are based on numbers from the follow-up study 'From Student to Graduate' (j.nr 2006-41-6876). Materials......: 30.5% of the students reported depressive symptoms. Stress frequency measured a mean of 2.26 (SD = 1.35). The mean for stress perception was 2.85 (SD = 1.30). Women reported higher levels of stress and depression compared to male medical students, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.......05). Only the dimensions of stress and coping alone were significantly associated with reporting symptoms of depression (p Students coping alone had a two times higher odds ratio for reporting depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Nearly one third of the participants reported feeling depressed. Stress...

  7. Depressive Symptoms among Fourth Form Students in St. Kitts and Nevis High Schools

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    Gillian A. Lowe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited research on depressive symptoms among high school students in St. Kitts and Nevis. This project examines levels of depressive symptoms among fourth form (grade 10 students attending all high schools in St. Kitts and Nevis. Students enrolled in the fourth form during the 2006/2007 academic year in all high schools were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II. A near census of the students was conducted (n = 744 students; 50.4% females, 47.6% males, and 2% no gender reported; age 13–19 years, mean = 15.5 ± 0.8 years. Six in every ten students (62.1% reported some symptoms of depression, with 14.8% reporting moderate to severe and 9.7% reporting severe symptoms of depression. Females reported significantly higher BDI-II scores (t(727 = 7.11, p < 0.01 with 70% of females reporting some level of depressive symptoms compared with 52% of their male counterparts (X2(1 = 24.6, p < 0.05. Additionally, 34% of females were in the moderate to severe or severe range of depressive symptoms, while 15% of males were in the same range. Students who were older than expected for their grade (i.e., 17 years or older reported significantly higher BDI-II scores (F(2,740 = 2.88, p < 0.05 than students who were younger or at the expected age (i.e., 14–16 years. Students whose mothers had a high school or postsecondary education reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms than students whose mothers had less than a high school education (F(3, 637, = 4.23, p < 0.05. Symptoms of depression among fourth form students in St. Kitts and Nevis are a prevalent problem that is influenced by students’ age, gender, and social class as indicated by maternal education.

  8. Assertiveness in Women Reporting Symptoms of Bulimia.

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    Ruhl, Berenice; McCanne, Thomas R.

    It has been suggested that a lack of assertiveness may be an important component of the psychological make-up of bulimic women, and that bulimic women may experience particular difficulties in asserting themselves in interactions with men. In this study, 23 women reporting the symptoms of bulimia by high scores on the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and 21…

  9. The Association Between Supportive High School Environments and Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students.

  10. The Relationship Between Life Satisfaction and ADHD Symptoms in Middle School Students: Using a Bifactor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Julia A; Bateman, Lisa; Dedrick, Robert F; Suldo, Shannon M

    2016-05-01

    ADHD is associated with increased academic and social difficulties and comorbid psychopathology which may lead to decreased life satisfaction (LS). The current study utilized a bifactor model of ADHD consisting of a general factor and two specific factors (inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity) to determine if ADHD symptoms place middle school students (n= 183) at risk for diminished LS and if this relationship differed depending on whether teachers versus students reported ADHD symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor model provided very good fit to the ADHD symptoms reported by students (comparative fit index [CFI] = .995; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .028) and teachers (CFI = .997; RMSEA = .043). Results also demonstrated that when students rated ADHD symptoms, the general ADHD factor and inattention were negatively related to LS; however, when teachers rated ADHD symptoms, only inattention was negatively related to LS. Implications and future directions related to these results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among College Students With Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Feldner, Matthew T; Melkonian, Alexander J; Milner, Lauren A; Lewis, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use, defined as using the drug without a prescription or in ways for which it is not prescribed, and traumatic event exposure are highly prevalent among college students. Despite evidence that posttraumatic stress symptoms could place college students at risk for nonmedical prescription drug problems, no studies have examined this relationship. This study was a preliminary examination of posttraumatic stress symptoms, lifetime nonmedical prescription drug use, hazardous use, and dependence symptoms among college students with trauma exposure. Participants were students attending a rural college in Virginia, recruited through psychology classes, flyers, LISTSERVs, and announcements at student events. All students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event were included (N = 119); participants' mean age was 19.7 years (SD = 1.90), about half were women (n = 63, 53%), and most were Caucasian (n = 103, 87%). Nearly 60% of participants (n = 71) reported using nonmedical prescription drugs at least once during their lifetime and were more likely than those with no use to report hazardous alcohol use (p drugs. Regression analyses showed that posttraumatic stress symptom frequency was positively associated with hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use, after controlling for gender, depressive symptoms, and hazardous alcohol use (p stress symptom frequency was higher for those with any nonmedical prescription drug dependence symptoms (p drug use. Findings suggest that consideration of the types of behaviors and problems a college student is experiencing related to nonmedical prescription drug use may be more relevant to posttraumatic stress symptom frequency than dichotomous measures of nonmedical prescription drug use alone. Further, the association between the frequency of posttraumatic stress symptoms and both hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use and dependence symptoms among college students with a trauma history

  12. Emotional regulation difficulties and premenstrual symptoms among Israeli students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Inbal; Dan, Rotem; Segman, Ronen; Evron, Ron; Laufer, Sofia; Goelman, Gadi; Bonne, Omer; Canetti, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) reported to affect 3-8 % of women of reproductive age and resulting in marked emotional and occupational impairment. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of PMDD is largely unknown, and patients remain mostly undiagnosed and poorly treated. It has been suggested that PMDD is a manifestation of underlying depressive disorder which is associated with the inability to regulate emotions in an adaptive manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that women with PMDD would exhibit increased difficulty with emotional regulation. A total of 648 female Israeli college students were assessed by the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Of these women, 166 (25.6 %) met the criteria for PMS. Sixty-four (9.9 %) suffered from PMDD. More emotion regulation deficits were observed in the PMDD and PMS groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, there were more emotional regulation deficits among the predominantly psychological and mixed symptom subtype compared to the predominantly physical symptom subtype group. This is the first study to report an association between emotional dysregulation and PMDD. These findings may lead to development of more individually tailored treatment protocols focused on improving emotional regulation techniques.

  13. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%-60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association...... between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64-2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03). Other factors...... independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population....

  14. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p sleep after going to bed (p sleep alterations in a large proportion of the studied subjects, which were more severe in those who showed depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.

  15. Parents' Reports of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: Associations with Parents' Mental Health Symptoms and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Hamrick, Hannah C; Braitman, Abby L; White, Tyler D; Jenkins, Jennika

    2017-06-01

    This brief report examined the unique associations between parents' ratings of child internalizing symptoms and their own depression and anxiety in families with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Further, we examined whether parental SUD (father only, mother only, both parents) was related to discrepancy in mothers' and fathers' reports of children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were 97 triads (fathers, mothers) in which one or both parents met criteria for SUD. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to examine whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' own symptoms of depression and anxiety while controlling for child gender, child age, and SUD diagnoses. Controlling for fathers' symptoms and other covariates, mothers experiencing more depression and anxiety symptoms reported more symptoms of child internalizing symptoms than did fathers. Mothers' and fathers' SUD was associated with higher anxiety symptoms among mothers after controlling for other variables. A second set of polynomial regressions examined whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' SUD diagnoses while controlling for child gender and child age. After controlling for mothers' symptoms and other covariates, parents' reports of children's internalizing symptoms were not significantly associated with either parent's SUD or parental SUD interactions (i.e., both parents have SUD diagnoses). Taken together, mothers' ratings of children's internalizing symptoms may be accounted for, in part, by her reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  16. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  17. Association between clinically important depressive symptoms and academic achivement among students in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies show a strongassociation between depressive symptoms andacademic achievement in the adolescent population.However, there are few Colombian publicationsabout this topic.Objective: To establish the association betweenclinically important depressive symptoms and academic achievement among low socioeconomicstatus adolescent students.Method: A group of 13 to 17 year-aged adolescentswas studied. Meaningful clinically depressivesymptoms were measured with Zung’self-rating depression scale (40/80. Academicachievement was evaluated according to Colombianqualitative model.Results: A total of 43.5% of students reportedclinically important depressive symptoms and30.7% accomplished a poor academic achievement,according to teacher report. The academicachievement was independent of meaningfulclinically depressive symptoms, after controllingother variables.Conclusion: Meaningful clinically depressivesymptoms are frequent in low socioeconomic statusadolescent students. But, meaningful clinicallydepressive symptoms are not associatedwith academic performance. Further investigationsare needed.

  18. Prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome in female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awanish Kumar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-menstrual syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that appears before the menstrual bleeding. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome among female students of technical institution in Gorakhpur. Two hundred students aged between 15 to 30 years participated in the study and revealed that all the participants of study experienced at least 1 symptom of PMS. The most common physical symptom was joint\\muscle pain (77.5%. Lethargy (83% was reported as most common psychological symptom in the study. The study concluded that prevalence of PMS is 100%, and most of the participants (42.5% have more than 5 symptoms of PMS.

  19. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  20. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall, socio-demographic characteristics (five variables, health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables, as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints. A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62% reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02, depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94 and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03. Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population.

  1. On counterbalancing of symptom-reporting in trauma surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Madhavi K; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen

    2009-12-01

    Some traumatic stress research surveys are potentially subject to context effects, such as priming, because they include questions about traumatic experiences and trauma-related symptoms within the same survey. In this study, asking about traumatic experiences before or after asking about PTSD influenced symptom reporting was investigated in a sample of 424 National Guard soldiers. Results indicate ordering of symptom measures immediately before or after reports of combat experiences did not influence reports of PTSD symptoms. Implications of results are discussed.

  2. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  3. Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms, Automatic Thoughts, and Self-Esteem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu; İnci, Figen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-01-01

    University youth is a risk group regarding mental health, and many mental health problems are frequent in this group. Sociodemographic factors such as level of income and familial factors such as relationship with father are reported to be associated with mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. Also, there are interrelations between mental health problems, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. The extent of predictive effect of each of these variables on automatic thoughts, self-esteem, and mental health symptoms is not known. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in university students. Participants were 530 students enrolled at a university in Turkey, during 2014-2015 academic year. Data were collected using the student information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Mental health symptoms, self-esteem, perception of the relationship with the father, and level of income as a student significantly predicted automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts, mental health symptoms, participation in family decisions, and age had significant predictive effects on self-esteem. Finally, automatic thoughts, self-esteem, age, and perception of the relationship with the father had significant predictive effects on mental health symptoms. The predictive factors revealed in our study provide important information to practitioners and researchers by showing the elements that need to be screened for mental health of university students and issues that need to be included in counseling activities.

  4. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Stress and symptoms of depression among medical students at the University of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldorsen, Hilde; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Dissing, Agnete; Petersson, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    This article aims to assess the levels of stress and symptoms of depression among Danish medical students, as well as explore the effect of social support on psychological distress. The results are based on numbers from the follow-up study 'From Student to Graduate' (j.nr 2006-41-6876). Two dimensions of stress, frequency and perception, were measured on a scale from 0-6. Odds ratios and significance of associations between the various exposure variables and the outcome measure, symptoms of depression, were calculated using multiple logistic regression and Wald tests. 30.5% of the students reported depressive symptoms. Stress frequency measured a mean of 2.26 (SD = 1.35). The mean for stress perception was 2.85 (SD = 1.30). Women reported higher levels of stress and depression compared to male medical students, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Only the dimensions of stress and coping alone were significantly associated with reporting symptoms of depression (p Stress levels were moderate, but significantly associated with symptoms of depression. The interaction between the stress dimensions and the outcome measure illustrates the importance of stress appraisal. Coping alone with psychological problems was significantly associated with symptoms of depression.

  6. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B Lee

    Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.

  7. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  8. The Rise and Fall of Depressive Symptoms and Academic Stress in Two Samples of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Erin T; Howard, Andrea L; Villemaire-Krajden, Rosanne; Galambos, Nancy L

    2018-06-01

    Self-reported depressive experiences are common among university students. However, most studies assessing depression in university students are cross-sectional, limiting our understanding of when in the academic year risk for depression is greatest and when interventions may be most needed. We examined within-person change in depressive symptoms from September to April. Study 1 (N = 198; 57% female; 72% white; Mage = 18.4): Depressive symptoms rose from September, peaked in December, and fell across the second semester. The rise in depressive symptoms was associated with higher perceived stress in December. Study 2 (N = 267; 78.7% female; 67.87% white; Mage = 21.25): Depressive symptoms peaked in December and covaried within persons with perceived stress and academic demands. The results have implications for understanding when and for whom there is increased risk for depressive experiences among university students.

  9. Self-reported symptoms and healthcare seeking in the general population-exploring "The Symptom Iceberg"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elnegaard, Sandra; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2015-01-01

    leading to GP contacts. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of symptoms and GP contacts are common in this overview of 44 different self-reported symptoms. For almost 2/3 of the reported symptoms no gender differences were found concerning the proportion leading to GP contacts. An enhanced understanding of healthcare...... population may increase our knowledge of this complex field. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms and the proportion of individuals reporting GP contact, in a large Danish nationwide cohort. A secondary objective was to explore gender differences in GP...

  10. Do schools influence student risk-taking behaviors and emotional health symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Simon J; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa M; Grant, Sue; Milfont, Taciano L; Crengle, Sue; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Clark, Terryann

    2011-03-01

    Many schools engage in health promotion, health interventions, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being outcomes for students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of schools on student health risk-taking behaviors and depressive symptoms. A nationally representative sample (n = 9,056) of students from 96 secondary schools completed a health and well-being survey using Internet Tablets that included questions on school climate, health risk-taking behaviors, and mental health. Teachers (n = 2,901) and school administrators (n = 91) completed questionnaires on aspects of the school climate which included teacher well-being and burnout, the staff work environment, health and welfare services for students, and school organizational support for student health and well-being. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on the health risk-taking behaviors and depression symptoms among students. Schools where students reported a more positive school climate had fewer students with alcohol use problems, and fewer students engaging in violence and risky motor vehicle behaviors. Schools where teachers reported better health and welfare services for students had fewer students engaging in unsafe sexual health behaviors. Schools where teachers reported higher levels of well-being had fewer students reporting significant levels of depressive symptoms. More positive school climates and better school health and welfare services are associated with fewer health risk-taking behaviors among students. However, the overall school effects were modest, especially for cigarette use and suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relations between third grade teachers' depressive symptoms and their feedback to students, with implications for student mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies have observed connections among teachers' depressive symptoms and student outcomes; however, the specific mechanisms through which teachers' mental health characteristics operate in the classroom remain largely unknown. The present study used student-level observation methods to examine the relations between third-grade teachers' (N = 32) depressive symptoms and their academic feedback to students (N = 310) and sought to make inferences about how these factors might influence students' mathematics achievement. A novel observational tool, the Teacher Feedback Coding System-Academic (TFCS-A), was used that assesses feedback across 2 dimensions-teacher affect and instructional strategy, which have been shown to be important to student learning. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis of TFCS-A data suggested 2 primary factors: positive feedback and neutral/negative feedback. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that positive feedback was related to higher math achievement among students who began the year with weaker math skills and that teachers who reported more depressive symptoms less frequently provided this positive feedback. Results offer new information about a type of instruction that may be affected by teachers' depressive symptoms and inform efforts aimed at improving teachers' instructional interactions with students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-09-26

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  13. Oral parafunctions, piercing and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejersjö, Christina; Ovesson, Daniel; Mossberg, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The use of chewing-gum and piercing has become common among adolescents and might result in increased oral muscle activity and overloading. Aim To investigate the frequency of oral piercing and parafunctions in relation to symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) among adolescents. One hundred and twenty-four third level high school students, living either in a city or in a small town, enrolled in either science or media programmes, were included. The students completed a questionnaire regarding different parafunctions and symptoms of TMD. A clinical examination of the temporomandibular system and estimation of the tooth wear was performed in 116 students. Chewing-gum was used by 86% of the students (25% with a daily use) and 14% had an oral piercing. The science students used more chewing gum than the media students (p = 0.008), while the media students had more piercings (p headache, 18% for clicking, 7% for facial pain and 6% for difficulty to open wide. Girls reported more headaches (p = 0.007) and more severe symptoms (p = 0.003), had more medical consultations and used more analgesics (both p headache (p temporomandibular joints and muscles (both p headache and muscle tenderness (both p headache (p < 0.05) and tooth wear (p = 0.004). There is an association between use of chewing gum, nail biting, oral piercing, and symptoms of TMD.

  14. [Symptoms of social phobia and their relationship to interpersonal characteristics in a sample of German medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Matthias; Thomas, Andrea; Strauß, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to detect the frequency of social phobia symptoms in a sample of German medical students and to compare students with and without these symptoms related to interpersonal characteristics. 525 students filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires consisting of the LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), the SPAI (Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory), the IIP-32 (Inventar of interpersonal problems) and the IIM (Inventar of interpersonal motives). Relevant social phobia symptoms were found in 12.2%. Students with symptoms of social phobia differed significantly in subscales of the IIP and the IIM. Students with symptoms of social phobia also had higher scores for interpersonal problems especially related to the main issue of being too "socially avoidant". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom levels and romantic relationship quality in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association. The sample consisted of 189 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, relationship quality, and the proposed mediators were collected via online survey from May through August 2011. Participants who reported clinically significant levels of both hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness (consistent with ADHD-C) had lower relationship quality than those whose self-reported symptoms indicated no ADHD diagnosis. Further, for women only, both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptom levels were negatively associated with relationship quality. Emotion regulation problems and hostile relationship conflict mediated this association. Findings suggest that ADHD impairs relationship quality among young adults and suggest mechanisms through which this impairment might occur.

  16. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among adolescents students of Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani; Zahra Hasanzadeh; Mahvash Raghibi

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is believed that adolescents suffer from dysmenorrhea but premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is not a common and prevalent disorder. Recently, some studies indicated that PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were common problems among students and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms reported differently due to socio-cultural characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PMS and PMDD in a group of Iranian adolescent students.Materials and Me...

  17. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Dale J; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

    2009-01-12

    Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE) scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score > or = 15) levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33-2.93) and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14-4.88) outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37-2.40). Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  18. The impact of childhood traumas, depressive and anxiety symptoms on the relationship between borderline personality features and symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that there is a significant association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of borderline personality features (BPF) and ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood traumas, symptoms of depression and anxiety in adulthood on this relationship in Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Turkish version of the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Correlation analyses have revealed that severity of BPF is related with adult ADHD symptoms, emotional, physical abuse and depression scores. Hierarchical regression analysis has indicated that depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and the severity of ADHD symptoms are the predictors for severity of BPF. Findings of the present study suggests that clinicians must carefully evaluate these variables and the relationship between them to understand BPF and ADHD symptoms in university students better. Together with depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse may play a mediator role on this relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship between these variables in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  19. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stress at university: survey of students at eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Labeeb, Shokria; Stock, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between perceived stress and a range of self reported symptoms and health complaints in a representative sample of students at one university in Egypt. The data (3,271 students) was collected during the academic year 2009-2010 at eleven faculties at the university of Assiut city, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured health complaints (22 symptoms) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were also collected. Factor analysis generated four groups of health complaints: psychological, circulatory/breathing, gastrointestinal, and pains/aches, and the internal consistency of each group of symptoms was computed using reliability analyses (Cronbach's alpha). Perceived stress was categorized into four levels based on quartiles. Multiple binomial or multinomial logistic regression analyses analysed the relationship between each of the four groups of symptoms and other students' general characteristics adjusted for the effect of all other groups of symptoms. The symptoms most often reported as having occurred sometimes/very often in the last 12 months were fatigue (85.3%), difficulties to concentrate (78.1%), headache (77.9%), and mood swings (74.5%), while nervousness/anxiety (63.2%) and sleep disorder (63.7%) affected many students. Multinominal logistic regression revealed a clear association and a linear trend between increasing level of stress and a higher frequency of psychological symptoms that remained significant after adjustment for other groups of symptoms. There were no associations between perceived stress and circulatory/breathing symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or for pains/aches. Poor health was consistently associated with higher frequency of symptoms across all symptom groups except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Higher health awareness was associated with lower frequency of psychological and circulatory/breathing symptoms but not for the other two symptom groups. Better

  20. [Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Dental Students: Prevalence and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurotological symptoms and academic performance of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marcia Mattos; Ganança, Mauricio Malavasi; Marques, Carolina Mattos; Ganança, Fernando Freitas; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2010-02-01

    To compare the academic performance of university students with or without neurotological symptoms. 100 students enrolled in the Biomedical Sciences Graduate School - Medical Modality of UNIFESP-EPM in 2007 and answered a neurotological screening questionnaire. The symptoms presented once, sometimes, many times or always, in a decreasing order of prevalence, were headache (74.0%), difficulty with concentration (57.0%), lack of memory (45.0%), physical indisposition, nausea /dizziness when in moving vehicle (37.0%), fainting (27.0%), nausea (26.0%), sensation of fullness in the ear (26.0%), hypersensitivity to sounds (26.0%), tinnitus (22.0%), vertigo and other kinds of dizziness (21.0%), imbalance when walking (21.0%), difficulty in hearing (21.0%), imminent sensation of fainting (11.0%) and vomiting (8.0%), alone or in different associations; convulsion was not mentioned. The final academic performance score ranged from 5.1 to 10.0. University students with or without neurotological symptoms have manifested similar academic performance.

  2. Relationship Quality Buffers Association Between Co-rumination and Depressive Symptoms Among First Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guassi Moreira, João F; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-03-01

    Co-rumination, the tendency to dwell on negative events and feelings with a relationship partner, is an aspect of relationships that has been associated with socioemotional adjustment tradeoffs and is found to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, depending on the context in which it occurs, co-rumination is not necessarily associated with detriments to mental well-being. Differences in relationship quality within certain relationships may explain why co-rumination is not always associated with depressive symptoms. In the current study, we utilized self-report measures in an ethnically diverse sample (53.5 % non-White) of 307 first term college students (65 % female) in order to elucidate how co-rumination between roommates may be associated with depressive symptoms. We found that the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was moderated by relationship quality such that co-rumination in a high quality relationship was not associated with depressive symptoms whereas the opposite was true in low quality relationships. Moreover, we found moderated mediation, such that the variance in the association between co-rumination and depressive symptoms was explained via self-esteem, but only for those co-ruminating within a low quality relationship. These results suggest that relationship quality may impact the extent to which co-rumination is associated with depressive symptoms among first year college students.

  3. Music Performance Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms and Coping Strategies for Flute Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Sinico

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the causes, symptoms and coping strategies used by undergraduate flute students from three universalities in Brazil to cope with music performance anxiety (MPA during jury recitals. The data collection and analysis procedures used were similar to a study by Siw Nielsen (1999, i.e., recital participant behavioral observation and verbal reports using semi-structured interviews. Both procedures were recorded in audio and video. As a result, the study highlights sixteen causes, nineteen symptoms, and eighteen strategies used by flute students to cope with MPA. Anxiety among the participants was constantly present to a greater or lesser degree. Its main cause was the repertoire for solo flute; nervousness was the symptom most reported by the participants; and positive self-talk was the most used coping strategy. The research concluded that, since anxiety is an inherent emotion in performing music, musicians must use a broad range of strategies—before and during the performance—to thoroughly deal with the causes and symptoms of anxiety. The article also highlights the importance of music professors in knowing the causes of MPA and its symptoms so that they can plan a strategy consistent with the needs of their students that will help them cope with the negative effects of anxiety.

  4. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...

  5. Lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms among elementary school students and junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Yuriko; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relationship between lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms in children, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey of elementary school students and junior high school students in Japan. We designed an original questionnaire to investigate the lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms of children. In 1997, responses to the questionnaires were elicited from public elementary school fourth grade students (then aged 9-10) and public junior high school seventh grade students (then aged 12-13). The survey was repeated annually for three years as the students advanced through school. For both boys and girls, each cross-sectional analysis revealed a strong relationship between lifestyle behaviors and psychosomatic symptoms. Psychosomatic, symptoms scores varied according to daily hours of sleep, eating of breakfast, having strong likes and dislikes of food, bowel habits, and daily hours of television watching. Both boys and girls with "good" lifestyle, behaviors evaluated by the HPI (Health Practice Index) showed lower scores for psychosomatic symptoms. These findings show that the lifestyle behaviors of children are significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms and suggest that poor lifestyle behaviors are likely to increase physical and psychological health risks.

  6. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Symptom Reporting and Symptom Clusters in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jumin; Johantgen, Mary E

    2017-07-01

    An understanding of symptoms in heart failure (HF) among different cultural groups has become increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to compare symptom reporting and symptom clusters in HF patients between a Western (the United States) and an Eastern Asian sample (China and Taiwan). A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The data were obtained from a matched HF patient sample from the United States and China/Taiwan ( N = 240 in each). Eight selective items related to HF symptoms from the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were analyzed. Compared with the U.S. sample, HF patients from China/Taiwan reported a lower level of symptom distress. Analysis of two different regional groups did not result in the same number of clusters using latent class approach: the United States (four classes) and China/Taiwan (three classes). The study demonstrated that symptom reporting and identification of symptom clusters might be influenced by cultural factors.

  7. Sleep apnea in patients reporting insomnia or restless legs symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M T; Goparaju, B; Moro, M

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are defined by self-reported symptoms, and polysomnography (PSG) is not routinely indicated. Occult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common even in asymptomatic adults, may complicate management of patients presenting with insomnia or restless legs. To this end, we investigated objective sleep apnea metrics in a large retrospective cohort according to self-reported symptom profiles. We compared sleep apnea findings in patients referred to our center according to self-reported symptoms associated with insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs. The cohort included over 1900 adults who underwent diagnostic (n = 1418) or split-night (n = 504) PSGs and completed a symptom and medical history questionnaire. More than 30% of patients who did not endorse any OSA symptoms, but did endorse insomnia or restless legs symptoms, were found to have OSA based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5 during overnight laboratory testing. Regression models of the full cohort showed that the risk of OSA was related, as expected, to older age, male sex, elevated body mass index, and presence of OSA symptoms. The presence of insomnia symptoms did not alter the risk of OSA. The presence of restless legs symptoms showed a small odds ratio for lowered OSA risk. Objective evidence of OSA occurs similarly in those with insomnia or restless legs symptoms, even among those without self-reported OSA symptoms. Providers should be aware of the potential for occult OSA in populations with insomnia and restless legs, which may complicate their management in addition to presenting an independent medical risk itself. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Symptom recovery after thoracic surgery: Measuring patient-reported outcomes with the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Christopher P; Shi, Qiuling; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Rice, David C; Popat, Keyuri U; Cleeland, Charles S; Wang, Xin Shelley

    2015-09-01

    Measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has become increasingly important for assessing quality of care and guiding patient management. However, PROs have yet to be integrated with traditional clinical outcomes (such as length of hospital stay), to evaluate perioperative care. This study aimed to use longitudinal PRO assessments to define the postoperative symptom recovery trajectory in patients undergoing thoracic surgery for lung cancer. Newly diagnosed patients (N = 60) with stage I or II non-small cell lung cancer who underwent either standard open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy reported multiple symptoms from before surgery to 3 months after surgery, using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory. We conducted Kaplan-Meier analyses to determine when symptoms returned to presurgical levels and to mild-severity levels during recovery. The most-severe postoperative symptoms were fatigue, pain, shortness of breath, disturbed sleep, and drowsiness. The median time to return to mild symptom severity for these 5 symptoms was shorter than the time to return to baseline severity, with fatigue taking longer. Recovery from pain occurred more quickly for patients who underwent lobectomy versus thoracotomy (8 vs 18 days, respectively; P = .022). Patients who had poor preoperative performance status or comorbidities reported higher postoperative pain (all P < .05). Assessing symptoms from the patient's perspective throughout the postoperative recovery period is an effective strategy for evaluating perioperative care. This study demonstrates that the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory is a sensitive tool for detecting symptomatic recovery, with an expected relationship among surgery type, preoperative performance status, and comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a group of 1,940 Serbian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić-Vukomanović, Ivana; Mihajlović, Goran; Kocić, Sanja; Djonović, Nela; Banković, Dragić; Vukomanović, Vladimir; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica

    2016-02-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. Mental health of university students is under increasing concern worldwide, because they face challenges which predisposes them to depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms among university students. This cross-sectional study on 1,940 university students was performed using a questionnaire including demographic and socioeconomic variables, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in students was 23.6%, while the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 33.5%. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to the study year (p = 0.002), type of faculty (p = 0.014), satisfaction with college major choice (p students (odds ratio--OR = 1.791, 95% confidence interval--CI = 1.351-2.374), older students (OR = 1.110, 95% CI = 1.051-1.172), students who reported low family economic situation (OR = 2.091, 95% CI = 1.383-3.162), not owning the room (OR = 1.512, 95%CI = 1.103-2.074), dissatisfaction with graduate education (OR = 1.537, 95% CI = 1.165-2.027) were more likely toshow depressive symptoms. The anxiety symptoms were significantly related to study year (p = 0.034), type of faculty(p students (OR = 1.901, 95% CI =1.490-2.425), and students who reported parents high expectations of academic success (OR = 1.290, 95% CI =1.022-1.630) were more likely to show anxiety symptoms. This is one of the largest study examining mental disorders in a sample of university students in Serbia. These findings underscore the importance of early detections of mental problems and prevention interventions in university students.

  10. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2013-03-05

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI>20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X(2) (1)=4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X(2) (1)=13.76, pstressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Self-reported ADHD symptoms and interhemispheric interaction in adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N =112) completed Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales

  12. Dating violence and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Taiwanese college students: the roles of cultural beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2014-03-01

    This study has examined the effects that young adults' experience of dating-violence victimization can have on their manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study has also examined the possible roles that cultural beliefs can play in dating-violence experience, coping choices, and PTSD symptoms. This study has used self-reporting measures to collect data from a nationally stratified random sample of 1,018 college students in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that college students who had experienced dating-violence victimization reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms than those who had not. The results reveal that psychological-violence victimization and cultural beliefs have direct and indirect effects on PTSD symptoms via the mediation of young adults' use of emotion-focused coping strategies. Greater frequencies of psychological-violence victimization were associated with a greater use of emotion-focused coping, which was in turn associated with increases in PTSD symptoms. This study illustrates that traditional Chinese beliefs have played significant roles in exacerbating the risk for dating violence and PTSD, and in shaping victims' coping choices with dating violence.

  13. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-12-05

    Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x(2) = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 70.63, df = 4, p life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 40.06, df = 4, p stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services.

  14. Eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate and graduate students at 12 U.S. colleges and universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, S K; Sonneville, K R

    2017-01-01

    We sought to estimate the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in a large sample of U.S. college students and variations therein across student characteristics. Participants were 9713 students from 12 colleges and universities participating in the Healthy Bodies Study. We used gender-stratified logistic regression to estimate bivariate correlates of elevated eating disorder symptoms, past-month objective binge eating, and past-month compensatory behaviors across student characteristics including age, degree-level, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, first-generation status, citizenship, academic and extracurricular characteristics, and weight status. Eating disorder outcomes were based on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. We observed higher prevalence of objective binge eating among females relative to males (49% versus 30%, pobesity. When compared to individuals with a healthy weight, those with overweight had greater eating disorder risk (males OR=3.5; females OR=2.0), binge eating (males OR=2.1; females OR=1.9), and use of compensatory behaviors (males OR=1.5; females OR=1.3). This study suggests smaller gender difference in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms than previously reported and identifies students with overweight/obesity as salient targets for campus-based eating disorder screening and early intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of asthma symptoms based on the european community respiratory health survey questionnaire and FENO in university students: gender differences in symptoms and FENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizuka Tamotsu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO is used as a biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. FENO is increased in patients with asthma. The relationship between subjective asthma symptoms and airway inflammation is an important issue. We expected that the subjective asthma symptoms in women might be different from those in men. Therefore, we investigated the gender differences of asthma symptoms and FENO in a survey of asthma prevalence in university students. Methods The information about asthma symptoms was obtained from answers to the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaire, and FENO was measured by an offline method in 640 students who were informed of this study and consented to participate. Results The prevalence of asthma symptoms on the basis of data obtained from 584 students (266 men and 318 women, ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, was analyzed. Wheeze, chest tightness, an attack of shortness of breath, or an attack of cough within the last year was observed in 13.2% of 584 students. When 38.0 ppb was used as the cut-off value of FENO to make the diagnosis of asthma, the sensitivity was 86.8% and the specificity was 74.0%. FENO was ≥ 38.0 ppb in 32.7% of students. FENO was higher in men than in women. The prevalence of asthma symptoms estimated by considering FENO was 7.2%; the prevalence was greater in men (9.4% than women (5.3%. A FENO ≥ 38.0 ppb was common in students who reported wheeze, but not in students, especially women, who reported cough attacks. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma symptoms in university students age 18 to 24 years in Japan was estimated to be 7.2% on the basis of FENO levels as well as subjective symptoms. Gender differences were observed in both FENO levels and asthma symptoms reflecting the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Trial registration number UMIN000003244

  16. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A.; Wali, Siraj O.; Merdad, Roah A.; Merdad, Leena A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep. PMID:26837401

  17. Cross-sectional observation of the relationship of depressive symptoms with lifestyles and parents' status among Japanese junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakutake, Aiko; Kamijo, Tomoko; Misawa, Yuka; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Inaba, Yuji; Tsukahara, Teruomi; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    Students' depressive symptoms might be related to their own risk factors and to their parents' status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship of depressive symptoms with lifestyle variables and parents' psychological and socio-demographic status among Japanese junior high school students. Of 477 students and their parents, 409 (85.7 %) students and 314 (65.8 %) parents participated in the study. Students answered self-reported questionnaire on depressive symptoms, their heights and weights, subjective stress, body dissatisfaction, lifestyles including sleep duration and extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, and nutritional intake. Parents responded to questionnaire on depressive symptoms and socio-demographic status. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24.9 %. Students with depressive symptoms were more likely to have stress. Students in shorter and longer sleep duration groups were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The students with depressive symptoms had smaller amount of energy intake than did those without depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant relationships between students' depressive symptoms and some independent variables. Sex, subjective stress, "almost-never"-categorized extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, and having a parent with depressive symptoms were significantly associated with students' depressive symptoms. Reducing mental stress and taking care of lifestyles, especially, "almost-everyday"-categorized extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, may have benefits for students' mental health, and having a parent with depressive symptoms may be associated with students' depressive symptoms.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students in Hanover, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi J. Ekundayo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Jamaican adolescents and examine its association with individual and family factors. We used an abbreviated form of the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II to assess depressive symptoms among 748 students, attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover Jamaica. In the analysis, we classified adolescents with scores in the upper quartile of the depressive symptom score as having depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms. 14.2% of participants reported depressive symptoms. There was association between engagement in sexual activity [Odds Ratio (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02-2.51], parental monitoring of adolescent activity (OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.33 -3.12, maternal affection and support (OR= 4.07, 95%CI= 2.62-6.33, and paternal affection and support (OR= 1.58, 95%CI= 1.05-2.39 with self reported depressive symptoms at the bivariate level. In the final model, depressive symptoms was associated with perceived lack of maternal affection and support (OR= 4.06, 95%CI= 2.61-6.32 and showed marginal association with being sexually experienced (OR= 1.59, 95%CI= 1.00-2.52. As most homes are female-headed, establishing support systems for the mother to take care of their adolescent children may decrease the odds of depressive symptoms. Sexually experienced adolescents may require screening for depression. Further research is required to fully explore all factors that could predispose Jamaican adolescents to depression.

  19. Subtle Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Mild Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lawson, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,345 high school students and 2,321 university students found that 30-37% reported having experienced a head injury, with 12-15% reporting loss of consciousness. Significant relationships were found between mild head injury incidence and gender; sleep difficulties; social difficulties; handedness pattern; and diagnoses of attention…

  20. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ≥ 15 levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93 and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88 outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40. Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths.

  1. High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami; Brom, Danny; Baum, Naomi; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-10-01

    This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence). In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events. At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors. We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys). We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence. The findings revealed extensive exposure to war events among both Jewish and Arab students. A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use. Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence. Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use. Arab students were a more vulnerable population. They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students. However, exposure to war events had similar effects on both Arab and Jewish students. We conclude that war effects include a broad range of psychological distress and risk behaviors that last long after the war ends, especially among youth who have experienced childhood trauma and high exposure to war-related stressors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drinking to Cope With Depressive Symptoms and Ruminative Thinking: A Multiple Mediation Model Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2017-01-02

    Understanding the potential psychosocial mechanisms that explain (i.e., mediate) the associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems can improve interventions targeting college students. The current research examined four distinct facets of rumination (e.g., problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) and drinking to cope motives as potential explanatory mechanisms by which depressive symptoms are associated with increased alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduate students from a large, southeastern university in the United States that consumed at least one drink per typical week in the previous month (n = 403). The majority of participants were female (n = 291; 72.2%), identified as being either White, non-Hispanic (n = 210; 52.1%), or African American (n = 110; 27.3%), and reported a mean age of 21.92 (SD = 5.75) years. Structural equation modeling was conducted examining the concurrent associations between depressive symptoms, rumination facets, drinking to cope motives, and alcohol-related problems (i.e., cross-sectional). There was one significant double-mediated association that suggested that increased depressive symptoms is associated with increased problem-focused thoughts, which is associated with higher drinking to cope motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions/Importance: Our results suggests that problem-focused thoughts at least partially explains the associations between depression and maladaptive coping (i.e., drinking to cope), which in turn is related to problematic drinking among college students. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  3. Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in undergraduate students: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, K; Natori, T; Kurihara, S; Murata, N; Cui, Z-G; Kigawa, M; Morozumi, R; Inadera, H

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fish consumption may have beneficial effects on mood disorders. However, no study has been reported on this issue in young adults to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in Japanese undergraduate students. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. A total of 4190 completed questionnaires (from 2124 men and 2066 women) were received for analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that fish intake was inversely associated with risk of depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. After adjustment for possible confounders, the odds-ratios (95% confidence intervals) for fish intake 1-2 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week, and almost every day (compared with "almost never") were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.70 (0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.53-0.85) and 0.65 (0.46-0.92), respectively. This association tended to be stronger in women than in men. Frequent fish consumption in undergraduate students seems to moderate depressive symptoms. Further research is warranted to clarify the causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between tobacco and nicotine product use and depressive symptoms among college students in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Loukas, Alexandra; Wilkinson, Anna V; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-12-01

    There is a well-established link between cigarette smoking and depression; less is known about the potential association between alternative tobacco products, such as hookah, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use) with depression. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now regulating tobacco products and is interested in tobacco product use among those with mental health problems and other special populations such as college students. Cross-sectional statewide convenience sample study of 5438 college students in 24 colleges and universities in Texas. Past 30-day use of hookah, cigar, smokeless tobacco, cigarette, and e-cigarette use were measured by self-report. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies scale. Only e-cigarette use was positively associated with depressive symptoms, even after accounting for all other tobacco products and socio-demographics. There were no significant interactions between race/ethnicity or gender with each of the tobacco products on depressive symptoms. E-cigarette use was positively associated with depressive symptoms among college students in Texas. Further research is needed to determine causality, which may inform FDA regulatory planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) moderate suicidal behaviors in college students with depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Davidson, Collin; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2013-09-01

    College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related hyperactive/impulsive (HI) and/or inattentive (IA) symptoms may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior due to core and secondary symptoms that increase their potential to engage in behaviors that put them at risk for suicidal behavior. Consequently, the current study examined the moderating effect of combined HI/IA symptoms, in addition to independent HI and IA symptoms on the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and behavior. A sample of 1,056 undergraduate students (61.5% female, 96.4% aged 18-24 years) provided self-report ratings of mood, suicidal behavior (thoughts, self-harm, attempts, and need for medical attention), and current HI/IA symptoms. Significant moderation effects were detected, such that greater HI/IA symptoms were associated with a stronger relationship between depressed mood and suicidal ideation and attempts, but not self-harm. Current HI and IA symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between depressed mood and suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, but did not moderate the relationship between depressed mood and self-harm and need for medical attention. The current findings suggest that the presence of combined HI/IA symptoms conveys increased suicide risk for depressed college students. Additionally, results suggest a complex relationship between independent HI and IA symptoms and severe suicidal outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CERN Summer Student Report

    CERN Document Server

    Storo Nyflott, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses several projects, involving integration of GitHub and Jenkins through SSO, standardization of CMake find-modules, automation of lcgcmake dependency updates, implementation of Jenkins email-templates, and setting up compilation of Fedora using Docker on Travis. Each project is discussed individually, while the time-phase among each project may overlap each other.

  7. Summer Student Report

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Dinh Luan

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Online software, called XDAQ, provides developers with numerous interfaces, frameworks, and tools to develop distributed data acquisition applications. In this report, I present developments of the CMS Pixel Detector Online software graphical user interface and give links to sources of further information.

  8. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  9. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preexamination period is an exceptionally stressful time for schoolgoing children and adolescents, and the propensity of having anxiety symptoms increases. Aim: This study aimed to assess the presence of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 619 children from Class VIII to XI. All of them were given a structured questionnaire for sociodemographic profile and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire. Association of various variables with presence of anxiety symptoms was assessed. Statistics was analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: Totally 170 children (27.5% had anxiety symptoms, similarly the various subgroups had increased frequency compared to the known prevalence in this age group. Age, years spent in the current school, living with parents, presence of domestic stressors, and grade deterioration, all were significantly associated with increased frequency of these symptoms. Similarly, association with various subgroups is described. Conclusion: This study attempts to give evidence of increased anxiety symptoms, during preexamination phase, compared to the reported prevalence in this age group, and thus to address this becomes imperative which will improve their performance and also the mental health preventing distress along with psychological and behavioral problems.

  10. Summer Student Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    In order to know the influence of penguin contribution to the measurement of CP violation phase in Bs to J/Psi phi. We need to measure it in Bs to J/Psi Kst. And we also need to know the ratio of these two branch ratios. To get the branch ratio of Bs to J/Psi phi, we use the data of Bs to J/Psi KK and correct it by a p-wave/s-wave factor. This report shows the results of this p-wave/s-wave correction ratio.

  11. Overweight children report qualitatively distinct asthma symptoms: analysis of validated symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Hossain, Md Jobayer; Lima, John J

    2015-04-01

    Past studies of asthma in overweight/obese children have been inconsistent. The reason overweight/obese children commonly report worse asthma control remains unclear. To determine qualitative differences in symptoms between lean and overweight/obese children with early-onset, atopic asthma. We conducted a cross-sectional analytic study of lean (20% to 65% body mass index) and overweight/obese (≥85% body mass index) 10- to 17-year-old children with persistent, early-onset asthma. Participants completed 2 to 3 visits to provide a complete history, qualitative and quantitative asthma symptom characterization, and lung function testing. We determined associations between weight status and symptoms using multivariable linear and logistic regression methods. Overweight/obese and lean asthmatic children displayed similar lung function. Despite lower fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (30.0 vs 62.6 ppb; P = .037) and reduced methacholine responsiveness (PC20FEV1 1.87 vs 0.45 mg/mL; P overweight/obese children reported more than thrice frequent rescue treatments (3.7 vs 1.1 treatments/wk; P = .0002) than did lean children. Weight status affected the child's primary symptom reported with loss of asthma control (Fisher exact test; P = .003); overweight/obese children more often reported shortness of breath (odds ratio = 11.8; 95% CI, 1.41-98.7) and less often reported cough (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.82). Gastroesophageal reflux scores were higher in overweight/obese children (9.6 vs 23.2; P = .003) and appear to mediate overweight/obesity-related asthma symptoms. Overweight/obese children with early-onset asthma display poorer asthma control and a distinct pattern of symptoms. Greater shortness of breath and β-agonist use appears to be partially mediated via esophageal reflux symptoms. Overweight children with asthma may falsely attribute exertional dyspnea and esophageal reflux to asthma, leading to excess rescue medication use. Copyright © 2014 American

  12. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu MR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mei R Fu,1 Deborah Axelrod,2,3 Charles M Cleland,1 Zeyuan Qiu,4 Amber A Guth,2,3 Robin Kleinman,2 Joan Scagliola,2 Judith Haber1 1College of Nursing, New York University, 2Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 3NYU Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97

  13. SSRI and SNRI withdrawal symptoms reported on an internet forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Tom; Odegbaro, Dolapo; Timimi, Sami; Moncrieff, Joanna

    2018-05-09

    Antidepressant withdrawal symptoms are well-recognised, but their potential duration remains uncertain. We aimed to describe the characteristics of withdrawal associated with two popular classes of antidepressants, including duration. We analysed the content of a sample of posts on an antidepressant withdrawal website. We compared the characteristics of withdrawal associated with SSRIs and SNRIs, including time of onset, duration and nature of symptoms. 110 posts about SSRI withdrawal, and 63 concerning SNRI withdrawal, were analysed. The mean duration of withdrawal symptoms was significantly longer with SSRIs than SNRIs: 90.5 weeks (standard deviation, SD, 150.0) and 50.8 weeks (SD 76.0) respectively; p = 0.043). Neurological symptoms, such as 'brain zaps,' were more common among SNRI users (p = 0.023). Psychosexual/genitourinary symptoms may be more common among SSRI users (p = 0.054). The website aims to help people with antidepressant withdrawal, and is therefore likely to attract people who have difficulties. Length of prior use of antidepressants was long, with a mean of 252.2 weeks (SD 250.8). People accessing antidepressant withdrawal websites report experiencing protracted withdrawal symptoms. There are some differences in the characteristics of withdrawal associated with different classes of antidepressants.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms in Children Attending School in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba

    2016-09-02

    To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Summer student final report

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    During my time spent at CERN I worked under the Technology Department of CERN, in the Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity (MPE) Group. The MPE Group supports LHC operations and maintains state of the art technology for magnet circuit protection and interlock systems for the present and future accelerators, magnet test facilities and CERN hosted experiments[1]. As a member of Magnet Powering Interlocks & Software (TE-MPE-MS) section I was involved in three different projects and used not only CERN developed tools like FESA Framework, but also open source C++ frameworks, Google Test and Google Mock. I had a chance to work with Programmable Logic Controllers and real-time devices known as Front End Computers. I was part of a software developer team, and familiarized myself with the Scrum agile software development methodology. The description and results of my work are presented in three parts of this report. Each part describes a separate project created during my participation in the CERN Summer St...

  16. Prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is the most common form of sleep- disordered breathing in adults and children. It is associated with many adverse health consequences. The objectives this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized ...

  17. Alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity as risk factors for suicide proneness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol use, depression, and suicide are significant public health problems, particularly among college students. Impulsivity is associated with all of these factors. Additionally, impulsivity increases the effects of negative mood and alcohol use on maladaptive behavior. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the four-factor model of impulsivity (urgency, (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, and sensation seeking), depressive symptoms, and alcohol use as predictors of suicide proneness among college students. Participants (n=1100) completed online assessments of demographics, impulsivity, depressive symptoms, and suicide proneness. All predictors were positively related to suicide proneness. The relation between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness was moderated by (lack of) perseverance, alcohol use, and joint interactions of urgency×alcohol use and sensation seeking×alcohol use. Despite some paradoxical findings regarding the depressive symptoms-suicide proneness relation when only one risk factor was elevated, the average level of suicide proneness increased as risk factors increased. This cross-sectional self-report data comes from a non-clinical sample of college students from a homogeneous background, limiting generalizability and causal predictions. Overall, these findings indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness varies considerably by different facets of impulsivity and alcohol use. The results suggest that clinical risk-assessments should weigh two forms of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking) as particularly vital in the presence of heavy alcohol use. These findings highlight the importance of considering and exploring moderators of the mood-suicide relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Student-generated case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    When students create teaching materials, learning can be enhanced. Therefore, a project was designed based on the traditional clinical case report and the chiropractic technique and principles curriculum at the University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic. The objectives were to increase mastery in a clinical topic, increase awareness of different patient presentations and management options, and enhance information technology skills. Following lectures about the components of a case report and neurological reflexes related to visceral comorbidities and subluxation and joint dysfunction, students created a case report based on a template provided by the instructor. A survey gathered student perspectives on the exercise. More than 70% of the surveyed students felt the project was at least moderately helpful in improving understanding of a case report, the condition investigated, their clinical reasoning, and the ability to integrate information. Most felt that they improved their understanding of neurological reflexes, use of the literature, and the practice of evidence-based care. The majority believed that they identified weakness in knowledge, improved self-learning skills, and increased confidence in managing patients. Most enjoyed it at least somewhat and 70% agreed that the project should be continued. Many believed that they were better prepared for national boards and had improved their writing skills.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic goals as moderators of stress and depressive symptoms in Chinese undergraduate students: A multi-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yu; He, Yushu; Wei, Yong; Cen, Weihong; Zhou, Qi; Zhong, Mingtian

    2016-05-11

    Studies in western countries have examined the specific vulnerability hypothesis of Dykman's theory of goal-orientation predispositions to depression through two-time point designs. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the moderating effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on stress and depressive symptoms in Chinese undergraduate students. A total of 462 undergraduate students [46% female; mean age, 19.06 (range, 17-22) years] completed self-reported measures assessing intrinsic and extrinsic goals, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of social and academic hassles. Every 3 months over the subsequent 12 months, the undergraduate students completed measures assessing depressive symptoms and the occurrence of daily hassles. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that undergraduate students with low levels of intrinsic goals reported greater depressive symptoms following the occurrence of social and academic hassles than did those with high levels of such goals. However, undergraduate students with high levels of extrinsic goals did not report greater depressive symptoms following the occurrence of social and academic hassles than did those possessing low levels. These findings suggest that intrinsic goals can protect undergraduate students experiencing high levels of social and academic hassles from depressive symptoms. The study findings provide new insight into the course of depressive symptoms among undergraduate students, and offer psychologist and psychiatrists ways to protect individuals from depressive symptoms by building up intrinsic goals.

  20. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, S.L.M. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.M. van der Toorn; A.C. Huizink (Anja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMaternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study

  2. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  3. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children : a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  4. Is there an Asian idiom of distress? Somatic Symptoms in Female Japanese and Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Kim, Oksoo

    2007-01-01

    The term “idiom of distress” is used to describe culturally-specific experiences of suffering. Most of these studies have been conducted with small groups, making comparison of symptom profiles difficult. Female undergraduate and graduate students in Japan (N=50) and Korea (N=61) completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and seven-day dairy reports of their experiences of 46 somatic symptoms. Between-culture comparisons revealed that BDI scores did not differ; however, Korean women had significantly higher somatic distress means than the Japanese women. Despite the higher Korean distress mean, regression analysis showed that somatic distress explained 30% of the variance of BDI score for the Japanese, but only 22% of the variance for the Koreans. Within-culture comparisons showed that both the High BDI Japanese and Koreans had 19 somatic distress symptoms with significantly higher means than their Low BDI counterparts; eleven somatic symptoms were shared by the two groups. Multidimensional Scaling matrices were used to compare symptom proximities and revealed cultural differences. The problems with using broad racial categories in clinical research, the clinical significance of these findings, and implications for psychiatric nursing assessment and practice are discussed. PMID:18207054

  5. Influence of social factors on patient-reported late symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Andersen, Elo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer and morbidity and mortality after treatment are associated with social factors. Whether social factors also play a role in the prevalence of late-onset symptoms after treatment for head and neck cancer is not clear. METHODS: Three hundred sixty...... ratio [OR] = 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-8.63). For survivors who lived alone, the adjusted ORs were significantly increased for physical functioning (2.17; 95% CI = 1.01-4.68) and trouble with social eating (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.14-4.47). CONCLUSION: Self-reported severe late symptoms...... were more prevalent in survivors with short education and in those living alone, suggesting differences in perception of late symptoms between social groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015....

  6. The relationship between premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, irregular menstrual cycles, and psychosocial stress among Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Okazaki, Ai; Sakamoto, Yoko; Funatsu, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menses-associated health problems of women, such as premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain and irregular menstrual cycles, and psychosocial stress. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Japanese college students, measuring psychosocial stress levels by means of IMPS (The Inventory to Measure Psychosocial Stress). A total of 264 female students (mean age 19.4 years), who were invited to participate in the study in October 2007, completed the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, lifestyle, menstrual history, and menstrual health status. Forty-three students were excluded due to missing data, and the remaining 221 were analyzed. The proportions of students who reported premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles were 79%, 79%, and 63%, respectively. Students who reported premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles had higher stress scores than those who did not. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors associated with having premenstrual symptoms, menstrual pain, and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles. Stress score, heavy menstrual flow, and menstrual pain were significant predictors for premenstrual symptoms, while age at menarche and having premenstrual symptoms were significant predictors for menstrual pain. Both stress score and body mass index were found to be significant predictors for having experienced irregular menstrual cycles. The results suggest that psychosocial stress is independently associated with premenstrual symptoms and the experience of irregular menstrual cycles among college students, implying that changes in the functional potentiality of women as a result of stress are related with changes in their menstrual function.

  7. Prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD symptoms among secondary school students in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al-Hadethe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.

  8. Reports by caregivers of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

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    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are relevant since they are frequent and cause distress to caregivers. However, they may not be reported by physicians due to the priority usually attributed to cognitive symptoms. Objectives: To verify whether BPSD is being systematically investigated by physicians even in specialized settings and whether their records on medical files are accurate. Methods: Assessment of records on medical files of BPSD reported by caregivers to 182 patients (57.1% men, mean age 67.6±13.5 years assisted in a tertiary-care behavioral neurology outpatient clinic (BNOC who also had appointments in other clinics of the same hospital. Alzheimer's disease (37.9% and vascular disease (19.2% were the most frequent causes of dementia. Results: Report/appointment ratios were 0.58 in BNOC, 0.43 in other neurological, 0.93 in psychiatric and 0.20 in non-neurological, non-psychiatric clinics. BPSD most frequently recorded in BNOC were insomnia, aggressiveness, agitation/hyperactivity, visual hallucinations, apathy, inadequate behavior and ease of crying. Sorted by psychiatrists, categories associated to more BPSD were affect/mood, thought and personality/behavior. affect/mood and sensoperception symptoms were the most frequently reported. Sorted according to Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, categories associated to more BPSD were depression/dysphoria, delusion and apathy/indifference. depression/dysphoria and agitation/ aggression symptoms were the most frequently reported. Conclusions: BPSD reported by caregivers were very diverse and were not systematically investigated by physicians. Notes in medical files often contained non-technical terms.

  9. Preliminary study on the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusmadi, Siti Zulaikha; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged 24 ± 2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N = 63) of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates). Reasonable price (N = 35, 55.6%) and ingredients (N = 29, 46%) were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N = 39, 61.9%). Twenty-two respondents (34.9%) in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N = 13, 12.5%) and acne (N = 9, 8.7%) were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N = 56, 53.8%) and looks beautiful and healthier (N = 54, 51.9%). The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Skin Lightening Practice and Health Symptoms among Female Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Rusmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates aged 24±2 years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% (N=63 of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates. Reasonable price (N=35, 55.6% and ingredients (N=29, 46% were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (N=39, 61.9%. Twenty-two respondents (34.9% in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (N=13, 12.5% and acne (N=9, 8.7% were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (N=56, 53.8% and looks beautiful and healthier (N=54, 51.9%. The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching.

  11. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

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    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  12. Analyzing the Psychological Symptoms of Students in Undergraduate Program in Elementary Mathematics Teaching

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    Masal, Ercan; Koc, Mustafa; Colak, Tugba Seda; Takunyaci, Mithat

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyse whether there is a difference or not in levels of having psychological symptoms of the students of undergraduate program in elementary mathematics teaching. Another aim of the research is to determine whether the levels of having psychological symptoms of the students differ or not regarding various…

  13. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms of anxiety

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    Rose, Matthias; Devine, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Patient self-reported symptoms are of crucial importance to identify anxiety disorders, as well as to monitor their treatment in clinical practice and research. Thus, for evidence-based medicine, a precise, reliable, and valid (ie, “objective”) assessment of the patient's reported “subjective” symptoms is warranted. There is a plethora of instruments available, which can provide psychometrically sound assessments of anxiety, but there are several limitations of current tools that need to be carefully considered for their successful use. Nevertheless, the empirical assessment of mental health status is not as accepted in medicine as is the assessment of biomarkers. One reason for this may be that different instruments assessing the same psychological construct use different scales. In this paper we present some new developments that promise to provide one common metric for the assessment of anxiety, to facilitate the general acceptance of mental health assessments in the future. PMID:25152658

  14. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Disordered Eating among University Students: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

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    Vilija Malinauskiene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between lifetime traumatic events (TEs, posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms, and disordered eating (DE were studied in a sample of 614 university students (mean age 20 years. An anonymous questionnaire included 32 lifetime TEs, IES-revised measured PTS symptoms, and EAT-26 evaluated DE symptoms. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and structural equation models (SEM with bootstrapping method. Findings reveal the prevalence of DE in 8.1% of participants, while 73.9% of students experienced at least one lifetime TE. 52.0% of students with DE had PTS symptoms (p<0.0001 and 30.8% of students with lifetime TEs had PTS symptoms (p<0.001. In SEM, direct paths from lifetime TEs to PTS symptoms (0.38, p<0.0001 and from PTS symptoms to DE (0.40, p<0.0001 were observed. The final SEM confirmed the mediating role of PTS symptoms in the path between some TEs (traffic accident and seriously injured and DE among the university students. If PTS symptoms are associated with DE, then addressing PTS symptoms in the context of DE treatment may improve treatment efficacy.

  15. Bronchodilator responsiveness and reported respiratory symptoms in an adult population.

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    Wan C Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. AIM: To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. METHODS: 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and in forced vital capacity (FVC were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population.

  16. Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.

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    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior.

  17. The influence of gender on social anxiety spectrum symptoms in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano; Carpita, Barbara; Carlini, Marina; Mengali, Francesco; Tognetti, Rosalba; Rivetti, Francesco; Massimetti, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore social anxiety spectrum gender differences, in a sample of university students. Overall, 823 University of Pisa students were assessed by Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire (SHYSR). Using a total score of 68 as the optimal diagnostic threshold, we classified students into two groups with levels of severity: low scorers (60%), significant gender differences emerged for 6 items: females reported higher rates of items related to “Performance fears”, that seemed to confirm the new DSM-5 specifier named “Performance only”, while males reported higher rate in a single item related to “Behavioural inhibition”. Females showed a significant higher total score and “Specific anxieties and phobic features” and “Interpersonal sensitivity” domain scores compared to males, in low severity subgroup, and males showed significant higher “Social phobic traits during childhood and adolescence” and “Behavioural inhibition and somatic symptoms” domain scores compared to females in the high severity subgroup. Finally, rate of individuals declaring to consume alcohol was significantly higher in males than females. Among university students, social anxiety spectrum seems to be more frequent in females than males. In males, social anxiety spectrum is more frequently associated with an early onset, behavioural inhibition and somatic symptoms and, consequently, with higher severity.

  18. Energy drinks and youth self-reported hyperactivity/inattention symptoms.

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    Schwartz, Deborah L; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stephanie A; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and to examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Middle school students (n = 1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the 5-item Hyperactivity/Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among boys versus girls and among black and Hispanic versus white students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure, and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed, and other potential confounders. Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported versus informant-reported depressive symptoms in adults with mild intellectual disability.

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    Mileviciute, I; Hartley, S L

    2015-02-01

    Virtually nothing is known about potential differences in the types of depression symptoms reported by adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) on self-reported questionnaires as compared with the types of symptoms reported by caregivers on informant questionnaires. Moreover, little is known about how the presentation of depression among adults with mild ID varies based on socio-demographic characteristics. We compared findings from two self-reported questionnaires, the Self-Reported Depression Questionnaire (SRDQ) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS), to that of an informant questionnaire of depressive symptoms, the Glasgow Depression Scale--Caregiver Supplement (CGDS), in 80 adults with mild ID. We also examined the association between age, sex, IQ and the presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder and frequency of affective, cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms in our sample of adults with mild ID. Adults with mild ID self-reported a higher frequency of affective and cognitive depressive symptoms than staff reported on the informant measure. Staff reported a higher frequency of somatic symptoms than adults with mild ID on one of the self-reported questionnaires (GDS) and a similar frequency on the other self-reported questionnaire (SRDQ). Important differences were found in the types of depressive symptoms based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Informant questionnaires offer valuable information, but assessment should include self-reported questionnaires as these questionnaires add unique information about internalised experiences (affective and cognitive symptoms) of adults with mild ID that may not be apparent to caregivers. Health care providers should be made aware of the important differences in the presentation of depressive based on their IQ, age and presence of a co-occurring psychiatric disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  20. Cognitive responses to stress, depression, and anxiety and their relationship to ADHD symptoms in first year psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.

  1. Social anxiety symptoms and body image dissatisfaction in medical students: prevalence and correlates

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    Jacqueline M. Oliveira Regis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Social anxiety disorder (SAD and body image dissatisfaction (BID are common problems among college students, but few studies focused on medical students. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity and correlates of SAD symptoms and BID among medical students of a Brazilian public university. Methods A cross-sectional study with 479 students, using structured instruments: Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Bivariate analyses were followed by logistic regression models to obtain independent predictors of SAD symptoms, BID and both outcomes combined. Results Most students were single (99% and female (58.7%. The prevalence rates of SAD symptoms (SPIN ≥ 19 and BID (BSQ ≥ 81 were 36.3% and 34.7%, respectively. Depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 19 occurred in 8.8% of the sample. SAD symptoms were independently associated with: BID, thoughts of abandoning the course, difficulty making friends, depressive symptoms, and mental health treatment prior to university. Besides SAD symptoms, BID was associated with female sex, difficulty making friends, depressive symptoms, and body mass index (BMI. Seventy-eight students (16.3% presented SAD symptoms and BID, which was associated with female sex, difficulty making friends, dissatisfaction with the course, depressive symptoms and BMI. Conclusion SAD symptoms and BID are common and related problems that should be screened for among medical students. The identification of specific correlates could contribute to the elaboration of preventive measures, minimizing the distress and negative impact of these mental health problems on relationships and academic performance.

  2. White Teachers' Racial Identities, Perceptions of Students' Behaviors, and Symptoms of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    Educational research has examined factors contributing to teachers' burnout symptoms, including their perceptions of student behaviors (Ingersoll, 2003). Interestingly, teacher and students' races have been differentially related to teachers' perceptions of student behavior (Downey & Pribesh, 2004); this disparity in perceptions has been…

  3. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  4. Subthreshold psychotic symptom distress, self-stigma, and peer social support among college students with mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenny, Danielle; Thompson, Elizabeth; Pitts, Steven C; Dixon, Lisa B; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the potential moderating effect of social support on the relation between distress caused by psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma among college students with mental health diagnoses. Participants were young adult college students who endorsed having a past or present mental health diagnosis (n = 63). Self-report data were examined from the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, a measure of subthreshold psychosis risk symptoms; the Self-Concurrence/Application subscale of the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, a measure of self-stigma; and the Friendships subscale of the Lubben Social Network Scale-Revised, a measure of social support from peers. There was a modest direct relation between distress associated with psychosis risk symptoms and self-stigma. There was a larger relation between distress from risk symptoms and self-stigma for those with low social support compared to those with mean and high social support. Although causality cannot be determined based on this study, a strong relation between symptom distress and stigma was found among those reporting low peer social support. Interventions that target both self-stigma and social support might be relevant for young adults with a history of mental health concerns who currently endorse subthreshold psychotic symptoms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale of symptom specific dysfunction.

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    Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Among Medical Students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroon, Zaid A; Borgan, Saif M; Kamel, Charlotte; Maddison, Wendy; Royston, Maeve; Donnellan, Claire

    2018-02-01

    Medical training can be a stressful experience and may negatively impact mental health for some students. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among medical students in one international medical university in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to determine associations between these symptoms, the students' characteristics, and their satisfaction with life. This is a cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire, distributed to 350 enrolled medical students. We used Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to measure global cognitive judgments of one's life satisfaction. Sociodemographic details including social background and academic information were also documented. Forty percent (n = 124) of the participants had depressive symptoms, of which 18.9% (n = 58) met the criteria for mild, 13% (n = 40) for moderate, and 8.5% (n = 26) for severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with Arab ethnicity (χ 2  = 5.66, p = .017), female gender (χ 2  = 3.97, p = .046), relationship with peers (p Anxiety symptoms were present in 51% (n = 158) of students. Anxiety symptoms were associated with female gender (χ 2  = 11.35, p anxiety symptoms among medical students was high. Medical universities in the Middle East may need to allocate more resources into monitoring and early detection of medical student distress. Medical education providers are encouraged to provide adequate pastoral and psychological support for medical students, including culturally appropriate self-care programs within the curriculum.

  7. The association between physical symptoms and depression among medical students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ammar M Y; Alotaibi, Khalid T; Alhurayyis, Jarah H; Alqahtani, Turky A; Alghamlas, Aamer M; Algahtani, Haifa M; Jahrami, Haitham A

    2017-12-15

    To examine the association between depression and physical symptoms among medical students in Bahrain.   The present study employed a cross-sectional design.  A total of 160 students were recruited, 41.3% were male and 58.8% female, using a convenience sampling approach. Participants completed the validated Patients Health Questionnaires (PHQs) in which they provided information about demographics, physical symptoms, and depression. Results were considered significant if p medical students in Bahrain.  Medical educators should take such symptoms seriously among medical students as it may have serious consequences on the mental health of medical students. In practice, adequate awareness initiatives should be organized and provided for medical students to help them overcome their challenges they face. Additionally, incorporating screening self-screening strategies in the medical curriculum can be beneficial for early detections of mental health problems. The Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  8. The contribution of lifestyle factors to depressive symptoms: A cross-sectional study in Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Qi, Juan; Yang, Yi; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-11-30

    It is well known that some lifestyle factors are related to depression, but their cumulative contribution to the depression remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the importance of multiple lifestyle factors in contributing to depressive symptoms among Chinese college students. Between September and December in 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1907 Chinese college students from Guangzhou, Southern China. College students completed self-administered questionnaires and reported their lifestyle factors including sleep quality and duration, Internet use, smoking, drinking, exercise, outdoor activity or sunlight exposure, and eating breakfast. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were defined as the CES-D score ≥16. Among all the students, 29.7% reported mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms. Higher quality and longer duration of sleep, more exercises, more outdoor activities or sunlight exposures, and eating breakfast daily were associated with a lower CES-D score, which could explain 11.3% of variance of the CES-D score, after adjusting for socio-demographics, family history, interpersonal relationship, and academic characteristics using hierarchical multivariable linear regression. These associations were comparable between males and females. The protective role of healthy lifestyles should be considered in intervention programs for improving mental health among college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Change in Depressive Symptoms among Treatment-Seeking College Students Who Are Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Maloch, Janelle K.; McAleavey, Andrew; Locke, Benjamin D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in students' depressive symptoms during the course of treatment at college counseling centers were examined by sexual orientation. In Study 1, results showed that depressive symptoms decreased similarly across sexual orientation groups during the course of treatment. In Study 2, family support did not moderate the relationship between…

  11. Health complaints and wind turbines: The efficacy of explaining the nocebo response to reduce symptom reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-07-01

    A number of people are reporting an environmental sensitivity to sub-audible windfarm sound (infrasound), characterised by the experience of recurrent non-specific symptoms. A causal link between exposure and symptoms is not indicated by empirical evidence. Research indicates symptoms may be explained by the nocebo response, whereby health concerns and negative expectations, created from social discourse and media reports, trigger symptom reporting. The experimental aim was to test whether providing a nocebo explanation for symptoms, to individuals reporting symptomatic experiences during infrasound exposure, would ameliorate symptoms during further exposure. Sixty-six volunteers were randomly assigned to nocebo explanation or biological explanation groups. Participants were concurrently exposed to infrasound and audible windfarm sound, while reporting on current symptoms and mood, during two exposure sessions. Preceding session one, participants watched a presentation integrating media warnings about purported health risks posed by windfarm infrasound. Before session two, nocebo explanation participants viewed material outlining how nocebo responding could explain symptom reporting. Instead biological explanation participants watched material presenting pathophysiological theories for symptoms. During session one, participants reported increased symptoms and mood deterioration from baseline assessment. During session two symptom reporting and mood deterioration was maintained by biological explanation participants, while mood and symptoms reported by nocebo explanation participants returned to baseline levels. Results indicate that providing an explanation of the nocebo response, followed by exposure to infrasound, has the potential to operate as an intervention to reduce symptomatic experiences in people reporting symptoms attributed to windfarm generated infrasound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Report of Depressive Symptoms in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisson, James; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents two studies designed to examine the self-report of depressive symptoms in low back pain patients (N=134). Both studies found that patients were more likely to report somatic than cognitive symptoms of depression. Patients with multiple physical findings were not more likely to report somatic symptoms than patients with few physical…

  13. Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy L; Harvey, Erin M; Twelker, J Daniel; Miller, Joseph M; Leonard-Green, Tina; Campus, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI) and accommodative insufficiency (AI) and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd-8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00 D, moderate: 1.00 D to <3.00 D, and high: ≥3.00 D), presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 ± 1.81 years of age), rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p = 0.02) and with CI and AI (p = 0.001) had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI.

  14. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  15. A cross-sectional investigation of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and health-behavior participation in Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Nash, Kim; Sharman, Rachael; Lane, Ben R

    2014-05-06

    Transitioning to university involves a major life change that can have implications for physical and mental health. This study had three objectives: first, assess the mental health and health-behavior participation of Australian university students; second, evaluate clustering of health behaviors; and third, examine how mental health relates to health behaviors. University students (n = 751) enrolled at an Australian regional university completed an online survey containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and a health-behavior questionnaire. Over one-third of students reported mild or higher mental illness symptoms and most reported engaging in multiple unhealthy behaviors. Furthermore, mental health was associated with unhealthy behaviors. For males, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast and poor sleep quality. For females, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast, inadequate vigorous physical activity, and short or long sleep hours. Stress symptoms in females were associated with healthy sleep hours, but poor sleep quality. Future research may consider whether an intervention targeting one or two key health behaviors has utility in improving participation in other health behaviors and mental health. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Validation of a self-reported HIV symptoms list: the ISS-HIV symptoms scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.

  17. Self-reported aural symptoms, headache and temporomandibular disorders in Japanese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Rahena; Morita, Manabu; Ekuni, Disuke; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Furuta, Michiko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Wilson, David

    2013-02-06

    To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930) regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319), pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21), difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18), clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29), clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48), difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11), and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97). The control group (n = 1,387) were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV) and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively). TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III) were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.

  18. Chronic koro-like symptoms – two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Nilamadhab

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Koro is a culture bound syndrome, which has been reported usually from Asian countries. It has been described as an acute, brief lasting illness, which often occurs in epidemics. There is no description in literature of a chronic form of this syndrome. Case presentation Two sporadic cases with koro-like symptoms from East India are presented where the illness had a chronic course with durations spanning more than ten years. In contrast to acute, good prognosis, psycho-education responsive form that is usually seen in epidemics; the chronic form, appeared to be associated with greater morbidity and poorer response to interventions. Conclusion There is a possibility of a chronic form of koro syndrome.

  19. Syncope as initial symptom for nephrotic syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuemei; Wang, Guangliang; Feng, Jiachun

    2015-01-01

    Although syncope and nephrotic syndrome are frequently encountered independently in pediatric practice, syncope as the initial symptom for nephrotic syndrome is rarely observed in the pediatric age group. In this report, we present the case of 3-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome who presented with a history of three episodes of syncope before admission. The syncope occurred after excessive fluid loss or inadequate intake of fluids and was relieved spontaneously. History taking revealed that the early morning palpebral edema, and laboratory tests showed decreased plasma protein levels and elevated serum lipid levels. Nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed, but could not be confirmed histopathologically because the patient’s parent refused consent for biopsy. The patient was managed with fluid expansion, correction of acidosis, and improvement of microcirculation to prevent recurrence of syncope, and glucocorticoids were administered to prevent disease progression. PMID:26629237

  20. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students With a Trauma History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Avery, Megan L; Bracken, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Participants were 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and lack of emotional awareness. Men reported significantly more drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of emotional clarity, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, impulse control difficulties and difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect. When examined separately by

  1. Symptoms-Based Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Symptoms-Based ... cravings, 22.33 % (46); and angular stomatitis 18.97 % (39). ... [6]. Pregnancy fallouts in an overall surplus iron constraint is about 1000 mg [7]. .... Evaluation of the Health-related Quality of Life of.

  2. Symptoms-Based Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in official hostels, 52.42 % (108) belonged to families of average socioeconomic status, 77.18 % (159) suffer from short-term memory, and 47.08 % (97) were unaware of IDA. The most commonly observed symptoms were flattened brittle nails ...

  3. Morningness-eveningness and depressive symptoms: Test on the components level with CES-D in Polish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Konrad S

    2016-05-15

    The study aimed to elucidate previously observed associations between morningness-eveningness and depressive symptomatology in university students. Relations between components of depressive symptomatology and morningness-eveningness were analysed. Nine hundred and seventy-four university students completed Polish versions of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression scale (CES-D; Polish translation appended to this paper) and the Composite Scale of Morningness. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to test the structure of depressive symptoms. Pearson and partial correlations (with age and sex controlled), along with regression analyses with morning affect (MA) and circadian preference as predictors, were used. PCA revealed three components of depressive symptoms: depressed/somatic affect, positive affect, interpersonal relations. Greater MA was related to less depressive symptoms in three components. Morning circadian preference was related to less depressive symptoms in depressed/somatic and positive affects and unrelated to interpersonal relations. Both morningness-eveningness components exhibited stronger links with depressed/somatic and positive affects than with interpersonal relations. Three CES-D components exhibited stronger links with MA than with circadian preference. In regression analyses only MA was statistically significant for positive affect and better interpersonal relations, whereas more depressed/somatic affect was predicted by lower MA and morning circadian preference (relationship reversed compared to correlations). Self-report assessment. There are three groups of depressive symptoms in Polish university students. Associations of MA with depressed/somatic and positive affects are primarily responsible for the observed links between morningness-eveningness and depressive symptoms in university students. People with evening circadian preference whose MA is not lowered have less depressed/somatic affect. Copyright © 2016

  4. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A; Wali, Siraj O; Merdad, Roah A; Merdad, Leena A

    2016-02-01

    To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep.

  5. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alsaggaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320 were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep.

  6. Insomnia and Neuroticism are Related with Depressive Symptoms of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changnam Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Insomnia is very common in depression and especially medical students are easy to experience sleep disturbance because of their studies. Also depressive symptoms are closely related to stress. Stress is an interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Different personality traits can create different levels of stress. In this study, we tried to explore the relationship between insomnia and depressive symptoms or stress of medical students, and whether their personality may play a role on this relationship or not. Methods We enrolled 154 medical students from University of Ulsan College of Medicine. We used the Medical Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Academic Motivation Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and The revised NEO Personality Inventory (PI. Results Insomnia severity, amotivation, medical stress, mental health index and neuroticism traits of NEO-PI significantly correlated with depressive symptom severity (p < 0.001. And stepwise linear regression analysis indicated insomnia, amotivation and neuroticism traits of NEO-PI are expecting factors for students’ depressive symptoms is related to (p < 0.001. Conclusions Student who tend to be perfect feel more academic stress. The high level of depressive symptom is associated with insomnia, amotivation, academic stress in medical student. Moreover, personality trait also can influence their depressive symptoms.

  7. Menstruation: symptoms, management and attitude of female nursing students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronkola, O A; Uzuegbu, V U

    2006-12-01

    This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and mean of menstrual cycle was 28 days. Out of the 120 study participants, 93% were having menstruation regularly. More participants experienced symptoms during premenstrual periods than menstrual periods. Majority (70%) used sanitary pad to manage their menstruation, 93% had positive attitude towards menstruation while only 20% consulted medical doctors whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for many of the participants whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms It was recommended that authorities in schools of nursing should not overlook reproductive health needs of students. Also teaching of reproductive health education early in primary and secondary schools should be encouraged.

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, S.L.M.; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child’s problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child’s internalizing problems. The study sample

  9. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Associated Clinical Features among Australian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Dianna

    2007-01-01

    The current study addressed the frequency of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms among university students and investigated the predictors of dysmorphic concern. Six hundred and nineteen Australian university students completed measures assessing BDD, dysmorphic concern, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, self-oriented and socially…

  10. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  11. ADHD Symptom Reduction in Elementary Students: A Single-Case Effectiveness Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottelkorb, April A.; Ray, Dee C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used a single-case design to examine the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and person-centered teacher consultation (PCTC) for four elementary students identified with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Two students participated in CCPT and their teachers participated in PCTC. Two students…

  12. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Based on responses from 20,000 college seniors nationwide, "The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report" gives you hard numbers "plus" the analysis you need to develop your college recruiting strategy and build your brand among college students. Align your recruiting strategies tactics with students' wants, needs, attitudes, and behaviors--you'll get…

  14. Perfectionism and Stressful Life Events as Vulnerabilities to Depression Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kiani; Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe mood disorders such as depression are the most common mental disorders among individuals. In addition to, girls’ students as a group at high risk are known for developing this disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of perfectionism and stressful life events in predicting disordered depression symptoms among girls’ students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study on 344 girl students of Tehran’s high schools, who were selected by multiple cluster...

  15. Response pattern of depressive symptoms among college students: What lies behind items of the Beck Depression Inventory-II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Andrade, Laura Helena; Gorenstein, Clarice; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2018-07-01

    This study examines the response pattern of depressive symptoms in a nationwide student sample, through item analyses of a rating scale by both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered to 12,711 college students. First, the psychometric properties of the scale were described. Thereafter, the endorsement probability of depressive symptom in each scale item was analyzed through CTT and IRT. Graphical plots depicted the endorsement probability of scale items and intensity of depression. Three items of different difficulty level were compared through CTT and IRT approach. Four in five students reported the presence of depressive symptoms. The BDI-II items presented good reliability and were distributed along the symptomatic continuum of depression. Similarly, in both CTT and IRT approaches, the item 'changes in sleep' was easily endorsed, 'loss of interest' moderately and 'suicidal thoughts' hardly. Graphical representation of BDI-II of both methods showed much equivalence in terms of item discrimination and item difficulty. The item characteristic curve of the IRT method provided informative evaluation of item performance. The inventory was applied only in college students. Depressive symptoms were frequent psychopathological manifestations among college students. The performance of the BDI-II items indicated convergent results from both methods of analysis. While the CTT was easy to understand and to apply, the IRT was more complex to understand and to implement. Comprehensive assessment of the functioning of each BDI-II item might be helpful in efficient detection of depressive conditions in college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Symptom Reporting in Young Athletes Based on History of Previous Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters. Findings suggest younger athletes with a history of multiple concussions may experience residual symptoms.

  17. Familial Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Separate Self-Reports From Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.

  18. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy : Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Philipp; Ehrmann, Katja; Hartmannsgruber, Johann; Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael; van Oorschot, Birgitt

    2017-07-01

    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom

  19. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy. Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, Philipp; Ehrmann, Katja; Hartmannsgruber, Johann; Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael; Oorschot, Birgitt van

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden

  20. Sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms among undergraduate students in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Parash Mani; Neupane, Dipika; Rijal, Shristi; Thapa, Kiran; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2017-03-21

    Evidence on the burden of depression, internet addiction and poor sleep quality in undergraduate students from Nepal is virtually non-existent. While the interaction between sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms is frequently assessed in studies, it is not well explored if sleep quality or internet addiction statistically mediates the association between the other two variables. We enrolled 984 students from 27 undergraduate campuses of Chitwan and Kathmandu, Nepal. We assessed sleep quality, internet addiction and depressive symptoms in these students using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Young's Internet Addiction Test and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 respectively. We included responses from 937 students in the data analysis after removing questionnaires with five percent or more fields missing. Via bootstrap approach, we assessed the mediating role of internet addiction in the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms, and that of sleep quality in the association between internet addiction and depressive symptoms. Overall, 35.4%, 35.4% and 21.2% of students scored above validated cutoff scores for poor sleep quality, internet addiction and depression respectively. Poorer sleep quality was associated with having lower age, not being alcohol user, being a Hindu, being sexually active and having failed in previous year's board examination. Higher internet addiction was associated with having lower age, being sexually inactive and having failed in previous year's board examination. Depressive symptoms were higher for students having higher age, being sexually inactive, having failed in previous year's board examination and lower years of study. Internet addiction statistically mediated 16.5% of the indirect effect of sleep quality on depressive symptoms. Sleep quality, on the other hand, statistically mediated 30.9% of the indirect effect of internet addiction on depressive symptoms. In the current study, a great proportion of

  1. Beyond symptom self-report: use of a computer "avatar" to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Radell, Milen L; Shind, Christine; Ebanks-Williams, Yasheca; Beck, Kevin D; Gilbertson, Mark W

    2016-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur in the wake of exposure to a traumatic event. Currently, PTSD symptoms are assessed mainly through self-report in the form of questionnaire or clinical interview. Self-report has inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations who may have limited awareness of deficit, reduced attention span, or poor vocabulary and/or literacy skills. Diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy would be aided by behavioral measures. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen "avatar" through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations. Here, a sample of 82 veterans, self-assessed for PTSD symptoms was administered such a task, in which the avatar was confronted with situations that might evoke avoidant behavior, a core feature of PTSD. Results showed a strong correlation between PTSD symptom burden and task performance; in fact, the ability to predict PTSD symptom burden based on simple demographic variables (age, sex, combat exposure) was significantly improved by adding task score as a predictor variable. The results therefore suggest that virtual environments may provide a new way to assess PTSD symptoms, while avoiding at least some of the limitations associated with symptom self-report, and thus might be a useful complement to questionnaire or clinical interview, potentially facilitating both diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy.

  2. Summer Student Report - Project Kryolize

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work and results obtained by the author during his summer student internship at CERN. The author of this document was attached to the project Kryolize as a software developer, overtaking the job from a recently departed technical student.

  3. The relationship between meeting vigorous physical activity recommendations and burnout symptoms among adolescents: an exploratory study with vocational students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine; Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2015-04-01

    This study examines how students who met the current recommendations for vigorous physical activity (VPA) of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) differ from peers who did not reach these standards with regard to self-reported burnout, before and after controlling for light physical activity and moderate physical activity. A sample of 144 vocational students (Mage =16.2 years, SD = 1.13, 98 males) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and the School Burnout Inventory. Bivariate correlations revealed that only VPA was associated with reduced burnout. Both the ACSM and CDC guidelines were useful to identify significant differences in burnout symptoms between students who met versus did not meet the standards. Health policy makers should develop strategies to integrate more VPA into the lives of adolescent students so as to reach a minimum of 60 min per week.

  4. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jye Lim

    Full Text Available Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future.Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis.The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4% than men (12.5%. Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%. Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06 and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17, P < 0.05.Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%, with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of

  5. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  7. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T; Christrup, L L; Højsted, J; Villesen, H H; Albjerg, T H; Ravn-Nielsen, L V; Sjøgren, P

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment. We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics. patients treated with either opioids and/or adjuvant analgesics were asked to report their symptoms spontaneously, followed by a 41-item investigator-developed symptom checklist. A control group also filled in the checklist. a total of 62 patients and 64 controls participated in the study. The numbers of symptoms reported by the patients (9.9 ± 5.9) were significantly higher than those reported by the controls (3.2 ± 3.9) (Pside effects due to analgesics was: (1) Dry mouth (42%); (2) Sweating (34%); (3) Weight gain (29%); (4) Memory deficits (24%); (5) Fatigue (19%); and (6) Concentration deficits (19%). the number of symptoms reported using systematic assessment was eightfold higher than those reported voluntarily. Fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, dry mouth, sweating and weight gain were the most frequently reported. The patients reported the side effects of their analgesics to contribute substantially to the reported symptoms. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. Perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms in female university students: the central role of perfectionistic self-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Madigan, Daniel J; Damian, Lavinia E; Esposito, Rita Maria; Lombardo, Caterina

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies have found perfectionism to show positive relations with eating disorder symptoms, but so far no study has examined whether perfectionistic self-presentation can explain these relations or whether the relations are the same for different eating disorder symptom groups. A sample of 393 female university students completed self-report measures of perfectionism (self-oriented perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism), perfectionistic self-presentation (perfectionistic self-promotion, nondisplay of imperfection, nondisclosure of imperfection), and three eating disorder symptom groups (dieting, bulimia, oral control). In addition, students reported their weight and height so that their body mass index (BMI) could be computed. Results of multiple regression analyses controlling for BMI indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism positively predicted all three symptom groups, whereas self-oriented perfectionism positively predicted dieting only. Moreover, perfectionistic self-presentation explained the positive relations that perfectionism showed with dieting and oral control, but not with bulimia. Further analyses indicated that all three aspects of perfectionistic self-presentation positively predicted dieting, whereas only nondisclosure of imperfection positively predicted bulimia and oral control. Overall, perfectionistic self-presentation explained 10.4-23.5 % of variance in eating disorder symptoms, whereas perfectionism explained 7.9-12.1 %. The findings suggest that perfectionistic self-presentation explains why perfectionistic women show higher levels of eating disorder symptoms, particularly dieting. Thus, perfectionistic self-presentation appears to play a central role in the relations of perfectionism and disordered eating and may warrant closer attention in theory, research, and treatment of eating and weight disorders.

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.

  10. CERN Summer Student Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    My Summer Student project was divided between two areas: work on Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) Level-1 muon triggers for the ATLAS experiment, and data acquisition (DAQ) for an RPC muon detector at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

  11. [CONSUMPTION OF OMEGA- 3 FATTY ACIDS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi Vargas, María; González Lomelí, Daniel; Terrazas Medina, Efraín A; Peralta Peña, Sandra L; Jordán Jinez, Ma Lourdes; Ruiz Paloalto, Ma Laura; Cupul Uicab, Lea A

    2015-10-01

    recent studies suggest that low serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 are associated with a higher prevalence of depression. to evaluate whether low consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in a sample of college students from the Northwest of Mexico, and to assess the potential effect modification by alcohol consumption. we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 706 college students (males and females) aged 18 to 24. The presence of depressive symptoms was identified with the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D), using a cutoff point of ≥ 24. The intake of omega-3 was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire validated for Mexican population. We estimated the weekly intake of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) derived from the diet in mg/g of food. The association between omega-3 from diet and the presence of depressive symptoms was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. 67% of the participants were females; 16.6% were classified as having depressive symptoms. A low intake of ALA and EPA + DHA was not associated with depressive symptoms before and after adjusting for confounders. Median levels of ALA (from nuts only) were significantly lower among those with depressive symptoms compared to those without these symptoms. in this population of Mexican college students, a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids was not associated with depressive symptoms. The potential association between nut consumption and depressive symptoms deserve more attention. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  13. Evaluation of the CAARS Infrequency Index for the Detection of Noncredible ADHD Symptom Report in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on self-reports in detecting noncredible symptom report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (aADHD) has been questioned due to findings showing that symptoms can easily be feigned on self-report scales. In response, Suhr and colleagues developed an infrequency index for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CII)…

  14. The impact of personality on the reporting of unfounded symptoms and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, P J; Cohen, S; Doyle, W J; Skoner, D P; Gwaltney, J M

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the role of personality in the reporting of symptoms and illness not supported by underlying pathology. After assessment of the Big Five personality factors, 276 healthy volunteers were inoculated with a common cold virus. On each of the following 5 days, objective indicators of pathology, self-reported symptoms, and self-reported illness onset were assessed. Neuroticism was directly associated with reports of unfounded (without a physiological basis) symptoms in individuals at baseline and postinoculation in those with and without colds. Neuroticism was also indirectly associated with reports of unfounded illness through reports of more symptoms. Openness to Experience was associated with reporting unfounded symptoms in those with verifiable colds, whereas Conscientiousness was associated with reporting unfounded illness in those who were not ill.

  15. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Clarifying the relation of acculturative stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms: The role of anxiety sensitivity among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. 2012 SARA Students Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briccetti, Angelo; Lorei, Nathan; Yonkings, David; Lorio, David; Goorley, John T.; Sood, Avneet

    2012-01-01

    The Service Academy Research Associates (SARA) program provides an opportunity for Midshipmen and Cadets from US Service Academies to participate in research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory for several weeks during the summer as part of their summer training assignments. During the summer of 2012, three Midshipmen were assigned to work with the XCP Division at LANL for approximately 5-6 weeks. As one of the nation's top national security science laboratories, LANL stretches across 36 square miles, has over 2,100 facilities, and employs over 9,000 individuals including a significant number of students and postdocs. LANL's mission is to 'apply science and technology to: ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent, reduce global threats, and solve other emerging national security challenges.' While LANL officially operates under the US Department of Energy (DoE), fulfilling this mission requires mutual cooperation with the US Department of Defense (DoD) as well. LANL's high concentration of knowledge and experience provides interns a chance to perform research in many disciplines, and its connection with the DoD in both operation and personnel gives SARA students insight to career possibilities both during and after military service. SARA students have plenty of opportunity to enjoy hiking, camping, the Los Alamos YMCA, and many other outdoor activities in New Mexico while staying at the Buffalo Thunder Resort, located 20 miles east of the lab. XCP Division is the Computational Physics division of LANL's Weapons Department. Working with XCP Division requires individuals to be Q cleared by the DoE. This means it is significantly more convenient for SARA students to be assigned to XCP Division than their civilian counterparts as the DoD CNWDI clearance held by SARA students is easily transferred to the lab prior to the students arriving at the start of

  18. 2012 SARA Students Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briccetti, Angelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lorei, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yonkings, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lorio, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    The Service Academy Research Associates (SARA) program provides an opportunity for Midshipmen and Cadets from US Service Academies to participate in research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratory for several weeks during the summer as part of their summer training assignments. During the summer of 2012, three Midshipmen were assigned to work with the XCP Division at LANL for approximately 5-6 weeks. As one of the nation's top national security science laboratories, LANL stretches across 36 square miles, has over 2,100 facilities, and employs over 9,000 individuals including a significant number of students and postdocs. LANL's mission is to 'apply science and technology to: ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent, reduce global threats, and solve other emerging national security challenges.' While LANL officially operates under the US Department of Energy (DoE), fulfilling this mission requires mutual cooperation with the US Department of Defense (DoD) as well. LANL's high concentration of knowledge and experience provides interns a chance to perform research in many disciplines, and its connection with the DoD in both operation and personnel gives SARA students insight to career possibilities both during and after military service. SARA students have plenty of opportunity to enjoy hiking, camping, the Los Alamos YMCA, and many other outdoor activities in New Mexico while staying at the Buffalo Thunder Resort, located 20 miles east of the lab. XCP Division is the Computational Physics division of LANL's Weapons Department. Working with XCP Division requires individuals to be Q cleared by the DoE. This means it is significantly more convenient for SARA students to be assigned to XCP Division than their civilian counterparts as the DoD CNWDI clearance held by SARA students is easily transferred to the lab prior to the

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    A Abollahi; AM Nazar; J Hasani; M Darharaj; A Behnam Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12). The experimental group was participated in eight se...

  20. Prevalence of bronchial asthma and respiratory symptoms in a group of students from grodno. An example of standardized epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ahiyevets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to an insufficient knowledge of the real asthma prevalence rate among children and adults in Belarus, we conducted a population-based respiratory health survey. Aim of the study: The study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of asthma and major respiratory symptoms among students of the Grodno Region (Western Belarus. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 and included 833 students aged 20-40 (young adults. Physician-diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms were ascertained using electronic version of the ISAAC questionnaire (web LimeSurvey. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 2.88% (physician-diagnosed. The obstructive (asthmatic bronchitis (without established diagnosis of asthma was found in 5.04% of the respondents. A chronic respiratory symptom occurring in the past 12 months and suggestive of asthma included attacks of dyspnea at rest, cough (5.88% or in previous periods (8.88%, and wheezing in the chest (one of the most characteristic symptoms of asthma - 8.04%, which may indicate a higher prevalence of asthma among patients. Wheezing and wheeze without diagnosed asthma, colds or infections were reported in a small number of cases (about 1.0%. 32 respondents (3.84% can be attributed to the group of risk for asthma due to the presence of specific respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: The findings show a low prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among students of Western Belarus. Relatively low prevalence of allergic disorders among respondents of Belarus suggest underdiagnosis of allergic diseases, in particular of asthma. Presumably, cases of asthma might be diagnosed as spastic bronchitis, “obstructive bronchitis”, “asthmatic bronchitis”, a traditional label for clinical manifestation of asthma in medical practice in the region.

  1. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one...... symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes...... and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were...

  2. An examination of the relationships between acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H; Minnich, Allison M

    2018-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests the importance of considering acculturative stress and perceived discrimination in understanding the mental health of ethnic minority groups, including their eating behaviors and associated psychopathology. The current study examined the effect of acculturative stress and perceived discrimination on eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority undergraduate students. A total of 187 ethnic minority undergraduate students (41.2% men) completed this cross-sectional study by completing self-report questionnaires on a secure online system. Regression analyses revealed a main effect of acculturative stress on eating concern, shape concern, weight concern, drive for thinness, and bulimia but not restraint or body dissatisfaction. Gender moderated the effect of acculturative stress on drive for muscularity, suggesting that this effect was only significant in women, but not men. The main effect of perceived discrimination was significant for restraint, eating concern, shape concern, weight concern, and drive for muscularity but not drive for thinness, bulimia, or body dissatisfaction. Acculturative stress and perceived discrimination are important factors to consider in understanding the development and maintenance of eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority populations. Targeting these two factors may improve the effectiveness of intervention programs for eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority undergraduate students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-reported aural symptoms, headache and temporomandibular disorders in Japanese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Rahena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. Methods A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930 regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Results Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319, pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21, difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18, clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29, clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48, difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11, and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97. The control group (n = 1,387 were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively. TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. Conclusions TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.

  4. Full Spectrum of Reported Symptoms of Bilateral Vestibulopathy Needs Further Investigation—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lucieer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo systematically review the symptoms reported by patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BV in clinical studies and case reports. This would serve as the first step in establishing a validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROM for BV.MethodsA search on symptoms reported by patients with BV was performed in PubMed, and all publications covering these symptoms were included. Exclusion criteria comprised reviews and insufficient details about the frequency of occurrence of symptoms.Results1,442 articles were retrieved. 88 studies were included (41 clinical studies, 47 case reports. In consensus, 68 descriptions of symptoms were classified into 6 common and generic symptoms. Frequency of symptoms in clinical studies and case reports were reviewed, respectively; imbalance (91 and 86%, chronic dizziness (58 and 62%, oscillopsia (50 and 70%, and recurrent vertigo (33 and 67%. BV could be accompanied by hearing loss (33 and 43% and tinnitus (15 and 36%. 15 clinical studies and 10 case reports reported symptoms beyond vestibular and hearing deficits such as limited social activities, depression, concentration, and memory impairment and reduced quality of life in general.ConclusionThe literature on BV symptomatology mainly focuses on classic symptoms such as imbalance and oscillopsia, while only few report additional symptoms such as cognitive memory impairment and performing dual tasks. In fact, none of the reviewed clinical studies and case reports provided a comprehensive overview of BV symptoms. To develop a validated PROM, qualitative research using semi-structured and unstructured interviews is needed to explore the full spectrum of BV symptoms.

  5. University Students' Intentions to Report Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozencroft, Kelly; Campbell, Marilyn; Orel, Alexandria; Kimpton, Melanie; Leong, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and less about whether they utilise anti-bullying policies. However, failure to report cyberbullying incidents to authorities would lessen the efficacy of these policies. This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and their…

  6. [Report from the Student Press Law Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student Press Law Center, Washington, DC.

    The Student Press Law Center serves as a national clearinghouse to collect, analyze, and distribute information on the First Amendment rights of student journalists and journalism teachers and on violations of these rights in high schools and colleges. This report details information concerning current censorship incidents: the investigation by…

  7. The relationship of Internet addiction severity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in Turkish University students; impact of personality traits, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms while controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms in Turkish university students. A total of 271 university students participated in the present study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Wender Utah Rating Short Scale (WURS-25), the Turkish version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). According to IAS, participants were separated into three groups, namely, moderate/high, mild and without IA groups. The rates of groups were 19.9% (n=54), 38.7% (n=105) and 41.3% (n=112), respectively. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IAS is positively correlated with WURS-25, ASRS (total, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales), neuroticism personality trait, depression and anxiety scores, whereas it is negatively correlated with extraversion personality trait. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that depression and anxiety symptoms, introversion and neuroticism personality traits and the severity of ADHD symptoms (particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) are the predictors for IAS score, respectively. The severity of ADHD symptoms has predicted the severity of IA even after controlling the effect of personality traits, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. University students with severe ADHD symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms may be considered as a risk group for IA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  9. Young Japanese college students with dysmenorrhea have high frequency of irregular menstruation and premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko

    2007-01-01

    In this study, to estimate the current status of young women with menstrual disorders, the relation among dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation and premenstrual symptoms was investigated by a questionnaire. Subjects ranging from 18 to 20 years old were recruited from 522 female students at Ashiya College in Japan. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was classified into 3 grades (score 1, not requiring analgesic; score 2, painful, requiring analgesic; score 3, painful, not relieved by analgesic). All participants were further divided into subsequent groups as having premenstrual symptoms or not and those having regular or irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea scores in the students with premenstrual symptoms or irregular menstruation were significantly higher than those without these symptoms (1.66+/-0.66 vs 1.41+/-0.59; 1.62+/-0.68 vs 1.49+/-0.61, respectively). There was no significant relation in the incidence between premenstrual symptoms and irregular menstruation. These findings suggest that considerable numbers of young women with dysmenorrhea are associated with premenstrual symptoms.

  10. Do the symptoms of language disorder align with treatment goals? An exploratory study of primary-grade students' IEPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Schatschneider, Christopher; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Individual Education Plans (IEPs) are legal documents that guide the treatment of students with language disorder (LD). This exploratory study investigated the extent to which students' symptoms of LD align with goals on their IEPs. A total of 99 kindergarten and first-grade students receiving treatment for LD in the public schools participated. IEPs were collected and coded for each student and norm-referenced measures were used to assess students' grammar, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and literacy skills in the fall of the academic year. Results showed there to be alignment between students' symptoms and IEP goals only in the area of vocabulary, such that students who had an IEP goal for vocabulary had lower scores on a vocabulary assessment than those without a goal. In general, there is limited alignment between observed symptoms of LD and treated symptoms as identified on students' IEPs. The limited alignment found in this study suggests more investigation is needed to understand the extent to which IEP goals, as potential indicators of treatment foci, should map on to students' symptoms. Readers will be able to: (1) explain the theoretical and practical relevance of treatment goals aligning to symptoms for children with language impairment; (2) identify three analytic methods used to investigate alignment between treatment goals and symptoms; and (3) describe the extent to which IEP goals align to children's symptoms in a sample of children receiving services in the public schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Gulewitsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45±2.48 years; 48.3% males with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55±2.82 years; 50.3% males and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  12. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  13. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to Depressive Symptoms in Vietnamese American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Mary

    2011-01-01

    With the demographic shifts the United States faces, understanding the contributing factors to mental well-being among minority college students is crucial. This study examines the roles of parental and peer attachment, intergenerational conflict, and perceived racial discrimination on depressive symptoms while also analyzing the mediational role…

  14. Role of Virtues and Perceived Life Stress in Affecting Psychological Symptoms among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Siu, Bowie P. Y.; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship among virtues, self-perceived life stress, and psychological symptoms. Participants: A total of 235 undergraduates participated in the study in March 2013. Methods: The participants were recruited to complete the Life Stress Rating Scale for College Students, the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire that…

  15. Relationship of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms to alexithymia among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öksüz, Emine; Guvenc, Gulten

    2018-03-23

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms to alexithymia among nursing students. This descriptive study was conducted with 284 undergraduate nursing students. Data were collected using Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS), Menstrual Symptom Scale (MSQ), and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20). The PMSS, MSQ, and TAS-20 mean scores were 103.56 ± 35.08, 2.92 ± 0.8, and 45.22 ± 9.17, respectively. There was statistically significant positive correlation between TAS-20 and PMSS and MSQ mean scores (p < .05). Women should be evaluated for alexithymia to prevent the adverse effects of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Disturbed eating tendencies, health-related behaviors, and depressive symptoms among university students in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Seo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: There were few studies to investigate the related factors of depression among Korean students. Therefore, this study examined disturbed eating tendencies, health-related behaviors, and depressive symptoms among university students in Korea. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey on a total of 637 students (279 men and 358 women, and the Korean version of the Beck depression rating scale (K-BDI was used to evaluate the students' depression status. Results: Of the 637 students, 419 (65.8% had no depressive symptoms (normal: K-BDI<10, whereas 136 (21.4%: K-BDI 10–16, 69 (10.8%: K-BDI 17–29, and 13 (2.0%: K-BDI≥30 had mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that depressive symptoms (K-BDI≥10 were associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26 to 2.76; p = .002, high level of life stress (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 2.23 to 8.55; p < .001, and disturbed eating behaviors (Korean version of Eating Attitude Test-26 ≥ 20; OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 2.52 to 10.5; p < .001. In contrast, depressive symptoms were inversely associated with a high body image satisfaction (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.68; p = .001 and self-esteem (self-esteem score≥30 (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.43; p < .001. Conclusions: This study confirmed that students with depressive symptoms tended to have disturbed eating behaviors, low body image satisfaction, low self-esteem, and high levels of stress. Keywords: Depression, Disturbed eating attitude, Health behavior, Depressive symptoms, Korean students

  17. Brief Report: Autism Symptoms in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Caravella, Kelly E.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known genetic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although 50-75% of children with FXS meet ASD criteria, no studies have compared ASD symptoms in infants with FXS versus other high risk groups, such as siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs). Using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants, our…

  18. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students taught using problem-based learning versus traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Freire, Marianna Ribeiro de Menezes; Nolasco Farias, Lucas Guimarães; Diniz, Sarah Santana; Sant'anna Aragão, Felipe Matheus; Sant'anna Aragão, Iapunira Catarina; Lima, Tarcisio Brandão; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2018-06-01

    To compare depressive symptoms among medical students taught using problem-based learning (PBL) and the traditional method. Beck's Depression Inventory was applied to 215 medical students. The prevalence of depression was calculated as the number of individuals with depression divided by the total number in the sample from each course, with 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance level used was 5% (p ≤ .05). Among the 215 students, 52.1% were male and 47.9% were female; and 51.6% were being taught using PBL methodology and 48.4% using traditional methods. The prevalence of depression was 29.73% with PBL and 22.12% with traditional methods. There was higher prevalence among females: 32.8% with PBL and 23.1% with traditional methods. The prevalence of depression with PBL among students up to 21 years of age was 29.4% and among those over 21 years, 32.1%. With traditional methods among students up to 21 years of age, it was 16.7%%, and among those over 21 years, 30.1%. The prevalence of depression with PBL was highest among students in the second semester and with traditional methods, in the eighth. Depressive symptoms were highly prevalent among students taught both with PBL and with traditional methods.

  19. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  20. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions and sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms in relation to college students' sleep functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined separate inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms, in relation to college students' sleep functioning. Participants were 288 college students (ages 17-24; 65 % female; 90 % non-Hispanic White; 12 % self-reported having an ADHD diagnoses) who completed measures of ADHD/SCT symptoms and sleep functioning. Participants reported obtaining an average of 6.8 h of sleep per night (only 26 % reported obtaining ≥8 h of sleep) and having a sleep onset latency of 25 min. 63 % were classified as "poor sleepers," and poor sleepers had higher rates of ADHD and SCT symptoms than "good sleepers". Path analysis controlling for ADHD status and psychiatric medication use was used to determine associations between psychopathology and sleep functioning domains. Above and beyond covariates and other psychopathologies, hyperactivity (but not impulsivity) was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and more use of sleep medications. SCT symptoms (but not inattention) were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality and increased nighttime sleep disturbance (e.g., having bad dreams, waking up in the middle of the night, feeling too cold or too hot). Both inattention and SCT were associated with greater daytime dysfunction. Regression analyses demonstrated that hyperactivity predicted sleep quality above and beyond the influence of daytime dysfunction, and inattention and SCT predicted daytime dysfunction above and beyond sleep quality. Further studies are needed to examine the interrelations of nighttime sleep functioning, ADHD/SCT, and daytime dysfunction, as well to elucidate mechanisms contributing to related functional impairments.

  2. Associations between reporting of cancer alarm symptoms and socioeconomic and demographic determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard; Paulsen, Maja Skov; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reporting of symptoms which may signal cancer is the first step in the diagnostic pathway of cancer diseases. Cancer alarm symptoms are common in the general population. Public awareness and knowledge of cancer symptoms are sparse, however, and many people do not seek medical...... help when having possible cancer symptoms. As social inequality is associated with cancer knowledge, cancer awareness, and information-seeking, our hypothesis is that social inequality may also exist in the general population with respect to reporting of cancer alarm symptoms. The aim of this study...... was to investigate possible associations between socioeconomic and demographic determinants and reporting of common cancer alarm symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed based on a stratified sample of the Danish general population. A total of 13 777 randomly selected persons aged 20...

  3. Patient-reported symptom distress, and most bothersome issues, before and during cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fangxin Hong,1,2 Traci M Blonquist,1 Barbara Halpenny,3 Donna L Berry,3,4 1Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana‑Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA;2Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Nursing and Patient Care Services, The Phyllis F. Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Frequently reported symptoms and treatment side effects may not be the most bothersome issues to patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient-reported symptom distress and bothersome issues among participants with cancer. Methods: Participants completed the Symptom Distress Scale-15 before treatment (T1 and during cancer treatment (T2 and reported up to two most bothersome issues among symptoms rated with moderate-to-severe distress. We compared symptom ratings and perceived bother and explored two approaches predicting patients’ most bothersome issues: worst absolute symptom score or worst change from pretreatment. Results: Significantly, (P≤0.0002 more patients reported moderate-to-severe distress at T2 for eight of 13 symptoms. At T1, 81% of patients reported one and 56% reported multiple symptoms with moderate-to-severe distress, while at T2, 89% reported one and 69% reported multiple symptoms with moderate-to-severe distress. Impact on sexual activity/interest, pain, fatigue, and insomnia were the most prevalent symptoms with moderate-to-severe distress. Fatigue, pain, and insomnia were perceived most often as bothersome. When one symptom was rated moderate-to-severe, predictive accuracy of the absolute score was 46% and 48% (T1 & T2 and 38% with the change score (T2–T1. When two or more symptoms were rated moderate-to-severe, predictive accuracy of the absolute score was 76% and 79% (T1 & T2 and 70% with the change score (T2–T1. Conclusion: More

  4. Reporting of symptoms in randomized controlled trials of atopic eczema treatments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens, L A A; Chalmers, J R; Rogers, N K; Nankervis, H; Spuls, P I

    2016-10-01

    'Symptoms' is a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials, agreed by consensus as part of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative. To standardize and validate the core domain symptoms and symptom instruments for AE trials the HOME roadmap is followed. Its first step is to establish if and how symptoms have been measured in published AE treatment trials. Therefore the Global Resource for Eczema Trials database was used to collect all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for AE between January 2000 and April 2014. Study selection and data extraction were performed by three reviewers independently. We identified the use of symptoms in 295 of 378 trials (78%). Symptoms as a primary end point were applied by 147 RCTs (50%). Seventeen different symptoms were measured, but mostly itch and sleep loss. Symptoms were assessed by only 37% of trials by a stand-alone symptom measurement. Overall 63% of RCTs used a composite instrument, and 30 different instruments were identified. The Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index was the most commonly applied, but only 23% of RCTs reported the SCORAD symptom score separately. This systematic review demonstrates that symptoms, most frequently itch and sleep loss, are commonly reported in AE treatment trials, but are measured using many different instruments. Often symptoms are evaluated as part of a composite instrument, and currently it is not possible to extract symptoms-only data from most published studies. Future trials should report symptom scores to permit meta-analysis of the core outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  6. Effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms in medical students: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcio; Pagnin, Daniel; de Queiroz Pagnin, Valéria; Reis, Regina Lucia Ribeiro; Olej, Beni

    2012-06-01

    To assess the effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms-sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and burnout-in medical students, and provide data to inform a power analysis to determinate numbers for future trials. Twenty-five students were randomly assigned to an electroacupuncture (n=12) group or control group (n=13) that did not receive treatment. Electroacupuncture was applied at a continuous frequency 2 Hz for 20 min once a week for 8 weeks at sites on the extremities, face, ear and scalp. The outcomes of the students treated with electroacupuncture were compared with those of the control group at the endpoint, controlling the influence of baseline scores. The instruments used were self-administered questionnaires that comprised the validated Portuguese version of the mini-sleep questionnaire (MSQ), the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory, the Maslach burnout inventory-student survey (MBI-SS), and World Health Organization quality of life assessment - abbreviated version (WHOQOL-bref). The medical students treated with electroacupuncture showed a significant decrease compared with the control group for MSQ scores (p=0.04) and PSQI (p=0.006). After treatment, 75% students in the electroacupuncture group presented a good sleep quality, compared with 23.1% of the students in the control group. No significant difference on daytime sleepiness was shown by the ESS. The electroacupuncture group showed significant improvement on depressive symptoms (BDI), the emotional exhaustion and cynicism dimensions of burnout (MBI-SS) and physical health (WHOQOL-bref). Electroacupuncture was associated with a significant reduction of stress-related symptoms, but because of the study design the authors cannot say what proportion of the reduction was due to needle stimulation.

  7. Diet among Japanese female university students and asthmatic symptoms, infections, pollen and furry pet allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, M; Norback, D

    2008-07-01

    To study associations between diet, respiratory symptoms and allergy among female university students in Japan. A standardised questionnaire was distributed to students in Kobe and Kamakura (N=153). Multiple logistic/linear regression was applied, controlling for age, smoking, heredity and diet. Totally 15.7% reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, 3.3% current asthma medication, 56.9% pollen allergy, 15.7% cat allergy, 11.1% dog allergy, 25.0% wheeze, 24.2% daytime and 9.3% nocturnal attacks of breathlessness. Meat consumption was related to wheeze (OR=2.00; 95% CI 1.12-3.60) and respiratory infections (OR=2.10; 95% CI 1.08-4.09). Fish consumption was related to less respiratory infections (OR=0.49; 95% CI 9.28-0.86), seafood to less pollen allergy (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.44-0.99), and milk consumption to less daytime breathlessness (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95). Fast food consumption was related to wheeze (OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.23-2.91), daytime breathlessness (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.00-2.28) and pollen allergy (OR=1.69; 95% CI 1.07-2.65). In total, 23.0% used butter, 21.7% margarine, 40.1% olive oil and 55.3% rapeseed oil. Those consuming butter (OR=2.65; 95% CI 1.11-6.32) and rapeseed oil (OR=2.35; 95% CI 1.03-5.38) had more wheeze. Those consuming margarine had more nocturnal breathlessness (OR=4.40; 95% CI 1.42-13.7). An asthma symptom score was related to fast food (pconsumption (pfast food, juice and soft drinks was related to wheeze and respiratory infections. Fish, seafood and milk consumption seems to be beneficial, while butter, margarine, rapeseed oil, fast food and soft drinks could be risk factors for allergy and respiratory health.

  8. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  9. Langerian mindfulness, quality of life and psychological symptoms in a sample of Italian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Francesco; Bercovitz, Katherine E; Phillips, Deborah

    2018-02-06

    Noticing new things, accepting the continuously changing nature of circumstances, and flexibly shifting perspectives in concert with changing contexts constitute the essential features of Langerian mindfulness. This contrasts with a "mindless" approach in which one remains fixed in a singular mindset and is closed off to new possibilities. Despite potentially important clinical applications for this construct, few studies have explored them. The instrument developed to measure Langerian mindfulness is the Langer Mindfulness Scale (LMS), although this tool has been limited primarily to English-speaking populations. The study aimed to test LMS validity in the Italian language and to analyze the relationships between Langerian mindfulness and well-being. We translated the LMS into Italian, analyzed its factor structure, and investigated the correlation between mindfulness and quality of life and psychological well-being in a sample of 248 Italian students (88.7% females, mean age 20.05). A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the tri-dimensional structure of the English LMS in the Italian version. The primary analysis found a significant negative correlation between mindfulness and psychological symptoms including obsessive-compulsive tendencies, depression, anxiety, and paranoid ideation. There was also a positive correlation between mindfulness and reports of quality of life. The Italian LMS appears reliable and it shows relevant correlations with well-being.

  10. Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocyst with isolated thoracic symptoms: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher Robert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocysts represent a rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Case presentation A 55-year-old man with a history of chronic pancreatitis was admitted with intermittent dyspnea, dysphagia and weight loss. Chest X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large paracardial pancreatic pseudocyst causing cardiac and esophageal compression. Conclusion Mediastinal pancreatic pseudocysts are a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis. These pseudocysts may lead to isolated thoracic symptoms. For accurate diagnostic and therapy planning, a multimodal imaging approach is necessary.

  11. The Relation Between ADHD Symptoms and Alcohol Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Glenn R

    2015-08-01

    Although there is evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and alcohol use in college students, results are inconclusive primarily because studies have failed to control for related variables. Thus, this study was designed to systematically compare the relative contributions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a sample of college students while controlling for effects of antisocial behaviors. A total of 192 undergraduate college students from a rural Midwestern university received class credit for participating in the study. They completed measures of alcohol use, ADHD symptoms, and antisocial behavior. Hierarchical regressions revealed inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, was related to alcohol-related problems even when controlling for antisocial behavior. However, neither inattention nor hyperactivity/impulsivity was related to alcohol use regardless of whether current antisocial behavior was controlled. Inattention may be an important factor related to alcohol-related problems in college students. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  12. PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, George R; Grob, Charles S; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2014-01-01

    New Mexico was the first state to list post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a condition for the use of medical cannabis. There are no published studies, other than case reports, of the effects of cannabis on PTSD symptoms. The purpose of the study was to report and statistically analyze psychometric data on PTSD symptoms collected during 80 psychiatric evaluations of patients applying to the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program from 2009 to 2011. The Clinician Administered Posttraumatic Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) was administered retrospectively and symptom scores were then collected and compared in a retrospective chart review of the first 80 patients evaluated. Greater than 75% reduction in CAPS symptom scores were reported when patients were using cannabis compared to when they were not. Cannabis is associated with reductions in PTSD symptoms in some patients, and prospective, placebo-controlled study is needed to determine efficacy of cannabis and its constituents in treating PTSD.

  13. Insomnia and Neuroticism are Related with Depressive Symptoms of Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Changnam Kim; Suyeon Lee; Soyoung Youn; Boram Park; Seockhoon Chung

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective Insomnia is very common in depression and especially medical students are easy to experience sleep disturbance because of their studies. Also depressive symptoms are closely related to stress. Stress is an interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Different personality traits can create different levels of stress. In this study, we tried to explor...

  14. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  15. Emergency Department Utilization and Self-Reported Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in emergency department (ED) utilization among older adults is a nursing concern, because emergency nurses are uniquely positioned to positively impact the care of older adults. Symptoms have been associated with ED utilization, however, it remains unclear if symptoms are the primary reason for ED utilization. Purpose Describe the self-reported symptoms of community-dwelling older adults prior to accessing the emergency department. Examine the differences in self-reported symptoms among those who utilized the emergency department, and those who did not. Procedures A prospective longitudinal design was used. The sample included 403 community-dwelling older adults 75 years and older. Baseline in-home interviews were conducted followed by monthly telephone interviews over 15 months. Main Findings Commonly reported symptoms at baseline included pain, feeling tired, and having shortness of breath. In univariate analysis, pain, shortness of breath, fair/poor well-being, and feeling tired were significantly correlated with ED utilization. In multivariable models, problems with balance, and fair/poor well-being were significantly associated with ED utilization. Conclusions Several symptoms were common among this cohort of older adults. However, there were no significant differences in the types of symptoms reported by older adults who utilized the emergency department compared to those who did not use the emergency department. Based on these findings, symptoms among community-dwelling older adults may not be the primary reason for ED utilization. PMID:28131350

  16. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy. Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Philipp [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehrmann, Katja [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Medizinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Soziologie und Rehabilitationswissenschaften, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hartmannsgruber, Johann [Praxis Landshut, Kinderzahnheilkunde, Landshut (Germany); Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Oorschot, Birgitt van [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden

  17. The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan′s University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction disorder is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and it has been studied from different viewpoints in terms of various sciences such as medicine, computer, sociology, law, ethics, and psychology. The aim of this study was to determine the association of psychiatric symptoms with Internet addiction while controlling for the effects of age, gender, marital status, and educational levels. It is hypothesized, that high levels of Internet addiction are associated with psychiatric symptoms and are specially correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total number of 250 students from Isfahan′s universities were randomly selected. Subjects completed the demographic questionnaire, the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R. Data was analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. Results: There was an association between psychiatric symptoms such as somatization, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobias, and psychosis with exception of paranoia; and diagnosis of Internet addiction controlling for age, sex, education level, marital status, and type of universities. Conclusions: A great percentage of youths in the population suffer from the adverse effects of Internet addiction. It is necessary for psychiatrists and psychologists to be aware of the mental problems caused by Internet addiction.

  18. Connecting the dots: could microbial translocation explain commonly reported symptoms in HIV disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie L; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Heath, Sonya L; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2014-01-01

    Microbial translocation within the context of HIV disease has been described as one of the contributing causes of inflammation and disease progression in HIV infection. HIV-associated symptoms have been related to inflammatory markers and sCD14, a surrogate marker for microbial translocation, suggesting a plausible link between microbial translocation and symptom burden in HIV disease. Similar pathophysiological responses and symptoms have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We provide a comprehensive review of microbial translocation, HIV-associated symptoms, and symptoms connected with inflammation. We identify studies showing a relationship among inflammatory markers, sCD14, and symptoms reported in HIV disease. A conceptual framework and rationale to investigate the link between microbial translocation and symptoms is presented. The impact of inflammation on symptoms supports recommendations to reduce inflammation as part of HIV symptom management. Research in reducing microbial translocation-induced inflammation is limited, but needed, to further promote positive health outcomes among HIV-infected patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. State Student Financial Aid. Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a review of all state student financial aid programs in Florida and presents recommendations concerning program consolidation. The review was designed to address a variety of aid-related issues, including unexpended financial aid resources, program consolidation, budget request and aid distribution procedures,…

  20. Gender Differences in Symptom Reporting on Baseline Sport Concussion Testing Across the Youth Age Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Olek, Lauren; Schatz, Philip

    2018-02-06

    Little is known regarding gender differences in concussion symptom reporting developmentally across the age span, specifically in pre-adolescent athletes. The present study asks: Do boys and girls differ in symptom reporting across the pre-adolescent to post-adolescent age span? This retrospective study utilized baseline assessments from 11,695 10-22 year-old athletes assigned to 3 independent groups: Pre-adolescent 10-12 year olds (n = 1,367; 12%), Adolescent 13-17 year olds (n = 2,974; 25%), and Late Adolescent 18-22 year olds (n = 7,354; 63%). Males represented 60% of the sample. Baseline ImPACT composite scores and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale scores (Total, Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Sleep) were analyzed for the effects of age and gender. Statistically significant main effects were found for age and gender on all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Significant interaction effects were noted between age and gender for all ImPACT composites, Total Symptoms, and Symptom factors. Total Symptoms and all Symptom factors were highest in adolescents (ages 13-17) for males and females. In the 10-12 age group, females displayed lower Total Symptoms, Physical, and Sleep factors than males. The notion of females being more likely than males to report symptoms does not appear to apply across the developmental age span, particularly prior to adolescence. Females show greater emotional endorsement across the youth age span (10-22 years). Adolescence (13-17 years) appears to be a time of increased symptomatology that may lessen after the age of 18. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Chronotype and depressive symptoms in students: An investigation of possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, Julia F; Kivelä, Liia; Antypa, Niki

    2018-05-15

    Individuals with an evening chronotype are at increased risk of experiencing emotional problems, including depressive symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether poor sleep quality, substance use and cognitive emotion regulation difficulties - which have been implicated in the etiology of depression - mediate the relationship between chronotype and depressive symptoms in a student sample, which was assessed cross-sectionally and after 1 year. A total of 742 Dutch students (75% women, mean age 21.4 ± 2.9 years) completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a questionnaire assessing alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and cannabis use, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scale. A subsample (n = 115) was assessed 1 year later with the same questionnaires. Cross-sectional analyses showed that evening chronotype was associated with more depressive symptoms, adjusted for age and gender (β = -0.082, p = 0.028). The relationship between eveningness and depressive symptoms was mediated by sleep quality, alcohol consumption and the cognitive emotion regulation strategies of self-blame and positive reappraisal. In longitudinal analyses, eveningness at baseline predicted more depressive symptoms at follow-up, adjusted for age and gender (β = -0.29, p = 0.002); after additional adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms, chronotype remained a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at T2 (β = -0.16, t = -2.01, p = 0.047). Only poor sleep quality at follow-up was a significant mediator of this relationship. Even though the effect is small in terms of explained variance, eveningness is related to depressive symptoms and this relationship is mediated by poor sleep quality, also in a prospective design. Self-blame and reduced positive

  2. Extremely prematurely born adolescents self-report of anxiety symptoms, and the mothers' reports on their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømhovd, M J; Esbjørn, B H; Hansen, B M

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To compare anxiety symptoms in adolescents born extremely prematurely to term-born controls. METHODS: We had 96 preterm-born adolescents and 40 term-born controls from Denmark, and their mothers score the adolescents on the Revised Children Anxiety and Depression scale. We analysed group...... differences, cross-informant correlations and relative risks for elevated anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Self-reported anxiety symptoms did not significantly differ, although the upper confidence limit (95% CI: -3.3 to 5.1) supported an odds ratio of 2 for the preterm-born participants. Mothers of the preterm......-born participants reported higher social anxiety symptoms than did mothers of controls (51.7 versus 46.8, p = 0.001). The relative risk for being above a threshold indicating distressing anxiety was small from self-reports (1.39; p = 0.60). From mother-reports, the relative risk was noticeable but not significant...

  3. Reporting Mental Health Symptoms: Breaking Down Barriers to Care with Virtual Human Interviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale M. Lucas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common barrier to healthcare for psychiatric conditions is the stigma associated with these disorders. Perceived stigma prevents many from reporting their symptoms. Stigma is a particularly pervasive problem among military service members, preventing them from reporting symptoms of combat-related conditions like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, research shows (increased reporting by service members when anonymous assessments are used. For example, service members report more symptoms of PTSD when they anonymously answer the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA symptom checklist compared to the official PDHA, which is identifiable and linked to their military records. To investigate the factors that influence reporting of psychological symptoms by service members, we used a transformative technology: automated virtual humans that interview people about their symptoms. Such virtual human interviewers allow simultaneous use of two techniques for eliciting disclosure that would otherwise be incompatible; they afford anonymity while also building rapport. We examined whether virtual human interviewers could increase disclosure of mental health symptoms among active-duty service members that just returned from a year-long deployment in Afghanistan. Service members reported more symptoms during a conversation with a virtual human interviewer than on the official PDHA. They also reported more to a virtual human interviewer than on an anonymized PDHA. A second, larger sample of active-duty and former service members found a similar effect that approached statistical significance. Because respondents in both studies shared more with virtual human interviewers than an anonymized PDHA—even though both conditions control for stigma and ramifications for service members’ military records—virtual human interviewers that build rapport may provide a superior option to encourage reporting.

  4. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms based on the cut-off score of 14. Socioeconomic factors and student characteristics such as male sex, low monthly income per capita, father's poor education background, and higher year of study were associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students. Students who studied in comprehensive universities were more likely to have depressive symptoms compared with those from medical universities. Habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, sleep deprivation, and hospitalization or medication for one week or more in the last four weeks also predisposed students to higher risk of depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that depressive symptoms are becoming a highly prevalent health problem among Chinese medical students. Primary and secondary prevention should be prioritized to tackle this issue based on potential risk factors.

  5. Spontaneously Reported Symptoms by Informants Are Associated with Clinical Severity in Dementia Help-Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Qi; Choy, Jacky C P; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Liu, Tian-Yin; Luo, Hao; Lou, Vivian W Q; Lum, Terry Y S; Wong, Gloria H Y

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the predictive value of symptoms of dementia that the person or an informant noticed spontaneously in determining the clinical severity of dementia. Cross-sectional. Community-based open-referral dementia assessment service in Hong Kong between 2005 and 2013. Help-seekers for dementia assessment service and their informants (N = 965 dyads). Participants underwent a clinical dementia interview based on the Clinical Dementia Rating. Spontaneous complaints that the person and the informant made that had prompted their help-seeking of groups with interview results suggestive of no impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia were compared. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the predictive value of spontaneous complaints for clinical severity. Independent raters blinded to clinical results coded spontaneously reported symptoms into theoretical themes: memory, executive function, language, time and place orientation, neuropsychiatric, mood, and avolition. Memory problems were the most frequently reported complaints for participants (87.7%) and their informants (95.5%), followed by self-reported language (33.0%) and informant-reported orientation (33.0%) difficulties. Informant-reported but not self-reported symptoms predicted clinical severity. Compared with the persons themselves, informants reported more pervasive symptoms corresponding to clinical severity. Persons with dementia self-reported fewer types of symptoms than their healthy or mildly impaired counterparts. Spontaneously reported language and orientation symptoms by the informant distinguished persons with mild or worse dementia (P < .001, Nagelkerke coefficient of determination = 29.7%, percentage correct 85.6%). The type and pervasiveness of symptoms spontaneously that informants reported predicted clinical severity. This may provide a quick reference for triage. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Prevalence of adulthood attention deficit / hyperactivity symptoms in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University.Materials and Method: This cross sectional study was performed during second educational semester (2010. The sample included 403 students of Sistan and Balouchestan university who were selected by non random sampling after filling two questionnaires, including the demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Canner′s adult attention –deficit/hyperactivity (CAARS-S:OV questionnaire. To analyze data we used SPSS-16 software.Results: Based on test scores of Canner′s adult test, results showed about 39 students (9.7% in inattention-memory index and 32 students (7.9% in the hyperactivity index had higher or much higher scores than average. In addition, 27 students (6.7% and 38 others (9.4% had higher or much higher scores in impulsivity-emotional index and problem with self concept, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, we suggest that the symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficit are common among university students of Sistan and Balouchestan. For preventing educational problems and high risk behaviors such as drug use, further studies and appropriate preventive and treatment programs highly recommended

  7. Self-reported temporomandibular disorder symptoms and severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedström-Oristo, Anna-Liisa; Ekholm, Heidi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Peltomäki, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and the severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients. The subjects consisted of 50 consecutive patients (13 males and 37 females) referred to two university clinics for assessment of orthodontic-surgical treatment need. Data considering self-reported TMD symptoms were gathered using a semi-structured diary. At the first appointment, all patients rated the importance of treatment (on a scale of 1-10) and assessed self-perceived dental appearance using a VAS scale. The scale was anchored with photographs 1 and 10 from the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Study models were assessed by an experienced orthodontic specialist using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Association between the PAR and ICON scores and the number of reported symptoms was analyzed statistically. Seventy-one percent of patients reported experiencing TMD symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were pain in the head and/or neck region and fatigue in the TMJ region. The number of symptoms was highest in the morning. Ninety percent of males and 86% of females rated the importance of treatment as high; males experiencing TMD symptoms tended to rate surgery as more important compared with males with no symptoms (p = 0.056). In this sample, the results cannot unambiguously confirm an association between self-reported symptoms of TMD and objectively defined severity of malocclusion.

  8. Self-reported temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms, oral health, and quality of life of children in kindergarten through grade 5: Do sex, race, and socioeconomic background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathological changes in the subsynovial connective tissue increase with self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Wilson, Katherine E; Keir, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis and thickening of the subysnovial connective tissue are the most common pathological findings in carpal tunnel syndrome. The relationship between subsynovial connective tissue characteristics and self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms was assessed. Symptoms were characterized using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and Katz hand diagram in twenty-two participants (11 with symptoms, 11 with no symptoms). Using ultrasound, the thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue was measured using a thickness ratio (subsynovial thickness/tendon thickness) and gliding function was assessed using a shear strain index ((Displacement(tendon)-Displacement(subsynovial))/Displacement(tendon)x 100). For gliding function, participants performed 10 repeated flexion-extension cycles of the middle finger at a rate of one cycle per second. Participants with symptoms had a 38.5% greater thickness ratio and 39.2% greater shear strain index compared to participants without symptoms (p<0.05). Ultrasound detected differences the SSCT in symptomatic group that was characterized by low self-reported symptom severity scores. This study found ultrasound useful for measuring structural and functional changes in the SSCT that could provide insight in the early pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prepontine Schwannoma Presenting With Atypical Facial Symptoms - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Face is an important landmark and any pathological condition affecting it has tremendous bearing on psychological make up of the patient. This report describes a rare case of a young female who presented with Hemifacial dysaesthesia complicated by ipsilateral masticatory complex dyskinesia.

  11. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder in Students in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Mohamadirizi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys.  Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, Eating Disorder Questionnaire and social anxiety. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, the mean (SD value for age was 14.14 (1.2 years and for BMI was 23.25 (0.3.35.2% had eating disorder and 17.5% bulimia and30% had anorexia nervosa Symptoms. Also there was a positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms, bulimia and anorexia nervosa and social anxiety. (P=0.004, r= 0.287, P=0.001, r= 0.257, P=0.020, r= 0.242.  Conclusions: There was correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety  in  school boys.So educating people like caregivers by community health midwives regarding nutritional problems in during adolescence can be effective in early diagnosing and identifying such disorders.

  12. Self-reported food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS are common and associated with more severe symptoms and reduced quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhn, Lena; Störsrud, Stine; Törnblom, Hans; Bengtsson, Ulf; Simrén, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    Despite the fact that food and diet are central issues, that concern patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the current understanding about the association between the intake of certain foods/food groups and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptom pattern, psychological symptoms, and quality of life is poor. The aim of this study was to determine which food groups and specific food items IBS patients report causing GI symptoms, and to investigate the association with GI and psychological symptoms and quality of life. We included 197 IBS patients (mean age 35 (18-72) years; 142 female subjects) who completed a food questionnaire in which they specified symptoms from 56 different food items or food groups relevant to food intolerance/allergy. The patients also completed questionnaires to assess depression and general anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression), GI-specific anxiety (Visceral Sensitivity Index), IBS symptoms (IBS-Severity Scoring System), somatic symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), and quality of life (Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life Questionnaire). In all, 84% of the studied population reported symptoms related to at least one of the food items surveyed. Symptoms related to intake of food items with incompletely absorbed carbohydrates were noted in 138 (70%) patients; the most common were dairy products (49%), beans/lentils (36%), apple (28%), flour (24%), and plum (23%). Of these, 58% experienced GI symptoms from foods rich in biogenic amines, such as wine/beer (31%), salami (22%), and cheese (20%). Histamine-releasing foods, such as milk (43%), wine/beer (31%), and pork (21%), were also considered causes of symptoms in IBS patients. GI symptoms were also frequently reported after intake of fried and fatty foods (52%). With increasing IBS symptom severity, patients reported more food items responsible for their GI symptoms (P=0.004), and this was also found in patients with more severe somatic symptoms (Psleep (r=-0.25; P=0

  13. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina; Lampe, Fiona; Gilson, Richard; Speakman, Andrew; Antinori, Andrea; Bruun, Tina; Vassilenko, Anna; Collins, Simon; Rodger, Alison

    2017-11-01

    We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires of cognitive symptoms and ADLs. We considered cognitive function in 5 domains, psychosocial factors, and clinical parameters as potentially associated with symptoms. Separate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with a decline in ADL (defined as self-reported decline affecting ≥2 ADLs and attributed to cognitive difficulties) and self-reported frequency of symptoms of cognitive impairment. We also estimated the diagnostic accuracy of both questionnaires as tests for cognitive impairment. Four hundred forty-eight patients completed the assessments [mean age 45.8 years, 84% male, 87% white, median CD4 count 550 cells/mm, median time since HIV diagnosis 9.9 years, 81% virologically suppressed (HIV-1 plasma RNA symptoms of cognitive impairment were both associated with worse performance on some cognitive tests. There were also strong associations with financial difficulties, depressive and anxiety symptoms, unemployment, and longer time since HIV diagnosis. Both questionnaires performed poorly as diagnostic tests for cognitive impairment. Patients' own assessments of everyday function and symptoms were associated with objectively measured cognitive function. However, there were strong associations with other psychosocial issues including mood and anxiety disorders and socioeconomic hardship. This should be considered when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.

  14. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal; Muhammad Waseem Abbas; Muhammad Zohaib Chaudhary; Muhammad Nouman Iqbal; Mohammad Sami Aleem; Rukhsar Javaid; Hasnain Ahmed; Taleea Younas; Faiza Maqsood; Fiza Fatima; Hafiz Hasnain Ahmed; Sana Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is defined as physical, behavioral, social and psychological response to treat self-concept characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension. Nowadays anxiety is most commonly found among medical students. This study was conducted to find out the anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 178 medical students which tests the level of anxiety and severity of symptom...

  16. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  17. Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

  18. Depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms and suicide risk among graduate students: The mediating influence of emotional regulatory self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Baoer; Zhao, Jiubo; Zou, Laiquan; Yang, Xueling; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Wanjun; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Jie

    2018-06-01

    The current study was to examine the relationship among depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, emotion regulatory self-efficacy and suicide risk. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3257 graduate students from a medical college of China. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt were 25.7%, 1.6%, 1.1%, respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 6.3%. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the relative contribution of depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms and emotion regulatory self-efficacy on suicide risk. Structural equation model had a highly satisfactory fit [χ 2  = 7.782, df = 4, p = 0.096; RMSEA = 0.021; CFI = 0.992; GFI = 0.997]. Post-traumatic stress symptoms had a direct effect and an indirect effect on suicide risk via emotion regulatory self-efficacy. Depressive symptoms also had a direct effect and an indirect effect on suicide risk via emotion regulatory self-efficacy. The depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms increased the risk of suicide risk, but the variable of emotion regulatory self-efficacy would be served as a buffering factor, decreasing the risk of suicide. The interaction term of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms had a direct effect on suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms on suicide risk was found. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-occurring eating and psychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese college students: effects of gender and parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-03-01

    To test whether gender and parental factors moderate the relationships between symptoms of eating disorder (ED) and other psychiatric symptoms. A total of 5,015 new entrants completed several questionnaires and 541 individuals with ED symptoms were identified by the Adult Self-Report Inventory-4 that assessed a wide range of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition psychopathology. The participants also reported on their parents' attitude toward them before their ages of 16. ED symptoms, female gender, less parental care, and more parental protection were associated with more severe co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Gender and parental factors also demonstrated differential moderating effects on the relationships between ED and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Parenting counseling may be individualized to young adults with ED symptoms and different co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety as predictors of suicidal ideation among South African university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason R; Kagee, Ashraf; McGowan, Taryn; Steel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideations and their associations to symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety among South African university students. Data were collected from 1,337 students between May and August 2013. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between suicidal ideation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Rates of suicidal ideation are higher among university students in South Africa than among the general population of the country and student populations in other parts of the world. Symptoms of depression and exposure to trauma predict suicidal ideation Conclusions: Findings bring into focus the high rates of suicidal ideation among a sample of university students in South African and the need for more research to investigate the psychosocial correlates of this phenomena within the cultural context of the country, especially given the correlation between suicidal ideation and other poor health outcomes.

  1. Parent-Reported Penicillin Allergy Symptoms in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Adams, Juan; Brousseau, David C

    2017-04-01

    Children often present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with a reported penicillin allergy. The true incidence of pediatric penicillin allergy is low, and patients may be inappropriately denied first-line antibiotics. We hypothesized that more than 70% of reported penicillin allergies in the pediatric ED are low risk for true allergy. Parents of children presenting to the pediatric ED with parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. The questionnaire included age at allergy diagnosis, symptoms of allergy, and time to allergic reaction from first dose. The allergy symptoms were dichotomized into high and low risk in consultation with a pediatric allergist before questionnaire implementation. A total of 605 parents were approached; 500 (82.6%) completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) age of the children at diagnosis was 1 year (7 months, 2 years); 75% were diagnosed before their third birthday. Overall, 380 (76%) (95% confidence interval 72.3, 79.7) children had exclusively low-risk symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were rash (466, 92.8%) and itching (203, 40.6%). Of the 120 children with one or more high-risk symptom, facial swelling (50, 10%) was the most common. Overall, 354 children (71%) were diagnosed after their first exposure to penicillin. Symptom onset within 24 hours of medication administration occurred in 274 children (54.8%). Seventy-six percent of patients with parent-reported penicillin allergy have symptoms unlikely to be consistent with true allergy. Determination of true penicillin allergy in patients with low-risk symptoms may permit the increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms with Menstrual Attitude and Sleep Quality in Turkish Nursing Student

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    Özlem Aşcı

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Symptoms induced by premenstrual syndrome (PMS adversely affect the women in reproduction period and decrease their quality of life. In literature, it is a common opinion thought that PMS could be associated with both sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. However, there has been no sufficient number of studies to define in what ways the PMS symptoms are correlated with sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of PMS symptoms with menstrual attitude and sleep quality. Methods: The data were collected from 183 nursing students at Health School of Artvin Çoruh University by using a correlational design. Voluntary students completed a questionnaire involving socio-demographic characteristics, Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS, Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results: Average age was 19.9 (1.8. The study determined a positively significant correlation between score of PMSS and mean scores of PSQI (r=0.306; P<0.001, and a negatively significant correlation between score of PMSS and total mean score of MAQ (r=-0.317; P<0.01. Similarly, multiple linear regression analysis showed that PSQI total score (​b=5.412; P<0.001 and MAQ total score (​ b=-27.455; P=0.001 significantly affected total score of PMSS.Conclusion: The intensity of PMS symptoms is associated with poor sleep quality and negative menstrual attitudes. Determining the methods of coping with PMS and strengthening the young girls on this subject may enhance their quality of future life.

  3.  Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman

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    Hadia Al-Lawati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with gender, academic year, and college among university students in Oman.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Omani students attending the students’ clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU. A systematic sampling of students, males and females, from different colleges, who visited the clinic during the study period, was carried out. The self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 was used to screen for propensity to depression.Results: A total of 481 students participated in the study (243 males and 238 females. Overall, 133 (27.7�20of the participants (66 males and 67 females had depression of various grades based on the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria using a cut point of more than 11. Depression score at the cut point of 11 was not statistically associated with gender, college and the academic year.Conclusion: Tendency for depression might be a common health problem among college students in Oman attending primary health care facilities. Further research on socio-demographic characteristics and the effect of depression on the academic performance is needed.

  4. A four-session acceptance and commitment therapy based intervention for depressive symptoms delivered by masters degree level psychology students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtala, Aino; Lappalainen, Raimo; Savonen, Laura; Timo, Elina; Tolvanen, Asko

    2015-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are one of the main reasons for seeking psychological help. Shorter interventions using briefly trained therapists could offer a solution to the ever-rising need for early and easily applicable psychological treatments. The current study examines the effectiveness of a four-session Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) based treatment for self-reported depressive symptoms administered by Masters level psychology students. This paper reports the effectiveness of a brief intervention compared to a waiting list control (WLC) group. Participants were randomized into two groups: ACT (n = 28) and waiting list (n = 29). Long-term effects were examined using a 6-month follow-up. The treatment group's level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) decreased by an average of 47%, compared to an average decrease of 4% in the WLC group. Changes in psychological well-being in the ACT group were better throughout, and treatment outcomes were maintained after 6 months. The posttreatment "between-group" and follow-up "with-in group" effect sizes (Cohen's d) were large to medium for depressive symptoms and psychological flexibility. The results support the brief ACT-based intervention for sub-clinical depressive symptoms when treatment was conducted by briefly trained psychology students. It also contributes to the growing body of evidence on brief ACT-based treatments and inexperienced therapists.

  5. Gender and Direction of Effect of Alcohol Problems and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homman, Lina E; Edwards, Alexis C; Cho, Seung Bin; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-03-21

    Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607). Three waves of questionnaire-based data were collected over the first two years of college (in 2011-2013). Cross-lagged models were applied to examine the possible direction of effect of internalizing symptoms and alcohol problems. Possible effects of gender were investigated using multigroup modeling. There were significant correlations between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms. A direction of effect was found between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms but differed between genders. A unidirectional relationship varying with age was identified for males where alcohol problems initially predicted internalizing symptoms followed by internalizing symptoms predicting alcohol problems. For females, a unidirectional relationship existed wherein alcohol problems predicted internalizing symptoms. Conclusions/Importance: We conclude that the relationship between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms is complex and differ between genders. In males, both phenotypes are predictive of each other, while in females the relationship is driven by alcohol problems. Importantly, our study examines a population-based sample, revealing that the observed relationships between alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.

  6. Tic Symptoms Induced by Atomoxetine in Treatment of ADHD: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongwang; Li, Rong; Gao, Weijia; Zhao, Zhengyan

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for tic disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX) has been accepted as an alternative medication for patients with ADHD and a comorbid tic disorder. It is rarely reported that tic symptoms are induced by ATX. This present report described a boy with ADHD who developed tic symptoms during ATX initiation. We used an ABAB trial to confirm the tics were related to ATX administration. In addition, we reviewed the published literature of patients whose tic symptoms were confirmed or suspected of relating to ATX usage. This present case with an ABAB design showed on-off control of tics with or without ATX, which allowed us to make a strong conclusion that the tics were related to ATX administration. Literature review also indicated that ATX might induce tic symptoms in children with ADHD, especially in those being boys and having a history of tics. The time from starting ATX to tics symptoms appearing was approximately 19 days. The most common tic symptoms were eye blinking, vocal tics, or throat clearing, and neck movements. These tics symptoms in most cases could be resolved after discontinuing ATX without further pharmacotherapy. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists should be well aware of this potential adverse effect in children with ADHD receiving ATX.

  7. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  8. [The relationship among depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in a sample of university students in northern Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa; Landero Hernández, René; García-Campayo, Javier

    2009-02-01

    To determine how anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms are related in a sample of university students in northern Mexico. An exploratory study was conducted through self-administered questionnaires applied to a convenience sample of 506 psychology students at two universities in Monterrey, in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. To evaluate somatic symptoms, the Patient Health Questionnaire was used; for depression, the Beck Depression Inventory; and for anxiety, the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. Spearman's correlation was used to determine to what extent the associations among the variables were significant. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare anxiety and depression levels between groups of students organized by severity of somatic symptoms. Of the participants, 129 (25.5%) presented somatic symptoms that were of medium intensity or severe; just 4 (0.8%) had severe depression; and only 2 (0.4%) students presented anxiety levels over 75% of the scale maximum. The severity of somatic symptoms increased in step with anxiety and depression levels. The somatic symptoms occurring most frequently and of greatest concern among the study sample were: headache, menstrual pain, and backache, as well as feeling tired and having difficulty sleeping. The direct association between the severity of somatic symptoms and depression and anxiety was confirmed. It is recommended that all treatment and/or prevention programs addressing one of these conditions, include the other two as well. Programs specifically aimed at university youth should be implemented.

  9. Comparison of 7-day recall and daily diary reports of COPD symptoms and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Antonia V; Amtmann, Dagmar; Diehr, Paula; Patrick, Donald L

    2012-05-01

    Patient reporting of symptoms in a questionnaire with a 7-day recall period was expected to differ from symptom reporting in a 7-day symptom diary on the basis of cognitive theory of memory processes and several studies of symptoms and health behaviors. A total of 101 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) completed a daily diary of items measuring symptoms and impacts of COPD for 7 days, and on the seventh day they completed a questionnaire of the same items with a 7-day recall period. The analysis examined concordance of 7-day recall with summary descriptors of the daily responses, examined the magnitude and covariates (patient characteristics and response patterns) of the difference between 7-day recall and mean of daily responses, and compared the discriminant ability and ability to detect change of 7-day recall and mean of daily responses. A 7-day recall was moderately concordant with the mean and maximum of daily responses and was 0.34 to 0.50 SDs higher than the mean of daily responses. Only the weekly report itself was a covariate of the difference. The discriminant ability and ability to detect change were equivalent. In measuring the weeklong experience of COPD symptoms and impacts on groups of patients, the 7-day recall scores were higher than the daily diary scores, but equivalent in detecting change over time. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Attachment, Travel Experiences and English Proficiency in International Students' Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, Iskra

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attachment, travel experiences, and English proficiency and international students' acculturative stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 91 graduate international students completed online surveys. Pearson correlations showed that both attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively correlated with…

  11. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Anxiety as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among South African University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason R.; Kagee, Ashraf; McGowan, Taryn; Steel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideations and their associations to symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety among South African university students. Participants: Data were collected from 1,337 students between May and August 2013. Methods: Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the…

  12. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  13. Optimism and Psychological Resilience in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in University Students: Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin; Acun-Kapikiran, Necla

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-esteem as a mediator in the relationships between optimism and psychological resilience on depressive symptoms in university students. A total of 494 undergraduate students, comprising of 253 female and 241 male participated in this study. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 30 (M = 20.85, SD = 1.57).…

  14. Trauma-Related Sleep Disturbance and Self-Reported Physical Health Symptoms in Treatment-Seeking Female Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    CLUM, GRETCHEN A.; NISHITH, PALLAVI; RESICK, PATRICIA A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings sugge...

  15. Vegans report less bothersome vasomotor and physical menopausal symptoms than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; McGrath, Robert E; Feldman, Arielle

    2018-06-01

    Lifestyle modifications that may reduce menopausal symptoms have generated much interest. The vegetarian diet has been associated with a lower risk of chronic disease as well as a more healthy hormonal milieu. Our objective in this cross-sectional study was to survey peri- and postmenopausal women to investigate menopausal symptoms and dietary pattern. Survey distribution in 2015-2016 was aimed at female vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores between the ages of 45 and 80 years, who were active on senior and vegetarian social networking websites and at vegan restaurants and events. We investigated vasomotor and physical symptoms as measured by the Menopause-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and dietary pattern classified by animal protein intakes reported in response to food frequency questions. Out of 754 participants who completed the survey, 604 reported they were perimenopausal (n = 121) or postmenopausal (n = 483), of whom 539 also completed the food frequency questions. We compared vasomotor and physical symptoms in omnivores (n = 304, consumed meat and/or poultry at least monthly) and vegans (n = 125, abstained from all animal proteins) using general linear models; covariates included age, exercise, hormone replacement therapy, presence of reproductive organs, and age at menopause. Among perimenopausal women, vegans reported less bothersome vasomotor (p < 0.01) and physical symptoms (p < 0.01) than omnivores. For both symptom types, more vegetables and less flesh food were associated with less bothersome symptoms (p values < 0.05). Eating a plant-based diet may be helpful for women in menopausal transition who prefer a natural means to manage their symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City

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    Günay Güngör

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3 concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008, tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001, morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006 were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk.

  17. Patient-reported speech in noise difficulties and hyperacusis symptoms and correlation with test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridakou, Chrysa; Luxon, Linda M; Bamiou, Doris E

    2012-07-01

    To compare self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and hyperacusis in adults with auditory processing disorders (APDs) and normal controls; and to compare self-reported symptoms to objective test results (speech in babble test, transient evoked otoacoustic emission [TEOAE] suppression test using contralateral noise). A prospective case-control pilot study. Twenty-two participants were recruited in the study: 10 patients with reported hearing difficulty, normal audiometry, and a clinical diagnosis of APD; and 12 normal age-matched controls with no reported hearing difficulty. All participants completed the validated Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability questionnaire, a hyperacusis questionnaire, a speech in babble test, and a TEOAE suppression test using contralateral noise. Patients had significantly worse scores than controls in all domains of the Amsterdam Inventory questionnaire (with the exception of sound detection) and the hyperacusis questionnaire (P reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and speech in babble test results in the right ear (ρ = 0.624, P = .002), and between self-reported symptoms of hyperacusis and TEOAE suppression test results in the right ear (ρ = -0.597 P = .003). There was no significant correlation between the two tests. A strong correlation was observed between right ear speech in babble and patient-reported intelligibility of speech in noise, and right ear TEOAE suppression by contralateral noise and hyperacusis questionnaire. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

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    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  19. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  20. Correlation of understanding of physics and psychological symptoms among high-school students in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeliki, Anagnostopoulou; Miltiades, Kyprianou; Antigoni-Elisavet, Rota; Evangelia, Pavlatou; Loizos, Zaphiris

    2017-09-01

    Depression may essentially influence cognitive function contributing to poor school performance. The present study undertakes to determine the existence and strength of correlation between depressive symptomatology and other mental conditions with the acquired level of understanding of Newtonian physics taught in schools. The current study recruited 490 students (262 girls, 228 boys) attending the first semester of the Greek Second Grade of General Lyceum School. Force Concept Inventory (FCI) tested the depth of the students’ understanding of Newtonian Physics. Symptom Checklist-90-R assessed general mental status. The tests took place in the classroom during a 1 h session. Low FCI scores significantly correlated with mental conditions, with depression ranking first. Girls had higher scores in all nine symptoms scales of SCL-90 and lower FCI scores. Stepwise regression models proved that the gender effect on FCI could be effectively explained through the significant effect of depression. An understanding of Newtonian physics among high school students may be restricted by common problematic mental conditions, with depression being the greatest among all. Further research, using a more systematic approach to measure depression among adolescents with poor understanding of physics, would help to elucidate the nature of the effect.

  1. The impact of exercise performance dissatisfaction and physical exercise on symptoms of depression among college students: a gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L; Lynch, Wesley C; Yates, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem and females have been found to be at greater risk for this disorder than males. Although numerous studies have found that physical exercise is negatively associated with risk of depression, some studies suggest that negative exercise attitudes may increase the risk of depression. The present study used the survey method to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms, exercise performance dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and physical exercise among a sample of 895 undergraduate university students. Females reported higher depression and exercise performance dissatisfaction scores than males; however, there were no gender differences in body dissatisfaction. Exercise performance dissatisfaction was positively associated with depression among both males and females. Physical exercise was negatively associated with depression among males, but not among females. The possibility of screening participants enrolled in exercise programs for performance dissatisfaction is discussed as negative exercise attitudes may diminish the positive impact of exercise on depressed mood.

  2. Perceived stress and reported cognitive symptoms among Georgia patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, L; Lim, S S; Bowling, C B; Drenkard, C

    2017-09-01

    Objective To examine associations of perceived stress with cognitive symptoms among adults with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Among 777 adult (≥18 years) SLE patients, the association of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores with two self-reported cognitive symptoms was examined: forgetfulness (severe/moderate vs. mild/none; from the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire) and difficulty concentrating (all/most vs. some/little/none of the time; from the Lupus Impact Tracker). The study used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) per minimal important difference (MID = 0.5*SD) of PSS score and cognitive symptoms. Results Forgetfulness and difficulty concentrating were reported by 41.7% and 29.5%, respectively. Women and those with less education and high disease activity had higher PSS scores and were more likely to report cognitive symptoms than their counterparts. With adjustment for age, race, sex, education, and disease activity, each MID increase in PSS score was associated with higher prevalence of forgetfulness (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.29-1.47) and difficulty concentrating (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.90-2.52). No substantial differences in this association by age, race, sex, or disease activity were noted. Conclusions SLE patients, particularly those with high disease activity, report a high burden of cognitive symptoms, for which stress may be a modifiable risk factor.

  3. Depressive symptoms over higher education and the first years in the profession : a longitudinal investigation in Swedish nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims: A substantial part of the population attends higher education, which makes the welfare of students a matter of concern for public health. There are indications of a high prevalence of mental distress and depressive symptoms in students, as well as an increase over the past decades. If this is an effect of education, the demographic composition of student groups or changes in mental health at the societal level is uncertain. The overall objectives of this thesis were to in...

  4. Constipation and other common symptoms reported by women and men in methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Paul S; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Espinoza, David; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Veillard, Anne-Sophie; Hallinan, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is often continued long-term and, therefore, opioid-associated symptoms are of interest. Symptoms associated with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in men are well described, but there are fewer reports concerning symptoms associated with buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and very few reports among women. Recipients of BMT (n=113) and MMT (n=184), non-opioid users (n=105) and opioid users not receiving OST (n=87) completed the Patient Assessment of Constipation (PAC-SYM) and a general symptom checklist. Multivariate analysis included other potential moderators of opioid-associated symptoms. Opioid users reported a higher frequency and severity of symptoms than non-opioid users. Constipation, dry mouth, decreased appetite, sweating and fatigue were highly prevalent in the previous 30days (51-80%). Nausea, itchy skin, trouble urinating, menstrual problems, lightheadedness, blurred vision, heart racing were also common (30-50%). Non-OST opioid users had significantly higher frequency and severity than OST recipients of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, decreased appetite, sweating and itchy skin. Sweating was significantly more common in MMT than BMT. Constipation scores were higher in women, otherwise most sex differences were small. Higher PAC-SYM scores were associated with vomiting (OR=1.04) and sweating (OR=1.06). Cannabis use was associated with vomiting (OR=2.19). Constipation (OR=1.07), insomnia (OR=2.5) and depression (OR=2.82) were associated with fatigue. Men and women receiving OST report similarly high rates of somatic symptoms, though less than opioid users not receiving OST. There were few differences between BMT and MMT. Buprenorphine might be preferred where sweating is problematic. Several modifiable factors were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-reported Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Chinese Adults in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Self-Reported Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease by Sex and Disease Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Young; Pohlig, Ryan T; Habermann, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a wide range of symptom presentations. The purpose of this research was to compare self-reported motor and non-motor symptoms of PD by sex and disease duration. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey in community-dwelling people with PD. A total of 141 participants (64.6% response rate; 59.6% men; M age = 69.7 years) were included. Males reported more rigidity, speech problems, sexual dysfunction, memory problems, and socializing problems than females. The number of motor symptoms in three groups divided by increments of 5 years was significantly increased. Postural instability, freezing, off periods, dyskinesia, speech problems, and hallucinations/psychosis were significantly increased as the disease duration increased. Thorough assessment of motor and non-motor symptoms could decrease the risk of inadequate symptom management. Provision of information regarding PD symptoms at each stage may help people with PD and their caregivers in planning their future care and life.

  7. Stressors and psychological symptoms in students of medicine and allied health professions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo

    2006-05-01

    Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Attention Training Technique and Mindful Self-Compassion for Students With Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni B. Haukaas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Training Technique (ATT and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC are two promising psychological interventions. ATT is a 12-min auditory exercise designed to strengthen attentional control and promote external focus of attention, while MSC uses guided meditation and exercises designed to promote self-compassion. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT, a three-session intervention trial was conducted in which university students were randomly assigned to either an ATT-group (n = 40 or a MSC-group (n = 41. The students were not assessed with diagnostic interviews but had self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Participants listened to audiotapes of ATT or MSC before discussing in groups how to apply these principles for their everyday struggles. Participants also listened to audiotapes of ATT and MSC as homework between sessions. Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression accompanied by significant increases in mindfulness, self-compassion, and attention flexibility post-intervention. These results were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Improvement in attention flexibility was the only significant unique predictor of treatment response. The study supports the use of both ATT and MSC for students with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, it suggests that symptom improvement is related to changes in attention flexibility across both theoretical frameworks. Future studies should focus on how to strengthen the ability for attention flexibility to optimize treatment for emotional disorder.

  9. Factors Associated with Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Students Who Survived 20 Months after the Sewol Ferry Disaster in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Hee; Kim, Eun Ji; Noh, Jin Won; Chae, Jeong Ho

    2018-03-12

    The Sewol ferry disaster caused national shock and grief in Korea. The present study examined the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students (29 boys and 28 girls) who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including instruments that assessed psychological status. A generalized linear model using a log link and Poisson distribution was performed to identify factors associated with PTSD symptoms. The results showed that 26.3% of participants were classified in the clinical group by the Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms score. Based on a generalized linear model, Poisson distribution, and log link analyses, PTSD symptoms were positively correlated with the number of exposed traumatic events, peers and social support, peri-traumatic dissociation and post-traumatic negative beliefs, and emotional difficulties. On the other hand, PTSD symptoms were negatively correlated with psychological well-being, family cohesion, post-traumatic social support, receiving care at a psychiatry clinic, and female gender. This study uncovered risk and protective factors of PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to determining assessment and interventional strategies aimed at helping survivors following similar traumatic experiences. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. Summer Student Report Paula Aschenbrenner VITO

    CERN Document Server

    Aschenbrenner, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The L’APOLLINE (LAser POLarized LINE) is set up at VITO (Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques Online) beam line at ISOLDE. It will provide laser-induced spin-polarized beams of atoms or ions to an end station. In this report the L’APOLLINE setup is explained and the current status is stated. Furthermore the summer student work and the most important results are summarized. The project was mainly connected to the generation of the magnetic field in the drift tube for optical polarization. The field is created by a set of Helmholtz Coils.

  11. Training attention improves decision making in individuals with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-06-01

    Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.

  12. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  14. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  15. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Alia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW in Omdurman city. Methods An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123 was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Results Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 – 40 events. Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56, well above the 2.0 cut-off. Conclusions This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  16. Development of the measure of ovarian symptoms and treatment concerns: aiming for optimal measurement of patient-reported symptom benefit with chemotherapy for symptomatic ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Butow, Phyllis; O'Connell, Rachel; Voysey, Merryn; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Donovan, Heidi S; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Martyn, Julie; Sjoquist, Katrin; Friedlander, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessing symptom benefit in trials of palliative chemotherapy for women with symptomatic ovarian cancer. Candidate PROMs were EORTC QLQ-C30 plus ovarian-specific QLQ-OV28, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian (FACT-O), FACT Ovarian Symptom Index (FOSI), and gynecologic cancer-specific Symptom Representation Questionnaire. Predefined optimality criteria were inclusion of all symptoms necessary for the specified purpose, recall period covering typical length of palliative chemotherapy, numerical item rating scales, and all necessary symptoms included in a single symptom index. Qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to data from stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study to determine the set of necessary symptoms and to objectively assess candidate PROMs against the optimality criteria. Ten necessary symptoms were identified: pain, fatigue, abdominal bloating/discomfort, sleep disturbance, bowel disturbance, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, poor appetite, urinary symptoms, and weight changes. Although QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OV28 together cover all these symptoms, they split them into numerous scales, dissipating potential symptom-benefit signal. Conversely, FACT-O does not cover all necessary symptoms and contains many other HRQoL-related items and treatment side effects, diluting potential symptom-benefit signal when summed into scales. Item response scales and composite scoring of all candidate PROMs were suboptimal to our specific purpose. We therefore developed a new PROM, the Measure of Ovarian Symptoms and Treatment (MOST) concerns, to provide optimal measurement for the specified purpose. This article documents the development of the MOST, a new PROM designed to assess patient-reported benefits and burden as end points in clinical trials of palliative chemotherapy for women with symptomatic ovarian cancer. The validity

  17. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolella, Admirabilis Beno

    2016-01-01

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle with Aminophylline single Intravenous injection. He was then admitted and put in supine sleep position for re-evaluation while his asthma symptoms were monitored while waiting for the medical officer's evaluation of his asthma status. After 3 hours of observation, asthma symptoms were relieved, and patient was discharged home and advised to sleep in supine position throughout every night to prevent asthma symptoms. The patient was followed up through nighttime sleep diary for one month. After one month period of monitoring, the patient had significance reduction in asthma symptoms and reduced night time medication, reduced episodes of night awakening due to asthma symptoms, and improved capability for normal works. This case report describes a novel approach of management and prophylaxis of asthmatic episodes through sleeping position that reduces and control asthma symptoms resulting in reduced drug consumption.

  18. [Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome induced by carbamazepine: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Jorge Alonso; Ortega, Mayra Alexandra; Sánchez, Isaura Pilar; Pacheco, José Armando

    2017-06-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction associated with a variety of drugs, mainly anticonvulsants, which is characterized by systemic symptoms and erythematous lesions, common to other toxicodermas. It is an uncommon clinical entity that requires a high suspicion by clinical staff given its varied initial presentation, and the fact that symptoms can overlap with those of other adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. Without early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, mortality increases.We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with impaired neurodevelopment who received treatment with carbamazepine. Two months later he presented with general symptoms and skin erythematous lesions that began on his trunk. The patient received outpatient care with antihistamines and antipyretics without an appropriate response. His case progressed with increased skin lesions and systemic symptoms that met the diagnostic criteria for DRESS syndrome. He was hospitalized and received medical treatment according to recommended guidelines. The patient's condition improved as his symptoms and associated complications resolved. He was discharged with gradual clearing of the steroid therapy.

  19. Prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and its relationship with anxiety symptoms in students of Zanjan universities (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Ghoreishi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder that can adversely affect the people’s life. University education is a stressful time for almost all students and many newly-accepted students are at the risk of periodical OCD. In this study, the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and its relationship with anxiety symptoms was investigated in students of Zanjan universities. Method: The students were analyzed by a questionnaire, including the demographic information, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale.The acquired data were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-square Test. Results: 61.2% of the students (738 were affected by Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD symptoms and 25.1% of them (302 were affected by anxiety symptoms (mild to severe. Prevalence of Clinical OCD among the students was estimated 22.2 % (268 .The results of statistical analysis showed significant correlations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and anxiety symptoms (P=0.0005, sex (P=0.0005 , age (P=0.005 and university (P= 0.002 Conclusion: This study demonstrated a higher prevalence of OCD among the study sample compared to the similar studies performed in Iran as well as other countries

  20. Hostility/anger as a mediator between college students' emotion regulation abilities and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.

  1. Self-reported Symptoms after Induced and Inhibited Bronchoconstriction in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, ANDREW J.; ROMER, LEE M.; KIPPELEN, PASCALE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose A change in the perception of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists is often used to aid diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Our aim was to test the association between subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms and changes in airway caliber after induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction in athletes with EIB. Methods Eighty-five athletes with diagnosed or suspected EIB performed a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) challenge with dry air. Of the 45 athletes with hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction [i.e., post-EVH fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥10%, EVH−], 36 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Terbutaline (0.5 mg) or placebo was administered by inhalation 15 min before EVH. Spirometry (for FEV1) was performed before and after EVH, and respiratory symptoms were recorded 15 min after EVH on visual analog scales. Results Terbutaline inhibited bronchoconstriction (i.e., maximal fall in FEV1 athletes, with an average degree of bronchoprotection of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45% to 62%). Terbutaline reduced group mean symptom scores (P athletes who had less than 10% FEV1 fall after EVH in the terbutaline condition, almost half (48%) rated at least one respiratory symptom higher under terbutaline, and more than one quarter (28%) had a higher total symptom score under terbutaline. Conclusion Self-reports of respiratory symptoms in conditions of induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction do not correlate with changes in airway caliber in athletes with EIB. Therefore, subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists should not be used as the sole diagnostic tool for EIB in athletes. PMID:25710876

  2. Occlusal management for a patient with aural symptoms of unknown etiology: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torii Kengo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the flat bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP (regarded as the muscular physiological reference position has been recently reported to be related to symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, it still remains unclear whether the occlusal equilibration in the reference position is effective to resolve TMD-related discrepancy and symptoms. Aural symptoms (otalgia, tinnitus, vertigo et cetera have been included under TMD symptoms. Methods To examine the effect of occlusal equilibration for the treatment of TMDs, occlusal equilibration was performed for a patient with aural symptoms (otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo of unknown etiology in the right ear. An occlusal analysis was performed on this patient with dental models mounted on an articulator after relieving painful symptoms by an appliance therapy and a discrepancy was identified (p Results At completion of treatment, the discrepancy was not significant (p > 0.25, and the patient's right condyle had shifted 2.8 mm posteromedially in the horizontal plane, and the left condyle had shifted 1.0 mm laterally in the voluntarily closed position from the previous HOP. The aural symptoms of the patient were resolved, and there has been no recurrence to date after a two-year follow-up period. Conclusion An occlusal analysis should be performed in patients exhibiting TMD symptoms to identify the presence or absence of any discrepancy between the HOP and the BPOP. If a discrepancy exists, occlusal equilibration should be attempted in the reference position.

  3. Self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Fryzek, Jon P

    2004-01-01

    No epidemiological evidence of an association between silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease has been found. Based on case reports, it has been hypothesized that silicone breast implants may be associated with a unique rheumatic symptom cluster termed "atypical connective tissue d...

  4. Self-Reported Decline in Everyday Function, Cognitive Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in People With HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive adults in 5 European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and questionnaires...

  5. The relations among body consciousness, somatic symptom report, and information processing speed in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, S.P. van der; Vree, B.P.W. de; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Bleijenberg, G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential influence of body consciousness and levels of somatic symptom report upon information processing speed in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). BACKGROUND: According to a model of a fixed information processing capacity, it was

  6. Reports of "satisfactory relief" by IBS patients receiving usual medical care are confounded by baseline symptom severity and do not accurately reflect symptom improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, William E; Palsson, Olafur S; Levy, Rona L; Feld, Andrew D; VonKorff, Michael; Turner, Marsha

    2006-05-01

    Treatment trials for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) usually define a responder as a patient who reports satisfactory relief or adequate relief of symptoms at the end of the trial. However, these measures have not been adequately validated. (1) Compare a binary satisfactory relief measure to alternative ways of defining a treatment responder. (2) Determine whether baseline IBS symptom severity or psychological distress influence the sensitivity of these outcome measures. A total of 350 patients (81% females, average age 50 yr) who had a medical diagnosis of IBS and satisfied Rome II criteria, were recruited from Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. At baseline the Irritable Bowel Severity Scale (IBSS) was used to assess symptom severity and to classify patients as mild, moderate, or severe. Psychological distress and IBS-specific quality of life (IBS-QOL) were also assessed. After 6 months treatment with standard medical care, IBSS and IBS-QOL were reassessed, and patients were asked whether they had experienced satisfactory relief and whether they were somewhat or markedly better. Initial severity of IBS significantly affected the proportion who reported satisfactory relief (mild, 72%; moderate, 53%; severe, 44%) and the proportion who were somewhat or markedly better (mild, 62%; moderate, 44%; severe, 38%), but did not affect the proportion with a 50% reduction in symptoms (mild, 26%; moderate, 25%; severe, 23%). Although mild patients were the most likely to report satisfactory relief, they showed no average decrease in symptom severity or improvement in IBS-QOL. Conversely, severe patients, who were the least likely to report satisfactory relief, had the largest reductions in IBS symptom severity and the largest improvements in IBS-QOL. Psychological distress had no significant effect on the responder rate after adjusting for IBS symptom severity. These data from a descriptive study suggest that satisfactory relief is confounded with initial IBS symptom

  7. Trauma-related sleep disturbance and self-reported physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, G A; Nishith, P; Resick, P A

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings suggest that trauma-related sleep disturbance is one potential factor contributing to physical health symptoms in rape victims with PTSD.

  8. [Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Sotos syndrome. Case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Holger; Kraft, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Sotos syndrome, or cerebral gigantism, is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and learning difficulties. It is caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD-1 gene. Most cases are sporadic. Apart from a number of physical abnormalities that are commonly present, a high prevalence of cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems in children with Sotos syndrome can be assumed. However, there has been almost no literature about psychiatric symptoms in adults with Sotos syndrome so far; one case of psychosis was reported. In the present case, the authors present psychopathological features of an adult patient with Sotos syndrom who developed - among other things - psychotic symptoms.

  9. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Northern Ireland: political violence and self-reported physical symptoms in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E; Wilson, R

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible relationship between physical health and political violence in Northern Ireland a random sample of residents of four electoral areas (two with relatively high violence and two with relatively low violence) was interviewed at home. Each person was asked to rate their health in terms of common physical symptoms, to indicate their use of family doctor and hospital services, and to rate the level of political violence in their neighbourhood. Analysis of covariance (with a measure of psychological well-being, a measure of trait neuroticism plus age and socioeconomic status as covariates) revealed that women reported more physical symptoms than did men, people in the 'high' violence areas reported more symptoms than did those in the 'low' violence areas, while those who rated their own neighbourhood most highly in terms of perceived violence also reported the greatest number of physical symptoms. However, a series of chi 2 tests revealed no association between political violence or perceived political violence and uptake of services.

  11. How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannaga, Ayman; Kelman, Lawrence; O'Connor, Michelle; Pitchford, Claire; Walters, Julian R F; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an underdiagnosed condition producing diarrhoea, urgency and fear of faecal incontinence. How patients experience these symptoms has not previously been studied. Bile Acid Malabsorption (BAM) Support UK was established in 2015 as a national charity with objectives including to provide details regarding how BAD affects patients, to improve earlier recognition and clinical management. A questionnaire was collected anonymously by BAM Support UK and the Bile Salt Malabsorption Facebook group over 4 weeks at the end of 2015. It comprised 56 questions and aimed to inform patients and clinicians about how BAD affects the respondents. The first 100 responses were analysed. 91% of the respondents reported a diagnosis of BAD. 58% of total respondents diagnosed following a Selenium-homocholic acid taurine scan, 69% were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist, with type 2 and 3 BAD comprising 38% and 37%, respectively, of total respondents. Symptoms had been experienced for more than 5 years before diagnosis in 44% of respondents. Following treatment, usually with bile acid sequestrants, 60% of participants reported improvement of diarrhoea and most reported their mental health has been positively impacted. Just over half of the cohort felt as though their symptoms had been dismissed during clinical consultations and 28% felt their GPs were unaware of BAD. BAD requires more recognition by clinicians to address the current delays in diagnosis. Treatment improves physical and mental symptoms in the majority of participants.

  12. CERN Summer Student Programme 2017 Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mari, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the work done during my CERN Summer Student Programme 2017. A set-up has been implemented to perform studies on possible aging effects caused by different materials and eventually to validate new components for future application at the LHC gas systems. The effects are studied with a Single Wire Proportional Chamber (SWPC), which is very sensitive to pollutants and gas mixture variations. In particular, we evaluate a new flow-meter (OMRON MEMS Mass Flow Sensor) and the effect of plastic pipe on detector gain and O$_2$ and H$_2$O variations. with Single Wire Proportional Chamber (SWPC). Chapter 1 describes the characterization of the SWPC. Chapter 2 focuses on the evaluation test of the flow-meter while Chapter shows the effects of the addition of a plastic pipe in the set-up.

  13. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.

  14. Celiac disease symptoms in a female collegiate tennis player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E; Gray, Kimberly A; Massie, John E; Rossi, Jennifer M

    2005-01-01

    To present the case of a collegiate tennis player with celiac disease symptoms. Celiac disease is a common intestinal disorder that is often confused with other conditions. It causes severe intestinal damage manifested by several uncomfortable signs and symptoms. Failure by the sports medicine staff to recognize symptoms consistent with celiac disease and treat them appropriately can have deleterious consequences for the athlete. Irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn disease, Addison disease, lupus erythematosus, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lactose intolerance, herpes zoster, psychogenic disorder (depression), fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome, hyperthyroidism, anemia, type I diabetes. The athlete underwent a series of blood and allergen tests to confirm or refute a diagnosis of celiac disease. When celiac disease was suspected, dietary modifications were made to eliminate all wheat-based and gluten-based products from the athlete's diet. The athlete was able to fully compete in a competitive National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I tennis program while experiencing the debilitating effects associated with celiac disease. The immediacy of symptom onset was notable because the athlete had no history of similar complaints. Celiac disease is a potentially life-threatening condition that affects more people than reported. A properly educated sports medicine staff can help to identify symptoms consistent with celiac disease early, so damage to the intestine is minimized. Prompt recognition and appropriate management allow the athlete to adjust the diet accordingly, compete at a high-caliber level, and enjoy a healthier quality of life.

  15. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic r...

  16. Physical Symptoms of Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Sandra L.; Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Examined depression among 97 adolescents with and without psychosomatic stress symptoms and explored relationship between psychosomatic stress symptoms and preoccupation with suicide. Found that occurrence of minor physical symptoms of stress, but not major psychosomatic disorders, was associated with depression. Physical symptoms were not…

  17. The Development of a Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Assessment of Genital Psoriasis Symptoms: The Genital Psoriasis Symptoms Scale (GPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Kirby, Brian; Ryan, Caitriona; Naegeli, April N; Burge, Russel; Potts Bleakman, Alison; Anatchkova, Milena D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2018-03-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) specific for genital psoriasis (GenPs) have not been described. In this cross-sectional, qualitative study in patients with moderate-to-severe GenPs, we sought to develop a PRO useful for GenPs symptom assessment. A literature review was performed to identify relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms and existing PROs that may be useful in the evaluation of symptom severity in GenPs patients. The literature review findings were discussed with clinicians, and then patients with GenPs. Relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms from the literature review included itch, pain, scaling, redness/erythema, and stinging/burning. The validity of these symptoms for GenPs and potentially relevant PROs was corroborated by clinical experts. After gap analysis, a draft symptom scale consisting of Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) items was constructed. We then conducted interviews with GenPs patients (n = 20) to support content validity and use of the draft symptom NRS items in routine practice and in clinical trials. Participants identified and confirmed relevant symptoms and evaluated the utility of the draft PRO. A new PRO was developed: the Genital Psoriasis Symptoms Scale (GPSS). Cognitive debriefing and cultural adaptation/translation interviews with a second group of patients confirmed cultural appropriateness of the GPSS. The GPSS may be useful for assessing symptoms before, during, and after treatment in routine clinical practice and in clinical trials involving patients with GenPs. Eli Lilly & Company. Plain language summary available for this article.

  18. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms After Finasteride Use for Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaria, Shehzad; Jasuja, Ravi; Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Pan, Hong; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G.; Bhawan, Jag; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand; Dury, Alain Y.; Serra, Carlo; Papazian, Allen; O'Leary, Michael; Amr, Sami; Storer, Thomas W.; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Context: Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. Objective: To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation of finasteride use are due to androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) enzymes. Participants: Finasteride users, who reported persistent sexual symptoms after discontinuing finasteride (group 1); age-matched finasteride users who did not report sexual symptoms (group 2); and healthy men who had never used finasteride (group 3). Outcomes: Sexual function, mood, affect, cognition, hormone levels, body composition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to sexually and affectively valenced stimuli, nucleotide sequences of androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1, and SRD5A2; expression levels of androgen-dependent genes in skin. Setting: Academic medical center. Results: Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression. Conclusions: We found no evidence of androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent peripheral inhibition of

  19. Does Coping With Music as an Art Reduce Anxiety and Depression Symptoms? A Comparison of Conservatoire and Other Faculty Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Karaoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Art is known to be a tool which provides relaxation and helps therapy especially in psychiatric diseases and in many other health problems. But the effect of art in artists is not known well. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is a difference in anxiety and depression symptom scores between students of conservatoire and the other faculties. METHOD: In this study, anxiety and depression scores of volunteer students in conservatoire and other faculties were determined via a self administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Percentages, chi-square, student-t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 171 students in the ages of 17–29 (mean=21.36±2.31 years and 89 (52% were female. Among 55 (32.2% conservatoire students and 116(67.8% other faculties’ students 104(60.8% were living in a hostel. Mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.21±3.37, 5.80±3.49 for conservatoire students and 7.56 ±3.62, 5.81±3.41 for the comparisons, respectively. There were symptoms above the cut– off levels for anxiety in 28 students (16.4% and for depression in 47 students (27.5% in the whole group. While anxiety and depression symptoms percentages were 18.2 %( n=10 and 15.5 %( n=18 in conservatoire students, that were 32.7 %( n=18 and 25.0 %( n=29 in other students. The difference was not statistically significant for both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that dealing with music as an art didn’t made difference in anxiety and depression symptoms in this study population. Art is always accepted as a relaxation tool but individuals making art as a lesson, as a job or as a way to gain money can feel different. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 465-472

  20. Shattered Shangri-la: differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms in students born in Tibet compared to Tibetan students born in exile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dabney; Buxton, David C; Borisov, Andrey; Manatunga, Amita K; Ngodup, Dawa; Raison, Charles L

    2008-06-01

    As a result of ongoing political tensions within Tibetan regions of the People's Republic of China, several thousand Tibetans escape across the Himalayas every year to seek refuge in India and Nepal. Prior studies have found a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in these refugees, many of whom are young and have been exposed to significant trauma. However, it is not known whether depressive and anxiety symptoms are more prevalent in these refugees than in ethnic Tibetans born and raised in the relative political and social stability of exile communities in North India and Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 319 students attending school at the Tibetan Children's Villages in Northern India to test the a priori hypothesis that adolescents and young adults who escaped from Tibet to India would demonstrate increased depressive and anxiety symptoms when compared to ethnic Tibetans born and raised in exile. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) was used to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, demographic information on age, sex, country of birth and frequency of family contact was collected. Students born in Tibet had higher mean HSCL-25 depressive and anxiety symptom scores than did ethnic Tibetans born in exile. Female students demonstrated higher depressive and anxiety scores, as did those with limited contact with immediate family. After adjusting for sex, age and frequency of family contact, being born in Tibet was associated with increased HSCL-25 depressive and anxiety symptom scores (depression: F[2, 316] = 29.96, P < 0.0001; anxiety: F[4, 316] = 43.57, P < 0.0001). The experience of being raised in Tibet and escaping to India appears to be a risk factor for increased depressive and anxiety symptoms when compared to being born and raised within an exile community in India or Nepal.

  1. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  2. Parent-Child Conflict and Suicide Rumination in College Students: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Jahn, Danielle R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child conflict, depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity have each been identified as risk factors for suicide ideation in college students. This study examined the relations among these risk factors and suicide rumination utilizing transition theory to guide the hypothesized relations. Participants: Undergraduate college…

  3. The Relationship between Financial Strain, Perceived Stress, Psychological Symptoms, and Academic and Social Integration in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…

  4. Can weight predict academic performance in college students? An analysis of college women's self-efficacy, absenteeism, and depressive symptoms as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Annie; Villatte, Aude; Cyr, Caroline; Marcotte, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over a third of American college students are either overweight or obese, which has been suggested to negatively impact their academic achievement. This study seeks to better understand the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and grade point average (GPA), while examining potential mediators of this association. The sample consists of 298 college women who volunteered to complete online questionnaires between October and December 2014. Although no significant differences were noted for sociodemographic variables, overweight and obese female students were found to report lower GPA and academic self-efficacy as well as higher depressive symptoms, compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Academic self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between BMI and GPA. To foster better academic achievement in female college students, and especially for those who are overweight and obese, strategies for improving self-efficacy and adaptation to college should be implemented.

  5. The association between dietary intake of folate and physical activity with psychological dimensions of depressive symptoms among students from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yary, Teymoor

    2013-01-01

    Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B₆, B₉, and B₁₂ and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores) and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints.

  6. Ocular symptoms and tear film break up time (BUT) among junior high school students in Penang, Malaysia - Associations with fungal DNA in school dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina; Sooria, Vinoshini; Ismail, Syazwan Aizat; Wieslander, Gunilla

    2017-06-01

    There are few studies on ocular effects of indoor mould exposure in schools, especially in the tropics OBJECTIVE: To study associations between eye symptoms and tear film break up time (BUT) in students and demographic data and fungal DNA in schools. A school environment study was performed among randomly selected students in eight randomly selected secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia. Information on eye symptoms and demographic data was collected by a standardised questionnaire. BUT was measured by two methods, self-reported BUT (SBUT) and by the non-invasive Tearscope (NIBUT). Dust was collected by vacuuming in 32 classrooms and analysed for five fungal DNA sequences. Geometric mean (GM) for total fungal DNA was 7.31*10 4 target copies per gram dust and for Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA 3.34*10 4 target copies per gram dust. Linear mixed models and 3-level multiple logistic regression were applied adjusting for demographic factors. A total of 368 students (58%) participated and 17.4% reported weekly eye symptoms the last 3 months. The median SBUT and TBUT were 15 and 12s, respectively. Students wearing glasses (OR 2.41, p=0.01) and with a history of atopy (OR=2.67; p=0.008) had more eye symptoms. Girls had less eye symptoms than boys (OR=0.34; p=0.006) Indoor carbon dioxide in the classrooms was low (range 380-720ppm), temperature was 25-30°C and relative air humidity 70-88%. Total fungal DNA in vacuumed dust was associated with shorter SBUT (4s shorter per 10 5 target copies per gram dust; p=0.04) and NIBUT (4s shorter per 10 5 target copies per gram dust; p<0.001). Aspergillus/Penicillium DNA was associated with shorter NIBUT (5s shorter per 10 5 target copies per gram dust; p=0.01). Fungal contamination in schools in a tropical country can be a risk factor for impaired tear film stability among students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  8. Association of plasma homovanillic acid with behavioral symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, R A; Pollock, B G; Mulsant, B H; Rosen, J; Lo, K H; Yao, J K; Henteleff, R A; Mazumdar, S

    1997-12-01

    Neuroleptic treatment of psychotic symptoms or agitated behavior in elderly patients diagnosed with dementia is associated with reduced efficacy and increased rates of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism in comparison to younger patients with schizophrenia. We report the first study to examine the relationship between an in vivo measure of dopaminergic function, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), and ratings of psychosis, agitation, and parkinsonism before and after neuroleptic treatment in dementia patients. Pretreatment pHVA was significantly correlated with parkinsonian rigidity, with a trend observed with agitation and hostility. Though mean pHVA did not change during perphenazine treatment, intraindividual change in pHVA at day 15 was correlated with improvement in hostility, with a similar trend for improvement in agitation. These preliminary findings are consistent with reports associating dopaminergic function with agitated, but not psychotic, symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia, and with a reduced responsivity of dopaminergic systems to neuroleptic treatment in these patients.

  9. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eSchöne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with

  10. Content Validity of the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q): A Patient-Reported Outcome Measure to Evaluate Symptoms of Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Vernon, Margaret K; Stewart, Katie D; Miller, Michael G; Brod, Meryl; Althof, Stanley E; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Dobs, Adrian; Seftel, Allen D; Revicki, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    Hypogonadism, or low testosterone, is a common disorder. There are currently no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments designed to comprehensively evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism and to detect changes in these symptoms in response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop a PRO instrument, the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q) and to assess its content validity. A literature review, expert clinician input, and qualitative concept elicitation with 39 male hypogonadism patients (four focus groups: n = 25; individual interviews: n = 14; mean age 52.3 ± 14.3 years) from the USA were used to develop the draft HIS-Q. Subsequent cognitive interviews (n = 29; mean age 51.5 ± 15.4 years) were used to evaluate content validity. Emergent discussion with participants yielded symptoms within the sexual, physical, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood domains. Low libido and tiredness were most commonly reported. The initial version of the HIS-Q includes 53 items that were consistently understood by the participants, who found the instrument to be relevant to their experiences with hypogonadism and comprehensive in the content coverage of symptoms. The HIS-Q is a comprehensive PRO measure of hypogonadism symptom severity in males. Its design elements, including the response options and recall period, were suitable, and content validity was confirmed.

  11. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS: utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current

  12. Discordance Between Physician Assessment and Patient-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Christian; Armstrong, Melissa J; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Rezvani, Zahra; Reich, Stephen G; Fishman, Paul S; Salazar, Richard; Shulman, Lisa M

    2017-07-01

    To assess concordance between physician assessment and patient-reported symptoms when screening for depression in Parkinson disease (dPD). Depression in Parkinson disease is highly prevalent (∼40%) and has a significant impact on quality of life and disability, yet physician recognition and treatment remain inadequate. One thousand seventy-six patients with PD completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), a screening questionnaire for psychiatric symptoms, which was compared to item #3 (depression) on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The mean BSI-18 depression score was 51.4 (9.7). Of the 170 (16%) patients screening positive for dPD on the BSI-18, 104 (61%) were not recognized as depressed by neurologists on the UPDRS. Factors associated with lower neurologist recognition included male gender, better mental health quality of life, and lack of antidepressant use. More than 60% of patients screening positive for depression on self-report were not recognized by neurologists on the UPDRS. A patient-reported screening tool for depression may improve recognition and management of dPD.

  13. Peer Assessment of Student-Produced Mechanics Lab Report Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Scott S.; Aiken, John M.; Lin, Shih-Yin; Greco, Edwin F.; Alicea-Muñoz, Emily; Schatz, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    We examine changes in students' rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers' physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings…

  14. KPI Student Satisfaction Survey, 2001. Executive Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).

    The KPI (Key Performance Indicators) Student Satisfaction Survey is a paper-based survey distributed to all students in Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. The results of the Sheridan College survey for 2001 are presented in this report. The student population at Sheridan for the winter 2001 survey was 9,134. A total of 6,566…

  15. Student and Nonstudent National Guard Service Members/Veterans and their Use of Services for Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Walters, Heather M.; Ganoczy, Dara; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare mental health symptoms and service utilization among returning student and nonstudent Service Members/Veterans (SM/Vs). Participants SM/Vs (N=1439) were predominately white (83%) men (92%); half were over age 30 (48%) and 24% were students. Methods SM/Vs completed surveys six months post-deployment (October 2011–July 2013). Results Students and nonstudent SM/Vs did not differ in positive screens for depression, anxiety, hazardous drinking, or Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Students (n=81) and nonstudents (n=265) with mental health symptoms had low levels of mental health service use (e.g., VA, civilian, or military facilities), at 47% and 57% respectively. Fewer students used VA mental health services. Common barriers to treatment-seeking included not wanting treatment on military records and embarrassment. Conclusions Like other returning SM/Vs, student SM/Vs have unmet mental health needs. The discrepancy between potential need and treatment-seeking suggests that colleges might be helpful in further facilitating mental health service use for student SM/Vs. PMID:25337770

  16. Effects of Sleep Quality on the Association between Problematic Mobile Phone Use and Mental Health Symptoms in Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuman; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yukun; Zhang, Shichen; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2017-02-14

    Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep quality and mental health. It is important to examine the potential negative health effects of PMPU exposure. This study aims to evaluate PMPU and its association with mental health in Chinese college students. Furthermore, we investigated how sleep quality influences this association. In 2013, we collected data regarding participants' PMPU, sleep quality, and mental health (psychopathological symptoms, anxiety, and depressive symptoms) by standardized questionnaires in 4747 college students. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess independent effects and interactions of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health. PMPU and poor sleep quality were observed in 28.2% and 9.8% of participants, respectively. Adjusted logistic regression models suggested independent associations of PMPU and sleep quality with mental health ( p mental health problems in students with PMPU than in those without PMPU.

  17. The symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and alleviation practices as reported by their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mercado, Velda J; Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Arthur R; Pedro, Elsa; Colon, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Although symptoms during cancer treatments are prevalent and are important clinical outcomes of childhood cancer, the symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children along with the symptom alleviation/care practices that parents provide during cancer treatments have received limited attention. To examine the occurrence/severity of symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist-Children (TRSC-C), reported by mothers of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and identifying mothers' symptom alleviation/management strategies. Descriptive study conducted between January and May 2012. Mothers of 65 Puerto Rican children/adolescents undergoing cancer treatments responded to the Spanish versions of the TRSC-C, Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, and a Demographic and Health form. The children/adolescents' mean age was 9.2 (1-17) years; 62% were boys; 56 had chemotherapy; 9 had chemoradiotherapy. Children diagnoses were 35.4% leukemia, 24.6% solid tumors, 24.6% nervous system tumors, and 15.4% other. On the TRSC-C, the symptoms experienced by 70% or more of the children were: irritability (77%), nausea (75%), and hair loss (72%). On the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, the most commonly reported symptom alleviation category was "taking prescribed medicines." Puerto Rican mothers reported the use of alleviation practices to treat their children experiencing symptoms during pediatric cancer treatments. Patients and caregivers need to be educated about treatment-induced side effects, and the life-threatening consequences of underreporting and undermanagement. Symptoms should always be addressed at the time of initiation of primary or adjuvant cancer therapy because pretreatment symptoms may persist or get worse across the trajectory of treatment. A continuous assessment and management of symptoms during the childhood cancer trajectory can optimize clinical care and improve quality of life of patients and families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia

  18. Frequency and pattern of childhood symptom onset reported by first episode schizophrenia and clinical high risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodberry, Kristen A; Serur, Rachael A; Hallinan, Sean B; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Giuliano, Anthony J; Wojcik, Joanne D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Frazier, Jean A; Goldstein, Jill M; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-09-01

    Psychosis prevention and early intervention efforts in schizophrenia have focused increasingly on sub-threshold psychotic symptoms in adolescents and young adults. Although many youth report symptom onset prior to adolescence, the childhood incidence of prodromal-level symptoms in those with schizophrenia or related psychoses is largely unknown. This study reports on the retrospective recall of prodromal-level symptoms from 40 participants in a first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 40 participants at "clinical high risk" (CHR) for psychosis. Onset of positive and non-specific symptoms was captured using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Frequencies are reported according to onset during childhood (prior to age 13), adolescence (13-17), or adulthood (18+). Childhood-onset of attenuated psychotic symptoms was not rare. At least 11% of FES and 23% of CHR reported specific recall of childhood-onset of unusual or delusional ideas, suspiciousness, or perceptual abnormalities. Most recalled experiencing non-specific symptoms prior to positive symptoms. CHR and FES did not differ significantly in the timing of positive and non-specific symptom onset. Other than being younger at assessment, those with childhood onset did not differ demographically from those with later onset. Childhood-onset of initial psychotic-like symptoms may be more common than previous research has suggested. Improved characterization of these symptoms and a focus on their predictive value for subsequent schizophrenia and other major psychoses are needed to facilitate screening of children presenting with attenuated psychotic symptoms. Accurate detection of prodromal symptoms in children might facilitate even earlier intervention and the potential to alter pre-illness trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62): Acceptance, feasibility, and initial psychometric properties in a UK student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, Emma; Millings, Abigail; Barkham, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The burden and severity of student mental health continue to increase in parallel with increasing financial pressures on students and services alike. There is a need for a student-specific measure of distress that acknowledges their unique context. This study examined the feasibility, acceptance, and initial psychometric properties of a US measure, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), in a UK student sample. A sample of 294 UK help-seeking students from two universities completed the CCAPS-62 and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10) as a comparator. The factor solution and reliability of the CCAPS-62 were examined. Correlations and clinical boundaries were determined between the CCAPS-62 subscales and CORE-10, and comparisons were made with US published norms. The CCAPS-62 demonstrated a strong factor solution that matched the intended subscales. All subscales had good reliability and correlated significantly with the CORE-10. The agreement on caseness between the two measures was 92.8% with 86.3% reaching clinical threshold on both the CCAPS-62 and CORE-10. Severity was most noticeable for academic distress, depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Compared to US data, UK students showed higher clinical severity for all psychological symptoms. The CCAPS-62 is a reliable and psychometrically valid assessment measure to use with UK students without revision. The overall distress indicated is similar to that of the CORE-10, but the individual subscales are more informative of specific student concerns including academic distress, social anxiety, and substance abuse. Potential benefits of administering a student-focused assessment measure in student counselling services are discussed. University students attending counselling in the UK demonstrate clinical severity for academic distress, depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Compared to university students in the US, UK students present with higher clinical severity on

  20. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçer, Nermin; Pamukçu, Tuğba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the last years, it has been discussed frequently whether there are any harmful effects of electromagnetic fields on human health. Electromagnetic fields are generated by several natural and man-made sources. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum called Radiofrequency is used in communication systems such as mobile (cellular) phone and computer. The aim of our study was to explore different self-reported symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields. This survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire, on 350 people aged +9 years in Turkey. The chi-square test was used for data analysis. Self-reported symptoms were headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness, sleep disturbance-insomnia, tension-anxiety, joint and bone pain, lacrimation of the eyes, hearing loss and tinnitus. As a result of the survey, the study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05). In users of mobile phone and computer, women significantly (p < 0.05) complained more often of headache, vertigo/dizziness, fatigue, forgetfulness and tension-anxiety than men.

  1. Medically unexplained symptom reports are associated with a decreased response to the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eleanor; Poliakoff, Ellen; Brown, Richard J

    2011-10-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) have been hypothesized to result from a distortion in perception, whereby top-down factors influence the process of body representation. Perceptual illusions provide a novel method of investigating this hypothesis. This study aimed to investigate whether self-reported unexplained symptoms are associated with altered experience of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). A non-clinical MUS group with high scores on the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ), and a control group with low scores on this scale, were exposed to the RHI. Illusion experience was measured by self-reports and by proprioceptive alteration. After controlling for somatosensory amplification and trait anxiety, the low-SDQ group responded significantly more strongly to the RHI on both questionnaire and proprioceptive measures of the illusion. In contrast, the high-SDQ group scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Aberrations Scale, a measure of bodily distortions in daily life. These findings support the proposed link between MUS and disturbances in body representation, and suggest that a decreased reliance on current sensory inputs may contribute to symptom experience in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Student laboratory reports: an approach to improving feedback and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Støvneng, Jon Andreas

    2018-05-01

    We present an ongoing effort in improving the quality of laboratory reports written by first and second year physics students. The effort involves a new approach where students are given the opportunity to submit reports at intermediate deadlines, receive feedback, and then resubmit for the final deadline. In combination with a differential grading system, instead of pass/fail, the improved feedback results in higher quality reports. Improvement in the quality of the reports is visible through the grade statistics.

  3. Professional Bandwagons and Local Discursive Effects: Reporting the Literate Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Barbara

    Despite the considerable attention given to literacy assessment, there has been very little examination of one of the most common assessment and reporting practices; namely, the teacher written report card. What kinds of literate subjects are constructed in teachers' written assessments of students and what are the effects for different students?…

  4. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  5. Reported Use of Objectives by Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terrill A.; And Others

    The way that medical students used objectives throughout the curriculum and factors that influenced their level of use was studied at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, a three-year medical school with an entirely objectives-based curriculum. A questionnaire mailed to 75 students yielded a 75 percent return. The predominant modes for…

  6. Do Exercisers With Musculoskeletal Injuries Report Symptoms of Depression and Stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Gudex, Claire; Andersen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    on somatic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and emotional stress, and measure self-rated health in regular exercisers presenting to a sports medicine clinic with musculoskeletal injury. The secondary aim was to identify psychosocial factors...... associated with depression in injured exercisers and the potential need for psychological counselling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: A sports medicine clinic for injuries of the foot, knee, or shoulder. PARTICIPANTS: Regular exercisers with present injuries (n=694) and exercisers without...... completed the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L), and questions on sociodemographics, exercise habits, and injury history. RESULTS: Symptoms of depression were reported by 12% of injured exercisers and 5% of non-injured controls (p

  7. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Modeling Associations between Principals' Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students' Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)-models were used to model the number of symptoms. Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006-2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students.

  9. Relationships between stress, coping and depressive symptoms among overseas university preparatory Chinese students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Gwo-Liang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems in young people are an important public health issue. Students leaving their hometown and family at a young age to pursue better educational opportunities overseas are confronted with life adjustment stress, which in turn affects their mental health and academic performance. This study aimed to examine the relationships among stress, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms using the stress coping framework in overseas Chinese university preparatory students in Taiwan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at an overseas Chinese university preparatory institute in Taiwan. Of enrolled overseas Chinese university preparatory students at 2009, 756 completed a structured questionnaire measuring stress, strategies for coping with it, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results High levels of stress significantly predicted the adoption of active, problem-focused coping strategies (R2 = 0.13, p R2 = 0.24, p z = 8.06, p Conclusion Our study results suggested that stress is associated with coping strategies and depressive symptoms and passive strategies mediate the relation between stress and depressive symptoms in overseas Chinese university preparatory students.

  10. Orthorexia nervosa: relationship with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Cena, Hellas

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between ORTO-15 score and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among female and male university students and to examine the predictive model of ORTO-15 in both groups. One hundred and twenty students participated in the present study (mean age 22.74 years, SD 7.31). The ORTO-15 test, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Body Uneasiness Test were used for the present study. Our results revealed no gender differences in ORTO-15 score. Our results show, rather unexpectedly, that in female students lower scores, corresponding to greater severity, were related to less pathological body image discomfort and obsessive-compulsive signs, while in male students, lower ORTO-15 scores were related to less pathological eating patterns, as behaviors and symptoms. Further studies regarding the relationship between ON and anorexia nervosa, as well as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, are needed to better understand the causality. Level of Evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  11. The power of positive and negative expectations to influence reported symptoms and mood during exposure to wind farm sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Gamble, Greg; Cundy, Tim; Petrie, Keith J

    2014-12-01

    Wind farm developments have been hampered by claims that sound from wind turbines causes symptoms and negative health reports in nearby residents. As scientific reviews have failed to identify a plausible link between wind turbine sound and health effects, psychological expectations have been proposed as an explanation for health complaints. Building on recent work showing negative expectations can create symptoms from wind turbines, we investigated whether positive expectations can produce the opposite effect, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and improvements in reported health. 60 participants were randomized to either positive or negative expectation groups and subsequently exposed to audible wind farm sound and infrasound. Prior to exposure, negative expectation participants watched a DVD incorporating TV footage about health effects said to be caused by infrasound produced by wind turbines. In contrast, positive expectation participants viewed a DVD that outlined the possible therapeutic effects of infrasound exposure. During exposure to audible windfarm sound and infrasound, symptoms and mood were strongly influenced by the type of expectations. Negative expectation participants experienced a significant increase in symptoms and a significant deterioration in mood, while positive expectation participants reported a significant decrease in symptoms and a significant improvement in mood. The study demonstrates that expectations can influence symptom and mood reports in both positive and negative directions. The results suggest that if expectations about infrasound are framed in more neutral or benign ways, then it is likely reports of symptoms or negative effects could be nullified.

  12. Factors influencing mother-child reports of depressive symptoms and agreement among clinically referred depressed youngsters in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Eniko; Gentzler, Amy M; George, Charles; Kapornai, Krisztina; Tamás, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Maria; Vetró, Agnes

    2007-06-01

    Psychiatric assessments of children typically involve two informants, the child and the parent. Understanding discordance in their reports has been of interest to clinicians and researchers. We examine differences between mothers' and children's report of children's depressive symptom severity, and factors that may influence their reports and level of agreement. We hypothesized that agreement between mother and child would improve if (1) the mother is depressed, due to improved recall of mood congruent symptoms, (2) the child is older, due to better social-cognitive and communication skills, and (3) the child is a female. Subjects were 354 children (158 girls; mean age 11.69 years, SD: 2.05 years) with Major Depressive Disorder. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by a semi-structured interview separately with the mother and the child. Agreement on symptom severity was based on concordance of the presence and extent of symptoms. Maternal reports were significantly higher than their son's but not daughters'. Girls, particularly with increasing age, reported higher levels of symptoms; however mothers' reports were not affected by child sex or age. Maternal depression predicted more severe symptom reports for both children and mothers. Agreement between the mother and the child increased as children got older. The same clinician interviewed the mother and the child, which might inflate rates of agreement. However, this method mirrors clinical evaluation. During a clinical interview one must consider the age and sex of the child and the depressive state of the mother in assimilating information about the child.

  13. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  14. Teacher Reports of Student Health and Its Influence on Students' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Hollo, Alexandra; Robertson, Rachel E.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical health may be an important variable that influences students' behavioral and academic performance in school settings. Poor health status is hypothesized to negatively influence student performance even in the presence of evidence-based practices. In this study, teachers reported their perceptions of students' health status as well as…

  15. Students' Voices: A Report of the Student View of Dyslexia Study Skills Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Bernadette; Leather, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research using case studies of 22 university students receiving study skills development funded by the Disabled Student's Allowance at an independent dyslexia consultancy. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. The students identify the primary benefits of the tuition as: developing an understanding of dyslexia…

  16. Mothers' Reports of Parenting in Families of Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charlotte; Scoular, Douglas J.; Ohan, Jeneva L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the relations between a tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner and mothers' reports of their parenting behaviors, and the influence of social desirability on the associations among parenting practices and mothers' and children's symptoms. Forty-two mothers of 7 to 12 year old boys with symptoms of…

  17. Assessment of genuine and simulated dissociative identity disorder on the structured interview of reported symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; McNary, Scot W; Loewenstein, Richard J; Kolos, Amie C; Barr, Stefanie R

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about how to detect malingered dissociative identity disorder (DID). This study presents preliminary data from an ongoing study about the performance of DID patients on the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS, Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992), considered to be a "gold standard" structured interview in forensic psychology to detect feigning of psychological symptoms. Test responses from 20 dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients are compared to those of 43 well informed and motivated DID simulators. Both the simulators and DID patients endorsed such a high number of symptoms that their average overall scores would typically be interpreted as indicative of feigning. The simulators' mean scores were significantly higher than those of the DID patients on only four out of 13 scales. These results provide preliminary evidence that well informed and motivated simulators are able to fairly successfully simulate DID patients and avoid detection on the SIRS. Furthermore, many DID patients may be at risk for being inaccurately labeled as feigning on the SIRS.

  18. Hemangioma of the prostate - an unusual cause of lower urinary tract symptoms: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemangioma of the prostate gland is extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. There have been several cases of hemangioma of posterior urethra, urinary bladder and periprostatic plexus in the literature, all presenting with hematuria or hematospermia. Diagnosis of prostatic hemangioma is difficult due to its rarity and unspecific symptoms such as hematuria, hematospermia or lower urinary tract symptoms. It cannot be detected by conventional examinations such as cystoscopy or standard rectal ultrasonography. Case presentation We present a case of prostatic hemangioma in an 84-year old male presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Bleeding has not been a feature in our case and diagnosis was not made until after operation. The patient was treated as a case of bladder neck outflow obstruction with transurethral resection of prostate gland and simultaneous bladder neck incisions. A period of self-catheterization was instituted due to postoperative urinary retention as the result of detrusor insufficiency. Conclusion Hemangioma of prostate gland is extremely rare and symptomatic prostatic hemangioma should be treated either by transurethral resection of prostate or laser evaporation.

  19. The Symptoms Get Worse after Pregnancy in Sheehan's Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan’s syndrome, which is pituitary necrosis after severe postpartum hemorrhage and hypovolemia, may cause hypopituitarism immediately or several years later, depending on the degree of tissue destruction. We report an unusual case, in which a 55-year-old woman with Sheehan's syndrome got worse symptoms after spontaneous labor. In 1998, she had severe postpartum hemorrhage and pituitary necrosis during the third delivery, thus it was diagnosed as Sheehan’s syndrome by clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging. She was treated by replacement therapy including hydrocortisone and levothyroxine sodium. However, she had the fourth spontaneous pregnancy in 2000 and got worse symptoms after delivery. We carefully concluded that pregnancy provided no evidence against the diagnosis of Sheehan’s syndrome because pregnancy might improve hypopituitarism by stimulating the pituitary remnant to undergo hyperplasia and irritating the placenta to secrete hormone. However, pregnancy might aggravate the symptoms by inducing autoimmunity as well. All in all, early diagnosis and adequate medical treatment are important to provide a good prognosis of Sheehan’s syndrome.

  20. Vocal symptoms in Parkinson disease treated with levodopa. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, W S; Fenton, E; Niimi, S

    1982-01-01

    This is a report of a patient with unusually severe hoarseness in the absence of vocal fold pathology demonstrating Parkinson disease as one of the neurological diseases in which vocal symptoms occur. Although it is classifiably a severe, progressive, degenerative disorder, the popularity of pharmacotherapy for Parkinson disease during the past decade has resulted in improved functionality for an undetermined course of time in most patients. The classically described deterioration of speech ad voice may develop in a variant manner difficult to distinguish as disease-related, as this case report illustrates. An explanation of the hoarseness based on dyssynchronous vocal fold motion related to the disease is suggested by the acoustic methods (spectrography, waveform analysis) used in this study, and supported by strobe light laryngoscopy. This conclusion is important because of the extremely high incidences of varying degrees of hoarseness reported in recent studies of Parkinson disease.

  1. Mental Wellbeing and Self-reported Symptoms of Reproductive Tract Infections among Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama A. Khopkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the self-reported mental wellbeing among slum-dwelling adolescents in Western India and asked whether adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing and self-reported symptoms suggestive of reproductive tract infections (RTIs were associated. A sub-section of a cross-sectional personal interview survey among unmarried 10–18-year-old adolescents (n= 85 in a slum in the city of Nashik was analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between sociodemographic variables, physical health indicators, and adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental wellbeing. Nearly every other postmenarcheal girl reported having experienced symptoms suggestive of RTIs during the last twelve months. Adolescent postmenarcheal girls’ mental health and some aspects of somatic health appear to be closely interrelated. Understanding the relationship between adolescent mental wellbeing and reproductive health in low-income countries requires further investigation. Health service development in growing informal urban agglomerations in India and beyond should provide combined mental and reproductive health services for adolescents.  

  2. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  3. Evaluation of the reported association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms or disorder with Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A K; Shapiro, E

    1992-01-01

    This review evaluates the evidence reporting an association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with Tourette's syndrome or disorder (TS). Published reports in the literature describing a relationship between OCS-OCD and TS provided the data for the review. The methodological adequacy of the studies are discussed and rated on five criteria: adequacy of the experimental sample, presence and adequacy of the control sample, whether tics are defined as OCS-OCD, whether blind procedures are used to diagnose OCS-OCD in subjects and controls, and evidence for the reliability and validity of OCS-OCD measures. Although there are considerable clinical indications suggesting an association of OCS-OCD with TS and chronic motor tic disorder (CMT), and a possible overlap between OSC-OCD and TS, our evaluation of the evidence does not provide adequate support for an association between these disorders. To meaningfully evaluate the possible relationship between OCS-OCD and TS requires development of specific criteria for classification of OCS-OCD-TS symptoms, use of adequate experimental and control samples, blind evaluation, reliable and valid measures of OCS-OCD-TS, and appropriate statistical analysis. If such studies are performed, it is possible that the strong relationship reported between OCS-OCD and TS is more likely to be artifact than fact, and recent bandwagon effect rather than the latest breakthrough.

  4. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel R; Phelan, Sean M; Burke, Sara E; Ruben, Mollie A; Perry, Sylvia P; Burgess, Diana J; Nelson, David B; Yeazel, Mark W; Knudsen, John M; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as nonheterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. This study included 4,673 first-year students who self-reported sexual orientation in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Of 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.04]), anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08-2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15-2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% versus 12.7%, P sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being.

  5. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S; Messelt, Edvard B; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; Pxerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; Pxerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; Pxerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; Pxerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  6. [Case report: kleptomania and other psychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Yüksel, Ebru; Taşkin, E Oryal; Yilmaz Ovali, Gülgün; Karaçam, Melek; Esen Danaci, Ayşen

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is usually a serious condition, which can result in neurological disturbances or death. In some patients with CO intoxication, but not usually, a biphasic pattern can be seen. In this condition, after antitoxic treatment, patients may completely recover and after a short recovery period, neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms appear again. This condition is known as delayed encephalopathy and its occurrence rate is between 0.06% and 11.8%. Herein, we report a case with delayed encephalopathy after CO intoxication, which began with neurological symptoms and continued with obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, kleptomania, and psychotic disorder. The 41-year-old female patient had no psychiatric or neurological symptoms or disorders prior to CO intoxication. Increased signal intensity changes in the basal region of the left temporal lobe (including the cortex and subcortical white matter), globus pallidus (bilateral), and cerebellar cortical and subcortical white matter (bilaterally symmetrical) was detected on axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, there were atrophic changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of kleptomania described after CO intoxication in the literature. We discuss the organic etiology of kleptomania and the other psychiatric symptoms of this patient in the light of recent research. We concluded that the kleptomania seen in this patient was related to concurrent lesions in the temporal lobe and globus pallidus; in other words, her kleptomania may have been related to dysfunction simultaneously seen in both the temporolimbic and frontal-subcortical circuits.

  7. Race influences parent report of concerns about symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Meghan Rose; Childs, Amber W; Richards, Megan; Robins, Diana L

    2017-11-01

    Racial differences in parent report of concerns about their child's development to healthcare providers may contribute to delayed autism spectrum disorder diagnoses in Black children. We tested the hypotheses that compared to White parents, Black parents of children with autism spectrum disorder would report fewer concerns about autism symptoms and would be more likely to report concerns about disruptive behaviors. A sample of 18- to 40-month-old toddlers ( N = 174) with autism spectrum disorder and their parent participated. After screening positive for autism spectrum disorder risk, but prior to a diagnostic evaluation, parents completed free-response questions soliciting concerns about their child's development. Parent responses were coded for the presence or the absence of 10 possible concerns, which were grouped into autism concerns (e.g. social and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns) or non-autism concerns (e.g. general developmental and disruptive behavior concerns). Compared to White parents, Black parents reported significantly fewer autism concerns and fewer social and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns. However, Black parents did not report significantly fewer non-autism concerns. Race did not influence parent report of disruptive behavior concerns. Lower reporting of autism concerns by Black parents may impact providers' abilities to identify children who need further screening or evaluation.

  8. Self-reported adherence to oral cancer therapy: relationships with symptom distress, depression, and personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry DL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Donna L Berry,1–3 Traci M Blonquist,4 Fangxin Hong,4,5 Barbara Halpenny,1 Ann H Partridge2,3 1Phyllis F Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 2Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Therapeutic cancer chemotherapy is most successful when complete dosing is achieved. Because many newer therapeutic agents are oral and self-administered by the patient, adherence is a concern. The purpose of our analysis was to explore relationships between adherence, patient characteristics, and barriers to adherence.Methods: This secondary analysis utilized self-reported data from a randomized trial of self-care management conducted at two cancer centers in the US. Symptom distress was measured using the 15-item Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15 and depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Adherence to oral medication was self-reported using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Measures were collected via Web-based, study-specific software ~8 weeks after treatment start date. Odds of low/medium adherence (score <8 were explored using univariate logistic regression. Given the number of factors and possible relationships among factors, a classification tree was built in lieu of a multivariable logistic regression model.Results: Of the eligible participants enrolled, 77 were on oral therapy and 70 had an MMAS score. Forty-nine (70% reported a high adherence score (=8. Higher odds of low/medium adherence were associated with greater symptom distress (P=0.09, more depression (P=0.05, chemotherapy vs hormonal oral medication (P=0.03, being female (P=0.02, and being randomized to the control group in the parent trial (P=0.09. Conversely, high adherence was associated with

  9. Self-reported wrist and finger symptoms associated with other physical/mental symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-03-01

    Recently, computer, mobile phone and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and to analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-computers and mobile phones. A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 working-age Finns (age 18-65). Via a questionnaire, 723 persons reported wrist and finger symptoms often or more with use. Over 80% use mobile phones daily and less than 30% use desktop computers or the Internet daily at leisure, e.g., over 89.8% quite often or often experienced pain, numbness or aches in the neck, and 61.3% had aches in the hips and the lower back. Only 33.7% connected their symptoms to computer use. In the future, the development of new devices and Internet services should incorporate the ergonomics of the hands and wrists.

  10. [Relationship between personality organization and the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among university students in health careers in the Region of Coquimbo, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, René Barraza; Navarro, Nadia Muñoz; Astorga, Ana Contreras

    The literature reports a set of variables associated with depression, anxiety and stress in health career students. The only one of these that could have a constant input is the structure of personality organisation. The present study aims to determine the relationship between the dimensions of personality organization and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms reported by first-year university health career students. Under a non-experimental ex-post-facto design, the personality organisation was evaluated in 235 1st year university, medical, nursing, and kinesiology from three universities of La Serena and Coquimbo (Chile). Inventory of personality organization and scale of depression, anxiety and stress to sift participants was used. The relationship of personality with depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms was determined by multiple regression analysis. It was found that the primary and overall personality dimensions explained 28% of the variance of depression (Pstress 22%, with the use of primitive defenses and identity diffusion dimensions that largely contribute to the explanatory model. The dimensions of personality organization could have a significant relationship with the emergence of depression, anxiety and stress, as the explanatory burden dimension provides the primitive defenses and identity diffusion. These results may be useful for early recognition of aspects of personality of applicants, and to perform actions that strengthen them in order to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Expectancy Effects on Self-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Simulated Neurofeedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace J; Suhr, Julie A

    2018-03-31

    Expectancy is a psychological factor that can impact treatment effectiveness. Research on neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests expectancy may contribute to treatment outcomes, though evidence for expectancy as an explanatory factor is sparse. This pilot study investigated the effects of expectancies on self-reported ADHD symptoms in simulated neurofeedback. Forty-six adults who were concerned that they had ADHD expected to receive active neurofeedback, but were randomly assigned to receive a placebo with false feedback indicating attentive (positive false feedback) or inattentive (negative false feedback) states. Effects of the expectancy manipulation were measured on an ADHD self-report scale. Large expectancy effects were found, such that individuals who received positive false feedback reported significant decreases in ADHD symptoms, whereas individuals who received negative false feedback reported significant increases in ADHD symptoms. Findings suggest that expectancy should be considered as an explanatory mechanism for ADHD symptom change in response to neurofeedback.

  12. Course of self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in substance abusers during early treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...

  13. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients wearing bimaxillary complete dentures, removable partial dentures and in students with natural dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Thaisa B; Conci, Ricardo A; Pezzini, Maristela M G; Pezzini, Rolando P; Mendonça, Márcio J

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) has attained a prominent role within the context of dental care due to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD in students at the State University of West of Paraná (UNIOESTE) with natural dentition, and in patients with removable partial dentures and double complete dentures. A total of 210 randomly selected individuals of both genders were evaluated, being divided into three groups: seventy students at the UNIOESTE with natural dentition (Group 1), seventy patients with removable partial dentures (Group 2) and seventy patients with bimaxillary complete dentures (Group 3). The data were collected by a single examiner using the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire for triage, where a single affirmative response to any of the situations mentioned was enough to carry out clinical evaluation. Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann Whitney, Chi-Square, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests were performed. The most prevalent signs and symptoms of TMD in Group 1 were pain or difficulty in chewing or talking, perception of recent change in bite and deviations during the course of mandibular movements. In Group 2 they were perceptions of recent changes in the bite, deflections in the mandibular movements, presence of joint sounds, pain during excursive movements and muscle tenderness. The most prevalent signs and symptoms in Group 3 were limited to mouth opening and poor stability and retention of at least one of the prostheses. Group 3 also reported having received treatment for headaches or facial pain with a high prevalence. Group 2 had the highest prevalence of signs and symptoms. Prevalence was similar in Groups 1 and 3.

  14. Theory of Mind, Social Desirability, and Unlikely Symptom Reporting in Offenders With and Without Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David P; Arntz, Arnoud; Slaats, Mariëtte E; Hannemann, Tina

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between psychopathy and theory of mind (ToM), by comparing the performance of nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 40), psychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) on Happé's test of ToM (Happé, 1994). In addition, we investigated whether offenders' ToM skills would moderate the association between the antisocial psychopathy component (Factor 2) and self-presentation (i.e., the tendency to report social desirability and unlikely symptoms). Results showed groups did not differ in ToM performance. As expected though, ToM moderated the association between psychopathy and self-presentation: only for offenders relatively high in ToM, Factor 2 was strongly related to less social desirability and more unlikely symptom reporting. These results could indicate that offenders who are high in both ToM and Factor 2 exaggerate their mental dysfunction to express their need for clinical attention. Results are used to critically evaluate the interpretation of occurrences in which offenders overplay their psychopathology.

  15. The Influence of Medical Evaluation Board Status on Symptom Reporting Among Service Members with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approvai 11APR 20 17 1. Your paper, entitled The Influence of Medical Evaluation Board Status on... influence o f medical evaluation board status on symptom reporting among service members w ith traumatic brain injury 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? D...Page 3 of 3 Pages Title: The influence of medical evaluation board status on symptom reporting among service members with traumatic brain injury

  16. Use of mobile device technology to continuously collect patient-reported symptoms during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Falchook, MD

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: A substantial percentage of patients used mobile devices to continuously report symptoms throughout a course of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future studies should evaluate the impact of mobile device symptom reporting on improving patient outcomes.

  17. Self-Reported Knee Symptoms Assessed by KOOS Questionnaire in Downhill Runners (Skyrunners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Sergio Roi

    Full Text Available The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running.The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire.This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients' opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m.Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12% of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01.In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS.

  18. Web based view of SBA beamline status (summer student report)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156364

    2016-01-01

    Summer student project report by Branislav Jenco. The document starts with some general opinions on the summer student program as well as the lectures, continues with a detailed work log and finally finishes with several appendices of technical documentation which make up the bulk of the material.

  19. Self-Reported Reasons for Why College Students Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 526 on-campus college students about their reasons for drinking alcoholic beverages. Results indicated that students reported drinking because they liked the taste of alcohol and because drinking helped them celebrate special occasions. Negative or disintegrative reasons were endorsed rarely, and then usually by males, Greek organization…

  20. Student Flow Model SFM-IA Reports. Technical Report 42. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    Examples of the reports generated by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) Student Flow Model (SFM) IA are presented. The SFM-IA is a tool for analyzing the historical movement of students between the various fields of study and student levels in an institution and for estimating the future enrollments in each field…

  1. Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Tuula; Kuusikko, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Haapsamo, Helena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine psychiatric symptoms in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders reported by multiple informants. Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR), while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Teachers of adolescents with AS/HFA completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The informants reported significantly more psychiatric symptoms, especially withdrawn, anxious/depressed, social and attention problems, in adolescents with AS/HFA than in controls. In contrast to findings in the general population, the psychiatric problems of adolescents with AS/HFA are well acknowledged by multiple informants, including self-reports. However, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more commonly reported by adolescents with AS/HFA and their teachers than their parents, indicating that some emotional distress may be hidden from their parents.

  2. Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hao-Chang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs. 6.1 [2.2], P menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.

  3. The prevalence of self-reported premenstrual symptoms and evaluation of regular exercise with premenstrual symptoms among female employees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Liao, Li-Ling

    2018-03-01

    Few studies have focused on premenstrual symptoms in employees. This study explored the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms in 7,193 female employees aged 18-55 years in a large electronics manufacturer in Taiwan from August 2014 to December 2014 and examined whether regular exercise was associated with premenstrual symptoms. Information was collected on demographics, lifestyle, menstrual history, menstrual pain, and premenstrual symptoms. Half of the participants reported irregular menstruation; 79.4% reported a moderate menstruation amount, and half reported little impact of menstrual pain at work. In order of prevalence, symptoms were "easy to fatigue" (24%), "backache" (21.2%), and "abdominal bloating" (17.4%). Participants who engaged in regular exercise reported fewer backaches (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.91), somatic discomfort (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.96), headache (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98), diarrhea (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60-0.96), constipation (aaOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.78), less irritability (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.65-0.94), feeling morose and depressed (aOR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), crying (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.87), and emotional lability (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.58-0.91). Regular exercise was associated with decreased menstrual pain (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.96). Our findings provide a better understanding of premenstrual symptoms in female workers, allowing for the development of premenstrual health programs to improve their health and quality of life.

  4. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms and self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in female TMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.

  5. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  6. Mobile phone use, school electromagnetic field levels and related symptoms: a cross-sectional survey among 2150 high school students in Izmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durusoy, Raika; Hassoy, Hür; Özkurt, Ahmet; Karababa, Ali Osman

    2017-06-02

    Health outcomes of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phones and their base stations are of concern. Conducting multidisciplinary research, targeting children and exploring dose-response are recommended. Our objectives were to describe the mobile phone usage characteristics of high school students and to explore the association between mobile phone usage characteristics, high school EMF levels and self-reported symptoms. This cross-sectional study's data were collected by a survey questionnaire and by measuring school EMF levels between November 2009 and April 2011. A sample size of 2530 was calculated from a total of 20,493 students in 26 high schools and 2150 (85.0%) were included in the analysis. The frequencies of 23 symptoms were questioned and analysed according to 16 different aspects of mobile phone use and school EMF levels, exploring also dose-response. School EMF levels were measured with Aaronia Spectran HF-4060 device. Chi square and trend tests were used for univariate and logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses. Among participants, 2021 (94.0%) were using mobile phones and 129 (6.0%) were not. Among users, 49.4% were speaking mobile phone users. Dose-response relationships were observed especially for the number of calls per day, total duration of calls per day, total number of text messages per day, position and status of mobile phone at night and making calls while charging as exposures and headache, concentration difficulties, fatigue and sleep disturbances as general symptoms and warming of the ear and flushing as local symptoms. We found an association between mobile phone use and especially headache, concentration difficulties, fatigue, sleep disturbances and warming of the ear showing also dose-response. We have found limited associations between vicinity to base stations and some general symptoms; however, we did not find any association with school EMF levels. Decreasing the numbers of calls and messages, decreasing the

  7. Supplementing the Braden scale for pressure ulcer risk among medical inpatients: the contribution of self-reported symptoms and standard laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of

  8. Peer assessment of student-produced mechanics lab report videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Scott S.; Aiken, John M.; Lin, Shih-Yin; Greco, Edwin F.; Alicea-Muñoz, Emily; Schatz, Michael F.

    2017-12-01

    We examine changes in students' rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers' physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings to lab reports than do experts, that peers begin the semester by giving high ratings most frequently and end the semester with frequent middle ratings, and that peers go through the semester without much change in the frequency of low ratings. We then use student interviews to develop a model for student engagement with peer assessment. This model is based on two competing influences which appear to shape peer evaluation behavior: a strong disinclination to give poor ratings with a complementary preference to give high ratings when in doubt, and an attempt to develop an expertlike criticality when assessing peers' work.

  9. Premenstrual symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japanese high school students 9 months after the great East-Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Tadakawa, Mari; Koga, Shoko; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East-Japan Earthquake occurred and a massive tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan. Catastrophic disasters such as earthquakes and war cause tremendous damage, not only physically but also mentally. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cluster of psychological and somatic symptoms that are limited to the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is considered a severe form of PMS. To determine the relationship between premenstrual symptoms and natural disaster-induced PTSD among Japanese adolescent girls, we conducted a cross-sectional study. Overall, 1489 high school students who belong to two high schools in Sendai, the largest city in northeastern Japan, were assessed 9 months after the earthquake. These schools are located inland, far from the seashore, and were not damaged by the tsunami. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed using the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire, and PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Japanese-language version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised, which is a widely used self-assessment questionnaire about PTSD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 1,180 girls who completed the questionnaires and 118 girls (10.0%) were classified as having PTSD. The prevalence rates of PMDD and moderate to severe PMS increased according to the comorbidity of PTSD (p PMS/PMDD and natural disaster-induced PTSD. The comorbidity of PMS/PMDD and PTSD may complicate the follow-up of both conditions.

  10. Adding metoclopramide to paroxetine induced extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia in a depressed woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igata R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ryohei Igata, Hikaru Hori, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Jun Nakamura Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan Abstract: A 54-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and prescribed paroxetine 20 mg/day. In around May 2013, the patient experienced gastric discomfort, so metoclopramide was prescribed. Beginning on June 4, 2013, the patient was given metoclopramide, 10 mg intravenously, twice per week. On the seventh day after beginning metoclopramide, facial hot flushes, increased sweating, muscle rigidity, and galactorrhea were noted. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS rapidly subsided in response to an intramuscular injection of biperiden. Blood biochemical tests revealed an elevated serum prolactin level of 44 ng/mL. After stopping metoclopramide, EPS disappeared. Serum prolactin level decreased to 15 ng/mL after 4 weeks. In our case, although no adverse reactions had previously occurred following the administration of metoclopramide, the patient developed EPS and hyperprolactinemia following the administration of this antiemetic in combination with paroxetine. Paroxetine and metoclopramide are mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, and they are inhibitors for CYP2D6. We report a case with EPS and hyperprolactinemia whose plasma paroxetine and metoclopramide level rapidly increased after the addition of metoclopramide. Our experience warrants the issuing of a precaution that adverse reactions may arise following the coadministration of metoclopramide and paroxetine even at their respective standard dose levels. Keywords: metoclopramide, paroxetine, extrapyramidal symptoms, SSRI, hyperprolactinemia, depression

  11. The Association between Dietary Intake of Folate and Physical Activity with Psychological Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms among Students from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teymoor Yary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B6, B9, and B12 and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints.

  12. Relationship between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement and self-reported symptoms in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.

  13. The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Relationship between Problematic Internet Use and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Students Following the Sewol Ferry Disaster in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Seon-Young; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between problematic internet use (PIU) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents in South Korea. A cross-sectional survey was administered to community students who attended primary, secondary, and high schools in the Jindo area 1–2.5 months after the Sewol ferry disaster. Of the 1,744 respondents, 392 students who were exposed to the disaster, witnessing the rescue work directly, were evaluated. PTSD symptoms were measured ...

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms reporting in Malaysian adolescents: do adolescents, parents and teachers agree with each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Salwina, Wan Ismail; Baharudin, Azlin; Nik Ruzyanei, Nik Jaafar; Midin, Marhani; Rahman, Fairuz Nazri Abdul

    2013-12-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical diagnosis relying on persistence of symptoms across different settings. Information are gathered from different informants including adolescents, parents and teachers. In this cross-sectional study involving 410 twelve-year old adolescents, 37 teachers and 367 parents from seven schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, reliability of ADHD symptoms among the various informants were reported. ADHD symptoms (i.e. predominantly hyperactive, predominantly inattentive and combined symptoms) were assessed by adolescents, teachers and parents, using Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-report Scale (CASS), Conner's Teachers Rating Scale (CTRS) and Conner's Parents Rating Scale (CPRS) respectively. For predominantly hyperactive symptoms, there were statistically significant, weak positive correlations between parents and teachers reporting (r=0.241, pADHD symptoms among Malaysian adolescents. While multiple informant ratings are required to facilitate the diagnosis of ADHD, effort should be taken to minimize the disagreement in reporting and better utilize the information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  17. Biological alterations and self-reported symptoms among insecticides-exposed workers in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toe, Adama M; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Guissou, Pierre I

    2012-03-01

    Occupationally exposed workers, farm workers and plant protection agents in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso were interviewed to assess adverse health effects of insecticides. The subjects were also examined for changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters. The prevalence of liver and kidney dysfunction was found to be quite high among insecticide applicators, especially among plant protection agents. The prevalence of biochemical alterations seems to be correlated to the frequency of insecticide use. However, no significant differences were found between the hematological parameters among farm workers and plant protection agents. The hematological parameters of all the insecticide applicators were normal. The great majority of insecticide applicators (85%) reported symptoms related to insecticide exposure. The use of insecticides in the agriculture of Burkina Faso is threatening to human health.

  18. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as a first symptom of infective endocarditis: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroni, M; Prappa, E; Kokkevi, I

    2018-04-01

    Septic emboli are an unusual cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, for which few reports exist in the literature. This paper presents two cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, initially considered as idiopathic, but which were caused by septic emboli. Hearing loss in these cases was bilateral, sequential and total. The first patient had mild fever one week prior to their presentation with sudden sensorineural hearing loss; the other patient had no additional symptoms at presentation. These patients were later diagnosed with infective endocarditis, at two and seven months following the sudden sensorineural hearing loss respectively, showing that septic emboli had been the cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Septic emboli should be considered as a possible cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in cases of total hearing loss. This form of hearing loss should prompt the otolaryngologist to further investigate for infective endocarditis.

  19. Use of mobile device technology to continuously collect patient-reported symptoms during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchook, Aaron D; Tracton, Gregg; Stravers, Lori; Fleming, Mary E; Snavely, Anna C; Noe, Jeanne F; Hayes, David N; Grilley-Olson, Juneko E; Weiss, Jared M; Reeve, Bryce B; Basch, Ethan M; Chera, Bhishamjit S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of toxicity allows for timely delivery of supportive measures during radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The current paradigm requires weekly evaluation of patients by a provider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring patient reported symptoms via mobile devices. We developed a mobile application for patients to report symptoms in 5 domains using validated questions. Patients were asked to report symptoms using a mobile device once daily during treatment or more often as needed. Clinicians reviewed patient-reported symptoms during weekly symptom management visits and patients completed surveys regarding perceptions of the utility of the mobile application. The primary outcome measure was patient compliance with mobile device reporting. Compliance is defined as number of days with a symptom report divided by number of days on study. There were 921 symptom reports collected from 22 patients during treatment. Median reporting compliance was 71% (interquartile range, 45%-80%). Median number of reports submitted per patient was 34 (interquartile range, 21-53). Median number of reports submitted by patients per week was similar throughout radiation therapy and there was significant reporting during nonclinic hours. Patients reported high satisfaction with the use of mobile devices to report symptoms. A substantial percentage of patients used mobile devices to continuously report symptoms throughout a course of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future studies should evaluate the impact of mobile device symptom reporting on improving patient outcomes.

  20. Report of an innovative research program for baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, E P; Crain, H

    1992-10-01

    In summary, an innovative low-cost way to teach undergraduate students about research and to socialize students into attending research conferences has been developed. It is not perfect yet, but with time, critical students, and responsive research-productive faculty, each program should improve. It is not surprising that sophomore students do not achieve the objectives at the same level as older students. As students move closer to the "real" world of nursing practice and develop increasing sophistication about nursing in general and research in particular, they are, hopefully, more knowledgeable consumers of nursing research. What is particularly satisfying to the planners of those Research Days is that through the experience of attending Undergraduate Research Day at various points in their educational progress, students are socialized into discussing research. Additionally, they seemed to develop some degree of comfort with this aspect of their future nursing role. The RN and former student panel participants normalized research involvement for the student attendees. Panel member stories about their mistakes and successes made students realize that nursing investigations need not be the sole property of those with doctoral degrees. A serendipitous outcome of these programs was an increased awareness by students of the specific research project in which their teachers were engaged. Students informally reported a feeling of pride and reflected accomplishment. The importance of timing in offering such programs should not have been a surprise at this urban commuter university. Unwittingly, in scheduling the Friday afternoon program the planners ignored the initial consideration that the program not impose financial hardship on students.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-08-03

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students' levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group.

  2. Unaware of a large leiomyoma: A case report with respect to unusual symptoms of large leiomyomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Mülayim

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Patients might have no symptoms or might be unaware of the presence of a large uterine leiomyoma, as in our case; however, large leiomyomas have various unusual symptoms in addition to the common ones. These symptoms should not be disregarded or underestimated.

  3. Reporting of symptoms in randomized controlled trials of atopic eczema treatments: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, L. A. A.; Chalmers, J. R.; Rogers, N. K.; Nankervis, H.; Spuls, P. I.

    2016-01-01

    'Symptoms' is a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials, agreed by consensus as part of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative. To standardize and validate the core domain symptoms and symptom instruments for AE trials the HOME roadmap is followed. Its first step is

  4. Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L C; Henry, E A; Willcutt, E G; Kinnear, M K; Ito, T A

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p'scannabis (pcannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Depressive symptoms and related factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province:a two-year longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Linsheng; Chen, Mingchun; Chen, Jian; Lyu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yuhong; Sun, Ying; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, trends on its longitudinal development and related influencing factors among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county of Anhui province. Through cluster sampling methods, all students from 3 to 9 grades in 5 primary schools and 3 middle schools in Changfeng county of Anhui province were investigated through questionnaire as subjects of baseline survey in December 2009. Subjects of this longitudinal study were students in grades 3, 4 and 7 at the time of the baseline survey and were contacted once a year for two years. At last, a total of 816 students participated in all the three surveys. A structured questionnaire including Children's Depression Inventory, socio-demographic characteristics and some potential influential factors was employed for this study. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the related influencing factors of children's depressive symptoms in the longitudinal study. Prevalence rates of depressive symptoms were 11.3% , 10.4% and 8.5% , respectively, at the baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up studies, among primary and middle school students. Scores on depressive symptoms of total subjects and children who had always been left at home in the follow-up process showed significant differences at the three surveys (F = 13.423, P students who showed depressive symptoms at the baseline survey remained those depressive symptoms at the 1-year follow-up study and 87 percent of the 23 students who had depressive symptoms at the baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys still showing depressive symptoms at the 2-year follow-up study. Results from the GEE program indicated that grade 3 students, having syblings, family with dysfunction or at low level of self-esteem etc., were prone to development while sex and parents' educational level were not correlated with depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among primary and middle school students in Changfeng county

  6. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  7. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships. Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students.A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names. Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale.The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters.Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  8. Less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity is associated with lower risk of reporting negative mental health symptoms among Icelandic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soffia M Hrafnkelsdottir

    Full Text Available Few studies have explored the potential interrelated associations of screen time and physical activity with mental health in youth, particularly using objective methods. We examined cross-sectional associations of these variables among Icelandic adolescents, using objective and subjective measurements of physical activity.Data were collected in the spring of 2015 from 315 tenth grade students (mean age 15.8 years in six elementary schools in metropolitan Reykjavík, Iceland. Participants reported, via questionnaire, on demographics, weekly frequency of vigorous physical activity, daily hours of screen time and mental health status (symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatic complaints, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Total physical activity was measured over one week with wrist-worn accelerometers. Body composition was determined by DXA-scanning. Poisson regression analysis was used to explore independent and interactive associations of screen time and physical activity with mental health variables, adjusting for gender, body fat percentage and maternal education.Less screen time (below the group median of 5.3 h/day and more frequent vigorous physical activity (≥4x/week were each associated with reporting fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and life dissatisfaction. No significant associations were observed between objectively measured physical activity and mental health outcomes. Interactive regression analysis showed that the group reporting both less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity had the lowest risk of reporting symptoms of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and life dissatisfaction.Reports of less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity were associated with lower risk of reporting mental health problems among Icelandic adolescents. Those who reported a combination of engaging in less screen time and more frequent vigorous physical activity had the lowest risk

  9. mba.com Prospective Students Survey. 2015 Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 "mba.com Prospective Students Survey Report" explores the motivations, career goals, preferred program types, financial choices, decision time lines, and intended study destinations of individuals interested in pursuing a graduate management education. Findings analyzed in the report represent responses from nearly 12,000…

  10. Participation of Student Authors in Reports on Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeps, Andreas; Hemmer, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Since 2012, the University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt has been publishing an annual report on sustainability as part of its whole institution approach (WIA). This study aims to examine the participation in writing this report as it is experienced by the student stakeholders involved. The overall goal is to gain expertise concerning further…

  11. Evaluating the Gold Standard: A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Debbie; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is often touted as the gold standard of measures of feigning. This label likely arises in part out of the impressive accuracy rates reported in the extensive validation research that preceded its publication. However, since its publication, researchers not only…

  12. DSM-5 Changes and the Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Symptoms in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C.; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses.…

  13. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Susceptibility to Smoking, Perceived Addiction, and Psychobehavioral Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Ickes, Melinda J.; Butler, Karen M.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral effects of exposure among never- and ever-smoking college students. Participants: Participants were 665 college students at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Methods: This study is…

  14. Student Status and Academic Performance: Accounting for the Symptom of Long Duration of Studies in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikas, Elias; Panagiotidis, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This study employs administrative and survey data to assess the relationship between students' socioeconomic background and educational outcomes, using regression and quantile regression methods. We take into account the existing institutional framework which allows differentiation in the duration of studies among students. We examine the…

  15. Depressive symptoms, ruminative thinking, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes: A multiple mediation model among college students in three countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Pilatti, Angelina; Pearson, Matthew R; Mezquita, Laura; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós

    2018-01-01

    Recent research suggests that ruminative thinking (specifically problem-focused thoughts) may explain why individuals engage in drinking to cope (DTC) when dealing with depressive symptoms; which in turn leads to increased negative alcohol-related consequences. Cross-cultural studies addressing these phenomena are scarce. The present study cross-culturally tested whether four rumination facets (problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) uniquely mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and drinking motives/alcohol outcomes in a multicultural sample of college student drinkers (n=1429) from Spain, Argentina, and the U.S. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the models, controlling for sex. Further, we conducted invariance testing to determine whether our models were culturally-specific or culturally-universal. Within both proposed models, no rumination facet uniquely mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and drinking motives. However, an exploratory model with a second-order latent factor of ruminative thinking did significantly mediate these associations (exception was conformity motives). Further, there were two significant double-mediated associations that suggested that increased depressive symptoms is associated with increased ruminative thinking, which is associated with higher DTC motives, which in turn is associated with higher alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. All models were found to be invariant across countries and sex, suggesting that these associations may be relatively universal. Rumination is relevant to understand the increased vulnerability of college drinkers to exhibit greater alcohol consumption and negative consequences via DTC motives when dealing with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Student financial support. An inventory in 24 European countries. Background report for the project on portability of student financial support

    OpenAIRE

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the current national systems of student financial support in 24 European countries. It provides information on tuition fees, grants, scholarships, student loans, and indirect student support through students families (family allowances and tax benefits) and support in kind in the form of subsidies for travel, accommodation, student restaurants etc. It forms a background report for the study on the extent to which student financial support can be used for ...

  17. Peer assessment of student-produced mechanics lab report videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S. Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine changes in students’ rating behavior during a semester-long sequence of peer evaluation laboratory exercises in an introductory mechanics course. We perform a quantitative analysis of the ratings given by students to peers’ physics lab reports, and conduct interviews with students. We find that peers persistently assign higher ratings to lab reports than do experts, that peers begin the semester by giving high ratings most frequently and end the semester with frequent middle ratings, and that peers go through the semester without much change in the frequency of low ratings. We then use student interviews to develop a model for student engagement with peer assessment. This model is based on two competing influences which appear to shape peer evaluation behavior: a strong disinclination to give poor ratings with a complementary preference to give high ratings when in doubt, and an attempt to develop an expertlike criticality when assessing peers’ work.

  18. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom.

  19. Acculturation, Enculturation, Perceived Racism, and Psychological Symptoms among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…

  20. The Assessment of Bulimic Symptoms and Personality Correlates in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelberg, Daniel B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Classified college women (N=244) into three groups according to bulimic symptoms: (1) binge eating; (2) purging; and (3) controls. Results indicated purging may represent the critical behavior in bulimia assessment. Purgers showed lower self-esteem, lowered will control, and less regard for social demands, suggesting significant differences…

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  2. Restrictive Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…

  3. Validation of the Expanded Versions of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptom Checklist and the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.

  4. Student phase 1 - A report on work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Student is designed to expand on REX by providing a means of programming more acceptable to statisticians. The statisticians work examples and answer questions, and do not need to learn a new programming language. The key issues in a program by example system are to acquire the first example, to acquire an additional consistent example, and to acquire an inconsistent example declaring some previous example incorrect. This chapter reports how Student acquires its first example

  5. Prader-Willi syndrome, excessive daytime sleepiness, and narcoleptic symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weselake, Sara V; Foulds, Jessica L; Couch, Robert; Witmans, Manisha B; Rubin, Daniela; Haqq, Andrea M

    2014-04-17

    Sleep abnormalities, including narcolepsy and cataplexy, are a common feature of Prader-Willi syndrome. Long-term treatment with the central nervous system stimulant modafinil has not been reported. In this case report we present a longitudinal perspective of sleep abnormalities in a nine-year-old Caucasian girl with Prader-Willi syndrome from age two to age nine, and detail the response to treatment with the central nervous system stimulant modafinil. Our patient presented at two years of age with hypersomnia and narcoleptic episodes with cataplectic features. Initial polysomnograph testing revealed adequate sleep efficiency, but increased sleep fragmentation especially during rapid eye movement sleep. The narcoleptic episodes continued and a repeat polysomnograph at age five years confirmed features consistent with narcolepsy. Further sleep studies at six years, including a multiple sleep latency test, demonstrated signs of excessive daytime sleepiness. Treatment with modafinil was initiated at age seven years six months due to persistent hypersomnia and narcoleptic symptoms. Two polysomnograph studies were performed following treatment with modafinil, at age eight years six months and nine years three months. These studies showed excellent sleep efficiency and improvement of rapid eye movement sleep parameters, supporting the beneficial effects of long-term modafinil therapy. Long-term modafinil therapy may ameliorate the sleep disturbances of Prader-Willi syndrome and should be the focus of future clinical trials.

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Help-Negation among Chinese University Students in Taiwan: The Role of Gender, Anxiety and Help-Seeking Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiaowen

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the consideration of help-negation in regard to suicide to that of depressive symptoms in a large sample of 981 Chinese university students in Taiwan. The study examined the help-negation effects of depression and the impact of gender, anxiety, and help-seeking attitudes on that relationship. Chinese students, aged 17 to…

  7. The Mediator Role of Perceived Stress in the Relationship between Academic Stress and Depressive Symptoms among E-Learning Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Oh, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined a mediator role of perceived stress on the prediction of the effects of academic stress on depressive symptoms among e-learning students with visual impairments. Methods: A convenience sample for this study was collected for three weeks from November to December in 2012 among students with visual impairments…

  8. The Impact of an Online Educational Video and a Medical Amnesty Policy on College Students' Intentions to Seek Help in the Presence of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…

  9. Don't eat tomatoes: patient's self-reported experiences of causes of symptoms in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Lesley B; Norton, Christine; Jones, Roger

    2010-08-01

    About 30-50% of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) experience refractory symptoms despite taking proton pump inhibitors regularly. Epidemiology studies suggest lifestyle risks, but these are under-represented in existing guidelines. The potential for changes to positively impact on symptoms may be underestimated. Lifestyle advice currently appears to be ineffective. To inform the future design of a behaviour change intervention aimed at improving symptoms for patients with GORD, by exploring patient understanding and experiences of lifestyle influences on GORD symptoms. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 patients (12 women and 11 men) aged 30-86 years, aiming to identify lifestyle influences perceived by patients to affect their symptoms. Patients reported a wide range of daily influences on their symptoms, including diet, drinking with a meal, body position, alcohol, gaining weight, stress and anxiety. Dietary influences included types of food eaten and eating pattern-including speed of eating and meal size. Many foods were identified as troublesome, but not all foods affected all patients. Eating late and daytime tiredness were not recognized as causes or consequences of night-time reflux. Patients stated that daily living patterns affected their reflux symptoms, but influences were highly variable between respondents. Lifestyle factors appear to combine in unique patterns for individuals, but GORD patients may not be able to identify potential triggers and make changes for themselves. A behaviour change intervention might prove beneficial to these patients.

  10. Symptom Reporting Patterns of US Military Service Members with a History of Concussion According to Duty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lisa H; Cooper, Doug B; Reid, Matthew W; Khokhar, Bilal; Tsagaratos, Jennifer E; Kennedy, Jan E

    2018-03-28

    To compare symptom reporting patterns of service members with a history of concussion based on work status: full duty, limited duty, or in the Medical Evaluation Board (MEB)/disability process. Retrospective analysis of 181 service members with a history of concussion (MEB n = 56; limited duty n = 62; full duty n = 63). Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) Validity-10 cutoff (>22) and Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) cutoffs (≥10 and ≥8) were used to evaluate potential over-reporting of symptoms. The MEB group displayed significantly higher NSI scores and significantly higher proportion scored above the mBIAS ≥10 cutoff (MEB = 15%; limited duty = 3%; full duty = 5%). Validity-10 cutoff did not distinguish between groups. MEB but not limited duty status was associated with increased risk of over-reporting symptoms in service members with a history of concussion. Results support the use of screening measures for over-reporting in the MEB/disability samples.

  11. Current self-reported symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder are associated with total brain volume in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hoogman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD.

  12. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in a patient taking phenytoin and levetiracetam: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall David Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is a potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction with rash, fever, and internal organ involvement, often hepatitis, occurring most commonly two to eight weeks after initiation of a medication. The present case is an example of severe and potentially life-threatening hepatitis as a manifestation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome. Case presentation We report a case of anti-epileptic-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome in an 18-year-old African-American man who presented with a five-day history of rash, periorbital and upper extremity edema, hepatitis and fever. Laboratory findings revealed an atypical lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and elevated serum transaminases. No drug allergies were reported at the time of presentation, but phenytoin and levetiracetam therapy had been initiated five weeks prior to hospital admission for new-onset seizures. Both medications were discontinued on hospital admission, and after three days of high-dose corticosteroid therapy the patient experienced resolution of both his symptoms and laboratory markers of inflammation. Conclusion Given the significant mortality attributed to drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, medical personnel should be aware of the potential for this severe hypersensitivity reaction and should ensure close follow-up and offer anticipatory guidance when beginning any new medication, particularly anti-epileptic therapy. Early recognition of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome and initiation of appropriate therapy are imperative in limiting morbidity.

  13. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7?11?years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...

  14. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  15. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M. Shokry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women. A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2=22.6, p=0.000, continuous sleep until morning (χ2=19.2, p=0.001, nighttime sleep duration (χ2=20.2, p=0.000, and length of daytime naps (χ2=28.35, p=0.000. There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2=16.52, p=0.000 and increased nightmares (χ2=13.7, p=0.001. Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  16. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players: Are There Differences in Cognitive Functioning and Symptom Reporting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. cptnHook - Summer Student Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Asimakopoulou, Eleni - Myrto

    2015-01-01

    The present is a report of the work that was conducted during my 8-week summer school internship at CERN. The project was centered on the development of an instrumentation tool for the usage of mathematical functions in a scientific application. More specifically, $\\textbf{cptnHook}$ addresses a current issue that arises from the the extensive use of very time-consuming mathematical functions (such as transcendental functions) that results in them accounting for a big portion of their run-time. It is believed that the problem can be addressed with ad-hoc approximations of mathematical functions, for which a clear overview of the usage of the functions in the program is required. $\\textbf{cptnHook}$ approaches this problem by providing a measurement of the use of mathematical functions in a program by hooking into the machine code and probing the arguments of the functions, without modifying the application's source code. The outputs of the tool are provided in ROOT format for further on analysis.

  18. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Ekstrøm, Morten; Jensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore...

  19. Psychotic symptoms in refugees diagnosed with PTSD: a series of case reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Jensen, Mette; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2011-01-01

    In our clinical work, we treat refugees who have been exposed to trauma and who subsequently develop psychotic symptoms. However, the literature does not address the relationship between refugees with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms. Therefore the aim...

  20. Recommended patient-reported core set of symptoms to measure in adult cancer treatment trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeve, B.B.; Mitchell, S.A.; Dueck, A.C.; Basch, E.; Cella, D.; Miller Reilly, C.; Minasian, L.M.; Denicoff, A.M.; O'Mara, A.M.; Fisch, M.J.; Chauhan, C.; Aaronson, N.K.; Coens, C.; Watkins Bruner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee held a clinical trials planning meeting (September 2011) to identify a core symptom set to be assessed across oncology trials for the purposes of better understanding treatment

  1. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  2. Memory-guided force output is associated with self-reported ADHD symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Chennavasin, Amanda P; Yoder, Arie; Williams, Genevieve K R; Loken, Eric; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L

    2016-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorder in childhood and persists into adulthood in up to 65 % of cases. ADHD is associated with adverse outcomes such as the ability to gain and maintain employment and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse obesity workplace injuries and traffic accidents A majority of diagnosed children have motor deficits; however, few studies have examined motor deficits in young adults. This study provides a novel examination of visuomotor control of grip force in young adults with and without ADHD. Participants were instructed to maintain force production over a 20-second trial with and without real-time visual feedback about their performance. The results demonstrated that when visual feedback was available, adults with ADHD produced slightly higher grip force than controls. However, when visual feedback was removed, adults with ADHD had a faster rate of decay of force, which was associated with ADHD symptom severity and trait impulsivity. These findings suggest that there may be important differences in the way that adults with ADHD integrate visual feedback during continuous motor tasks. These may account for some of the motor impairments reported in children with ADHD. These deficits could result from (1) dysfunctional sensory motor integration and/or (2) deficits in short-term visuomotor memory.

  3. A report on student abuse during medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Ana Margarita; Vásquez, Alicia; Herskovic, Viviana; Calderón, José Luis; Jacard, Marcela; Pereira, Ana; Widdel, Lars

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, and the consequences, of abusive situations as perceived by students during the course of their medical training. A descriptive study was carried out surveying the entire 2000 fifth-year class of 181 in the Medical School of the University of Chile. The questionnaire was answered by 144 students. Results showed that 91.7% of the students who responded had suffered at least one episode of abuse while enrolled in medical school. The main offenders were teachers and peers. Verbal abuse was the most common (85.4%), followed by psychological (79.9%), sexual(26.4%) and physical (23.6%) abuse. Students reported that abuse had effects on their mental health, social life and the image they had of physicians; 17% considered dropping out of school as a consequence of this experience. Efforts should be addressed to prompt educators to reflect on their role.

  4. Self-reported suicide attempts and associated risk and protective factors among secondary school students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theresa M; Merry, Sally N; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon J; Watson, Peter D

    2007-03-01

    To examine associations between individual, family, school and community characteristics and rates of suicide attempts in a national population sample of New Zealand secondary school students. A total of 9570 randomly selected 9- to 13-year-old students from 114 schools were surveyed, using the New Zealand Adolescent Health Survey. This is a 523-item anonymous self-report comprehensive questionnaire delivered by Multi-Media Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing. Multivariate analyses were used to examine correlates of self-reported suicide attempts within the last 12 months. In total, 739 participants (4.7% of males and 10.5% of females) reported having made a suicide attempt within the last 12 months. Depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, -having a friend or family member attempt suicide, family violence and non-heterosexual attractions were independently associated with increased rates of suicide attempts while parents caring, other family members caring, teachers being fair and feeling safe at school were independently associated with decreased rates of suicide attempts. Caring friendships, attending worship frequently, possible sexual abuse and anxiety symptoms were not independently associated with suicide attempts. Risk and protective factors operated in the same way for male and female students and for those with and without other suicide predictors. New Zealand secondary school students, particularly female students, report high rates of suicide attempts. Risk of suicide attempts is lower in students reporting caring home and fair, safe school environments and this effect remains once depression is taken into account. This study confirms the importance of depression, substance use, problem behaviour, negative life events, exposure to suicide behaviour by others and the significance of sexual orientation in suicidal behaviour among school students and provides evidence of the importance of the family and school environments in reducing risk among this group.

  5. Self-reported symptoms and risk factors for digital ischaemia among international world-class beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Pol, Daan; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms is remarkably high among elite indoor volleyball players. Since the exposure to sport-specific demands may be higher in beach volleyball compared to indoor volleyball, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ischaemia-related symptoms and associated risk factors among world-class beach volleyball players. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was performed among beach volleyball players active during the 2013 Grand Slam Beach Volleyball in the Netherlands. In total, 60 of the 128 beach volleyball players (47%) participated: 26 males and 34 females from 17 countries. The self-reported prevalence of cold or blue or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition was 38% (n = 23). Two risk factors were independently associated with symptoms of blue or pale digits: more than 14 years playing volleyball (odds ratio (OR) 4.42, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 1.30-15.07) and sex (female) (OR 4.62, 90% CI 1.15-18.57). In conclusion, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischaemia is high among international world-class beach volleyball players. Female sex and the length of the volleyball career were independently associated with an increased risk of ischaemia-related symptoms. The high prevalence of these seemingly innocuous symptoms and possible associated risk factors warrant regular monitoring since early detection can potentially prevent thromboembolic complications and irreversible tissue damage.

  6. Investigating ethnic variations in reporting of psychotic symptoms: a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelman, Hein; Nazroo, James; Rai, Dheeraj

    2018-03-12

    Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248). We assessed the psychometric properties of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) with a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, assessing the equivalence of factor loadings, response thresholds and residual variances in an analysis of measurement non-invariance. Compared with prevalence among British Whites (5.4%), the prevalence of self-reported psychotic symptoms was greater in the Caribbean group (12.7%, adjusted OR = 2.38 [95% CI 1.84-3.07]). Prevalence was also increased among Pakistani individuals (8.3%, adjusted OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) although this difference was driven by a greater likelihood of reporting paranoid symptoms. PSQ items for thought interference, strange experience and hallucination were measured in equivalent ways across ethnic groups. However, our measurement models suggested that paranoid symptoms were measured less reliably among ethnic minorities than among British Whites and appeared to exaggerate latent differences between Pakistani and White British groups when measurement non-invariance was not accounted for. Notwithstanding evidence for measurement non-invariance, the greater risk for reporting psychotic symptoms among Caribbean individuals is unlikely to be an artefact of measurement. Greater residual variance in the recording of paranoid symptoms among ethnic minority respondents warrants caution in using this item to investigate ethnic variation in psychosis risk.

  7. Comparison of children's self-reports of depressive symptoms among different family interaction types in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important

  8. The Relationship between Optimism, Creativity and Psychopathological Symptoms in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Oscar; Martin-Brufau, Ramon; Mendez, Francisco Xavier; Corbalan, Francisco Javier; Liminana, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the protective effects of variables of dispositional optimism and creativity with respect to measurements of psychopathology or psychological distress. Method: A total of 113 university students from different degree programs participated in the research. Measures of creativity (CREA), optimism (LOT-R) and…

  9. Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Students: Bias or Behavioral Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Shelley J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2008-01-01

    Disproportionate placement of African American and Hispanic students into disability and special education categories may result from true behavioral and cognitive differences, bias in assessment and referral, or some combination of the two. Studies of commonly used ADHD rating scales suggest teacher bias may contribute to placement discrepancies.…

  10. Role of Behavioural Risk Factors in Symptoms Related to UTI Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Shaili; Sharma, Parul; Srivastava, Kajal; Nautiyal, Vipul; Shrotriya, Ved Prakash

    2015-09-01

    UTI is a well known entity amongst young girls, and the majority of girls have recurrent infections within one year. Anything that disturbs the usual vaginal environment would result in conditions favouring the production of unwanted microorganisms leading to infections of this very sensitive area. Studies have shown that, there is an evident relation of UTI's among students and practices of personal hygiene. To determine association between the behavioural risk factors and UTI among nursing girls. The present study was undertaken amongst unmarried nursing students of a Medical College Hospital. A predesigned pretested questionnaire was used to know the personal hygiene of students and to find out its association with UTI in the last three months. Chi-square test was used to analyse the data. A significant association was observed between perineal hygiene and UTI. The major risk factors of UTI identified were incorrect perineal washing technique, use of synthetic/silk innerwears, not sundrying the innerwears, improper menstrual hygiene. There are still major gaps in the knowledge regarding causation of UTI among the nursing students. This calls for an urgent need for educational talks periodically addressing these gaps.

  11. Self-Reported Treatment-Associated Symptoms among Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders Participating in Glycerol Phenylbutyrate Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh C. S.; Diaz, George A.; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A.; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O.; Korson, Mark S.; McCandless, Shawn E.; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Methods Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). Results After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and the frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. Conclusions The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. PMID:26296711

  12. Self-reported treatment-associated symptoms among patients with urea cycle disorders participating in glycerol phenylbutyrate clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Diaz, George A; Rhead, William; Berry, Susan A; Le Mons, Cynthia; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Bartley, James; Feigenbaum, Annette; Schulze, Andreas; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Gallagher, Renata; Bartholomew, Dennis; Harding, Cary O; Korson, Mark S; McCandless, Shawn E; Smith, Wendy; Vockley, Jerry; Kronn, David; Zori, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen; Merritt, J Lawrence; Wong, Derek; Coakley, Dion F; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Dickinson, Klara; Marino, Miguel; Lee, Brendan H; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Health care outcomes have been increasingly assessed through health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures. While the introduction of nitrogen-scavenging medications has improved survival in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs), they are often associated with side effects that may affect patient compliance and outcomes. Symptoms commonly associated with nitrogen-scavenging medications were evaluated in 100 adult and pediatric participants using a non-validated UCD-specific questionnaire. Patients or their caregivers responded to a pre-defined list of symptoms known to be associated with the use of these medications. Responses were collected at baseline (while patients were receiving sodium phenylbutyrate [NaPBA]) and during treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). After 3 months of GPB dosing, there were significant reductions in the proportion of patients with treatment-associated symptoms (69% vs. 46%; p<0.0001), the number of symptoms per patient (2.5 vs. 1.1; p<0.0001), and frequency of the more commonly reported individual symptoms such as body odor, abdominal pain, nausea, burning sensation in mouth, vomiting, and heartburn (p<0.05). The reduction in symptoms was observed in both pediatric and adult patients. The presence or absence of symptoms or change in severity did not correlate with plasma ammonia levels or NaPBA dose. The reduction in symptoms following 3 months of open-label GPB dosing was similar in pediatric and adult patients and may be related to chemical structure and intrinsic characteristics of the product rather than its effect on ammonia control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual Harassment in Academia: Individual Differences in Student Reporting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Linda J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    College students (n=182) answered a questionnaire about personal and educational information, and completed the Feminist Attitudes Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. In response to a standardized sexual harassment scenario, participants answered a series of questions about reporting the incident. Discusses findings and offers recommendations.…

  14. CERN Summer Student Programme Report by Misael CALOZ

    CERN Document Server

    Caloz, Misael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this report is to give an overview of my work during the summer student programme at CERN. My project was a work of 8 weeks (16/06 to 8/08 2014) in the Radiation Protection group of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit and was supervised by M. Robert Froeschl.

  15. Dose–Volume Effects on Patient-Reported Acute Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ronald C.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Killoran, Joseph H.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Ryan, David P.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in rectal cancer is limited. We examined whether dose–volume parameters of the small bowel and large bowel were associated with patient-reported gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)–based chemoradiation treatment for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: 66 patients treated at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital or Massachusetts General Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included. Weekly during treatment, patients completed a questionnaire assessing severity of diarrhea, urgency, pain, cramping, mucus, and tenesmus. The association between dosimetric parameters and changes in overall GI symptoms from baseline through treatment was examined by using Spearman’s correlation. Potential associations between these parameters and individual GI symptoms were also explored. Results: The amount of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was significantly associated with acute symptoms (p = 0.01), and other dosimetric parameters ranging from V5 to V45 also trended toward association. For the large bowel, correlations between dosimetric parameters and overall GI symptoms at the higher dose levels from V25 to V45 did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1), and a significant association was seen with rectal pain from V15 to V45 (p < 0.01). Other individual symptoms did not correlate with small bowel or large bowel dosimetric parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study using PROs are consistent with prior studies with physician-assessed acute toxicity, and they identify small bowel V15 as an important predictor of acute GI symptoms during 5-FU–based chemoradiation treatment. A better understanding of the relationship between radiation dosimetric parameters and PROs may allow physicians to improve radiation planning to optimize patient outcomes.

  16. Bilateral sudden sensorineural deafness with vertigo as the sole presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus — a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Vilas; Agarwal, C. G.; Bhatia, Naresh; Shukla, G. K.

    2010-01-01

    This Paper reports a late uncontrolled diabetic presenting to an otolaryngologist with sudden severe sensorineural hearing loss of immediate origin with vertigo and tinnitus as the symptoms. Appropriate investigative and treatment measure resulted in deterioration of hearing in the right ear and mild improvement of hearing in the left ear, with no recovery of imbalance.

  17. Bilateral sudden sensorineural deafness with vertigo as the sole presenting symptoms of diabetes mellitus - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vilas; Agarwal, C G; Bhatia, Naresh; Shukla, G K

    2010-06-01

    This Paper reports a late uncontrolled diabetic presenting to an otolaryngologist with sudden severe sensorineural hearing loss of immediate origin with vertigo and tinnitus as the symptoms. Appropriate investigative and treatment measure resulted in deterioration of hearing in the right ear and mild improvement of hearing in the left ear, with no recovery of imbalance.

  18. Risk factors associated with self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de pol, D.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Langenhorst, T.; Maas, M.

    2014-01-01

    One in every four elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands reported blue or pale digits in the dominant hand. Little is known about risk factors. To assess whether personal-, sports-, and work-related risk factors are associated with these symptoms in these volleyball players, a survey was

  19. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  20. Borderline but not Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms are Related to Self-Reported Partner Aggression in Late Middle-Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E. J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55–64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression towards one’s partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant’s personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PMID:22732005

  1. Comparison of Mother, Father, and Teacher Reports of ADHD Core Symptoms in a Sample of Child Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. Method: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M…

  2. Borderline but not antisocial personality disorder symptoms are related to self-reported partner aggression in late middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    We examined the relationship between personality pathology and the frequency of self-reported psychological and physical partner aggression in a community sample of 872 adults aged 55-64. Previous research suggests that antisocial and borderline personality disorder (PD) symptoms are associated with partner aggression. Controlling for gender, education, alcohol dependence, and other personality pathology, we found that borderline PD symptoms, which include abandonment fears, unstable identity, and affective instability, were significantly related to the frequency of self-reported aggression toward one's partner. This relationship was observed regardless of whether the participant's personality was described by a clinical interviewer, the participant themselves, or an informant chosen by the participant. Further, the relationship between borderline PD symptoms and self-reported partner aggression was moderated by gender such that women were driving the association. Conversely, antisocial PD symptoms, which include deceitfulness, irresponsibility, disregard for rules, and lack of remorse did not significantly account for variance in self-reported partner aggression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. BRAIN FAG SYMPTOMS AMONG BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... A Cultural Orientation Scale, a Student Stress Scale, and a Self Reporting Questionnaire were administered to collect data on socioeconomic background, ... Sex, cultural orientation, socioeconomic status, and student stress were not associated with brain fag symptoms.

  4. DSM-5 changes and the prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum symptoms in Fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B

    2015-03-01

    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses. Symptom counts were categorized based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Based on behavioral symptoms endorsed by caregivers, 38.7 % of males and 24.7 % of females met criteria for DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of autistic disorder. Significantly fewer males (27.8 %) and females (11.3 %) met criteria for ASD based on DSM-5 criteria. Although 86.4 % of males and 61.7 % of females met criteria for the restricted and repetitive behavior domain for DSM-5, only 29.4 % of males and 13.0 % of females met criteria for the social communication and interaction (SCI) domain. Relaxing the social communication criteria by one symptom count led to a threefold increase in those meeting criteria for ASD, suggesting the importance of subthreshold SCI symptoms for individuals with FXS in ASD diagnoses. Findings suggest important differences in the way ASD may be conceptualized in FXS based on the new DSM-5 criteria.

  5. Self-Reported Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Adults Referred to a Gender Identity Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaat, Lieke E W; van der Miesen, Anna I R; de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Popma, Arne; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a sample of adults referred for gender dysphoria (GD) compared to typically developing (TD) populations, (2) see whether males assigned at birth with GD (MaB GD s) and females assigned at birth with GD (FaB GD s) differ in ASD symptom levels, (3) study the role of sexual orientation, and (4) investigate ASD symptoms' correlation with GD symptoms. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure ASD symptoms, and the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) was used to measure the intensity of GD. Mean AQ scores of adults referred for GD (n = 326; 191 MaB GD and 135 FaB GD ) were compared to three TD populations taken from the literature (n = 1316; 667 male and 644 female, 5 birth-assigned sex unknown). The mean AQ score in individuals referred for GD was similar to the TD samples. FaB GD s showed higher mean AQ scores than MaB GD s, and they had mean scores similar to TD individuals of the same experienced gender (TD males). After selecting individuals with an UGDS score indicative of GD, a positive association between ASD and GD symptoms was found. The co-occurrence of GD and ASD in adults may not be as prevalent as previously suggested. Attenuation of sex differences in ASD might explain FaB GD s' and MaB GD s' ASD symptoms' similarity to those of TD individuals of the same experienced gender. Intensity of ASD symptoms might be correlated with intensity of GD symptoms, warranting further studies to elaborate on their potential co-occurrence.

  6. Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR): Validation of the German version of a self-report measure for screening negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2016-02-01

    Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Posterior cortical atrophy - a prototypical case of dementia beginning with visual symptoms: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. We describe a case of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. A 55-year-old, right-handed, woman with early onset of visual impairment not associated with anterior visual pathology, presenting with dyslexia, visual agnosia, Balint's syndrome, and spatial disorientation. Ophthalmologists should consider this condition especially in presenile patients with slowly progressive higher-order visual symptoms. Although described in association with different conditions, it may also occur in Alzheimer disease.

  8. A pilot study of self-esteem as a mediator between family factors and depressive symptoms in young adult university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restifo, Kathleen; Akse, Joyce; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Benjamins, Caroline; Dick, Katharina

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between family factors and depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants completed self-report questionnaires about overall family environment, conflict with mother or father, parental rearing, self esteem, and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem was found to mediate the relationship between the combined family factors and depressive symptoms. When examined simultaneously, none of the individual family variables uniquely predicted depressive symptoms or self-esteem. However, separate analysis of each of the three family factors provided evidence for self-esteem mediating the relationship between parental conflict and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between parental care and depressive symptoms. Self-esteem may play a role in the mechanism underlying the link between parent-offspring relationship factors and depressive symptoms.

  9. Satisfaction with Life, Meaning in Life, Sad Childhood Experiences, and Psychological Symptoms among Turkish Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Itır Tarı; Özyeşil, Zümra Atalay; Burcu Özgülük, S

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the contributions of sad childhood experiences, depression, anxiety, and stress, existence of a sense of meaning, and pursuit of meaning in explaining life satisfaction of young adults in Turkey. The sample comprised 400 undergraduate students ( M age = 20.2 yr.) selected via random cluster sampling. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women in terms of their scores on depression, existence of meaning, pursuit of meaning, and life satisfaction scores. However, there were statistically significant differences between men and women on the sad childhood experiences, anxiety and stress. In heirarchical regression analysis, the model as a whole was significant. Depression and existence of meaning in life made unique significant contributions to the variance in satisfaction in life. Students with lower depression and with a sense of meaning in life tended to be more satisfied with life.

  10. Sleep Apnea Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease Risks among Haitian Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Diana M; Conserve, Donaldson F; Severe, Dodley; Gedeon, Michaele A; Zizi, Ferdinand; Casimir, Georges; McFarlane, Samy I; Louis, Girardin Jean

    2017-01-01

    Sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder that disproportionately affects blacks and has been previously studied among Caribbean-born blacks in Brooklyn, New York, but there has been negligible research in the Caribbean, specifically Haiti, and developing countries on this pressing health issue. A total of 373 medical students (mean age=20.6 years ± 2.3 years) from a medical school in Haiti participated in this study. Participants were administered a questionnaire assessing their sleep health...

  11. Personality factors versus expectations and self-reported symptoms among patients awaiting advanced prosthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakestam, U; Söderfeldt, B; Rydén, O; Glantz, P O

    1997-09-01

    To assess simple questions for identifying patient personality traits among a normal Swedish population and to assess possible relationships between personality and symptoms, attitudes, dental problems, and received dental care, a questionnaire was sent to 489 subjects awaiting prosthodontic treatment (response rate 84.2%). Three personality traits could be identified: "Fearful-depressed" subjects consumed more tranquillisers, were worried and had many symptoms, whilst "Open-minded" were optimistic about treatment, had high expectations and few symptoms. "Control-minded" did not reveal worries and guarded their autonomy. It was concluded that personality indicators were related to clinically relevant factors: salience of teeth, perceptions of problems, dental attendance pattern, expectations and perceptions of symptoms.

  12. Over-reported peripheral neuropathy symptoms in a cohort of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Phone: +250 0788 74 9398. Fax: (250) 571787 ... 1994 Rwandan genocide, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. ... you experienced numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in your arms, legs, hands, or ...

  13. Self-reported post-discharge symptoms following obstetric neuraxial blockade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, N E

    2010-10-01

    Economic pressures are leading to earlier hospital discharge following delivery, before complications of obstetric neuraxial block may become apparent. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of symptoms presenting post-discharge at a single tertiary obstetric centre.

  14. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25 % of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen...

  15. Factors associated with presenteeism among employed Australian adults reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Sanderson, Kristy

    2011-12-01

    Employees experiencing depression can take a sickness absence or continue working ('presenteeism'). However, little is known about the factors associated with these behaviors within this population. This study aimed to determine the relative importance of socio-demographic, financial, work and health-related factors associated with presenteeism. The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provided data from employed individuals reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms (N=320). Survey adjusted multivariable logistic regression assessed classification of 12-month, depression-related presenteeism on the basis of socio-demographic, financial, work and health factors. Acceptable classification of cases was 70% or greater. Classification of cases based on socio-demographic factors, age, sex and marital status, was reasonable (62%). Adding work factors (work hours and occupation type) produced a 1% increase in successfully classified cases (63%). Health factors further increased correctly classified cases (67%). Marital status, housing tenure and co-morbid mental disorders were important indicators of presenteeism behavior. Work-related variables were restricted to available measures. Potentially important psychosocial work environment factors were unavailable. Cross-sectional data precluded causal inference. Using available factors, model discrimination did not reach an acceptable level i.e. 70% of presenteeism cases successfully classified. This highlighted the contribution of unmeasured factors to presenteeism behavior. Future research should explore the relative importance of psychosocial work environment and personality factors such as work demands, effort/reward imbalance and conscientiousness. The identified associations between socio-demographic, financial and health factors on work attendance behaviors could inform disease management guidelines for employers via recognition of employees at risk of presenteeism. Copyright

  16. Student financial support. An inventory in 24 European countries. Background report for the project on portability of student financial support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the current national systems of student financial support in 24 European countries. It provides information on tuition fees, grants, scholarships, student loans, and indirect student support through students families (family allowances and tax benefits) and

  17. Prevalence of self-reported specific phobia symptoms in an Israeli sample of young conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Dannon, Pinhas N; Poreh, Amir; Yehuda, Yoram Ben; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Specific phobia is a very prevalent disorder with high comorbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of specific phobia symptoms in a sample of Israeli young adults. Eight hundred fifty young Israeli soldiers participated in the study. Measures included a questionnaire on specific phobias and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-IV-TR specific phobias were analyzed to evaluate prevalence of phobic symptoms and find potential socio-demographic correlates. Prevalence of fears and specific phobic symptoms was 49.1 and 8.7%, respectively. Most frequent phobic symptoms were from animals, being alone, heights, injury and closed places. The following variables were accompanied by more phobic symptoms: male gender, role of mechanic, not having completed the matriculation exams, lack of friends and romantic relationships, therapy prior to enlistment or during the military service and having received psychotropic drugs in the past. Based on a stepwise regression analysis, the following variables contributed significantly to the prediction of phobic symptoms: lack of friends and romantic relationships, school absenteeism and role of mechanic. Our findings corroborate results from other studies in the Western world regarding the high prevalence of specific phobia symptomatology, as well as its distribution and socio-demographic correlates.

  18. The impact of motor symptoms on self-reported anxiety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Robert D; Le, Asher M; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety is commonly endorsed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly affects quality of life. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is often used but contains items that overlap with common PD motor symptoms (e.g., "hands trembling"). Because of these overlapping items, we hypothesized that PD motor symptoms would significantly affect BAI scores. One hundred non-demented individuals with PD and 74 healthy control participants completed the BAI. PD motor symptoms were assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Factor analysis of the BAI assessed for a PD motor factor, and further analyses assessed how this factor affected BAI scores. BAI scores were significantly higher for PD than NC. A five-item PD motor factor correlated with UPDRS observer-rated motor severity and mediated the PD-control difference on BAI total scores. An interaction occurred, whereby removal of the PD motor factor resulted in a significant reduction in BAI scores for PD relative to NC. The correlation between the BAI and UPDRS significantly declined when controlling for the PD motor factor. The results indicate that commonly endorsed BAI items may reflect motor symptoms such as tremor instead of, or in addition to, genuine mood symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of considering motor symptoms in the assessment of anxiety in PD and point to the need for selecting anxiety measures that are less subject to contamination by the motor effects of movement disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms in medical students: a randomised placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcio; Vellarde, Guillermo Coca; Olej, Beni; Teófilo Salgado, Ana Emília; de Barros Rezende, Ighor

    2014-02-01

    To assess the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on relieving stress-related symptoms-sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and burnout-in medical students. Eighty-two students were randomised into an EA treatment group (n=30), a sham TENS group (n=18) and an untreated control group (n=34). EA was applied at a continuous frequency of 2 Hz to the limbs, face, ears and scalp for 20 min once a week, over 6-8 weeks. Sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was performed on similar sites for the same number of times in each session and for the same length of time. Outcome measurements included a comparison of the indices obtained by different self-applied questionnaires before and after treatment. The surveys used were the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS), in addition to the Quality of Life Questionnaire-abbreviated version (WHOQOL-bref). EA significantly improved scores on the MSQ, PSQI, BDI and the cynicism and academic efficacy (AE) dimensions of the MBI-SS in relation to the control. Sleep quality (MSQ) improved from 36.9 (SD 7.6) to 25.0 (5.7) with EA, 37.6 (6.0) to 32.1 (6.9) with sham TENS, and 36.5 (5.9) to 33.6 (6.7) in the controls (p=0.0000). Compared with the sham TENS group, EA significantly reduced scores on the PSQI. Score improvements in the sham TENS group in relation to control group were significant in the MSQ, BDI and AE. In the EA group, the number of students with better scores after intervention was significantly higher for the MSQ, PSQI, ESS and BAI. This only occurred for the MSQ in the sham TENS group and for the MSQ and ESS in the control group. EA significantly reduced stress-related mental symptoms. The improvement obtained by sham TENS compared with the control group confirmed the presence of a placebo effect resulting from the treatment ritual.

  20. Change in depressive symptoms over higher education and professional establishment - a longitudinal investigation in a national cohort of Swedish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Anna; Runeson, Bo; Dickman, Paul W; Vaez, Marjan

    2010-06-15

    There are indications of a high prevalence of psychological distress among students in higher education and also that distress increases over the course of study. However, not all studies on student distress controlled for sociodemographic differences and few followed development of distress over an extended period through professional establishment. We investigated if there is an independent effect of time in education and the first two years in the profession on depressive symptoms and mapped change over the period in a national cohort of students. Data came from LANE, a nation-wide longitudinal panel survey of Swedish nursing students (N = 1700) who responded to annual questionnaires over five years from 2002 to 2007. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and change over time analysed in a linear mixed effects model for repeated measures. There was a significant change in level of depressive symptoms over time: an increase from the first to later years in education and a decrease to levels similar to baseline after graduation and a year in the profession. The change in symptoms remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (p education and professional establishment on depressive symptoms. We think heightened distress over education abates as the graduate accommodates to the profession. Nevertheless, within education, the differences in depressive symptoms associated to demographic factors can help identify student groups more vulnerable to distress. Also, as individual differences in distress seem to persist over time, perhaps students highly distressed in the beginning of education can be helped by awareness among educators of the elevated levels of distress in late education.

  1. The Effect of Verbal Self-Instruction on the Recovery of Inattention Symptoms in Elementary School Students with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghassabi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common and chronic mental health disorder through childhood. It is characterized with symptoms such as: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effect of verbal self-instruction on the recovery of inattention symptoms in elementary school students with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder Type (ADD. Materials & Methods: This research was experimental with pretest–posttest control group design. By cluster sampling from second and third grades students of elementary schools in Tabriz, 30 boys who were diagnosed ADD by using Children Symptom Inventory (CSI-4 and interviewing through clinical psychologist based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR standards, selected and matched according to Raven intelligence test. Then subjects were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. Experimental group received verbal self instruction training for 8 sessions. To study the relationship between inattention symptoms and intervention of verbal self-instruction and control of pretest effect, analysis of covariance was used. Results: The results of analysis of covariance indicated significant relation (P<0.001 between intervention of verbal self-instruction and inattention symptoms. Conclusion: In sum, the intervention of verbal self-instruction program decreased inattention symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder students.

  2. How do University Students Perceive Depressive Symptoms? A Qualitative Study on Perceived Causes, Cures and Helping Behaviours of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Cem Cirakoglu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate how Turkish university students perceive symptoms of depression and how they react to depression in terms of helping behaviors with a qualitative methodology. The study also aims to explore university students’ beliefs about possible causes and cures of depression. The sample of the study consisted of 113 women (60.4 % and 74 men (39.6 % with a mean age of 21.7 ± 2.8. A short study depicting a hypothetical “severe depression” case was adapted from a real case for the purpose of the study and questions were developed targeting this case. Results revealed that suicidal ideas, hopelessness, unhappiness and feelings of guilt were the most visible symptoms in deciding someone with depression needs help. Most frequently stated possible causes of depression were living conditions, adaptation difficulties, interpersonal relationships, social environment, negative attributions to self and personality, problems with family, loss, trauma physiological or psychological disorder, addiction and negative attributions to past experiences. Although, participants perceived social support, self-help, professional help, social activity and hobbies, changing living environment, avoidance, somatic regulation and self-medication as ways of overcoming depression in general, they have strong preferences toward verbal interventions and professional help specifically. While 64.3 percent of participant rated the severity of the depression as “severe” 32.4 percent of the participants rated it as “moderate”. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 119-126

  3. Middle-aged patients with an MRI-verified medial meniscal tear report symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristoffer B.; Stefan Lohmander, L.; Kise, Nina Jullum

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — No consensus exists on when to perform arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since MRI and clinical tests are not accurate in detecting a symptomatic meniscal lesion, the patient’s symptoms often play a large role when deciding...... when to perform surgery. We determined the prevalence and severity of self-reported knee symptoms in patients eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy due to a degenerative meniscal tear. We investigated whether symptoms commonly considered to be related to meniscus injury were associated...... with early radiographic signs of knee osteoarthritis. Patients and methods — We included individual baseline items from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score collected in 2 randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment for an MRI-verified degenerative medial meniscal tears in 199 patients aged...

  4. Effects of self-reported hearing or vision impairment on depressive symptoms: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J H; Lee, H J; Jung, J; Park, E-C

    2018-02-08

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of either hearing, vision or dual sensory impairment on depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups that are vulnerable and significantly affected. Data from the 2006-2014 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) were used and a total of 5832 individuals were included in this study. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D10) scale. Sensory impairment was assessed according to the levels of self-reported hearing or vision, which were categorised as either good (excellent, very good or good) or poor (fair or poor). The changes in hearing or vision from records of previous survey were investigated. Changes from good to poor, which indicates new onset, were defined as hearing impairment or vision impairment. Interactions of changes in hearing and vision were considered in the analysis. Dual sensory impairment was indicated when hearing impairment and vision impairment both developed at the same time. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors were considered as potential confounders and were adjusted for in the generalised estimating equation model. Individuals with hearing impairment demonstrated significantly more severe depressive symptoms [β = 0.434, standard errors (s.e.) = 0.097, p impairment also showed significantly elevated depressive symptoms (β = 0.253, s.e. = 0.058, p impairment showed significantly more severe depressive symptoms (β = 0.768, s.e. = 0.197, p impairment on depressive symptoms was significant in both sexes and across age groups, except for vision impairment in male participants. Hearing, vision and dual sensory impairment are significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment or rehabilitation of either hearing or vision impairment would help prevent depression.

  5. Are self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms among older adults associated with increased intestinal permeability and psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda Mall, John-Peter; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Algilani, Samal; Rasoal, Dara; Repsilber, Dirk; Brummer, Robert J; V Keita, Åsa; Schoultz, Ida

    2018-03-20

    Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27). Questionnaire data on gut-health, psychological distress and level of physical activity were collected. Intestinal permeability was measured by quantifying zonulin in plasma. The level of systemic and local inflammation was monitored by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), hydrogen peroxide in plasma and calprotectin in stool samples. The relationship between biomarkers and questionnaire data in the different study populations was illustrated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Older adults with GI symptoms displayed significantly higher levels of both zonulin and psychological distress than both general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. The PCA analysis revealed a separation between senior orienteering athletes and older adults with GI symptoms and showed an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and zonulin. Older adults with GI symptoms express increased plasma levels of zonulin, which might reflect an augmented intestinal permeability. In addition, this group suffer from higher psychological distress compared to general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. This relationship was further confirmed by a PCA plot, which illustrated an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and intestinal permeability.

  6. Evaluation of a Web-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program in Cancer Survivors Reporting Cognitive Symptoms After Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Victoria J; Dhillon, Haryana M; Bell, Melanie L; Kabourakis, Michael; Fiero, Mallorie H; Yip, Desmond; Boyle, Frances; Price, Melanie A; Vardy, Janette L

    2017-01-10

    Purpose Cognitive impairment is reported frequently by cancer survivors. There are no proven treatments. We evaluated a cognitive rehabilitation program (Insight) and compared it with standard care in cancer survivors self-reporting cognitive symptoms. Patients and Methods We recruited adult cancer survivors with a primary malignancy (excluding central nervous system malignancies) who had completed three or more cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy in the previous 6 to 60 months and reported persistent cognitive symptoms. All participants received a 30-minute telephone consultation and were then randomly assigned to the 15-week, home-based intervention or to standard care. Primary outcome was self-reported cognitive function (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognitive Function [FACT-COG] perceived cognitive impairment [PCI] subscale): difference between groups after intervention (T2) and 6 months later (T3). Results A total of 242 participants were randomly assigned: median age, 53 years; 95% female. The primary outcome of difference in FACT-COG PCI was significant, with less PCI in the intervention group at T2 ( P cognitive symptoms compared with standard care. To our knowledge, this is the first large randomized controlled trial showing an improvement in self-reported cognitive function in cancer survivors, indicating that this intervention is a feasible treatment.

  7. The Link of Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Duration with Metabolic Syndrome: A Chinese Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Sun, Chien-An; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Liang, Chun-Yu; Yang, Tsan; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with insomnia symptoms and sleep duration in a Chinese adult population. Data from a nationwide epidemiological survey conducted on residents from randomly selected districts in Taiwan in 2007 were used for this cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 4,197 participants were included in this study. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), were assessed using the Insomnia Self-Assessment Inventory questionnaire. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based upon their reported sleep duration (insomnia symptoms (OR [95% CI] was 1.54 [1.05-2.47]). However, there was no significant combined effect of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the prevalence of MetS. The current investigation shows that short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms, specifically DIS and DMS, were significant correlates of MetS. These findings should be replicated in prospective studies using both sleep duration and sleep quality measures. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Health symptoms in relation to temperature, humidity, and self-reported perceptions of climate in New York City residential environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashlinn; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Little monitoring has been conducted of temperature and humidity inside homes despite the fact that these conditions may be relevant to health outcomes. Previous studies have observed associations between self-reported perceptions of the indoor environment and health. Here, we investigate associations between measured temperature and humidity, perceptions of indoor environmental conditions, and health symptoms in a sample of New York City apartments. We measured temperature and humidity in 40 New York City apartments during summer and winter seasons and collected survey data from the households' residents. Health outcomes of interest were (1) sleep quality, (2) symptoms of heat illness (summer season), and (3) symptoms of respiratory viral infection (winter season). Using mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated associations between the perceptions, symptoms, and measured conditions in each season. Perceptions of indoor temperature were significantly associated with measured temperature in both the summer and the winter, with a stronger association in the summer season. Sleep quality was inversely related to measured and perceived indoor temperature in the summer season only. Heat illness symptoms were associated with perceived, but not measured, temperature in the summer season. We did not find an association between any measured or perceived condition and cases of respiratory infection in the winter season. Although limited in size, the results of this study reveal that indoor temperature may impact sleep quality, and that thermal perceptions of the indoor environment may indicate vulnerability to heat illness. These are both important avenues for further investigation.

  9. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and…

  10. Dimensional assessment of DSM-5 social anxiety symptoms among university students and its relationship with functional impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Osso L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Stefano Pini,1 Marina Carlini,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Elisabetta Macchi,2 Federica Gorrasi,2 Francesco Mengali,1 Rosalba Tognetti,2 Gabriele Massimetti1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, 2Prorectorate to Students Affairs and Right to Education, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Social anxiety disorder is a common condition often associated with severe impairment in educational career. The aim of this paper was to evaluate prevalence rates and correlates of mild, moderate, and severe forms of social anxiety spectrum in a large sample of university students. Overall, 717 university students were assessed with the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report questionnaire. Using two cut-off scores, 61.4% of subjects were classified as low scorers, 10% as medium scorers, and 28.6% as high scorers. Both high and medium scorers reported fears related to social situations. Interpersonal sensitivity and specific phobias were more common among women with low scores. Childhood/adolescence social anxiety features were more common among males with medium scores. Behavioral inhibition was more common among males with high scores. Functional impairment was severe among high scorers and, to a lesser extent, among medium scorers. Social anxiety spectrum is largely represented among university students. Future studies should investigate whether sufferers of social phobia underachieve or end their professional objectives prematurely. Keywords: social anxiety spectrum, behavioral inhibition, gender, subthreshold, self-rating, DSM-5

  11. Relationship between medication beliefs, self-reported and refill adherence, and symptoms in patients with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Steenis MNA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other

  12. Preliminary Report : The Treatment of Withdrawal Symptoms of Opium Addicts with Vitamin " E " in Ten Cases

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    H. Davidian

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of addiction to opiates, apart from psychological and social problems, has presented up to now a therapeutic prohlem. Various methods are used and each has its disadvantages. Residual symptoms of abstinence from opiates are present in all methods and there is a prolonged period of convalescence which seems to be one of the causes of relapses to addiction. Vitamin E however- has given remarkable results in aiding recovery from the withdrawal symptoms. With vitamin E the period of treatment is shortened, abstinence symptoms are bearable and the convalescent period is eliminated. Patients treated with vitamin E solely are in good health and spirits and appear contented. This treatment also seems to reduce 1he number of relapses. The administration of vitamin E after a complete withdrawal from opium probably compensates Some of the opium's effects on the nervous system, and remedies the hypoxia of the tissues, thus restoring the patient to a normal physiological state.

  13. Based on acceptance and commitment therapy on social anxiety symptoms and quality of life Chamran University students

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    Farokh Hasheminiya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on social anxiety symptoms and quality of life Chamran University Dormitory. From among female students living in dormitories martyr Chamran University, through the call, and after the implementation of the social anxiety questionnaire, a total of 30 people with the highest social anxiety score Bund, were selected randomly to participate in the study. Method of this quasi experimental study was from type of pre- and post-test with the control group. So that the qualified students, after the initial interview were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. Participants in both groups of social anxiety and quality of life questionnaire in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up was 1.5 months completed. The experimental group received 10 sessions of treatment based on acceptance and commitment. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA suggests that this treatment reduces social anxiety (F = 18,47, p = 0/001 and improved quality of life (F = 13,46, p = 0/04 in experimental group compared with the control group in the post-test and procedures were followed. Research results show that based on acceptance and commitment therapy a good way to reduce social anxiety and improve the quality of life.

  14. Development and initial psychometric evaluation of patient-reported outcome questionnaires to evaluate the symptoms and impact of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Alexa B; Sundaram, Murali; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Shields, Alan L

    2018-03-01

    Two patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Symptom Assessment (HSSA) and Hidradenitis Suppurativa Impact Assessment (HSIA), were developed to measure signs, symptoms and impacts of HS in treatment efficacy studies. In accordance with FDA guidelines and published best practices, four stages of research were conducted to create the questionnaires: concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Subjects (N = 20) who participated in the concept elicitation stage reported 15 unique HS-related signs and symptoms and 51 impacts. Following this, eight sign and symptom concepts and 21 impacts were selected for construction of the HSSA and HSIA, respectively. During content evaluation, cognitive debriefing interviews with HS subjects (N = 20) confirmed subjects could read, comprehend and meaningfully respond to both questionnaires. Modifications made after this stage of work resulted in a nine-item HSSA and a 17-item HSIA. The HSSA and HSIA were subsequently entered into a US-based observational study (N = 40), and the scores produced by each were found to be reliable, construct valid, and able to distinguish among clinically distinct groups. The HSSA and HSIA are content-valid, HS-specific, PRO questionnaires with demonstrated ability to generate reliable, valid scores when administered to patients with HS in a research setting.

  15. Self-reported lactose intolerance in clinic patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M

    2015-08-01

    Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Extent of alcohol use and mental health (depressive and post- traumatic stress disorder symptoms in undergraduate university students from 26 low-, middle- and high-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a non-linear association between varying levels of alcohol use and poor mental health (depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in university students from low-, middle- and high-income countries.  Methods. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19 238 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8; standard deviation (SD 2.8 from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Alcohol use was assessed in terms of number of drinks in the past 2 weeks and number of drinks per episode, and measures of depression and PTSD symptoms were administered.  Results. The proportion of students with elevated depression scores was 12.3%, 16.9%, and 11.5% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively, while the proportion of students with high PTSD symptoms was 20.6%, 20.4% and 23.1% for non-drinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. Logistic regression found that non-drinkers and heavy drinkers had a lower odds than moderate drinkers to have severe depression, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status. Further, heavy, more frequent drinkers and more frequent binge drinkers had a higher odds to have elevated PTSD symptoms than moderate and non-drinkers, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, social support and subjective health status.  Conclusion. The results suggest a reverse U-shaped association between recent alcohol use volume and frequency and depressive symptoms (unlike that previously identified, and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and alcohol use and PTSD symptoms.

  17. How to Write (Even) Better Academic Student Reports and Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Thim

    2017-01-01

    and Content of an Academic Report/Paper covers the seven required parts that make up an academic piece of work. That is, introduction (e.g., setting the hook), theory and/or literature review (e.g., which literature to you draw on and contribute to), methods (how did you study the research question), findings......Writing good academic papers or reports that demonstrate academic rigour is not necessarily easy for university students (or academics for that matter). Common problems include lacking academic rigour when studying the research problem and difficulties in identifying literature and using theo-ry...... students write methods before theory but doing so means you need to operationalize theory before you have introduced it. The second theme, Gen-eral Tips and Tricks, provide rules of thumb (e.g., that you should kill your darlings), writing style and argumentation hints (e.g., use direct voice) and layout...

  18. Utilization of Patient-Reported Outcomes to Guide Symptom Management during Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

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    Malika Danner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionUtilization of patient-reported outcomes (PROs to guide symptom management during radiation therapy is incr