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Sample records for students prevalence characteristics

  1. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of orofacial pain in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljic, Sonja; Savic, Sladjana; Stevanovic, Jasmina; Kostic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the characteristics and prevalence of orofacial pain, and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, in 319 university students: 188 second-year students in the Medical Faculty and 131 students in the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University of Kosovska Mitrovica. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence and characteristics of pain. Among the 319 students, 101 (32%) reported previous orofacial pain, and pain was more frequent among women (P pain and that the risk for pain development among women was 1.8 times that among men. Place of residence and relationship status were not associated with frequency of orofacial pain. The regions with the highest pain prevalences were the temporal region (7%; 95% confidence interval, 4-10%) and the region around the eye (6%; 95% confidence interval, 4-9%). The first episode of orofacial pain was less than 3 months previously in 59% of the participants, and 39% of students had sought professional medical help. (J Oral Sci 58, 7-13, 2016).

  3. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsak; Santikul, Kanitta

    2002-11-01

    Dyslexia is the most common subtype of learning disabilities with a prevalence ranging from 5-10 per cent. The central difficulty in dyslexia is the phonological awareness deficit. The authors have developed a screening test to assess the reading ability of Thai primary school students. 1. To study the prevalence of dyslexia in first to sixth grade students at Wat Samiannaree School. 2. To study the clinical characteristics such as sex, neurological signs, verbal intelligence and comorbid attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) of the dyslexia group. A total of 486 first to sixth grade students were administered "Raven's progressive matrices test" for estimation of intellectual functioning. Those who scored below the fifth percentile were labeled as mental retardation and excluded from the study. The students' reading ability was evaluated by 3 steps; first by classroom teachers using some items of the screening test, second by the researchers examining some more items individually, and third by the special educator assessing more details in reading and phonology. The students who had a reading ability two-grade levels below their actual grades and impairment in phonology were diagnosed with dyslexia. The prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia were found to be 6.3 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively. The male to female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The dyslexia group had significantly lower Thai language scores than those of the normal group (p dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination but 90 per cent showed positive soft neurological signs. Mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised was 76 +/- 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7 per cent in the dyslexia group. Dyslexia was a common problem among primary school students in this study. Further studies in a larger population and different socioeconomic statuses are required to determine the prevalence

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of compulsive buying in college students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvanko, Arit; Lust, Katherine; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    students. Overall survey response rate was 35.1% (n=2108). Our data indicated that 3.6% (n=67) of college students surveyed met criteria for CB with significantly more women affected (4.4%, n=48) than men (2.5%, n=19). Relative to students not meeting criteria for CB, college students who met criteria...... of college students who meet criteria for CB. During the spring of 2011, an online survey examining CB (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning was emailed to 2108 University...

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of migraine in medical students and its impact on their daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significant impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine headaches in medical students, to measure its impact on their life, and to assess their knowledge about the ailment. Information about lifestyle variables was also collected. Materials and Methods: All medical students who confirmed of having headache for more than 1 year formed the study group. Students filled a detailed questionnaire focusing on demographics, pain characteristics, accompanying factors, triggers, and family history of migraine. Lifestyle variables were enquired and migraine associated disability was assessed by MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment. The diagnosis of migraine was made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results are expressed in n = numbers and percentage. Results: Sixty-eight percent of medical students had headache. The prevalence of migraine in the whole cohort was 28%; however, of the headache group, migraine constituted 42%. There was a female preponderance. One-fourth of the students had weekly or daily attacks with 31% students reporting increase in their headache intensity and frequency. Forty-four percent of students had severe headaches. Dizziness, allodynia, and neck stiffness were reported as accompanying symptoms. Trigger factors were identified in 99% students, predominant of which were poor sleep hygiene, environmental changes, head movements, and mental stress. Only 4% of students did regular exercise. Twenty-seven percent of students reported self-medication use of analgesics. One-fourth of the students had migraine-associated disability but only 6% realized that they had migraine. Conclusion: Our study found a high prevalence of headache with migraine in medical students. The students′ awareness of the disease was very low with one-fourth of the students resorting to self-medication. Our

  6. Prevalence and Characteristics of School Services for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Glew, Kelly; Houck, Patricia; Greiner, Andrew; Fong, Dalea; Swanson, James; Arnold, L Eugene; Lerner, Marc; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of services reported by school staff for 543 high school students participating in the 8 year follow-up of the multi-site Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA). Overall, 51.6% of students with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were receiving services through an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or a 504 plan, a rate higher than expected for this age group. Less than 5% of these had 504 plans; 35.5% attended special education classes. Very few services (except tutoring) were provided outside of an IEP or 504 plan. Almost all students with services received some type of academic intervention, whereas only half received any behavioral support or learning strategy. Less than one-fourth of interventions appear to be evidence-based. Students receiving services showed greater academic and behavioral needs than those not receiving services. Services varied based upon type of school, with the greatest number of interventions provided to students attending schools that only serve those with disabilities. Original MTA treatment randomization was unrelated to services, but cumulative stimulant medication and greater severity predicted more service receipt. Results highlight a need for accommodations with greater evidence of efficacy and for increased services for students who develop academic difficulties in high school.

  7. Effect of working characteristics and taught ergonomics on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders amongst dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought. Methods Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years. Results Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD. Conclusions There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum. PMID:23547959

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of orthorexia nervosa in a sample of university students in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carpita, Barbara; Muti, D; Cremone, I M; Massimetti, G; Diadema, E; Gesi, C; Carmassi, C

    2018-02-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been recently defined as a pathological approach to feeding related to healthiness concerns and purity of food and/or feeding habits. This condition recently showed an increasing prevalence particularly among young adults. In order to investigate the prevalence of ON and its relationship with gender and nutritional style among young adults, we explored a sample of students from the University of Pisa, Italy. Assessments included the ORTO-15 questionnaire and a socio-demographic and eating habits form. Subjects were dichotomized for eating habits (i.e. standard vs vegetarian/vegan diet), gender, parents' educational level, type of high school attended, BMI (low vs high vs normal BMI). Chi square tests were performed to compare rates of subjects with overthreshold ORTO-15 scores, and Student's unpaired t test to compare mean scores between groups. Two Classification tree analyses with CHAID growing method were employed to identify the variables best predicting ON and ORTO-15 total score. more than one-third of the sample showed ON symptoms (ORTO-15 ≥ 35), with higher rates among females. Tree analyses showed diet type to predict ON and ORTO-15 total score more than gender. Our results seem to corroborate recent data highlighting similarities between ON and anorexia nervosa (AN). We propose an interpretation of ON as a phenotype of AN in the broader context of Feeding and eating disorders (FEDs) spectrum.

  9. The Prevalence and Symptoms Characteristic of Functional Constipation Using Rome III Diagnostic Criteria among Tertiary Education Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jye Lim

    Full Text Available Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future.Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis.The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4% than men (12.5%. Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%. Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06 and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17, P < 0.05.Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%, with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of

  10. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Headaches among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... headache on students' daily physical activity, whether they have seen a doctor on ... Table 3: Comparison of some clinical characteristics by headache .... the prevalence was 3.4% in women and 1.5% in men. The findings of ...

  11. Self-reported child abuse in the home: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and correlates among public secondary school students in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Dipika; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Bhochhibhoya, Shristi; Rijal, Shristi; Pathak, Ramjee Prasad

    2018-06-19

    To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district. In each school, we administered the questionnaires to the students in a classroom selected randomly. To assess the correlates, we ran multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by schools. Among the 962 students, 88.88% had experience of at least one form of abuse throughout their lifetime. Psychological abuse was the most prevalent form of abuse (previous year: 75.19%; lifetime: 76.15%) followed by physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect and sexual abuse. Adults were the most common perpetrators of child abuse (37.55%). The correlates identified in this study mostly aligned with the global literature on correlates of abuse. Female students were more likely to report neglect (previous year: adjusted OR (AOR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.04; lifetime: AOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.02), but no gender difference was observed with other forms of abuse. Students living with a single parent had a greater likelihood of exposure to violence (previous year: AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.94; lifetime: AOR 2.77, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.53), neglect (previous year: AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.69; lifetime: AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.81) and sexual abuse (previous year: AOR 3.03, 95% CI 1.45 to 6.37; lifetime: AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.14). Over 88% of students reported experiencing child abuse in the home in one or more forms throughout their lifetime. Delineating the reasons for the high burden and its

  12. Suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students: prevalence and association with socio-demographic characteristics and psychoactive substances use: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, Btissame; Bendaou, B; Elkinany, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2015-11-14

    Suicidal behavior is a major cause of injury and death worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have tackled this issue in the Arab world. The present study investigated the prevalence and the risk factors of suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students. From April 2012 to November 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the North-Centre region of Morocco among students in public secondary schools selected using stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected via anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used in its Moroccan Colloquial Arabic version to assess suicidality according to the DSM-IV criteria. A total of 3020 students (53 % boys) aged 11-23 years (average age = 16 ± 2.1 years) were included in the study. The prevalence of suicide ideation, suicide planning and suicide attempts during the last month were 15.7, 6.3, and 6.5 % respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that suicidal behaviors followed different epidemiological patterns. According to the multivariate analyses, the risk factors for all suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students were the female gender, middle school level, urban locations, low family income, parents' divorce, tobacco consumption and psychoactive substances (alcohol and cannabis) use. The intervention of preventive programs has become an emergency to overcome the issue of suicidality in Morocco. Further researches on adolescents' suicidal behaviors are suggested to update temporal data and assess the effectiveness of potential interventions.

  13. [Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Piotr; Milanowski, Lukasz; Szejko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT) METHODS: 268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults) with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255), chronic motor tics (n = 6), chronic vocal tics (n= 1), transient tics (n = 1), tics unclassified (n = 2), PT (n= 5) were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists. PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%), aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown. PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

  14. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...

  15. [Prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etel, C; Tabchi, S; Bou Khalil, R; Hlais, S; Richa, S

    2013-02-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral dependency on hazard games that is classified, in the DSM-IV, among impulse control disorders. According to many studies, the international prevalence of pathological ranges between 2 and 6%. This disorder is often accompanied by a considerable impact on patients' life as well as on the life of people surrounding them. Adolescents and young adults are considered to be a population at risk to develop this kind of behavioral dependency. The problem of pathological gambling is one of the major problems from which the Lebanese population of university students in Lebanese society suffers. The prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students is lacking from the contemporary medical literature. In our study, five of the biggest private universities in Lebanon (Notre-Dame University of Louaizé [NDU], Lebanese American University [LAU], American University of Beirut [AUB], Saint-Joseph University [USJ] and Holy Spirit University of Kaslik [USEK]) were surveyed. Each questionnaire was based essentially on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed in these universities. Among the 477 students that completed the questionnaire, 5.87% appeared to be suffering from pathological gambling; 25.15% of responding students presented some problems related to gambling while the rest of them, corresponding to 68.92%, had no problems related to gambling. This is the first study of its kind conducted in the Lebanon. Its interest lies in that it offers an important evaluation of the prevalence of pathological gambling in the Lebanese population of university students. According to this study, the prevalence of pathological gambling in Lebanese university students is high. Prevention programs and sensitization strategies are needed in order to prevent the occurrence of this disorder in the Lebanese young. More studies are needed in this domain in order to

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human immune virus infection. ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of articular manifestations in the anti-retroviral treatment naive HIV infected patients. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Comprehensive care clinic ...

  17. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  18. Cyberbullying in Portuguese Schools: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Armanda P. M.; Vieira, Cristina C.; Amado, João; Pessoa, Teresa; Martins, Maria José D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of cyberbullying in 23 Portuguese schools. A sample of 3,525 sixth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade students completed a self-response questionnaire assessing their perceptions and experiences of cyberbullying. The findings showed that 7.6% of students have been victimized, and 3.9% have bullied others at…

  19. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among adolescents students of Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani; Zahra Hasanzadeh; Mahvash Raghibi

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is believed that adolescents suffer from dysmenorrhea but premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is not a common and prevalent disorder. Recently, some studies indicated that PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were common problems among students and prevalence of premenstrual symptoms reported differently due to socio-cultural characteristics. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PMS and PMDD in a group of Iranian adolescent students.Materials and Me...

  20. Prevalence of plagiarism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Frković, Vedran; Turk, Tamara; Azman, Josip; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2005-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of plagiarism among medical students in writing essays. During two academic years, 198 second year medical students attending Medical Informatics course wrote an essay on one of four offered articles. Two of the source articles were available in an electronic form and two in printed form. Two (one electronic and one paper article) were considered less complex and the other two more complex. The essays were examined using plagiarism detection software "WCopyfind," which counted the number of matching phrases with six or more words. Plagiarism rate, expressed as the percentage of the plagiarized text, was calculated as a ratio of the absolute number of matching words and the total number of words in the essay. Only 17 (9%) of students did not plagiarize at all and 68 (34%) plagiarized less than 10% of the text. The average plagiarism rate (% of plagiarized text) was 19% (5-95% percentile=0-88). Students who were strictly warned not to plagiarize had a higher total word count in their essays than students who were not warned (P=0.002) but there was no difference between them in the rate of plagiarism. Students with higher grades in Medical Informatics exam plagiarized less than those with lower grades (P=0.015). Gender, subject source, and complexity had no influence on the plagiarism rate. Plagiarism in writing essays is common among medical students. An explicit warning is not enough to deter students from plagiarism. Detection software can be used to trace and evaluate the rate of plagiarism in written student assays.

  1. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Calhoun, David A; Oliveras, Anna; Blanch, Pedro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, Jose R; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M; Dudenbostel, Tanja; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-12-07

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractory hypertension (RfH) and to determine the clinical differences between these patients and resistant hypertensives (RH). Secondly, we assessed the prevalence of white-coat RfH and clinical differences between true- and white-coat RfH patients. The present analysis was conducted on the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry database containing 70 997 treated hypertensive patients. RH and RfH were defined by the presence of elevated office blood pressure (≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg) in patients treated with at least 3 (RH) and 5 (RfH) antihypertensive drugs. White-coat RfH was defined by RfH with normal (<130/80 mm Hg) 24-hour blood pressure. A total of 11.972 (16.9%) patients fulfilled the standard criteria of RH, and 955 (1.4%) were considered as having RfH. Compared with RH patients, those with RfH were younger, more frequently male, and after adjusting for age and sex, had increased prevalence of target organ damage, and previous cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of white coat RfH was lower than white-coat RH (26.7% versus 37.1%, P <0.001). White-coat RfH, in comparison with those with true RfH, showed a lower prevalence of both left ventricular hypertrophy (22% versus 29.7%; P =0.018) and microalbuminuria (28.3% versus 42.9%; P =0.047). The prevalence of RfH was low and these patients had a greater cardiovascular risk profile compared with RH. One out of 4 patients with RfH have normal 24-hour blood pressure and less target organ damage, thus indicating the important role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in guiding antihypertensive therapy in difficult-to-treat patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking control is urgently needed to prevent the epidemic of tobacco-related diseases and deaths in developing countries. This requires data on smoking, especially among vulnerable groups like students. We have surveyed cigarette smoking among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, in the North ...

  3. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  4. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  5. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  6. Prevalence of Hypertension among Teenage Students in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hypertension among Teenage Students in Kano, Nigeria. ... of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school ... Seventy of the students had systolic blood pressure140mmHg and/or diastolic ...

  7. Prevalence of corporal punishment among students in Washington State schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P

    1995-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.

  8. Prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleu, Dirk; Mir, Danial; Al Tabouki, Ahmed; Mesraoua, Rim; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Akhtar, Naveed; Al Hail, Hassan; D'souza, Atlantic; Melikyan, Gayane; Imam, Yahia Z B; Osman, Yasir; Elalamy, Osama; Sokrab, Tageldin; Kamran, Sadaat; Ruiz Miyares, Francisco; Ibrahim, Faiza

    2013-05-01

    No published epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Qatar exist. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of MS in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. We analyzed data for Qatari MS patients fulfilling the McDonald diagnostic criteria. A total of 154 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On 31 April 2010, the crude prevalence of MS in Qatar was 64.57 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 58.31-70.37). The female-to-male ratio was 1.33:1. A positive family history was found in 10.4% of included MS patients. We conclude that Qatar is now a medium-to-high risk area for MS, with some important differences in clinical characteristics as compared to other countries in the region.

  9. Increased prevalence of low back pain among physiotherapy students compared to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Mazzocchin, Thaís; de Braga, Gustavo Lisbôa; Kleber, Fabrício Diniz; Barreto, Felipe; Santin, Juliana Tosetto; Barazzetti, Daniel; Lazzaretti, Lucas; Steiner, Bruna; Beckenkamp, Natália Laste

    2011-03-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that physiotherapists have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). The association between physiotherapy students, who are potentially exposed to the same LBP occupational risks as graduates, and LBP has never been demonstrated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The study design includes a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based study was carried out with physiotherapy and medical students. LBP was measured as lifetime, 1-year and point prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find the factors associated with LBP. Bivariate analyses were also performed to assess differences between LBP characteristics in the two courses. 77.9% of the students had LBP at some point in their lives, 66.8% in the last year and 14.4% of them reported they were suffering from LBP at the moment of answering the questionnaire. Physiotherapy students reported a higher prevalence of LBP when compared with the medical students in all measures. In the logistic regression model, physiotherapy students (A-OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.35-4.67; p = 0.003), and being exposed to the undergraduate study for more than four semesters (A-OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.43-4.55; p = 0.001) were independently associated with LBP. There were no differences between the courses concerning pain intensity and disability. As it was a cross-sectional study, we were not able to observe accurately if there is an increasing incidence of LBP during the course. Also, we did not intend to identify which activities in the course were associated with the development of LBP. This study clearly demonstrated an association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The length of course exposure is also associated with LBP.

  10. Stealing among High School Students: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.

    2013-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165

  11. Stealing among high school students: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A

    2011-01-01

    Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health problems is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3,999) was examined by self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables, such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2 percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.8-17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV-TR kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p stealing behavior. Stealing appears to be fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggest that stealing often has significant associated morbidity.

  12. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Adolescent Students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyewoleye

    KEYWORDS: low back pain, prevalence, adolescent students, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Low-back ... content validity of the questionnaire was assessed among ten experienced ... in the orthopaedic ward and out-patient physiotherapy clinic.

  13. Prevalence of Stuttering in Javanroud\\'s Bilingual Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiva Mohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Study of prevalence of stuttering in Iranian bilingual societies is essential for determine the effects of linguistic factors in stuttering and therapy demands in these bilingual societies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of stuttering among Javanrud’s bilingual students. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical study, all of bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools were examined and in order to this purpose, teacher referral method was used for the primary screening of speech disorders at all. Essential information about speech disorders specifically stuttering had been given to teachers before this primary step. Then researcher diagnosed stuttering students based on personal interview, reading, spontaneous speech and description of serial images that tell a story in Kurdish and Persian. Data were analysed by statistical tests such as Chi-square and Logistic Regression. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1/13 percent. Among primary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2/06, 0/87 and 0/5 percent respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1/35 and among girls was 0/88 percent. An overall male/female ratio was 1/5. Prevalence of stuttering in primary, guidance and high school was differ from each other significantly (P<0/001. Prevalence of stuttering in male was higher than female significantly (P=0/034. Conclusion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanrood’s bilingual students was higher than accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1%. Risk of being stuttering in male was higher than female.

  14. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ashley H; Rickards, Hugh; Fasano, Alfonso; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2011-03-01

    Punding (the display of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors) is a relatively recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in PD. In this review, four large scientific databases were comprehensively searched for literature in relation to punding prevalence and clinical correlates in the context of PD. Prevalence was found to vary greatly (between 0.34 to 14%), although there were large disparities in study populations, assessment methods, and criteria. We observed an association between punding, dopaminergic medications, and impulse control disorder. Other characteristics, which may be more common among punders, include a higher severity of dyskinesia, younger age of disease onset, longer disease duration, and male gender. More research in large clinical datasets is required in many areas before conclusions are drawn. The pathophysiology behind the punding phenomenon is also poorly understood at present, rendering it difficult to develop targeted therapy. The current mainstay of treatment is the reduction in the dose of dopaminergic medications, the evidence for other suggested therapies being purely empirical.

  15. Characteristics of Student Employment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Čavar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with student term-time employment in Croatia, causes of its growing prevalence, its patterns and legal regulation, and finally its effects on the higher education system and labour market. Overview of the theories on combining work and study singled out few relevant factors determining motivations of students for engaging in term-time employment and employment's different academic and professional outcomes, mainly related to the massification of higher education phenomenon (higher number of students and their greater diversity, youth unemployment, and questionable college degree relevance. Although conducted on non-systematic data, gathered from previous research of student population in Croatia and EUROSTUDENT international research on the quality of student life, analysis carried out in this article showed the occurrence of higher education massification and its influence on student employment, especially in the fields of social sciences and humanities. Croatian students' motivations for term-time employment are mainly a wish to improve their living standard and a need for work experience, while their average workload is of low to medium intensity, usually on jobs not at all related to their future profession. Apart from presenting the practice of student work use, this article also gives an overview of its legal regulation in Croatia, and examples of its misuse, i.e., negative implications it may have on student and regular workers.

  16. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of elevated levels of blood lipids and obesity among college students in Kuwait. Methods: A sample of 484 students aged 17–24 years, were chosen randomly from the College of Basic Education, Kuwait, during the period from the beginning of March ...

  17. Prevalence of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence, types and consequences of sexual harassment/victimization of female students in the University. Methodology: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Using a cluster sampling method, 295 female students resident in the four campuses of the university were recruited and ...

  18. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Pharmacy Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the prevalence as well as determine gender differences in overweight and obesity among undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 172) of University of Benin, aged 18 years and above, were recruited for the study ...

  20. Prevalence of Khat, Cigarette and Alcohol Use Among Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Khat, Cigarette and Alcohol Use Among Students of Technology and Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University. E Eshetu, T Gedif ... devise mechanisms to develop the awareness of students on the health and social impacts of khat chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Keywords: khat, cigarette, alcohol, ...

  1. Bullying Prevalence in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marilyn; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Whiteford, Chrystal; Dillon-Wallace, Julie; Ashburner, Jill; Saggers, Beth; Carrington, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    All forms of bullying, physical, verbal, social, and cyber, are prevalent among youth worldwide. An especially vulnerable population for involvement in bullying is students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although there are some studies that have investigated bullying in these students, many of these are beset by methodological issues. We…

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Social Work Student Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rhen; McBeath, Bowen; Brockett, Stephanie; Sorenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Food security is an essential component of material wellness and social justice. This study draws on a 2013 survey of 496 students within a school of social work in a Pacific Northwestern U.S. public university to (a) provide the first estimate of the prevalence of food insecurity among social work students and (b) investigate coping strategies…

  3. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  4. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  5. Prevalence of Depression among High School Students and its Relation to Family Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Daryanavard; Abdoulhossain Madani; Mohammad S. Mahmoodi; Shafei Rahimi; Fatemeh Nourooziyan; Mahmood Hosseinpoor

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Depression is common in adolescents and especially in high school students. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression among high school students and its relation to parental configurations. Approach: A cross-sectional study was conducted during first term of the academic year 2003-2004. Data was collected by Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI-21 test) and researcher made questionnaire for demographic characteristics, using census procedur...

  6. Prevalence and impact of headache in undergraduate students in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna,Asdrubal; Teles,Alisson Roberto; Velho,Maíra Cristina; Vedana,Viviane Maria; Silva,Roberta Castilhos da; Mazzocchin,Thaís; Basso,Maira; Braga,Gustavo Lisbôa de

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of headache among university students. METHOD: The criteria established by the International Headache Society were used to define the primary headache subtypes and the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS), to assess the disability. The students were then grouped into six categories: [1] migraine; [2] probable migraine; [3] tension-type headache; [4] probable tension-type headache; [5] non-classifiable headache;...

  7. Prevalence and impact of headache in undergraduate students in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of headache among university students. METHOD: The criteria established by the International Headache Society were used to define the primary headache subtypes and the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS, to assess the disability. The students were then grouped into six categories: [1] migraine; [2] probable migraine; [3] tension-type headache; [4] probable tension-type headache; [5] non-classifiable headache; [6] no headache. RESULTS: Of all undergraduate students interviewed, 74.5% had at least one headache episode in the last three months. Regarding disability, there was a significant difference between the headache types (p<0.0001. In the post-hoc analysis, migraine was the headache type with most reported disability. CONCLUSION: Headache is a highly prevalent condition among the students at the University of Caxias do Sul. This disease may have a major impact on the students' lives and in some cases, ultimately lead to educational failure.

  8. Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Emekdar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province Objective: The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the world. The majority of smokers in the adolescent group has started smoking at early ages. Smoking prevalence among adolescents are reported to be approximately 10%. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and related factors among secondary and high school students in Tokat province. Method: Population of this cross-sectional study consists of secondary and high school students in Tokat. Sample size was calculated as 1072 by using proportional stratified cluster sampling method according to type of school, gender and age. The study has been completed with 1069 students (secondary school: 557, high school: 512. Sociodemographic characteristics and the smoking habits of students were determined through questionaries. The students who smoking at least one cigarette in a day were accepted as smokers. Results: 50.9% of secondary school students were male, mean age was 12.1±1.3, 74.5% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 10.8% (male:17.3%, female:4% and it was higher for students with <70 (16.3% average school grades than those with ≥70 (6.8% (p<0.05. 52.3% of high school students were female, mean age was 16.2±1.3, 80.7% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 18% (male:29.9%, female:7.1% and it was higher for students which have secondary or above maternal education level (23.8% than those students which have lower maternal education level (15.7%; higher in those whom parents live seperate or have died (42.3% than those whom parents live together (16.7%; higher in those that have average school grades <70 (23.8% than those with ≥70 (11.3% (p<0.05. Place of residence, income level and profession of parents were not significant effect on smoking prevalence. The most common cause of start smoking was curiosity (42.4%. Conclusions: Nearly one in

  9. Influence of course characteristics, student characteristics, and behavior in learning management systems on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course characteristics and student characteristics have shown to influence student performance as well. However, these different sets of features are rarely combined or compared. Therefore, in the current study we...

  10. Prevalence of metabolic components in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Sousa, Luana Savana Nascimento de; Rocha, Telma de Sousa; Cortez, Ramiro Marx Alves; Macêdo, Layla Gonçalves do Nascimento; Almeida, Paulo César de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the frequency of components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among university students.METHOD: descriptive study with 550 students, from various courses run by a public university. The socioeconomic data, lifestyle, and components of MetS were filled out using a questionnaire. Blood sample collection was undertaken in the university itself by a contracted clinical analysis laboratory.RESULTS: 66.2% were female, with a mean age of 22.6±4.41; 71.7% were sedentary; 1.8% stated...

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among university students

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo G., José M.; Sánchez P., Ricardo; Tejada, Paola A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the prevalence of suicidal ideation in a population of university students, to characterize groups in connection with ideation and suicidal behavior, and to determine the variables associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: Observational, analytic and cross-sectional study of a probabilistic sample of the population studied. An instrument for measuring suicide risk and associated variables was applied to this sample. Results: The prevalence of the...

  12. Cesarean section in Ethiopia: prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisma, Engida; Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John W; Mol, Ben W

    2017-11-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of cesarean section in Ethiopia. We used data collected for Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016. A two-stage, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used to gather information from women who gave birth within the 5-year period before each of the surveys. We analyzed the data to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with cesarean section using log-Poisson regression models. The national cesarean section rate increased from 0.7% in 2000 to 1.9% in 2016, with increases across seven of the eleven administrative regions of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa had the highest cesarean section rate (21.4%) in 2016 and the greatest increase since 2000. In the adjusted analysis, women who gave birth in private health facility had a 78.0% higher risk of cesarean section (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) (95% CI) 1.78 (1.22, 2.58)) compared with women who gave birth in public health facility. Having four or more births was associated with a lower risk of cesarean section compared with first births (aPR (95% CI) 0.36 (0.16, 0.79)). The Ethiopian national cesarean section rate is about 2%, but the rate varies widely among administrative regions, suggesting unequal access. Cesarean sections were highest among urban mothers, first births, births to women with higher education, and births to women from the richest quintile of household wealth.

  13. Selected physical characteristics of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lajos Ángyán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1 recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2 basketball and (3 handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4 and women (5 students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one’s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.

  14. Behavior Disorders Prevalence in High School Students in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zolfaghari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.

  15. HIV Testing in Recent College Students: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Singer, Barbara J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing were examined in a sample of 957 unmarried recent college students in the United States. Participants were asked about HIV testing, past-six-months sexual activities, lifetime treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STI), past-year health service utilization, and DSM-IV criteria for alcohol and other…

  16. Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Assault among Female Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Sexual assault is a violent crime against both the individual and society but is largely underreported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of sexual assault among female students in the University of Maiduguri. Methods: A crossectional descriptive study using a close ended, self ...

  17. Prevalence of Ascariasis among the Students of Jooro Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study to know the prevalence of ascariasis among the students and teachers of Jooro Grammar School, Ibule-Soro, Ondo State, was undertaken. A total of 243 subjects examined. Stool sample was collected from each subject and examined for the presence of the parasite, using wet preparation and concentration methods ...

  18. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Elementary School Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…

  19. Prevalence of refractive errors among junior high school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among school children, uncorrected refractive errors have a considerable impact on their participation and learning in class. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of refractive error among students in the Ejisu-Juabeng Municipality of Ghana. A survey with multi-stage sampling was undertaken. We interviewed ...

  20. Headache among patients with HIV disease: prevalence, characteristics, and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Kale E; Kirkland, Karl; Many, W J; Smitherman, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Headache is one of the most common medical complaints reported by individuals suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but limited and conflicting data exist regarding their prevalence, prototypical characteristics, and relationship to HIV disease variables in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to characterize headache symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS and to assess relations between headache and HIV/AIDS disease variables. Two hundred HIV/AIDS patients (49% female; mean age = 43.22 ± 12.30 years; 74% African American) from an internal medicine clinic and an AIDS outreach clinic were administered a structured headache diagnostic interview to assess headache characteristics and features consistent with International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II diagnostic semiologies. They also completed 2 measures of headache-related disability. Prescribed medications, most recent cluster of differentiation (CD4) cell count, date of HIV diagnosis, possible causes of secondary headache, and other relevant medical history were obtained via review of patient medical records. One hundred seven patients (53.5%) reported headache symptoms, the large majority of which were consistent with characteristics of primary headache disorders after excluding 4 cases attributable to secondary causes. Among those who met criteria for a primary headache disorder, 88 (85.44%) met criteria for migraine, most of which fulfilled ICHD-II appendix diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine. Fifteen patients (14.56%) met criteria for episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Severity of HIV (as indicated by CD4 cell counts), but not duration of HIV or number of prescribed antiretroviral medications, was strongly associated with headache severity, frequency, and disability and also distinguished migraine from TTH. Problematic headache is highly prevalent

  1. [Burnout in Dutch medical students: prevalence and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conijn, Maartjie; Boersma, Henri J M V; van Rhenen, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of burnout in Dutch medical students. Questionnaire survey. All 14,570 student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association) were invited to fill in a digital survey. Burnout was determined with the Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS). Triggering and protective factors for burnout were also investigated . 2,739 medical students (18.8%) completed the survey and 14.5 per cent of all respondents met the burnout criteria. 17.8 per cent of the hospital interns who responded and 11.6 per cent of the preclinical students who responded met these criteria. Work-home interference and high levels of emotional pressure had the strongest link to burn-out, while a sufficient amount of support from family, friends and peers reduced the risk of burnout in both undergraduates and hospital interns. Our exploratory research suggests that the prevalence of burnout is high, particularly among the hospital interns who responded. The most important contributory factors are high levels of emotional pressure and work-home interference. The low percentage of respondents makes it difficult to make any statement about the prevalence and causes of burnout among all Dutch medical students.

  2. Program Characteristics Influencing Allopathic Students' Residency Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Michael D; Miller, Karen Hughes; Ziegler, Craig H; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mitchell, Charlene K

    2016-04-01

    Medical students must consider many overt variables when entering the National Resident Matching Program. However, changes with the single graduate medical education accreditation system have caused a gap in knowledge about more subtle considerations, including what, if any, influence the presence of osteopathic physician (ie, DO) and international medical graduate (IMG) house officers has on allopathic students' residency program preferences. Program directors and selection committee members may assume students' implicit bias without substantiating evidence. To reexamine which program characteristics affect US-trained allopathic medical students' residency selection, and to determine whether the presence of DO and IMG house officers affects the program choices of allopathic medical students. Fourth-year medical students from 4 allopathic medical schools completed an online survey. The Pearson χ(2) statistic was used to compare demographic and program-specific traits that influence ranking decisions and to determine whether school type (private vs public), valuing a residency program's prestige, or interest in a competitive specialty dictated results. Qualitative data were analyzed using the Pandit variation of the Glaser and Strauss constant comparison. Surveys were completed by 323 of 577 students (56%). Students from private vs public institutions were more likely to value a program's prestige (160 [93%] vs 99 [72%]; P<.001) and research opportunities (114 [66%] vs 57 [42%]; P<.001), and they were less likely to consider their prospects of being accepted (98 [57%] vs 111 [81%]; P<.001). A total of 33 (10%) and 52 (16%) students reported that the presence of DO or IMG trainees, respectively, would influence their final residency selection, and these percentages were largely unchanged among students interested in programs' prestige or in entering a competitive specialty. Open-ended comments were generally optimistic about diversification of the physician

  3. Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.

    2018-01-01

    Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.

  4. [Prevalence of obesity and altered lipid profile in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sandoval, Claudia Elena; Díaz Burke, Yolanda; Mendizabal-Ruiz, Adriana Patricia; Medina Díaz, Eunice; Morales, José Alejandro

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem because its association with the risk to develop various chronic diseases. Atherogenic dyslipidemia that often accompany obesity is also associated to the metabolic syndrome and to cardiovascular diseases. The transition from adolescence to young adulthood appears to be a period where major changes occur in the lifestyle which contributes to the development of obesity, however, little attention has been given to this transition stage. The inclination to adopt unhealthy behaviors which occurs during early adulthood may be increased on university students because their lifestyle, which is characterized by lack of time to eat a healthy diet, which can make them susceptible to obesity. To determine the prevalence of obesity and lipid levels abnormalities and their relationship in a group of university students. Transversal study of university students aged between 18 and 24 years. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood lipid profile where evaluated. Of the 620 students surveyed about one-third have either overweight or obesity. 86% of students had at least one alteration in the evaluated parameters. Lipid profile results show a high prevalence of minor alterations in levels, particularly in cholesterol linked to low density lipoproteins levels. University young students have a high prevalence of overweight and plasma lipid levels above the norm, but most are in the low-risk categories. It is necessary to establish early preventive measures aimed at promoting in the university student good eating habits and increased physical activity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  6. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Cavalcante Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout syndrome (BS is a set of psychological symptoms resulting from the interaction between chronic occupational stress and individual factors. These symptoms include emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased professional satisfaction. BS is manifested in a variety of professions and is prevalent in contexts in which health professionals are required to interact directly with the public. Objective To determine the prevalence of BS among medical students at a university in Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Of the 517 students enrolled in their first to eighth semester in 2013, 376 (72.7% were contacted. A socio-economic evaluation questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS were administered. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Two groups – burnout/risk and non-burnout – were compared using the chi-square and likelihood ratio tests with a significance level of 5%. Variables with p < 0.20 were included in a multivariate analysis logistical regression model. Results Burnout was detected in 14.9% of the students, and 57.7% showed a risk of developing the syndrome. Logistic regressions showed an association between burnout and “have failed examinations” and “have considered abandoning the course”, p = 0.047 and p < 0.0001, respectively. Discussion Psychopedagogy should be implemented to address the high prevalence of burnout in medical students.

  7. Prevalence of Depression among Undergraduate Students: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.

  8. Burnout prevalence and correlates amongst Colombian dental students: the STRESSCODE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, A C; Villa-Torres, L; Polychronopoulou, A; Polanco, H; Moreno-Juvinao, V; Parra-Galvis, D; Durán, C; Villalobos, M J; Divaris, K

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence amongst dental students indicates an alarming prevalence of stress, which can precipitate the development of burnout--a state of mental or physical exhaustion and disengagement. Understanding individual and educational correlates of burnout is necessary for its prevention. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of burnout amongst a large sample of Colombian dental undergraduates and investigate its psychosocial and educational correlates. Survey data collected from 5647 students participating in the Stress in Colombian Dental Education study were used for this analysis. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Covariates included participants' socio-demographic characteristics and perceived stress, as well as educational environment factors. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate methods based on multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression modelling were used for data analysis. Seven per cent of the students surveyed met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of burnout was higher amongst upper classes, older and married students, those who reported not having passed all required courses and not having dentistry as their first career choice, as well as students in public institutions and those with large class sizes. Moreover, students' perceived stress in the domains of workload and self-efficacy was significantly and positively associated with burnout. Both personal and educational environment characteristics were found to be associated with burnout. Irrespective of these factors, students' perceived stress with regard to workload and self-efficacy was a strong influence on burnout and its alleviation may be a promising avenue to prevent psychological morbidity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Looking for students' personal characteristics predicting study outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A. Bakx; Theo Bergen; Dr. Cyrille A.C. Van Bragt; Marcel Croon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students' personal characteristics (the 'Big Five personality characteristics', personal orientations on learning and students' study approach) may predict study outcome (required credits and study

  10. Teacher Characteristics and Students' Choice of Teaching as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher Characteristics and Students' Choice of Teaching as a Career in Osun ... the teacher characteristics that influence students' choice of teaching as a career ... The result revealed that factors such as quality of teaching, mode of dressing ...

  11. Prevalence and cause of smoking in the medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young smokers have been more exposed to great stresses and mishaps in their lives,compared to non-smokers. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of tendency to cigarettesmoking and its reasons among medical students.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was carried out on the population ofmedical students in Tehran. Two hundred and eighty students were selected by classifiedrandomization from the students in term one, four and seven (students in each term was considered aseparate group. Inclusion criteria were the same for all groups. The questionnaire comprised 45questions including 29 common questions, 5 questions for smokers, 3 questions for recreationalsmokers, 7 questions for ex-smokers, and 2 questions for non-smokers. Data analysis was performedusing descriptive statistics and Chi-square test by SPSS-10 sofware.Results: There was no female smoker among the students, except 5 percent of the students in termseven who had smoked recreationally. The most important reasons for cigarette smoking were forpleasure and decreasing anxiety. However, maintaining the health was the most important reason forthe lack of tendency to smoking among male non-smokers. Female non-smokers had also the reason ofunacceptable social impact of smoking for their disinclination.Discussion: The results of current study showed that medical students are predisposed to havetendency to cigarette smoking due to psychological stresses, which are most probably related to theiracademic major.

  12. PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SARAWAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRYANI T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2% adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9% did not smoke on adaily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1% and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1% or selfpurchased (43.6%. Students prefer to smoke at their friend’s house (31.0% or at school (25.3%. Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.

  13. Prevalence of supplement use in recreationally active Kazakhstan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis; Romanova, Zhanna; Dushpanova, Anar; Absatarova, Karashash; Utepbergenova, Zhazira

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the supplements use and recreational sport practices in Kazakhstan university students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain supplements use prevalence and their predictors in this population. Cross-sectional survey of both undergraduate and graduate level students was completed in 2017 et al.-Farabi Kazakh National University, the largest higher institution in the country, from almost all Schools. A 45-item questionnaire was used to record physical activity, supplements use, lifestyle attributes (smoking, alcohol, sleep, etc.) and eating habits, and adjusted regression models were used to verify predictors of supplements use. Of the entire sample of 889 students (70% females), 526 (59%) were practicing recreational physical activity (RPA), and walking, jogging and track and field was the most popular activity type (38%). N  = 151 (29%) students reported the use of any supplement (31% in men and 27% in women), whereas the most popular supplement type were vitamins. Supplement use was most prevalent in swimmers (55%). Age (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37), use of fitness tracker (OR 6.26 (95% CI 3.90-10.03)) and low-fat diet (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.23-3.10)), but not income predicted supplements use in adjusted models. With more than half of students exercising regularly, only less than one-third use supplements with a very strong association with fitness tracker use.

  14. The prevalence and effect of burnout on graduate healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett; Kraft, Lynnea; Amsden, Katherine; Gore, Whitney; Prengle, Bobby; Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Ledbetter, Leila; Covington, Kyle; Goode, Adam

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a growing epidemic among professional healthcare students. Unaddressed burnout has been shown to have psychological and performance related detriments. The purpose of this scoping literature review was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and its effects on the psychological, professional, empathetic ability, and academic acuity of graduate healthcare students. Inclusion criteria included English language papers published within the last 10 years and subjects in graduate healthcare professional programs. This search encompassed 8,214 articles. After title and abstract screening, 127 articles remained and were sorted into five domains of interest: etiology, professionalism, mental health, empathy, and academic performance. After duplicates were removed, 27 articles remained for the scoping review. Graduate level healthcare students had higher levels of burnout than age matched peers and the general population. The high prevalence of burnout within graduate healthcare students can have an effect on their mental health, empathy, and professional conduct. Understanding the occurrence and effects of burnout within graduate healthcare programs allows faculty and administration to plan curriculum, and provide information to students to understand, recognize, and create opportunities to decrease burnout in order to create long lasting quality clinicians.

  15. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effective Physics Teacher Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: What do teachers and students in Turkey perceive as the common characteristics of effective physics teachers? Purpose of Study: The first aim was to investigate the common characteristics of effective physics teachers by asking students and teachers about the effects of teacher characteristics on student physics achievement and…

  16. Prevalence and Perceptions Toward Anabolicandrogenic Steroid Use Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargarfard M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs are highly sought-after in order to achieve muscle growth and better physical attributes. The study was conducted to measure the prevalence and attitudes towards the use of AASs among university students. 1008 male students from Isfahan University, Iran, between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23.3 ± 1.2 years completed a questionnaire that investigated participation in bodybuilding, level of sport competition, participation in sports and recreational activities, AASs use, prevalence, knowledge among users, attitudes, as well as intent to continue using AASs in the future. 8% of respondents had used AASs and 6% currently use AASs. 71% of users believed using only a small amount of AASs or using AASs with anti-toxic drugs would not result in any harm, 10% indicated that AASs were harmless and 19% admitted to taking AASs despite knowing the adverse effects. 33% of respondents believed that they needed to use AASs to ensure athletic success and 26% believed that athletes should be allowed to use AASs without consequence. The prevalent use of AASs is a public health concern which implies that educational programmes at university level are needed to educate students about the adverse effects of AASs use

  17. Prevalence, Predictive Factors, and Characteristics of Osteoporosis in Hyperthyroid Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde O. Ale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The osteoporosis in thyroid disorder has the lowest report especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to determine the prevalence, predictive factors, and characteristics of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid patients. Method. Forty (40 hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls ages 21–50 years were recruited in this study. Questionnaires were administered to capture bio- and clinical data. Biochemical tests included blood, thyroid functions, intact parathyroid hormone, corrected calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests. Bone mineral density (BMD was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results. Osteoporosis was observed in 18 (45% of study subjects, 13 (72.2% females and 5 (27.8% males, respectively. The BMD of the hyperthyroid patients had a negative correlation with free triiodothyronine, FT3 (r=−0.49, p=0.005, FT4 (r=−0.33, p=0.009, corrected calcium (r=−0.31, p=0.039, alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.53, p<0.001, and osteocalcin (r=−0.61, p<0.001. Conversely, a positive association with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH (r=0.54, p<0.001 was observed. Multiple regression showed osteocalcin (p<0.001 and TSH (p=0.015 as independent predictors of osteoporosis. Conclusion. Thyrotoxicosis is a risk factor for osteoporosis occurrence, and we recommend routine screening for this bone disease in persons over 20 years old with this disorder.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  20. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. The outcome studied was involvement in fights with firearms and/or cold weapons in the 30 days prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results Fifty seven thousand and eighty nine female students and 52,015 male students were included; the prevalence of their involvement in fights with weapons was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.9–7.5 and 13.8 (95 % CI 13.4–14.3, respectively. In the adjusted analysis the factors associated with male student involvement in fights with weapons were: being older, working, having smoked a cigarette, consumed alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs recently, insomnia, not having any close friends, skipping classes without parental supervision, having suffered aggression from a family member, reporting feeling unsafe on the way to or from school and/or at school. The same associated factors were found among female students in addition to not living with their father and/or mother and having suffered bullying. There was no association with type of school in either sex. Conclusion Involvement in fights with weapons was greater among older male students. Health-risk behaviors, mental health characteristics, parental supervision and context of violence also showed association with the outcomes.

  1. Prevalence of overweight/obesity among the medical students, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Ganeshkumar, P; Prakash, M V S; Christopher; Amalraj, V

    2012-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals. A study was conducted to screen the medical students of AIMST University for overweight/obesity using Body Mass Index(BMI) and to determine the prevalence among them. This is an institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 290 medical students using a pre-tested questionnaire and measured their Body Mass Index (BMI). Data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating proportions. Out of 290 students who participated in the study, 45.2% were males. In the study, 14.8% were found to be overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2); 13.7% of males and 15.7% of females. Pre-obese students (BMI 25-29kg/m2) accounted for 15.9% of the total (males 18.3% and females 13.8%). 5.2% were found to be obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2): males 9.2% and females 1.9%. Also 14.8% were found to be underweight (males 12.2% and females 17.0%). The study group consisted of 63.8% Indian, 32.4% Chinese and 3.8% Malay students. The study reveals that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students of AIMST University is on the high, which is comparable to the findings of earlier studies conducted in Malaysia, reinforcing the need to encourage healthy lifestyle, healthy food habits and a physically active daily routine, among the adolescents and youth of this country.

  2. Prevalence and Consequences of Arm, Neck, and/or Shoulder Complaints Among Music Academy Students: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Laura M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2015-09-01

    CANS (complaints of arm, neck, and/or shoulder not caused by a systemic disease or acute trauma) are a recognized problem in specific occupational groups such as musicians. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, characteristics, and consequences of CANS between music academy students and a control group of peer-age medical students. A cross-sectional study among music academy students and medical students. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire on musculoskeletal conditions of the upper extremity in the two cohorts. Students of three music academies (n=345) and one medical university (n=2,870) received the questionnaire, of which 25% (n=87) and 18% (n=503) responded, respectively. The 12-month prevalence of CANS was nearly twice as high among music academy students as the control group (80.7% vs 41.5%, pMusic academy students reported 2.6 times the point prevalence as medical students (47.0% vs 18.2%, pmusic students, compared to 10.3% of the medical students (pMusic academy students presented more complaints per anatomic localization and a higher number of involved anatomic localizations. Music students rated the influence of CANS on daily functioning as more severe (5.0 vs 3.1, pmusic academy students (46.3%) visited a healthcare professional compared to medical students (29.8%, p=0.013). The prevalence of CANS is high in music academy students compared to medical students. This emphasizes the necessity of effective (preventive) interventions in these high-demanding professionals.

  3. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    OpenAIRE

    MoolRaj Kural; Naziya Nagori Noor; Deepa Pandit; Tulika Joshi; Anjali Patil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18?25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea durat...

  4. Internet Addiction Among College Students in China: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Lin, Li; Zhang, Peichao

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in China and explored the correlations between Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. A total of 1,173 Chinese college students (62.1 percent males, Mage = 19.65 years) were invited to complete a questionnaire containing measures of demographic characteristics, psychosocial correlates, including the quality of the parent-child relationship, propensity for depression, and psychosocial competence, and Internet addictive behaviors. Among the participating students, 15.2 percent were classified as having Internet addiction. Furthermore, students who reported poorer parent-child relationships, higher levels of depression, and lower levels of psychosocial competence were more likely to report behaviors indicative of Internet addiction. Internet addiction was prevalent among college students in China. The significant predictors of Internet addiction were found to include the quality of the family environment (i.e., the quality of the parent-child relationship), personal mental health status (i.e., the existence of depression), and the level of developmental assets (i.e., psychosocial competence). These findings suggest that improving the quality of family life and promoting psychosocial competence among youth can be promising approaches for preventing or/and reducing Internet addiction among college students in China.

  5. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among the college students of the campus of health sciences of the university of Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Tannuri Ferreira Lima Falcão; Marcelino Leite de Miranda; Roseane Maria Cavalcanti Silva

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is presented, currently, as one of the most important problems of public health. Objective: first to calculate the prevalence of obesity and overweight in the adolescent college students of the campus of health and sciences of the University of PE; to identify them according to: sex, age, monthly familiar income and life style. Methods: epidemiologic study and description, quantitative transversal line with characteristics. The population who took...

  6. Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students - United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B

    2010-04-01

    We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Prevalence of internet addiction and associated factors among medical students from mashhad, iran in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Salehi, Mahta; Danesh, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Problematic internet use is on the increase and has caused serious problems in many areas. This issue seems to be more important for medical students. This study was designed to explore the prevalence of internet addiction and its related factors among the students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. A cross sectional study was conducted on 383 medical students of Mashhad in 2013. Four hundred participants were selected through two-stage stratified sampling method proportional to the number of students in each stage of education. Data Collection was done through using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and a checklist of demographic details and characteristics of internet usage behavior. It was found that 2.1% of the studied population were at risk and 5.2% were addicted users. Chatting with new people, communicating with friends and families, and playing games were the most popular activities in these groups. The factors related to internet addiction included: male sex, stage of education, daily time spent on using internet, most frequent time of internet use, monthly cost of use, and tea consumption. Although our study showed the prevalence of internet addiction was not more than other populations and universities, since the prevalence of internet addiction is rapidly increasing worldwide, this population might also be at risk of addiction. Thus, focusing on related factors can help us in designing more effective interventions and treatments for this susceptible group.

  8. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Suicide Ideation Among Medical Students: Prevalence and Associated Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Amado, Alexander; Guerrero, Sonia; Moreno, Katherine; Landínez, Carolina; Pinzón, Julie

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that physicians have higher rates of suicide than the general population. This risk tends to increase even from the beginning of undergraduate training in medicine. There are few studies evaluating the frequency of suicidal behaviors in undergraduate medical students, particularly in Latin America. To determine the lifetime prevalence and the variables associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a sample of medical students from the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. An analytical cross-sectional observational study was conducted to determine the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a non-random sample of medical students enrolled in three medical schools in Bucaramanga. A self-administered questionnaire was voluntarily and anonymously answered by the participants. Validated versions of the CES-D and CAGE scales were used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated in order to adjust the estimates of variables associated with the outcome «suicidal ideation in life». The study sample consisted of 963 medical students, of which 57% (n=549) of the participants were women. The average age was 20.3 years (SD=2.3 years). Having had at least one episode of serious suicidal ideation in their lifetime was reported by 15.7% (n=149) of the students, with 5% (n=47) of the students reported having made at least one suicide attempt. Having taken antidepressants during their medical training was reported by 13.9% (n=131) of the students. The variables associated with the presence of suicidal ideation in the logistic regression model were: clinically significant depressive symptoms (OR: 6.9, 95% CI; 4.54-10.4), history of illicit psychoactive substance use (OR 2.8, 95% CI; 1.6-4.8), and perception of poor academic performance over the past year (OR: 2.2, 95% CI; 1.4-3.6). The logistic regression model correctly classified

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity among Chinese youth aged 12-18 years: a multistage nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Xin, X; Ming, Q

    2018-02-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity by four different references and to explore the characteristics of adolescent overweight and obesity in Chinese secondary school students aged 12-18 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in this study. Using stratified random cluster sampling, 8999 secondary school students were enrolled. The references developed by Must and Dallal and Dietz, the Childhood Obesity Working Group of the International Obesity Task Force, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Group of China Obesity Task Force (GCOTF reference) were used to identify overweight and obese students. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity vary substantially based on the four references. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity based on GCOTF reference are 8.4% and 4.1%, respectively, which is significantly lower than the prevalence of overweight and obesity in their peers in 2000 (χ 2  = 24.03, P obesity in boys are 12.0% and 5.7%, which are higher than those in girls, 4.6% and 5.7% (χ 2  = 240.68, P obesity in singletons are higher than those in non-singletons (χ 2  = 40.25, P obesity in students with lower school community ladder of subjective social status are higher than those from higher ones (χ 2  = 21.61, P obesity in Chinese adolescents. The current prevalence rates of adolescent overweight and obesity decreased, and girls made a tremendous contribution to this decreasing trend. Singletons and adolescents in lower school community ladder of subjective socio-economic status may be at higher risk of getting overweight and obesity. More effective strategies with full consideration to the characteristics above should be developed to control and prevent adolescent overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of depression and socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background information: Various studies across the world have shown that depression is of high prevalence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and that it has lots of adverse effects on them. Diagnosis of depression among this group of people is however still very low in sub-Sahara Africa, particularly at primary ...

  12. Prevalence of depression among Turkish University Students and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gunay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was performed to determine the prevalence rate of depression and its correlates in students at Erciyes University. Method: A total of 1003 university students at the Medical, Theology and Engineering Faculties of Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey were included in the study. A socio–demographic questionnaire and a Beck Depression Inventory were completed by the students. An unpaired t test, a one way ANOVA test and a logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analyses. Results: Total numbers of male and female students in the study group were similar and the mean age was 20.3±1.8. The mean Back Depression Inventory Beck Depression Inventory score was 11.3±8.6 points and prevalence rate of depression (Beck Depression Inventory ≥17 was 21.2%. The Mean Beck Depression Inventory score and depression prevalence were found higher among the students who had a physical illness, who were not satisfied with their body image or their faculty and who rated the economic level of their families as poor. Conclusion: It was concluded that approximately one–fifth of the students had depression. For the students, studying in a faculty which they are not satisfied is a major factor affecting depression. A better leadership should be provided for the students during the faculty selection procedure. Key Words: University student, depression, Beck Depression Inventory Üniversite öğrencilerinde depresyon prevalansı ve ilişkili faktörler Amaç: Bu çalışma, Erciyes Üniversitesi öğrencilerinde depresyon prevalansını ve bununla ilişkili faktörleri belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Yöntem: Erciyes Üniversitesinin Tıp, İlahiyat ve Mühendislik fakültelerinde okuyan toplam 1003 öğrenci araştırma kapsamına alındı. Öğrencilere sosyo-demografik anket ve Beck Depresyon Ölçeği uygulandı. Verilerin istatistiksel analizinde unpaired t testi, tek yönlü ANOVA testi ve logistik regresyon

  13. Nature and Prevalence of Menstrual Disorders among Teenage Female Students at Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooh, Ahmed M; Abdul-Hady, Atiea; El-Attar, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    To determine the nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders among teenage girls. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. Zagazig University Students' Hospital, Zagazig, Egypt. A representative sample of female students who attended the university pre-enrollment medical examination. Self-administered questionnaire covering items on the adolescents' demographic data and menstruation characteristics. Information about menarche, body mass index, physical exercise, cycle length and regularity, duration of menses, menstrual blood loss, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome. A total of 285 questionnaires were analyzed. Mean age at menarche was 12.3 ± 1.5 years. Oligomenorrhea was reported by 18 participants (6.3%) and 5 others (1.8%) mentioned having polymenorrhea. Hypomenorrhea was noted in 25 students (8.8%), and hypermenorrhea was reported by 12 (4.2%). Irregular periods were mentioned by 24 students (8.4%). Dysmenorrhea was reported in 188 students (66.0%). Of these, 81 (28.4%) graded their pain as mild, 69 (24.2%) as moderate, and 38 (13.3%) as severe. Premenstrual syndrome was mentioned by 160 girls (56.1%). Consulting somebody regarding their menstrual problems was reported by 36 students (12.6%). Our results are not greatly different from those in other parts of the world. Data on nature and prevalence of menstrual disorders and their effect on young women's health status, quality of life, and social integration suggest that management of these disorders should be given more attention within the available reproductive health care programs. Further research into prevalence of and risk factors for menstrual disorders and their morbidity is warranted and anxiously awaited. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa namdari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and

  15. Students Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Placklé, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument - the Inventory Powerful Learning Environments in Vocational Education - to measure studentsâ preferences on characteristics of powerful learning environments in voca-tional education. ...

  16. Problematic internet use among high school students: Prevalence, associated factors and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Prevalence of Tic Disorders and Clinical Characteristics in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. Method We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Results Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. Conclusions The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety. PMID:25436183

  18. Career preference and medical students' biographical characteristics and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soethout, M.B.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; ten Cate, O.T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We know that medical students' biographical characteristics and academic achievement influence career preference. Less is known about the differential association of these characteristics with preference for distinct specialties at different stages of medical training. Aim: To

  19. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural, MoolRaj; Noor, Naziya Nagori; Pandit, Deepa; Joshi, Tulika; Patil, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18–25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea duration, pre-menstrual symptoms (PMS), family history, menses irregularities, menstrual history, severity grading using visual analogue scale (VAS) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Dysmenorrhea was reported in 84.2% (261) girls and 15.8% (49) reported no dysmenorrhea. Using VAS, 34.2% of girls experienced severe pain, 36.6% moderate and 29.2% had mild pain. Bleeding duration was found to be significantly associated with dysmenorrhea (χ2 = 10.5; P dysmenorrhea (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–3). Moreover, girls with the presence of clots had 2.07 times higher chance of having dysmenorrhea (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.04–4.1) (P dysmenorrhea, 90.9% experience the condition themselves (χ2 = 11.5; P dysmenorrhea had three times greater chance of having the same problem (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.5–5.8; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is found to be highly prevalent among college going girls. Family history, bleeding duration and presence of clots were significant risk factors for dysmenorrhea. PMID:26288786

  20. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in Norway: prevalence, clinical and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retterstøl, Kjetil; Narverud, Ingunn; Selmer, Randi; Berge, Knut E; Osnes, Ingvild V; Ulven, Stine M; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Pål; Holven, Kirsten B; Iversen, Per O

    2017-06-12

    There is a lack of comprehensive patient-datasets regarding prevalence of severe hypertriglyceridemia (sHTG; triglycerides ≥10 mmol/L), frequency of co-morbidities, gene mutations, and gene characterization in sHTG. Using large surveys combined with detailed analysis of sub-cohorts of sHTG patients, we here sought to address these issues. We used data from several large Norwegian surveys that included 681,990 subjects, to estimate the prevalence. Sixty-five sHTG patients were investigated to obtain clinical profiles and candidate disease genes. We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from six male patients and nine healthy controls and examined expression of mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. The prevalence of sHTG was 0.13 (95% CI 0.12-0.14)%, and highest in men aged 40-49 years and in women 60-69 years. Among the 65 sHTG patients, a possible genetic cause was found in four and 11 had experienced acute pancreatitis. The mRNA expression levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1A, CPT2, and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly higher in patients compared to controls, whereas those of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 1 were significantly lower. In Norway, sHTG is present in 0.1%, carries considerable co-morbidity and is associated with an imbalance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, all potentially contributing to increased cardiovascular morbidity in sHTG.

  1. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations of self-efficacy among German university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulewitsch MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb1,2, Dominika Kulessa1,*, Marco D Gulewitsch1,*1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health.Objective: The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations with self-efficacy among German university students.Methods: A total of 2196 university students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, and self-efficacy were assessed using a questionnaire.Results and conclusion: Analyses revealed that more than 16% of surveyed students needed more than 30 minutes to fall asleep. About 7.7% of the students suffered from insomnia. Short sleep was significantly associated with a considerably increased rate of insomnia (20%. Insomniacs showed lower self-efficacy than students without sleep problems.Keywords: university students, sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, self-efficacy

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of depressive disorders in early adolescents in central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Bo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of depressive disorders among adolescents has varied across studies. The present study aims to assess current and lifetime prevalence and characteristics of adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and Depression NOS among adolescents in Central Norway in addition to socio-demographics and use of mental health care. Method In the Youth and Mental Health Study a representative sample of 2432 junior high school students (mean age 14.9 years, SD = 0.6 from two counties in Central Norway were screened with the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ. A subset of 345 of these adolescents (72.5% girls, 220 high scorers (MFQ = > 26, 74 middle scorers (MFQ 7-25, and 50 low scorers (MFQ Results Almost one in four subjects (23% had life-time depression. Prevalences of current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Dysthymia and "Double depression" were 2.6%, 1.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and for Depression NOS 6.3%. All depressive disorders were characterized by long duration of episodes with large variations, and for any depressive disorder onset before 12 years of age. In multivariate analyses MDD and Dysthymia were most strongly associated with gender and not living with both biological parents. There was no gender difference for Depression NOS. Although a considerable number of depressed subjects had received mental health care, the reason for contact with services was seldom due to affective symptoms. Less than 20% had been in contact with specialist mental health services. Conclusion High rates of Depression NOS, early onset of depressive episodes, long duration, and low use of specialized services point to the need for improved diagnostic assessment and treatment for young individuals.

  3. Hypercoagulability in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: prevalence, patient characteristics and postoperative outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Sulman; Johansson, Per Ingemar; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo investigate the prevalence of preoperative hypercoagulability assessed by thromboelastography (TEG), to identify patient characteristics associated with hypercoagulability and to explore whether hypercoagulability is associated with a greater risk for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke...

  4. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  5. Prevalence of adulthood attention deficit / hyperactivity symptoms in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourmohammad Bakhshani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in students of Sistan and Balouchestan University.Materials and Method: This cross sectional study was performed during second educational semester (2010. The sample included 403 students of Sistan and Balouchestan university who were selected by non random sampling after filling two questionnaires, including the demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Canner′s adult attention –deficit/hyperactivity (CAARS-S:OV questionnaire. To analyze data we used SPSS-16 software.Results: Based on test scores of Canner′s adult test, results showed about 39 students (9.7% in inattention-memory index and 32 students (7.9% in the hyperactivity index had higher or much higher scores than average. In addition, 27 students (6.7% and 38 others (9.4% had higher or much higher scores in impulsivity-emotional index and problem with self concept, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, we suggest that the symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficit are common among university students of Sistan and Balouchestan. For preventing educational problems and high risk behaviors such as drug use, further studies and appropriate preventive and treatment programs highly recommended

  6. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparisons and Analyses of Gifted Students' Characteristics and Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiamei; Li, Daqi; Stevens, Carla; Ye, Renmin

    2017-01-01

    Using PISA 2009, an international education database, this study compares gifted and talented (GT) students in three groups with normal (non-GT) students by examining student characteristics, reading, schooling, learning methods, and use of strategies for understanding and memorizing. Results indicate that the GT and non-GT gender distributions…

  8. Adult Student Preferences: Instructor Characteristics Conducive to Successful Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.; Baltzer, Carolyn; Filoon, Lisa; Whitley, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined adult students' perspectives on what characteristics make for successful teaching and learning environments in the adult student classroom. Methodology: One hundred and thirty-two adult students (ranging in age from 22 to 70) participated in a mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) survey. Findings: Adult…

  9. Students' Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placklé, Ingeborg; Könings, Karen D.; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Struyven, Katrien; Libotton, Arno; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Engels, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument--the Inventory Powerful Learning…

  10. Prevalence of and attitudes about distracted driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara; Fram, Ethan; Merchant, Gina; Eastman, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    To identify current distracted driving (DD) behaviors among college students, primarily those involving cell phone use, and elucidate the opinions of the students on the most effective deterrent or intervention for reducing cell phone use. Students enrolled at 12 colleges and universities were recruited to participate in an online, anonymous survey. Recruitment was done via school-based list-serves and posters. School sizes ranged from 476 to over 30,000. The validated survey included 38 questions; 17 were specifically related to distracted driving. Four thousand nine hundred sixty-four participants completed the surveys; the average age was 21.8, 66% were female, 82.7% were undergraduates, and 47% were white/non-Hispanic. Additionally, 4,517 (91%) reported phoning and/or texting while driving; 4,467 (90%) of drivers said they talk on the phone while driving; 1,241 (25%) reported using a hands-free device "most of the time"; 4,467 (90%) of drivers reported texting while driving; 2,488 (50%) reported sending texts while driving on the freeway; 2,978 (60%) while in stop-and-go traffic or on city streets; and 4,319 (87%) at traffic lights. Those who drove more often were more likely to drive distracted. When asked about their capability to drive distracted, 46% said they were capable or very capable of talking on a cell phone and driving, but they felt that only 8.5% of other drivers were capable. In a multivariate model, 9 predictors explained 44% of the variance in DD, which was statistically significant, F (17, 4945) = 224.31; P driving frequency) were self-efficacy (i.e., confidence) in driving while multitasking (β = 0.37), perception of safety of multitasking while driving (β = 0.19), social norms (i.e., observing others multitasking while driving; β = 0.29), and having a history of crashing due to multitasking while driving (β = 0.11). Distracted driving is a highly prevalent behavior among college students who have higher confidence in their own driving

  11. Prevalence of Online Reading among High School Students in Qatar: Evidence from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested presence of a significant relationship between prevalence of online reading and reading literacy. In this study we examined the prevalence of online reading among 15-year old students in Qatar using a nationally representative sample of 8,089 students. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted at the item and…

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of Blastocystis hominis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, M A; Orenstein, S R; Proujansky, R; Wadowsky, R M; Putnam, P E; Kocoshis, S A

    1993-02-01

    Blastocystis hominis, a protozoan whose pathogenicity has been questioned, is sometimes found in the human gastrointestinal tract. We sought to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis in stool and to characterize clinical features of infection with Blastocystis in children. Forty-six (3%) of 1,736 patients undergoing fecal microscopy at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1988, harbored Blastocystis. Of these 46 children, 75% had exposure to well water or had been in developing countries. Thirty-nine of the 46 (85%) experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. Blastocystis was the only parasite found in 35 of those 39 symptomatic children. Symptoms resolved within one month in 90% of patients receiving antiparasitic pharmacotherapy, but in only 58% (P < .04) of those receiving no therapy. We conclude that children infected with Blastocystis often experience gastrointestinal symptoms and that treatment increases the rate of symptomatic improvement. We speculate that Blastocystis is a human pathogen.

  13. Internet addiction disorder: prevalence in an Italian student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Roberto; Agrimi, Emilia

    2012-02-01

    Internet addiction is one of the latest forms of addiction that has attracted the attention of popular media and researchers in these last few years. Several authors think Internet addiction is a separate disorder that merits inclusion in DSM-V. There is considerable controversy about this opinion. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction in a representative sample of high school students attending secondary institutions in the district of Cremona and to assess any difference concerning variables such as gender, age, place of residence and kind of school attended. The Italian version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) has been administered to a sample of 2533 students from different kinds of school. The survey also required social and demographic data. The majority of respondents were classified as normal users of the Internet (n = 2386, 94.19%), with 127 (5.01%) moderately addicted and 20 (0.79%) seriously addicted. Significant differences in gender and in kinds of school were found. No statistical differences were revealed in age and urban or rural conditions. Our study has confirmed the general use of the Internet among youngest people, the emergence of Internet addiction and the male preponderance of this phenomenon.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors for Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability Among Spanish Music Conservatory Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Beatriz; Pérez-Valiño, Coral; Ageitos-Alonso, Beatriz; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and neck and upper limb disability among music conservatory students. An observational study in two Spanish conservatories, investigating a total of 206 students, administered the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain intensity, Neck Disability Index, DASH, and SF-36. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics and musical performance variables were recorded. Regression models were performed to identify variables associated with MSP for the four most affected anatomical regions and with neck and upper limb disability. The locations with the highest prevalence of MSP were the neck, upper back, shoulders, and lower back. Mild disability affected 47% of participants in the neck and 31% in the upper limbs. Mental health (SF-36) was below the average for the general population (45.5±10.2). Women were more likely to suffer neck pain (odds ratio [OR] 1.1-5.2), lower back pain (OR 1.7-8.7), and neck disability (B 0.6-7.8). The risk for shoulder pain was higher in those who played for more hours (OR 1.7-24.7) and lower among those who performed physical activity (OR 0.23-1.00). Disability in the neck (B -0.3) and upper limbs (B -0.4) was associated with poorer mental health (SF-36). MSP is highly prevalent in music students. Neck and upper limb disability were slight to moderate and both were associated with poorer mental health. The main factors associated with MSP were being female, hours spent practicing, and physical activity. Physical and psychological factors should be taken into account in the prevention of MSP in student-musicians.

  15. Obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability: Prevalence and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sharon; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael

    Studies from a number of countries have indicated an increased risk of obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability. Whether risk factors for adults with intellectual disability apply to adolescents however is uncertain. This study examines obesity in a community sample of adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia, and investigates risk factors associated with obesity and overweight. A cross-sectional survey and medical record review on 261 adolescents with intellectual disability attending special education facilities in South-East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and September 2010 was conducted. Information on age, gender, weight, height, syndrome specific diagnoses, problematic behaviours, mobility, taking psychotropic or epileptic medication, and perceived household financial difficulties was collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and participants categorised as normal/underweight, overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Overall 22.5% (95% CI: 17.8-28.0%) of adolescents were obese, and 23.8% (95% CI: 19.0-29.4%) were overweight, a marked increase compared to Australian norms. Adolescents with Down syndrome were more likely to be obese than other participants (odds ratio=3.21; 95% CI: 1.41-7.30). No association was found with other risk factors examined. Prevalence of obesity and overweight were increased compared to general Australian adolescents. The only significant risk factor was the presence of Down syndrome. These findings reinforce the need for a health policy and practice response to obesity that is inclusive of individuals with intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of Millennial Students at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Susanne Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the degree to which Millennial students who attend two-year colleges exhibit the characteristics of the seven Millennial generation characteristics. Howe and Strauss (2007) purport that the Millennials exhibit seven key characteristics in their behavior: Special, Sheltered, Confident, Team-oriented,…

  17. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms based on the cut-off score of 14. Socioeconomic factors and student characteristics such as male sex, low monthly income per capita, father's poor education background, and higher year of study were associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students. Students who studied in comprehensive universities were more likely to have depressive symptoms compared with those from medical universities. Habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, sleep deprivation, and hospitalization or medication for one week or more in the last four weeks also predisposed students to higher risk of depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that depressive symptoms are becoming a highly prevalent health problem among Chinese medical students. Primary and secondary prevention should be prioritized to tackle this issue based on potential risk factors.

  18.  Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among University Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadia Al-Lawati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with gender, academic year, and college among university students in Oman.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Omani students attending the students’ clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU. A systematic sampling of students, males and females, from different colleges, who visited the clinic during the study period, was carried out. The self-administered Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 was used to screen for propensity to depression.Results: A total of 481 students participated in the study (243 males and 238 females. Overall, 133 (27.7�20of the participants (66 males and 67 females had depression of various grades based on the PHQ-9 diagnostic criteria using a cut point of more than 11. Depression score at the cut point of 11 was not statistically associated with gender, college and the academic year.Conclusion: Tendency for depression might be a common health problem among college students in Oman attending primary health care facilities. Further research on socio-demographic characteristics and the effect of depression on the academic performance is needed.

  19. 温州大学生网络成瘾状况及其三维人格特征的横断面调查%Cross-sectional survey of prevalence and personality characteristics of college students with internet addiction in Wenzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜德国; 朱盛; 叶敏捷; 林崇光

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internet addiction can seriously affect the social functioning and studies of college students in China but measures for addressing this problem have not yet been developed or tested.Objective: Assess the personality characteristics of college students with internet addiction.Methods: Two self-report scales, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), were administered to a stratified random sample of 697 college students from colleges and vocational schools in Wenzhou, China. The characteristics of 48 subjects who meet Chen's criteria for internet addiction (score of 64 or greater out of 100 on the CIAS) were compared to those of 649 subjects who did not meet criteria for internet addiction.Results: The prevalence of internet addiction in the sample was 6.9% (95% CI=5.1-9.1%). Compared to students without internet addiction, those with internet addiction were more likely to be male, of Han ethnicity, to have a history of substance use (primarily tobacco and alcohol), and to be a student at a technical college. Students with internet addiction had higher mean (sd) scores on the novelty-seeking subscale of the TPQ [17.9 (1.2) v. 13.0 (1.6), t=16.75 p<0.001] and on the harm-avoidance subscale [17.2 (1.9) v. 14.6 (1.1), t=15.14, p<0.001] but lower scores on the reward-dependence subscale [14.6 (1.4) v. 18.3 (1.7), t=-7.64, p<0.001]. Logistic regression found that the most important independent predictors of internet addiction were Han ethnicity (OR= 5.52, 95% CI=2.00-15.32), male gender (4.40, 1.97-9.81),and substance use (1.08, 1.02-1.15). After adjustment for other variables personality measures were not significantly associated with internet addiction.Conclusion: The prevalence of internet addiction among college students in Wenzhou is similar to that in other parts of China. Significant differences in the personality characteristics assessed by the TPQ between university students with and without

  20. The Prevalence and Comorbidity of Specific Phobias in College Students and Their Interest in Receiving Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Richard W.; Spates, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    While the prevalence of specific phobias and social phobias is believed to be high in the general adult population, little data exists regarding the prevalence of these fears among college students. This paper describes an epidemiological study that surveyed 813 college students regarding the severity of fears experienced toward 12 objects and…

  1. Prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Zhan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang (Chinese database and Weipu (Chinese database were systematically reviewed to identify articles published between 2004 to July 2013, in either English or Chinese, reporting prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students. The strategy also included a secondary search of reference lists of records retrieved from databases. Then the prevalence estimates were summarized using a random effects model. The effects of moderator variables on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. RESULTS: A total of 41 studies involving 160339 college students were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 1.24% to 26.00%. The overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students was 10.72% (95%CI: 8.41% to 13.28%. We noted substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates. Subgroup analyses showed that prevalence of suicidal ideation in females is higher than in males. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students is relatively high, although the suicide rate is lower compared with the entire society, suggesting the need for local surveys to inform the development of health services for college students.

  2. Prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Zhan; Li, Ya-Ming; Lei, Xian-Yang; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Li; Tang, Si-Yuan; Chen, Lizhang

    2014-01-01

    About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang (Chinese database) and Weipu (Chinese database) were systematically reviewed to identify articles published between 2004 to July 2013, in either English or Chinese, reporting prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students. The strategy also included a secondary search of reference lists of records retrieved from databases. Then the prevalence estimates were summarized using a random effects model. The effects of moderator variables on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. A total of 41 studies involving 160339 college students were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 1.24% to 26.00%. The overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students was 10.72% (95%CI: 8.41% to 13.28%). We noted substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates. Subgroup analyses showed that prevalence of suicidal ideation in females is higher than in males. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students is relatively high, although the suicide rate is lower compared with the entire society, suggesting the need for local surveys to inform the development of health services for college students.

  3. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W. G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in

  4. Prevalence of dietary supplement use and associated factors among female college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawaz, Hanan; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alfaifi, Aziza; Shahrani, Fatima M; Al Tameem, Huda M; Al Otaibi, Seetah F; Abudigin, Weaam I; Al-Shayaa, Mohammad S; Al-Ghanim, Saad A; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2017-11-22

    The economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with sociodemographic/lifestyle characteristics among Saudi female students. In this cross-sectional study, 534 female participants (≥19 years of age) completed a self-administered questionnaire that include sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, perceived health status, dietary supplement use, general awareness, attitudes and behavior. In all participants, the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 76.6% (n = 409). High level of education (p = 0.002) and more physical activity (p = 0.008) exhibited a significant positive association with users than to non-users. The frequency showed that beta-carotene (54.2%), chamomile (54.2%), and glucosamine (53.8%) were the most preferred diet supplements under the category "when needed". Cod liver oil (71.3%), omega 3 (68.3%), multi-vitamins (61.5%), ginseng (60%), and vitamin A (60%), were mostly used "from time to time". Multi-minerals (34.4%) were the preferred choice when it comes to daily use. The main reasons for supplement use were to "maintain healthy hair" and "injury and illness" (both 26.2%). About 38.4% were not aware and 30.3% disagree on differences taking supplements with or without consulting a medical professional. About 36.7% lack information about side effects while, 35.0% were unaware about any health effect of dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was high in Saudi female students and was significantly associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  5. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its correlating lifestyle factors in Japanese female junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-06-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend dysmenorrhea (OR = 3.05, 95%CI: 1.06-8.77), and sports activity levels were associated with severe dysmenorrhea (P for trend = 0.045). Our findings suggest that dysmenorrhea that adversely affects daily activities is highly prevalent, and may be associated with certain lifestyle factors in junior high school students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.

  6. The Prevalence of Substance Abuse in Students of Hamadan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Mohamadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of substance abuse in hostel boys in Hamadan medical university, 2008. Materials and Method: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The method of sample was census report study and sample number was 430. The research objective data was gathered thorough questionnaire. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS software, version 15.0.Results: Outcome showed that the majority of samples were 20 years old (21.9%, non married (92.8%, the number of family member were six members (21.9%, and they are the first children (85.4%.Also outcome showed that 27% of students did not consume any drug, and majority of light material drug abuse was narcotic (44.77%, cigarette (28.4%, alcohol (20.19% and heavy material was opium (5.25%, hashish (4.1%, ecstasy (1.64% and others (1.13%. Narcotic was in the first rank and cigarette was in the last. Conclusion: The screening of drug abuse and promoting primary prevention programs at the university were recommended

  7. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care in six European countries. POPULATION: In total 6923 pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were...

  8. Characteristics Shaping College Student Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Cary J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in relation to undergraduate college students. The extensive research on OCB within traditional work environments indicates that while workers who demonstrate OCB usually receive more favorable performance evaluations, those behaviors also help build community and culture…

  9. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION STUDENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLER, AARON J.

    THE POST-HIGH SCHOOL TRAINEE SHOULD BE A HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE OR THE EQUIVALENT. A FAIR DEGREE OF PROFICIENCY IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE IS REQUIRED. IT IS REASONABLE TO EXPECT THE COMPLETION OF 2 YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS AND 1 YEAR OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. SOME BACKGROUND IN DRAFTING AND SHOP IS DESIRABLE. THE STUDENT SHOULD BE AVERAGE OR…

  11. Prevalence and predictors of orthorexia nervosa among German students using the 21-item-DOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Schweizer, Jenny; Bekers, Sandra-Kristin; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268). ON was determined using the 21-item-DOS, which is a well-constructed, validated, and reliability-tested questionnaire. Age, gender, and semester were also assessed. Of the total sample, 3.3 % were classified as having ON and 9.0 % were at risk of developing ON. Older students scored significantly higher on the subscale "avoidance of additives" compared with younger students and students of lower semester suffered significantly more often from ON than students of higher semester. In addition, comparing field of study showed no significant difference in the prevalence of ON or the risk of developing ON between female NS and ES students. However, mean values for the three DOS subscales were higher among female NS students, albeit far below values indicating pathological behavior. The prevalence of ON appears to be low in this sample of German university students. Female NS students do not seem to have higher prevalence of ON or risk of developing ON.

  12. Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling Students' Characteristics and Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.; Sias, Shari M.

    2007-01-01

    Students from a master's program in Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling (SACC) at a midsize southeastern university were surveyed to determine personal characteristics and career goals. Sixty-two of the 68 students currently enrolled in the program volunteered to anonymously complete the questionnaire. The typical profile of the SACC student…

  13. Rating Students' Problem Behaviour: The Role of Teachers' Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…

  14. College Student Characteristics and Experiences as Predictors of Interracial Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Casandra E.; Yeung, Fanny P.

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized logistic regression to test whether students' personal characteristics and experiences significantly predict their likelihood of dating interracially in college. The data were drawn from the Campus Life in America Student Survey (CLASS), which was administered to freshmen who were then resurveyed as juniors (n = 513). The most…

  15. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students from the region of Anhui (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Tian, Li; Lu, Mi; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhognhua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-12-16

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic worldwide. Our previous study found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary students is high. we sought to estimate whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity among university students is still high in China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for university students in 2013. The height and weight of students were measured, and BMI was calculated with height and weight, we estimated the underweight and obesity prevalence of university students using by two references [Working Group on Obesity references in China (2004) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2000)]. Depending on the China references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 14.7% and 4.2%, respectively; in female university students were 27.5%, 4.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Depending on the WHO references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 11.5% and 2.5%, respectively, in female university students were 27.5%, 2.4% and 0.3%, respectively. An interesting observation made was that the underweight prevalence of university students has an increasing trend, especially in female. The study showed that the prevalence of underweight in university students, especially in female students has become a critical health issue. Related department of school and government should pay more attention to student's physical health. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. [Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Dental Students: Prevalence and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of mental disorders in 6-16-year-old students in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Dahai; Guo, Lanting

    2015-05-13

    To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%-16.97%). Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33%) relative to girls (13.11%; p mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students' mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.

  18. Food Insecurity among Community College Students: Prevalence and Association with Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Maya E.; Snelling, Anastasia; Linck, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among community college students (N = 301) and the relationship between food insecurity and student grade point average (GPA). It employed a cross-sectional intercept survey, utilizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module, student self-reported GPA, and…

  19. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  20. Prevalence of At-Risk Drinking among a National Sample of Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet Arvind; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lindstrom, Richard W.; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    As limited research exists on medical students' substance use patterns, including over-consumption of alcohol, the objective of this study was to determine prevalence and correlates of at-risk drinking among a national sample of medical students, using a cross-sectional, anonymous, Web-based survey. A total of 2710 medical students from 36 U.S.…

  1. Epidemiology of autistic disorder in Bahrain: prevalence and obstetric and familial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M

    2013-09-01

    European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.

  2. Prevalence of depression among nursing students: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Jung; Lo, Kenneth K H; Ho, Roger C M; Tam, Wai San Wilson

    2018-04-01

    To examine the global prevalence of depression among nursing students and the variation in depression rates influenced by demographic and educational factors. Depression affects approximately 350 million people worldwide and is the world's leading cause of disability. Nursing students struggle to cope with not only stressors common in higher education institutions but also anxiety towards clinical placements. Evidence has suggested high prevalence of depression among them, but no reviews have been conducted to report a consolidated prevalence. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 on CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline OVID, Medline ProQuest, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS, using a combination of keywords "depression", "nursing students", "mood disorder", "affective disorder", 'undergraduate nursing', "nursing education", "nursing undergraduate", and "nursing diploma". A total of 27 cross-sectional studies were included. The sample comprised 8918 nursing students and the mean age ranged from 17.4 to 28.4 years. Among these studies, the proportion of female students ranged from 79.0% to 100.0%. A high pooled prevalence of depression of 34.0% was reported among nursing students. Significant differences in depression prevalence were noted for different subgroups of age, with a higher prevalence noted in younger students (41.0%), and for different geographical regions, with Asian nursing students experiencing a higher prevalence of depression (43.0%). No significant difference was noted between nursing and non-nursing students. The findings suggest a high prevalence of depression among nursing students. This serves as an impetus for educational reforms in nursing schools and proposes for further research to aid prospective nurses in safeguarding their psychological wellbeing. In the long run, it is imperative that competent nurses be nurtured to improve the standards of healthcare and patients' quality of life

  3. Cutaneous wart-associated HPV types: prevalence and relation with patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, S.C.; de Koning, M.N.; Gussekloo, J.; Egberts, P.F.; Ter Schegget, J.; Feltkamp, M.C.; Bavinck, J.N.; Quint, W.G.V.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Eekhof, J.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on cutaneous wart-associated HPV types are rare. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous wart-associated HPV types and their relation with patient characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: Swabs were taken from all 744 warts of 246 consecutive immunocompetent

  4. Innocent Cardiac Murmur in Puppies : Prevalence, Correlation with Hematocrit, and Auscultation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szatmári, V; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of innocent cardiac murmurs in clinically healthy puppies, to investigate a possible correlation between the presence of an innocent murmur and hematocrit, and to describe the auscultation characteristics of innocent murmurs.

  5. Hypertrophy in port-wine stains: Prevalence and patient characteristics in a large patient cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Beek, Johan F.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Port-wine stains (PWS) may thicken and darken with age. Little is known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of PWS hypertrophy because of the lack of large studies. Objective: We sought to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with hypertrophic PWS. Methods: Medical

  6. Prevalence, serotype, virulence characteristics, clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from swine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Swine are the only known animal reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), a human pathogen. Since YE is a fecal organism of swine, the primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, serotype, virulence plasmid (pYV)-associated characteristics, clonality, and antibiotic su...

  7. Stuttering Prevalence among Kurdish-Farsi Students Effects of the Two Languages Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Mohamadi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN APPARENTY HEALTHY MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Noveanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study comprised one group of 518 apparently healthy medical students, 375 girls and 143 boys, with a mean age of 20  2 years, who attended the first and the second year of study at University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara. We assessed the cardiovascular disease risk factors using 4 methods: (a the questionnaire method, (b the measurement of blood pressure, (c the measurement of several anthropometric parameters, such as body mass index and waist circumference, and (d the measurement of biochemical parameters such as plasma lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Great evidence was obtained that certain lifestyles related to tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and psychosocial stress had an important prevalence in medical young subjects, leading to adverse changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics, that enhance the development of an earlier atherosclerosis in adulthood.

  9. Prevalence of Residential Dampness and Mold Exposure in a University Student Population

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    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of residential dampness or mold on respiratory health is well established but few studies have focused on university students. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of exposure to residential dampness or mold in university students according to socio-geographic factors and (b identify associated housing characteristics. A web survey was conducted in 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (QC, Canada. Residential dampness and mold being closely intertwined, they were considered as a single exposure and assessed using a validated questionnaire. Exposure was compared according to socio-geographic and housing characteristics using chi-square tests and logistic regressions. Among the 2097 participants included in the study (response rate: 8.1%, over 80% were tenants. Residential exposure to dampness or mold was frequent (36.0%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.1. Marked differences for this exposure were noted according to home ownership (39.7% vs. 25.5% among tenants and owners respectively; OR = 1.92%, 95% CI: 1.54–2.38. Campus affiliation, household composition and the number of residents per building were associated with exposure to dampness or mold (p < 0.01, while sex and age were not. Exposure was also associated with older buildings, and buildings in need of renovations and lacking proper ventilation (p < 0.001. This study highlights the potential risk of university students suffering from mold-related health effects given their frequent exposure to this agent. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the mold-related health impact in this at risk group.

  10. Honors and Non-Honors Student Engagement: A Model of Student, Curricular, and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Ellen; Shores, Melanie; Sloane, Michael; Dantzler, John; Shields, Catherine; Shader, Karen; Newcomer, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply several measures of learning and engagement to a comparable cohort of honors and non-honors students in order to generate a preliminary model of student engagement. Specific purposes were the following: (1) to determine the feasibility for use of several measures of student characteristics that may affect…

  11. Freshman Year Dropouts: Interactions between Student and School Characteristics and Student Dropout Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvoch, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Data from a large school district in the southwestern United States were analyzed to investigate relations between student and school characteristics and high school freshman dropout patterns. Application of a multilevel logistic regression model to student dropout data revealed evidence of school-to-school differences in student dropout rates and…

  12. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  13. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students taught using problem-based learning versus traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Freire, Marianna Ribeiro de Menezes; Nolasco Farias, Lucas Guimarães; Diniz, Sarah Santana; Sant'anna Aragão, Felipe Matheus; Sant'anna Aragão, Iapunira Catarina; Lima, Tarcisio Brandão; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2018-06-01

    To compare depressive symptoms among medical students taught using problem-based learning (PBL) and the traditional method. Beck's Depression Inventory was applied to 215 medical students. The prevalence of depression was calculated as the number of individuals with depression divided by the total number in the sample from each course, with 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance level used was 5% (p ≤ .05). Among the 215 students, 52.1% were male and 47.9% were female; and 51.6% were being taught using PBL methodology and 48.4% using traditional methods. The prevalence of depression was 29.73% with PBL and 22.12% with traditional methods. There was higher prevalence among females: 32.8% with PBL and 23.1% with traditional methods. The prevalence of depression with PBL among students up to 21 years of age was 29.4% and among those over 21 years, 32.1%. With traditional methods among students up to 21 years of age, it was 16.7%%, and among those over 21 years, 30.1%. The prevalence of depression with PBL was highest among students in the second semester and with traditional methods, in the eighth. Depressive symptoms were highly prevalent among students taught both with PBL and with traditional methods.

  14. Prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the college students in Chitwan

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar Pradhan

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives:Students of colleges may be vulnerable to consume tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs due to various factors. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the bachelor level college students of Chitwan.Materials & Methods:This is a descriptive cross sectional study among the 132 bachelor level students at various colleges of Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. The students were ...

  15. [Beta-lactamic antibiotics allergy in cataract surgery. Prevalence and preoperative characteristics of allergic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rubio, M E; Cuesta-Rodríguez, T; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Cortés-Valdés, C

    2014-03-01

    To describe the proportion of patients allergic to β-lactam antibiotics and the prevalence of preoperative conjunctival bacteria among those undergoing cataract surgery in our area. Retrospective cross-sectional study of prevalence of β-lactam allergic patients consecutively scheduled for cataract surgery from 11 July 2005 to November 2012. For studying the prevalence of conjunctival bacteria and clinical characteristics in the patients' preoperative examination, those under 18 years and those with cataract surgery combined with other eye surgeries were excluded. Data from the first preoperative examination of the remaining patients were selected. Clinical data were extracted from the database generated in the evaluation made for anesthetic purposes, and the microbiological data from the laboratory database. Both bases were linked through a patient history code. A comparison was made between the prevalence of conjunctival bacteria and clinical characteristics in allergic and non-allergic patients. From 12,409 adults selected for the bacteriological study, 862 (6.96%) were allergic to β-lactams, their mean age (74.45 years) was higher than that of the non-allergic (P=.005). The proportion of women (71.4%) in the allergic patient group was much higher than that of men. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (especially Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), lung disease and heart failure, was higher in allergic patients. The prevalence of allergy to β-lactams in this study is within the range described in other populations. The higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and the predominance of women in those allergic to β-lactams are useful data to guide their surgical prophylaxis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among South African university students

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    Antonia Dlagnikova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD among South African students is explored in this article. BDD is regarded as an obsessive-compulsive-related disorder characterised by a preoccupation with one or more perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance and expressed in repetitive behaviours or mental acts as a response to the appearance concerns, causing clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning.  Objectives. To determine the prevalence of BDD among undergraduate students (N=395 at an inner-city university.  Methods. Proportionate stratified random cluster sampling was used to select the sample. The students completed a demographics survey and the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire.  Results and conclusion. An overall prevalence rate of 5.1% was found in this study, which is similar to prevalence rates reported in existing literature among student populations. No clinically significant differences in the severity of the BDD were found on the demographic variables of gender, race or sexual orientation. However, students differed significantly in their experience of the severity of the disorder in terms of age, in that students over the age of 21 reported higher severity levels than students under the age of 21. Although the prevalence of the disorder compares with that in other countries, its severity seems to increase with age among South African students.

  17. The characteristics of failure among students who experienced pseudo thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraini, D.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the thinking process of students who experienced pseudo thinking when solving the straight line equation. The result of this study shows the characteristics of error that caused students to experience pseudo thinking when solving the problem and their relation with students’ metacognition skill. This qualitative research was conducted in State 16 Junior High School in Surakarta, Indonesia during the odd semester of 2017/2018 academic year. The subjects of the study were students Junior High School students of 8th grade chosen using purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through the administration of think aloud method. The result showed that the characteristics of errors among the subjects are: 1) the answers resulted from pseudo thinking when solving the problem were obtained from the spontaneous, fast, unconscious and uncontrolled thinking process; 2) students had misconception; 3) students had tendency to memorize the formula and imitate the completion procedure; 4) students experienced fuzzy memory when solving the problem. From the mistakes among students who experienced pseudo thinking, their metacognition ability could be inferred.

  18. Students? approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students? characteristics and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students? medical school choice and their relationship with students? characteristics and motivation during the students? medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and sta...

  19. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    OpenAIRE

    Davod Ghaderi; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  1. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Arak Primary School Students, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoreza Yavari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The speech disorders may produce irreparable damage to childs speech and language development in the psychosocial view. The voice, speech sound production and fluency disorders are speech disorders, that may result from delay or impairment in speech motor control mechanism, central neuron system disorders, improper language stimulation or voice abuse. Materials and Methods: This study examined the prevalence of speech disorders in 1393 Arakian students at 1 to 6th grades of primary school. After collecting continuous speech samples, picture description, passage reading and phonetic test, we recorded the pathological signs of stuttering, articulation disorder and voice disorders in a special sheet. Results: The prevalence of articulation, voice and stuttering disorders was 8%, 3.5% and%1 and the prevalence of speech disorders was 11.9%. The prevalence of speech disorders was decreasing with increasing of student’s grade. 12.2% of boy students and 11.7% of girl students of primary school in Arak had speech disorders. Conclusion: The prevalence of speech disorders of primary school students in Arak is similar to the prevalence of speech disorders in Kermanshah, but the prevalence of speech disorders in this research is smaller than many similar researches in Iran. It seems that racial and cultural diversity has some effect on increasing the prevalence of speech disorders in Arak city.

  2. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Marya; Demarco, Maria; Araneda, Juan Carlos; Cumsille, Francisco

    2015-05-15

    Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru) from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  3. Drug use prevalence among students of universities of medical sciences in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Taremian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of drug use among students of universities of Medical Sciences in Tehran. Method: Four thousands of medical students (both sexes in academic year 1388-89 in different level of education, B.A., M.Sc. and Ph.D. were selected by random stratified sampling method. These students were selected from Iran, Tehran and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences considering their sex and level of education. We used drug use prevalence questionnaire. Findings: The most prevalent drug of abuse in life time period was qalyan (classical pipe, followed by cigarette, and alcohol. The least frequent drug of abuse was Shisheh, followed by heroine krack. As we expected, drugs morphine, ritalin and tramadol were placed in forth, fifth and sixth of prevalent drugs. Use of different substances was significantly more prevalent in male students. Conclusion: Using soft drugs (qalyan, cigarette and alcohol was more prevalent than hard drugs (hashish, taryak, heroine kerack among Universities Medical Sciences of Tehran. Similar to drug use pattern in society, use of all of drugs were more prevalent in male students. We should pay special attention to use of drugs such as tramadol, ritalin, petedin and morphine.

  4. Prevalence of Marijuana Use among University Students in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Hynes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adults 18 to 25 years old show the highest prevalence of marijuana use in Latin America. This study analyzes the changes in prevalence of marijuana use among university students in the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru from two studies carried out in 2009 and in 2012. Data were collected through representative two-stage samples of universities and students in the Andean Community. An online survey was administered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence was calculated for lifetime, past year, and past month. Marijuana was the most widely used illicit substance consumed among university students, in 2009 and in 2012. Past month prevalence among university students in 2009 in Colombia was 5.27%, in Peru 1.00%, in Ecuador 1.68%, and in Bolivia 0.76%. Past month prevalence in 2012 in Colombia was 7.14%, in Ecuador 3.67%, in Peru 1.62%, and in Bolivia 1.45% in 2012. Among university students in the Andean Community, past month prevalence increased among both males and females between 2009 and 2012 in most countries. Marijuana continues to be the most commonly used illicit drug in Latin American countries. Increases in prevalence among young adults could have important implications for national drug policy.

  5. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hana T. AlMajed

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... The relation between overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia has been approved. Objective: .... was considered if the participant is currently under medication .... Childhood obesity in Kuwait: prevalence and trends. Fam Med.

  6. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

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    Lin-Sheng Yang

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found.This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database. We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence.A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%, and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%. The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%, and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%. The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%, 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%, 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%, and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%, respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5% and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%, respectively.2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  7. Characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (pigmentary keratopathy) in Pugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Amber L; Dresser, Christine B; Hamor, Ralph E; Allender, Matthew C; Disney, Julia L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (CP) in Pugs. Prospective cross-sectional study. 295 Pugs > 16 weeks old. Ophthalmic examination of the anterior segment of each eye was performed, including determination of tear film characteristics (Schirmer tear test and tear film breakup time) and corneal sensitivity. Digital photographs of the head and each eye were obtained. Corneal pigmentation of eyes was graded as absent, very mild, mild, moderate, or severe. Signalment and medical history information and American Kennel Club registration status were recorded. Results-CP was detected in at least 1 eye of 243 of the 295 (82.4%) Pugs; CP was typically very mild or mild. Detection of CP was not significantly associated with coat color, age, eyelid conformation, or tear film characteristics but was significantly associated with sex of dogs. The severity of CP was not significantly associated with American Kennel Club registration status or age, but was significantly associated with sex, tear film characteristics, and coat color. Iris hypoplasia was detected in 72.1% of the Pugs. Iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes were detected in 85.3% of the Pugs. Prevalence of CP in Pugs in this study was high. Unexpectedly high prevalences of iris hypoplasia and persistent pupillary membranes were also identified. The condition identified in these Pugs was a pigmentary keratopathy, rather than pigmentary keratitis or corneal melanosis. This condition may have a genetic basis, and further studies are warranted to determine etiology.

  8. Prevalence of ADHD among the Students Residing in Dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Sadeghi Movahed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a heredity and psychological disorder that often continues to adulthood and causes great number of emotional, social, educational and occupational problem for college students. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ADHD among students residing in the dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences.   Methods: In this cross sectional study, all students in the dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences were included. They filled the Self reporting Conner’s ADHD questionnaires. Data were extracted and analyzed with SPSS.   Results: During this study, the prevalence of ADHD was 8.6 percent. The males show more involvement rate than females. The students with ADHD showed more incidences of smoking and psychotropic drug consumption.   Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of ADHD among the college students, early diagnosis and treatment of ADHD seems to be necessary.

  9. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students in the Kumasi Metropolis

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    D. B. Kumah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among students in the Kumasi metropolis. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 500 students aged 10 to 20 years were examined from two junior high schools selected by multistage sampling technique and three randomly selected senior high schools. Height and weight were measured in all participants and the body mass index (BMI of each individual was calculated. Body mass index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Out of the 500 students, 290 (58.00% were males and 210 (42.00% were females. The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 7.40%, 79.60%, 12.20%, and 0.80%, respectively. Overweight was more prevalent among students than obesity. There is therefore the need to establish effective public health promotion campaigns among students in order to curtail future implications on health.

  10. Effect of Family Education and Social Environment to Student Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charina Oktaviani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to know whether or not an influence of family education and social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati; to know whether or not an influence of social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati; and to know whether or not an influence between family education and social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati. The population in this research is 71 students of class XI SMA Negeri I Pati. Method of data analysis in this research consists of percentage descriptive analysis, descriptive statistic, prerequisite test covering normality test and linearity test, multiple linear regression analysis, classical assumption test covering multicollinearity test and heteroscedasticity test, hypothesis test covering simultaneous test (F, coefficient of simultaneous determination (R2, partial test (t, and partial determinant coefficient (r2. Results shows that family education and social environment both simultaneously and individually have positive impacts on the student characteristics.

  11. Prevalence and Risk of Inappropriate Sexual Behavior of Patients Toward Physical Therapist Clinicians and Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonnault, Jill S; Cambier, Ziádee; Hetzel, Scott J; Plack, Margaret M

    2017-11-01

    For health care providers in the United States, the risk for nonfatal violence in the workplace is 16 times greater than that for other workers. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior (IPSB) is directed at clinicians, staff, or other patients and may include leering, sexual remarks, deliberate touching, indecent exposure, and sexual assault. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior may adversely affect clinicians, the organization, or patients themselves. Few IPSB risk factors for physical therapists have been confirmed. The US prevalence was last assessed in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to determine career and 12-month exposure to IPSB among US physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, physical therapist students, and physical therapist assistant students and to identify IPSB risk factors. This was a retrospective and observational study. An electronic survey was developed; content validity and test-retest reliability were established. Participants were recruited through physical therapist and physical therapist assistant academic programs and sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior risk models were constructed individually for any, mild, moderate, and severe IPSB events reported over the past 12 months. Open-ended comments were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight hundred ninety-two physical therapist professionals and students completed the survey. The career prevalence among respondents was 84%, and the 12-month prevalence was 47%. Statistical risk modeling for any IPSB over the past 12 months indicated the following risks: having fewer years of direct patient care, routinely working with patients with cognitive impairments, being a female practitioner, and treating male patients. Qualitative analysis of 187 open-ended comments revealed patient-related characteristics, provider-related characteristics, and abusive actions. Self-report, clinician memory, and convenience sampling are

  12. Motor skills and functional characteristics of students of different somatotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available He purpose of the article is to study correlation of motor and functional characteristics of students of different somatotypes. Material : it was examined first year students (n=577, 17-18 years old. All students were trained in discipline “Physical education”. It was carried out somatotyping. It was considered motor skills and functional characteristics of students. Results : it was determined the reliable differences in values of parameters of motor tests and functional characteristics of students’ organism. It is determined that by the end of the first year of study the positive dynamics is registered: in sthenics (in two of seven motor tests; in asthenics (in four tests. It wasn’t found the reliable positive changes in group of hypersthenics. Students of sthenic and asthenic somatotypes have higher functional reserves of cardiorespiratory system, than girls of hypersthenics somatotype. Conclusions: constitutional features of motor skills and functional parameters of students of different somatotypes allow to concretize provisions of methodology of planning the individual differentiated training in discipline Physical education.

  13. Neuromyths in Music Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvel, Nina; Wolf, Anna; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, educational neuroscience has become increasingly important in the context of instruction, and its applications have been transformed into new teaching methods. Although teachers are interested in educational neuroscience, communication between scientists and teachers is not always straightforward. Thus, misunderstandings of neuroscientific research results can evolve into so-called neuromyths . The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of such music-related neuromyths among music teachers and music students. Based on an extensive literature research, 26 theses were compiled and subsequently evaluated by four experts. Fourteen theses were selected, of which seven were designated as scientifically substantiated and seven as scientifically unsubstantiated (hereafter labeled as "neuromyths"). One group of adult music teachers ( n = 91) and one group of music education students ( n = 125) evaluated the theses (forced-choice discrimination task) in two separate online surveys. Additionally, in both surveys person-characteristic variables were gathered to determine possible predictors for the discrimination performance. As a result, identification rates of the seven scientifically substantiated theses were similar for teachers (76%) and students (78%). Teachers and students correctly rejected 60 and 59%, respectively, of the seven neuromyths as scientifically unsubstantiated statements. Sensitivity analysis by signal detection theory revealed a discrimination performance of d' = 1.25 ( SD = 1.12) for the group of teachers and d' = 1.48 ( SD = 1.22) for the students. Both groups showed a general tendency to evaluate the theses as scientifically substantiated (teachers: c = -0.35, students: c = -0.41). Specifically, buzz words such as "brain hemisphere" or "cognitive enhancement" were often classified as correct. For the group of teachers, the best predictor of discrimination performance was having read a large number of media about

  14. Neuromyths in Music Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers and Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kopiez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, educational neuroscience has become increasingly important in the context of instruction, and its applications have been transformed into new teaching methods. Although teachers are interested in educational neuroscience, communication between scientists and teachers is not always straightforward. Thus, misunderstandings of neuroscientific research results can evolve into so-called neuromyths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of such music-related neuromyths among music teachers and music students. Based on an extensive literature research, 26 theses were compiled and subsequently evaluated by four experts. Fourteen theses were selected, of which seven were designated as scientifically substantiated and seven as scientifically unsubstantiated (hereafter labeled as “neuromyths”. One group of adult music teachers (n = 91 and one group of music education students (n = 125 evaluated the theses (forced-choice discrimination task in two separate online surveys. Additionally, in both surveys person-characteristic variables were gathered to determine possible predictors for the discrimination performance. As a result, identification rates of the seven scientifically substantiated theses were similar for teachers (76% and students (78%. Teachers and students correctly rejected 60 and 59%, respectively, of the seven neuromyths as scientifically unsubstantiated statements. Sensitivity analysis by signal detection theory revealed a discrimination performance of d' = 1.25 (SD = 1.12 for the group of teachers and d' = 1.48 (SD = 1.22 for the students. Both groups showed a general tendency to evaluate the theses as scientifically substantiated (teachers: c = −0.35, students: c = −0.41. Specifically, buzz words such as “brain hemisphere” or “cognitive enhancement” were often classified as correct. For the group of teachers, the best predictor of discrimination performance was having read a large

  15. Neuromyths in Music Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvel, Nina; Wolf, Anna; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, educational neuroscience has become increasingly important in the context of instruction, and its applications have been transformed into new teaching methods. Although teachers are interested in educational neuroscience, communication between scientists and teachers is not always straightforward. Thus, misunderstandings of neuroscientific research results can evolve into so-called neuromyths. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of such music-related neuromyths among music teachers and music students. Based on an extensive literature research, 26 theses were compiled and subsequently evaluated by four experts. Fourteen theses were selected, of which seven were designated as scientifically substantiated and seven as scientifically unsubstantiated (hereafter labeled as “neuromyths”). One group of adult music teachers (n = 91) and one group of music education students (n = 125) evaluated the theses (forced-choice discrimination task) in two separate online surveys. Additionally, in both surveys person-characteristic variables were gathered to determine possible predictors for the discrimination performance. As a result, identification rates of the seven scientifically substantiated theses were similar for teachers (76%) and students (78%). Teachers and students correctly rejected 60 and 59%, respectively, of the seven neuromyths as scientifically unsubstantiated statements. Sensitivity analysis by signal detection theory revealed a discrimination performance of d' = 1.25 (SD = 1.12) for the group of teachers and d' = 1.48 (SD = 1.22) for the students. Both groups showed a general tendency to evaluate the theses as scientifically substantiated (teachers: c = −0.35, students: c = −0.41). Specifically, buzz words such as “brain hemisphere” or “cognitive enhancement” were often classified as correct. For the group of teachers, the best predictor of discrimination performance was having read a large number of

  16. Prevalence of bronchial asthma and respiratory symptoms in a group of students from grodno. An example of standardized epidemiological survey

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    Oleg Ahiyevets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to an insufficient knowledge of the real asthma prevalence rate among children and adults in Belarus, we conducted a population-based respiratory health survey. Aim of the study: The study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of asthma and major respiratory symptoms among students of the Grodno Region (Western Belarus. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 and included 833 students aged 20-40 (young adults. Physician-diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms were ascertained using electronic version of the ISAAC questionnaire (web LimeSurvey. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 2.88% (physician-diagnosed. The obstructive (asthmatic bronchitis (without established diagnosis of asthma was found in 5.04% of the respondents. A chronic respiratory symptom occurring in the past 12 months and suggestive of asthma included attacks of dyspnea at rest, cough (5.88% or in previous periods (8.88%, and wheezing in the chest (one of the most characteristic symptoms of asthma - 8.04%, which may indicate a higher prevalence of asthma among patients. Wheezing and wheeze without diagnosed asthma, colds or infections were reported in a small number of cases (about 1.0%. 32 respondents (3.84% can be attributed to the group of risk for asthma due to the presence of specific respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: The findings show a low prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among students of Western Belarus. Relatively low prevalence of allergic disorders among respondents of Belarus suggest underdiagnosis of allergic diseases, in particular of asthma. Presumably, cases of asthma might be diagnosed as spastic bronchitis, “obstructive bronchitis”, “asthmatic bronchitis”, a traditional label for clinical manifestation of asthma in medical practice in the region.

  17. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  18. Diabetic Prevalence in Bangladesh: The Role of Some Associated Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Tasneem

    2012-12-01

    The study attempts at examining the association of a few selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics on diabetic prevalence. Nationally representative data from BIRDEM 2000 have been used to meet the objectives of the study. Cross tabulation, Chi-square and logistic regression analysis have been used to portray the necessary associations. Chi- square reveals significant relationship between diabetic prevalence and all the selected demographic and socio-economic variables except ìeducationî while logistic regression analysis shows no significant contribution of ìageî and ìeducationî in diabetic prevalence. It has to be noted that, this paper dealt with all the three types of diabetes- Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational.

  19. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

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    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  20. A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Adams, Clive E; Glazebrook, Cris

    2013-03-01

    Depression is a common health problem, ranking third after cardiac and respiratory diseases as a major cause of disability. There is evidence to suggest that university students are at higher risk of depression, despite being a socially advantaged population, but the reported rates have shown wide variability across settings. To explore the prevalence of depression in university students. PubMed, PsycINFO, BioMed Central and Medline were searched to identify studies published between 1990 and 2010 reporting on depression prevalence among university students. Searches used a combination of the terms depression, depressive symptoms, depressive disorders, prevalence, university students, college students, undergraduate students, adolescents and/or young adults. Studies were evaluated with a quality rating. Twenty-four articles were identified that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reported prevalence rates ranged from 10% to 85% with a weighted mean prevalence of 30.6%. The results suggest that university students experience rates of depression that are substantially higher than those found in the general population. Study quality has not improved since 1990. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Ingrid H; Gelderblom, Huub C; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W; Tobias, Rinke de Wit F

    2012-02-22

    With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia. We assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes, HIV prevalence and access to healthcare among students at the Polytechnic of Namibia and the University of Namibia. HIV prevalence was tested through anonymous oral fluid-based tests. Half (n = 2790/5568) of the university students and 45% (n = 2807/6302) of the Polytechnic students participated in the knowledge and attitudes surveys. HIV/AIDS knowledge was reasonable, except for misperceptions about transmission. Awareness of one's own HIV status and risks was low. In all, 55% (n = 3055/5568) of university students and 58% (n = 3680/6302) of Polytechnic students participated in the HIV prevalence survey; 54 (1.8%) university students and 103 (2.8%) Polytechnic students tested HIV positive. Campus clinics were not the major providers of healthcare to the students. Meaningful strategies addressing the gap between knowledge, attitude and young people's perception of risk of HIV acquisition should be implemented. HIV prevalence among Namibian university students appears relatively low. Voluntary counselling and testing should be stimulated. Efforts should be made to increase access to healthcare through the campus clinics.

  2. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Undergraduate Physiotherapy Students in Nigeria

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    Grace O. Vincent-Onabajo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low back pain (LBP is a major cause of disability and the most common work-related musculoskeletal disorder among physiotherapists. This study examined the prevalence of low back pain among students undergoing training to become physiotherapists. Methods. Participants were 207 undergraduate clinical physiotherapy students at three universities in Nigeria. A modified version of a questionnaire used in a previous study was utilized to obtain demographic, educational activities, and LBP data. Prevalence of LBP was examined with descriptive statistics while factors associated with prevalence were explored using chi-square statistics. Results. More male students (53.1% and those in the penultimate year of study (53.1% participated in the study. Lifetime, 12-month, 1-month, and 7-day prevalence of LBP were 45.5%, 32.5%, 17.7%, and 11.5%, respectively. Prevalence of LBP was not significantly associated with any of the demographic variables. Educational activities, namely, “having techniques practiced on self for ≤10 hours” and “treating patients for ≥30 hours,” a month prior to the study were significantly (P<0.05 associated with higher 1-month and 7-day LBP prevalence, respectively. Conclusions. Although the prevalence of LBP was comparatively low, its association with educational activities emphasizes the need to incorporate effective LBP preventive strategies in the training of physiotherapy students.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette use among adults in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamalludin Ab Rahman; Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamed; Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff; Norny Syafinaz Ab Rahman; Samsul Draman; Mira Kartiwi; Balkish Mahadir; Tahir Aris

    2018-01-01

    Background E-cigarette (e-cig) use has become a worldwide phenomenon since 2010. This study aims to determine the prevalence of e-cig use, distribution and characteristics among Malaysian adults. Malaysia is a typical Asian country. The results of this study will provide evidence for policy makers to formulate appropriate measures towards regulation of e-cig in Malaysia and can become a reference for other similar countries. Methods Complex sampling design was...

  4. Can schools reduce bullying? The relationship between school characteristics and the prevalence of bullying behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence. Surveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed. This study drew on the following data sources: A pupil survey on bullying behaviours A survey of teachers on school policies and processes Analysis of data on school processes from school inspection reports Analysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics. Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data. Results show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying. The study provides support for the importance of schools' embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Lebanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizi, Lama

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, estimates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among college students are not available. CAM practices are not well regulated and some products contain unsafe substances. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among Lebanese college students using the health belief model. A…

  6. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari; Edio Luiz Petroski; Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. METHODS: This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), d...

  7. Prevalence of Physical Disability and Accommodation Needs among Students in Physical Therapy Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Martha R.; Peterson, Cathryn A.; Gibbs, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on graduate students with disabilities (SWDs) has focused on medical education. The purposes of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of students with physical disabilities (SWPDs) in physical therapy programs, (2) identify common types of physical disabilities, (3) document the types of accommodations requested by SWPDs,…

  8. Prevalence of Insomnia and Its Psychosocial Correlates among College Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C. Y.; Wong, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its psychosocial correlates among college students in Hong Kong. Participants: A total of 529 Hong Kong college students participated in the study. Methods: Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Revised Life…

  9. The Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in College Students: Impact on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of risk for sleep disorders among college students by gender and age, and their associations with grade point average (GPA). Participants: Participants were 1,845 college students at a large, southeastern public university. Methods: A validated sleep disorder questionnaire surveyed sleep data during the…

  10. The Prevalence of Unethical Student Behavior in Optometry Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, D. Leonard; Heiberger, Michael H.; Feldman, Jerome; Johnston, Edward

    2000-01-01

    A survey of second and third year students (n=1,092) at 16 optometric schools found 5.5 percent admitted to cheating in optometry school (and 13.9 percent admitted cheating in college), a finding similar to that found for medical students, whose self-reported cheating ranged from 4.7 percent to 10 percent. (Author/DB)

  11. The Prevalence and Correlates of Depression among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Billie J.; Fabiano, Patricia; Stark, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This study examined depression among a random sample of students (N = 618) enrolled in a medium size university in the Pacific Northwest who responded to the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment. The results indicated that one in four students experienced depression in the past year and men were as likely as…

  12. A correlative study between prevalence of chondromalacia patellae and sports injury in 4068 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Kong, Xiang-qing; Cheng, Cong; Liang, Mao-hua

    2003-12-01

    To study the prevalence of chondromalacia patella among college students and the correlation with sports injury. 354 students from gymnastic department and 429 from nongymnastic department with knee joint pain were selected. 184 students from gymnastic department and 342 from nongymnastic department were checked randomly by a surgeon. 77 patients (37 males, 40 females) from gymnastic department and 119 patients (62 males, 57 females) from nongymnastic department were diagnosed as chondromalacia patellae. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury were investigated in each student. All data were analyzed with SPSS 10.0 statistical software. The prevalence of chondromalacia patella was 20.1% in female students and 11.6% in male students from gymnastic department, and 5.61% in female students and 4.92% in male students from nongymnastic department. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury to the knee joint in students from gymnastic department were greater than those from nongymnastic department. In both female and male students, the prevalence of chondromalacia patella is higher in gymnastic department than nongymnastic department. Sports injury is an important cause of chondromalacia patella.

  13. Prevalence and Sources of Stress among Universiti Sains Malaysia Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad; Yaacob, Mohd Jamil

    2010-01-01

    Being in medical school has always been regarded as highly stressful. Excessive stress causes physical and mental health problems. Persistent stress can impair students' academic achievement and personal or professional development. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of stress among medical students by determining the prevalence, sources and pattern of stress and the factors affecting it. We chose a cross-sectional study design utilizing validated questionnaires, the 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ), to evaluate stress levels and stressors. School and ethical committee clearance were obtained prior to the study. Data were analysed using SPSS version 12. Of the medical students who were administered the questionnaire, 761 (72%) respondents participated in this study. The prevalence of stress among the medical students was 29.6%. The top 10 stressors were academic-related. Prevalence of stress for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth year students was 26.3%, 36.5 %, 31.4%, 35.3% and 21.9%, respectively. Year of study was the only significant factor affecting stress among medical students (P-value students in USM is high. Academic-related problems were the major stressor among medical students. Year of study was the factor most significantly associated with medical students' stress. There was a bimodal pattern of the stress level throughout the year of study.

  14. Changes in Generic and Degree Completion Dental Hygiene Student Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra; Rubinstein, Linda

    1989-01-01

    A study compared the characteristics of dental hygiene students in two programs (bachelor's degree and two-year professional dental hygiene training) in 1978 and 1987 to assess changes over time. Results are presented and the implications for enrollment management are discussed. (MSE)

  15. Empirically Assessing the Importance of Characteristics of Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William M.; McGregor, Calvert C.

    2000-01-01

    Three employer groups (n=117), 47 accounting faculty, and 63 students rated the following characteristics of potential employees: master's degree, overall and accounting grade point average, personal integrity, communication skills, energy/drive/enthusiasm, and appearance. Employers and faculty considered integrity extremely important; students…

  16. The Characteristics and Motivations of Contemporary Entrepreneurship Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-Couetil, Nathalie; Gotch, Chad M.; Yi, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is among the fastest growing curricular areas at universities. The rationale for delivering entrepreneurship education to students is well understood; however, minimal research has examined the characteristics, motivations, and attitudes of those choosing to enroll. The authors examine data collected across 5 years from 2,664…

  17. Identifying learning characteristics of the gifted Students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The failure of schools, teachers and counsellors to identify gifted students as well as responding to their unique characteristics and learning needs give rise to this paper. Gifted learners possess high level of intelligence than their peers, but are disadvantaged in the sense that they are not given the opportunity to reach their ...

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC.

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    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n3p326 University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC

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    Larissa da Cunha Feio Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available University admission provides the adoption of new behaviors, which can affect the health of students. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics and factors associated with the nutritional status of female university students in Florianopolis, SC, and to assess their prevalence. Socioeconomic and behavioral variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed based on body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Food consumption data were obtained through the application of a 24-hour food recall. The chi-square test was used to select independent variables associated with body mass index. Response rate in this study was 86.6% (total of 220 students. Most students were teenagers (57.7%, lived with parents (69.5%, were sedentary (55.9%, and eutrophic (72.3%. The prevalence was 15.9% for underweight and 11.8% for overweight. Breakfast was the main meal most frequently omitted (16.9%, and most students (79.0% had an energy intake below2,200 kcal. Energy intake was the only variable inversely associated with nutritional status (p =0.0358. There is a need to implement educational health measures in universities in order to establish healthier lifestyle and eating habits.

  20. Prevalence of methylphenidate use by university students in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

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    Fernanda Fraga Pessanha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant commonly prescribed for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of methylphenidate users among college students, as well as the main reasons for it, ways of acquisition, and possible side effects. The study demonstrated a 60% prevalence of the use of methylphenidate by university students in Campos dos Goytacazes. We conclude that there is a high rate of use of methylphenidate among students in this city. The authors suggest an awareness campaign on the risks of inappropriate use of methylphenidate.

  1. Characteristics of mentoring relationships formed by medical students and faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; von der Borch, Philip; Störmann, Sylvère; Meinel, Felix G.; Moder, Stefan; Reincke, Martin; Fischer, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the characteristics of mentoring relationships formed between faculty and medical students. Individual mentoring relationships of clinical medical students at Munich Medical School were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods All students signing up for the mentoring program responded to a questionnaire on their expectations (n = 534). Mentees were asked to give feedback after each of their one-on-one meetings (n = 203). A detailed analysis of the overall mentoring process and its characteristics was performed. For qualitative text analysis, free-text items were analyzed and categorized by two investigators. Quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon-test to assess differences in grades between students with and without mentors. Results High-performing students were significantly more likely to participate in the mentoring program (pmentors as counselors (88.9%), providers of ideas (85.0%), and role models (73.3%). Mentees emphasized the positive impact of the mentoring relationship on career planning (77.2%) and research (75.0%). Conclusions Medical students with strong academic performance as defined by their grades are more likely to participate in formal mentoring programs. Mentoring relationships between faculty and medical students are perceived as a mutually satisfying and effective instrument for key issues in medical students’ professional development. Practical implications Mentoring relationships are a highly effective means of enhancing the bidirectional flow of information between faculty and medical students. A mentoring program can thus establish a feedback loop enabling the educational institution to swiftly identify and address issues of medical students. PMID:22989620

  2. Prevalence of Chagas disease in medical students from 16 Latin American countries attending

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    Miguel A. Serra Valdés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the infectious illnesses that have repercussion in Latin America are the Chagas illness. Objective: with the objective of identifying the students with positive serology for the illness of Chagas and describe the characteristics in the same thing with focussing epidemiological carried out to him the present study. Method: It become fulfilled a observational investigation, descriptive and prospectival. It decided the prevalencial in the Latin American students of medicine that resides in the school Salvador Allende in the period understanded between October of the 2009 to January of the 2010 by means of serology, other clinical studieses and examination. They took shelter the variables of the clinical records and of personal interview.. Results: Affected 50 of the Bolivian delegation. The prevalence went of 6.6% of this delegation. Have clinical symptoms. The detected alterations went the ventricular hypertrophy left and the disorders of transportation and of the rhythm for electrocardiogram. It predominated the masculine sex and the rural origin. It found variability in the results of laboratory, being positive in their country and negative in Cuba and vice versa. Single 56% fulfilled the treatment. The adverse reactions went minims. Conclusion: It constitutes a sanitary problem and demands a better diagnosis, control and follow-up.

  3. The Prevalence of Substance Use among Bandar Abas Azad Islamic University Students

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    Hamid Mardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Substance abuse is one of the most important problem and disease in current century that produced wide worry in the entire world. The solving of addiction among young and educated population is more important issue. The current research was aimed the study of the prevalence rate of the substance use (included: opium, alcohol, cigarette, Hubble bubble among Bandar Abas azad Islamic university students. Method: In this cross sectional study 310 university students were selected by stratified random sampling. For gathering data the prevalence substance use questionnaire was used. Results: The findings showed the start age was 22-25 years old. Also, prevalence rate of cigarette, Hubble bubble, opium, and alcohol were higher in boy students in comparison of girl students. The rate of difference was significant by run of chi square analysis. Conclusion: Sex, the history of substance use in family member, and friends were risk factors of substance use.

  4. Involvement of school students in fights with weapons: prevalence and associated factors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Abnormalities and Association with Obesity among Saudi College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim A.; Al-Rowaily, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. (i) To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii) to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were...

  6. Which Characteristics of Gifted Students should be Developed? Student, Teacher and Parent Opinions

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    M. Serdar Köksal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate parent, student and teacher opinions about which characteristics of gifted students should be developed in cognitive, affective, psychomotor and social learning areas. The participants included 609 gifted students, 350 parents and 157 teachers from Science and Art Canters. Participants were surveyed using “The Which Characteristics of Gifted Students Should Be Developed”. The results of research revealed that students, parents and teachers agreed that social and affective skills should be improved. On the other hand, they held different opinions on the importance of music, art, dance, role-play, sport, domestic economy skills. This result indicates that these skills are thought by participants to be less important for gifted students’ development. In addition, teachers did not think technology so important for the development of gifted students, placing more emphasis on cognitive and affective domains.

  7. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types, and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 year period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, P construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi squared P cases, subluxation/luxation in 10.7%, avulsion in 9%, root fracture in 3.8%, and concussion in 3.5%. Thirty-two subjects (28.6%, 133 teeth, OR=4.3, P < .001) presented at least 1 traumatized tooth with previous dental treatment. Among 212 (61.4%) traumatized teeth, 67.5% were upper incisors, 17.5% were lower incisors, 3.3% were upper canines, 1.9% were lower canines, and 9.9% were bicuspids and molars. Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence, and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender, and preexisting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of non-syndromic orofacial clefts and the influence of consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, N M; Sabbagh, H J; Innes, N P T; El Derwi, D; Hanno, A Z; Al-Aama, J Y; Habiballah, A H; Mossey, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and describe the characteristics of non-syndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFC) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and examine the influence of consanguinity. Six hospitals were selected to represent Jeddah's five municipal districts. New born infants with NSOFC born between 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2011 were clinically examined and their number compared to the total number of infants born in these hospitals to calculate the prevalence of NSOFC types and sub-phenotypes. Referred Infants were included for the purpose of studying NSOFC characteristics and their relationship to consanguinity. Information on NSOFC infants was gathered through parents' interviews, infants 'files and patient examinations. Prospective surveillance of births resulted in identifying 37 NSOFC infants born between 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2011 giving a birth prevalence of 0.80/1000 living births. The total infants seen, including referred cases, were 79 children. Consanguinity among parents of cleft palate (CP) cases was statistically higher than that among cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) patients (P = 0.039). Although there appears to be a trend in the relationship between consanguinity and severity of CL/P sub-phenotype, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.248). Birth prevalence of NSOFC in Jeddah City was 0.8/1000 live births with CL/P: 0.68/1000 and CP: 0.13/1000. Both figures were low compared to the global birth prevalence (NSOFC: 1.25/1000, CL/P: 0.94/1000 and CP: 0.31/1000 live births). Consanguineous parents were statistically higher among CP cases than among other NSOFC phenotypes.

  9. prevalence of substance use among rural high school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    School of Public Health, University of the Limpopo. Sovenga, South Africa ... KEY WORDS: substance use, rural high school students, South Africa ... increased into the 1990s, these behaviours ..... Canada's Mental Health Supplement, 68,. 12.

  10. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  11. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG STUDENTS OF CLASS 11 AND 12- A STUDY FROM CALICUT, KERALA

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    Jisha Jose Chakkalackal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This descriptive study was carried out to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity in students of class 11 and 12. Possible associations of obesity-like lifestyle characteristics, hypertension and mood disturbances were evaluated. Another objective was to evaluate the reproductive health among adolescent girls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 400 students were chosen from a government higher secondary school at Calicut and data was collected by asking them to fill up a prestructured questionnaire. A short physical examination was also conducted. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 5.5% and 2.5%, respectively. Significant association was found with parameters like hypertension (p=0.004, family history of obesity (p<0.001 and intake of non-vegetarian food (p=0.03. CONCLUSION Poor eating habits, lack of physical exercise as well as emotional stress were noted in addition to the prevalence of obesity. The need for follow up of students with obesity during adolescence was recognised through this study.

  12. The Relationship Among Teaching Methods, Student Characteristics, and Student Involvement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Soctt, Corinne C.

    1978-01-01

    Individual students tend to benefit differently from different teaching methods; however, when little or nothing is known of the entering students' characteristics regarding learning involvement, the high school teacher would be wise to use the classroom discourse method of teaching. (JD)

  13. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle; Schei, Berit; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Tabor, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Routine antenatal care in six European countries. In total 6923 pregnant women. Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly between the countries. Characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare included a significantly higher prevalence of other forms of abuse, economic hardship and negative life events as well as a lack of social support, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. Among nulliparous women, abuse in healthcare was associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.12) for severe abuse in healthcare. For multiparous women only severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 4.04 (95% CI 2.08-7.83). Current severe suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with the wish for cesarean section, and counselling for fear of childbirth for both nulli- and multiparous women. Abuse in healthcare among women attending routine antenatal care is common and for women with severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare, this is associated with fear of childbirth and a wish for cesarean section. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Exploring Relationships: Teacher Characteristics and Student Learning in Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor; Vokos, S.; Seeley, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Department of Physics and the School of Education at Seattle Pacific University, together with FACET Innovations, LLC, are beginning the second year of a five-year NSF TPC grant, Improving the Effectiveness of Teacher Diagnostic Skills and Tools. We are working in partnership with school districts in Washington State to identify and characterize widespread productive and unproductive modes of reasoning employed by both pre-college students and teachers on foundational topics in physical science. In the first year of the grant, base-line preand post-test data were collected from a large number (N 2300) of middle and high school students. We will discuss relationships between preand post-test results, student learning gains, and student and teacher characteristics. * Supported in part by NSF grant #ESI-0455796, The Boeing Corporation, and the SPU Science Initiative.

  15. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in Turkish university students and assessment of associated factors

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    Topal Kenan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many students who begin university at risky periods for OCD development cannot meet the new challenges successfully. They often seek help and apply to the university health center for psychiatric distress. We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD at students of the Cukurova University in this cross sectional study. Methods This study was performed in the Cukurova University Faculty of Education with a population of 5500 students; the representative sample size for detecting the OCD prevalence was calculated to be 800. After collecting sociodemographic data, we questioned the students for associated factors of OCD. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 and Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, Section K were used for psychiatric evaluation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the linkage between OCD and associated factors. Results A total of 804 university students were included in this study. The GHQ-12-positive students (241 students, 29.9% were interviewed using Section K of the CIDI (222 students, 27.6%. OCD was diagnosed in 33 (4.2% students. The Logistic regression analysis of the data showed significant associations between OCD and male gender (p:0.036, living on government dormitory (p: 0.003, living on students' house/parental house (p:0.006, having private room in the parental house (p:0.055 and verbal abuse in the family (p:0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of OCD among a group of university students compared to other prevalence studies of OCD in Turkish society. Furthermore, our findings also suggest relationships between OCD and sociodemographic factors, as well as other environmental stress factors.

  16. High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria

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    Ijeoma Emeka-Nwabunnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods: A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 1 9-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results: IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 201 2. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91 % is nonsignificantly (P>0.1 lower than that of females (4.31 %. Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions: The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

  17. Characteristics of medical teachers using student-centered teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee-Young

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated characteristics of medical teachers who have adopted student-centered teaching methods into their teaching. A 24-item questionnaire consisted of respondent backgrounds, his or her use of student-centered teaching methods, and awareness of the school's educational objectives and curricular principles was administered of faculty members at a private medical school in Korea. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were conducted to compare faculty use of student-centered approaches across different backgrounds and awareness of curricular principles. Overall response rate was 70% (N=140/200), approximately 25% (n=34) of whom were using student-centered teaching methods. Distributions in the faculty use of student-centered teaching methods were significantly higher among basic sciences faculty (versus clinical sciences faculty), with teaching experiences of over 10 years (versus less than 10 years), and who were aware of the school's educational objectives and curricular principles. Our study indicates differences in medical faculty's practice of student-centered teaching across disciplines, teaching experiences, and their understanding of the school's educational objectives curricular principles. These findings have implications for faculty development and institutional support to better promote faculty use of student-centered teaching approaches.

  18. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among the students newly enrolled at a public university

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    Yuri Silva Toledo Brandão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol is the number one toxic substance consumed by people of all age groups, which makes its use a public health problem. The overall trend shows that university students are those who suffer the most pressure. Objective : To assess the prevalence of alcohol use among students newly enrolled at a public university in Alagoas, Brazil. Materials and Methods : We conducted an analytical sectional study at the Federal University of Alagoas, with 1435 (44% of total newly enrolled students of all courses in 2006. They answered a questionnaire based on the CAGE. Some points such as sex, age, marital status, course, housing, family characteristics and how drugs fit into in the student life were studied with the resources of EpiInfo version 3.3.2. The survey was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas (number 000878/2005-17. Results : Of the group studied, 95.9% lived with family and 87.6% reported ever drinking alcohol at some time in their life. Of all the respondents, 55.4% of men reported having the habit of drinking with friends or colleagues (Odds = 0.71; CI = 0.58-0.88; P -value = 0.00088. Among all respondents, 17.7% of male students and 9.8% females skipped class after using alcohol (Odds = 0.52; CI = 0.38-0.72; P -value = 0.000023. The transition from adolescence to youth and study time at university is marked by greater vulnerability to alcohol abuse. The family is decisive for the initiation of alcohol use, and the university is a factor that increases the possibility of maintaining the practice. The fact that not all students were present in the classroom at the time of the application questionnaire may have limited the search because this was a sectional study. Conclusion : Alcohol consumption in this university is similar to that in other higher education institutions in the world, which is a cause for concern, since the external lesions are accentuated with the practice of using

  19. Sociocultural Characteristic, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors Among a Sample of Kuwaiti Male University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sejari, Maha

    2017-03-01

    In the past six decades, the Kuwaiti population has been exposed to rapid transformation in the quality of diet intake, daily activities, and career types. This major socioeconomic shift was accompanied by the introduction of both communicable and noncommunicable chronic diseases afflicting people of all ages. This article aims to detect a relationship between sociocultural characteristics-such as physical activity, dietary habits, and smoking-and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 262 male university students in Kuwait; participants were selected by using a convenient nonrandom opportunistic sample. Associated social and health factors were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. BMI and blood tests that include clusters of MetS risk components were drawn from participants in primary health care clinics. More than half of the participants were overweight and obese; 74.4% of the participants reported they did not visit a nutritionist; 69.8% said that they are currently not on a diet; 53.4% of the students were nonsmokers; 42.7% reported moderate to very low daily physical activity. The prevalence of MetS components increased among students with older age, employed, and married ( p students needs to be considered by Kuwaiti community members and the government to highlight the risk factors of MetS on individuals' well-being, quality of life, and life expectation.

  20. The prevalence of medical student mistreatment and its association with burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alyssa F; Arora, Vineet M; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2014-05-01

    Medical student mistreatment has been recognized for decades and is known to adversely impact students personally and professionally. Similarly, burnout has been shown to negatively impact students. This study assesses the prevalence of student mistreatment across multiple medical schools and characterizes the association between mistreatment and burnout. In 2011, the authors surveyed a nation ally representative sample of third-year medical students. Students reported the frequency of experiencing mistreatment by attending faculty and residents since the beginning of their clinical rotations. Burnout was measured using a validated two-item version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Of 960 potential respondents from 24 different medical schools, 605 (63%) completed the survey, but 41 were excluded because they were not currently in their third year of medical school. Of the eligible students, the majority reported experiencing at least one incident of mistreatment by faculty (64% [361/562]) and by residents (76% [426/562]). A minority of students reported experiencing recurrent mistreatment, defined as occurring "several" or "numerous" times: 10% [59/562] by faculty and 13% [71/562] by residents. Recurrent mistreatment (compared with no or infrequent mistreatment) was associated with high burnout: 57% versus 33% (P student mistreatment remains prevalent. Recurrent mistreatment by faculty and residents is associated with medical student burnout. Although further investigation is needed to assess causality, these data provide impetus for medical schools to address student mistreatment to mitigate its adverse consequences.

  1. Prevalence of obesity among students aged 6 to 12 in China: a meta-analysis

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    Yue Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide. It has been estimated that 8% of children are obese. This study evaluates the overall prevalence of obesity in primary students in recent years. Methods: Publications from 2011 and 2015 on the obesity prevalence among primary school students aged 6 to 12 in China were retrieved from the databases PubMed and Wanfang Data. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force standard body mass index cutoff points established for children. MetaAnalyst 3.13 software was used to calculate the total prevalence of obesity among primary school students in recent years. Results: After evaluation of the quality of the articles, 14 papers were finally included in our study. The pooled prevalence of obesity in students aged 6 to 12 is 10.2% (95% CI: 7.1–14.6%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that obesity is prevalent in students aged 6 to 12 in China. We believe that appropriate measures should be taken to control this situation.

  2. Prevalence of food insecurity among food bank users in Germany and its association with population characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among food bank users in many European countries is unknown. The study aims to examine FI prevalence and associated population characteristics among this particular group of disadvantaged people in Germany. Food insecurity status was assessed among 1033 adult food bank users with a mean age of 53 years (57% female, 43% male) in Germany in 2015 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). About half of the participants (55.8%) were single with no children and born in Germany. Over 37% had a self-reported BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or above and 37.4% indicated to smoke. Over 70% of the food bank users can be described as food insecure. Of those, about 35% were considered mildly food insecure. Almost 30% were categorized as moderately food insecure while over 7% were categorized as severely food insecure. Significant associations with food insecurity were found for gender, age, subjective health status, smoking, duration of food bank use, school education and family type. Among this socially disadvantaged population, food insecurity is highly prevalent and public health efforts should be focusing on this vulnerable population taken into account the identified population and behavioral characteristics associated with food insecurity.

  3. Prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability in Mexican adolescent women and their populational characteristics

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    Betania Allen-Leigh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report prevalence of functioning difficulties and disabilities among Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old and identify differences in characteristics of those with and without a functioning difficulty or disability Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used chi square tests for independence and logistic regression to explore associations between this condition and various characteristics. Results. Of Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old, 11.1% had a functioning difficulty or disability. The group of domains of functioning difficulty and disability with by far the highest prevalence was socio-emotional and behavioral functioning difficulties or disability with 8.6%. Being employed, rural residence and self-reported depression symptoms were associated with having functioning difficulties or disability. Conclusions. This survey constitutes an important initial step in collecting data on functioning difficulty and disability in Mexico although larger samples should be studied.

  4. Qualitative Literature Review of the Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students Compared to Students in Non-medical Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to review studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 16 June 2014, in peer-reviewed journals, that have assessed the prevalence of depression, comparing medical students and non-medical students with a single evaluation method. The databases PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for eligible articles. Searches used combinations of the Medical Subject Headings medical student and depression. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to determine eligibility before full-text articles were retrieved, which were then also reviewed. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria. Non-medical groups surveyed included dentistry, business, humanities, nursing, pharmacy, and architecture students. One study found statistically significant results suggesting that medical students had a higher prevalence of depression than groups of non-medical students; five studies found statistically significant results indicating that the prevalence of depression in medical students was less than that in groups of non-medical students; four studies found no statistically significant difference, and two studies did not report on the statistical significance of their findings. One study was longitudinal, and 11 studies were cross-sectional. While there are limitations to these comparisons, in the main, the reviewed literature suggests that medical students have similar or lower rates of depression compared to certain groups of non-medical students. A lack of longitudinal studies meant that potential common underlying causes could not be discerned, highlighting the need for further research in this area. The high rates of depression among medical students indicate the continuing need for interventions to reduce depression.

  5. Prevalence of diagnostic characteristics indicating canine autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis in giant schnauzer and hovawart dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, K; Björnerfeldt, S; Karlsson, A; Andersson, G; Nachreiner, R; Hedhammar, A

    2009-04-01

    To investigate prevalence of autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAA) and/or elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), indicating canine autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and/or hypothyroidism, in two high-risk dog breeds. A cohort study was conducted in two birth cohorts of giant schnauzer and hovawart dogs. The cohorts were three to four and six to seven years of age at the time of blood sampling and screening for TgAA and TSH levels. Blood sampling was accompanied by one initial and one follow-up questionnaire to the dog owners. A total number of 236 giant schnauzers and 95 hovawarts were included in the study. Seventeen (7.2 per cent) giant schnauzers and three (3.2 per cent) hovawarts had been diagnosed as hypothyroid at the time of sampling. Out of the remaining dogs, 22 giant schnauzers (10.0 per cent) and nine hovawarts (10.1 per cent) had elevated TgAA and/or TSH levels. Prevalence of elevated TgAA and TSH levels varied with age. The high prevalence of diagnostic characteristics indicating CLT/hypothyroidism in these two breeds suggests a strong genetic predisposition. It would be advisable to screen potential breeding stock for TSH and TgAA as a basis for genetic health programmes to reduce prevalence of CLT in these breeds.

  6. Occlusal characteristics and prevalence of associated dental anomalies in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochib, Seema; Indushekar, K R; Saraf, Bhavna Gupta; Sheoran, Neha; Sardana, Divesh

    2015-06-01

    Morphological variations in primary dentition are of great concern to a pediatric dentist as it may pose clinical problems like dental caries, delayed exfoliation and also anomalies in the permanent dentition, such as impaction of successors, supernumerary teeth, permanent double teeth or aplasia of teeth. The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of dental anomalies in the primary dentition of 1000 schoolchildren in the 3-5 year-old age group in Faridabad. One-thousand schoolchildren were examined using Type III examination (WHO, 1997) for primary molar relationship, occlusal characteristics, primate spaces, physiological spaces and other anomalies of teeth, including number and morphology. The prevalence of physiological spaces in maxillary and mandibular arches was 50.9% and 46.7%, respectively, whereas primate spaces were found in 61.7% of the children in the maxillary arch and 27.9% in the mandibular arch. The prevalence of unilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite was 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively, in the present study. The prevalence of hypodontia in the primary dentition was found to be 0.4% and the prevalence of fusion and gemination in the present study was 0.5%. Double teeth (fusion and gemination) and hypodontia were the most common dental anomalies found in the primary dentition in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The prevalence of psychoactive substances use among secondary school students from selected cities of Upper Silesia

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    Maja Muszyńska-Graca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of psychoactive substances among teenagers in Poland has grown for several years. Statistics maintain at a lower level than in the western Europe, however it is necessary to conduct its permanent monitoring. The work presents results of the questionnaire study carried out in IOMEH in years 2010–11. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the scale of psychoactive substances prevalence among teenagers from Silesian cities. Materials and methods: The programme was carried out by use of modified questionnaire of the ESPAD study. Questions related to characteristics of the examined person, dissemination, accessibility, awareness of risk and problems associated with the use of psychoactive substances. 928 teenagers: students of IIIrd grade of secondary schools and Ist and IInd grades of high schools from Sosnowiec and Chorzów (62% boys and 38% girls participated in the study. Results: 86,9% girls and 89,8% boys confirmed contact with the alcohol at least once in the lifetime and it is the most widespread psychoactive substance in the study group. Out of the other substances, cannabis use was confirmed by 40,7% of students (34,7% girls and 44,3% boys, designer drugs use - by of 21,8% pupils (17,5% girls and 24,5% boys. The distribution within the limits of 10% has been observed in the case of soothing/sleeping pills (also together with alcohol, and amphetamine. The prevalence of contact with other substances was at the level *10%. Boys more often than girls used the respective psychoactive substances (statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Results of the study confirm observation concerning the entire country that drinking alcohol by the young adolescents is becoming the statistical norm. The frequency of other psychoactive substances use demonstrates also concerning levels. There is a need of systematic education among teenagers at school, with particular emphasis on issues related to addiction and

  8. Prevalence of Behavioral Disorders and Its Associated Factors in Hamadan Primary School Students

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    F. Jalilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Studies have shown the high prevalence rate of behavioral disorders in primary school students, which may underlie many complications and problems for the students and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of behav-ioral disorders among primary school students. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional-descriptive study which have been done on 352 primary school students in Hamadan. Samples have been selected based on a multistage ran-dom sampling and Rutter behavioral disorder questionnaire (teacher form was used for data collection. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using chi-square. Results: Our result showed that 16.1% of the participants suffered from behavioral disorders. The prevalence was more among the boys. Father's education and occupation, history of mental illness, parental divorce, and death of parents had significant relationships with the prevalence of behavioral disorders in these students. Conclusion: According to the results, designing and implementing educational programs for the prevention and treatment of student's behavioral disorders appear to be essential.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:62-68

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Abnormalities and Association with Obesity among Saudi College Students

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    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. (i To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were classified as overweight and obese, respectively. Central obesity was prevalent in 26.9% and 42.2% of students based on WC and WHtR, respectively. Other metabolic abnormalities were hypertension (23.6% and abnormal FPG level (22.6%. Three or more abnormalities were prevalent in 7.8% of students and increased significantly to 26.4%, 20%, and 17.6 in obese subjects based on BMI, WC, and WHtR, respectively. With the exception of abnormal FPG, prevalence of individual metabolic abnormalities as well as the number of these abnormalities significantly increased with increasing BMI, WC, and WHtR (P<0.001 each. Conclusion. Our findings provide evidence for the presence of MS in Saudi college students. Central adiposity contributes to the high incidence of individual MS components. College health programs that promote healthful lifestyle and avoidance of adult weight gain are recommended.

  10. CROSSECTIONAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DYSMENORRHEA AND PRE MENSTRUAL SYNDROME IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

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    Joylene Diana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea or pain during menstruation is the most common gynaecological complaint among adolescents and college students. A good majority of patients with dysmenorrhea also experience pre - menstrual symptoms ( PMS . The objective of this cross s ectional study was to assess prevalence of dysmennorhea , PMS , college absenteeism and knowledge attitudes and practices relating to the same among college going students between the age of 18 to 26 years. METHODS: A cross s ectional analysis of a total of 420 students using questionnaires related to dysmenorrhea was done . The questionnaire dealt with the regularity of menstrual cycles , occurrence of dysmenorrhea , college absenteeism , premenstrual symptoms and lifestyle attributes of the students. RESULTS: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea of varying degrees was found to be as high as 97 percent . Dysmennorhea was seen in 45.8 percent of students with regular cycles and 97.7 percent of students with irregular cycles. 47.5 percentage of students missed their college working days due to menstruation related complaints. Among the students who had pre - menstrual syndrome , majority of them revealed life style attributes like eating fast food and also consuming over the counter pain medicines. Also psychological and emotional changes were commonly seen during the premenstrual phase. CONCLUSION: This study showed that though dysmennorhea of varying degrees is widely prevalent among college going students , the prevalence of pre - menstrual syndrome was higher. The study suggests that adequate counseling and education about menstrual symptoms and abuse of OTC analgesics if made a part of college curriculum as well as lifestyle modifications could come a long way in helping to alleviate the problems college students face due to dysmennorhea and PMS.

  11. The prevalence and characteristics of homelessness in the NSW substance treatment population: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julaine; Kemp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness episodes in Australian substance misuse treatment. A dataset containing all closed substance treatment episodes in NSW, Australia from July 2006 to June 2011 was used. Statistical analysis was used to determine any relationships between demographic and treatment variables and homelessness. Of the 213, 129 treatment episodes in the dataset 12.8% have some form of homelessness. Non-government and residential services have the highest prevalence of homelessness. Sex, age, and drug type have weak relationships with homelessness. Leaving against the advice of the treatment provider is more common in episodes where homelessness is a factor. Homelessness is a problem experienced by a significant proportion of the substance treatment population and treatment providers have an opportunity and an obligation to address it in their treatment delivery.

  12. Influence of course characteristics, student characteristics, and behavior in learning management systems on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Pharmacy Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ratio (WHR) were measured using standard methods. Blood pressure (BP), and ... hypertension was more common in women than in men [3]. ... standard mercury sphygmomanometer, on the right arm with the .... risk factors among medical students in Crete,. Greece [13] .... region: current situation and perspectives. Fifty-fifth.

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of endometrial polyps in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding

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    Đorđević Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of endometrial polyps (EPs in the general female population is about 24%. Abnormal uterine bleeding is frequently the presenting symptom of EPs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of EPs in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods. The prevalence and characteristics of EPs were investigated in 961 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding who underwent dilatation and curettage between January and December 2006. Regarding histopathological features of EPs (presence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma, patients were divided into two groups: group A - patients who had EPs and EPs with hyperplasia without atypia (n = 204 and group B - patients who had EPs with atypical hyperplasia and EPs with carcinoma (n = 7. Results. In 211 (21.94% patients EPs were found with abnormal uterine bleeding. Histopathologically, there were 175 (82.94% EPs, 29 (13.74% EPs with hyperplasia without atypia, 5 (2.37% EPs with atypical hyperplasia, and 2 (0.95% EPs with endometrial carcinoma. Contrary to the patients with EPs and EPs with hyperplasia without atypia (group A, patients who had EPs with atypical hyperplasia and EPs with carcinoma (group B were older (p < 0.05, and more commonly postmenopausal (p < 0.05 and with hypertension (p < 0.05, all of statistical significance. Conclusion. The prevalence of endometrial polyps in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding according to our data was 21.95%. Atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma were rarely confined to a polyp. Older age, postmenopausal period and hypertension may increase the risk of premalignant and malignant changes in endometrial polyps.

  15. [The prevalence of burnout and the related factors among some medical students in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaewon; Son, Shill Lee; Kim, Suh Hee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hong, Jee-Young; Lee, Moo-Sik

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the prevalence of burnout and its related factors in medical students in Korea. All available medical students in the metropolitan city of Daejeon, Korea, were asked to answer self-administered questionnaires from July 1 to July 26 in 2013. A total of 534 medical students participated. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and structured questionnaires on related factors were used. Confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's α were used to verify the applicability of the MBI-SS to medical students in Korea. We also performed chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify the factors that were associated with burnout. The MBI-SS was reliable and valid in measuring burnout in Korean medical students. Our confirmatory factor analysis approved and explained the appropriateness of the model fit. The prevalence of burnout among medical students was 26.4% (n=141). Suchrates were higher in students who were female, experienced greater levels of depression, had poor academic performance, feared dropping out, and were stressed by the poor quality of the class facilities. The MBI-SS is a valid instrument to measure academic burnout in Korean medical students. Further studies should be performed, because improvements in the mental health of medical students will benefit these doctors-to-be and their future patients.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study

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    Kuk Jennifer L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS among Canadian women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression. Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment. Methods An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model. Results The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS. Conclusions A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers.

  17. Personal characteristics of students entering higher medical school

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    Akimova O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.

  18. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Seventh-day Adventist African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Sovyanhadi, Marta

    2009-01-01

    All age, sex, and racial groups are affected by the obesity epidemic in the United States, although disparities exist among these groups. The Seventh-day Adventists are a religious group of people who are believed to live longer and healthier lives than do their non-Adventist counterparts because they do not smoke or drink alcohol and they eat a healthier diet. This study assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Seventh-day Adventist college students attending 2 private universities in the southern United States. Most students' body mass index (65.8%) was within the normal weight category, 3.7% were underweight, 20.6% were overweight, and 9.9% were obese. Body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2 was more prevalent among men and African Americans. In all ethnic subgroups, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower than that among non-Adventist students reported in other studies.

  19. Psychological Characteristics of Personality in Students with Learning Difficulties

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    T A Shilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the psychological characteristics of the personality of a student with learning difficulties from the position of the mismatch of mental development in operational sphere. The article considers the system of methods of research with the personality-oriented approach. The influence of certain psychological characteristics of a personality on the outcome of the study is revealed. The ways of building correctional-developing programmes for psychological preparation of junior schoolchildren for successful learning are shown.

  20. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among college students of Bhavnagar, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra; Tiwari, Deepak Sachidanand; Vala, Ashok Ukabhai; Bhatt, Renish Bhupendrabhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced during the specific time of menstrual cycle. Prevalence data of PMS and PMDD is sparse among college girls in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of PMS and PMDD among college students of Bhavnagar (Gujarat), its associated demographic and menstrual factors, to rank common symptoms and compare prem...

  1. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Japanese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Koga, Shoko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and the impact of premenstrual symptoms among Japanese adolescent girls, a total of 618 high school students were assessed. Of them, 64.6% were found to suffer from premenstrual symptoms, which is lower than that in adult women. On the other hand, the rates of prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD in girls were higher than those in adult women. Premenstrual symptoms could have significant consequences by interfering with the daily functioning of adolescent girls.

  2. Video Game Addiction among High School Students in Hordaland; Prevalence and Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Bjordal, Sunniva Alsvik; Skumsnes, Toril; Ørland, Anette

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of video game addiction among high school students (N = 531) in Hordaland county, Norway. Video game addiction measured by the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents was estimated both by a monothetic and a polythetic format. The prevalence was found to be 2.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Regression analyses were conducted where video game addiction comprised the dependent variable. Demographic variables, depression, anxiety, lone...

  3. Characteristics and correlates of stealing in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Stealing is a fairly common behaviour among young adults. Understanding the potential associations and characteristics of individuals who steal may help educational institutions, health services and young people themselves resolve difficulties before the behaviour impacts on their academic performance and health. We aim to test the hypothesis that desires to steal among students would be associated with worse academic achievements and higher rates of mood and impulse control disorders. One thousand eight hundred and five students completed the College Student Computer User Survey online and were included in this analysis at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were grouped according to self-reported stealing urges and behaviours and were compared on measures of psychosocial function, mental health disorders and impulsivity. Urges to steal were associated with worse depressive symptoms, higher levels of perceived stress and a number of psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder and multiple disorders of impulse control (kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, skin picking, trichotillomania and compulsive buying). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND/OR FUTURE RESEARCH: These following data indicate that stealing for many college students may be considered within a spectrum of impulsive behaviours. • Illegal behaviours among students point to mental health difficulties among them. • Our findings may provide clinicians, researchers and health professionals with a clearer picture of a range of impulsive behaviours among college students and promote treatment for this group. • Our findings could also inform preventative approaches to impulsive problems in young adults. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis in the health district of the Marina Alta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallego, A; Morera-Guitart, J

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis (EM) in the Marina Alta health district. A descriptive, retrospective study localizing cases (crossed register method). Day of prevalence: 1/05/01. Registers of the area analyzed: hospital admission, Neurology Clinic, Emergency Department of the hospital and Health Centres. The criteria of Poser were used for diagnosis. We analyzed the demographic, clinical and paraclinical aspects of the episodes and treatment (interferon-beta). Male/female ratio: 2.4. Average age: 46.6 years. Prevalence of definite EM: 40.3/100,000. Prevalence of autochthonous cases of EM: 28.7/100,000. Average age at onset: 32.6 years. Average duration of illness: 12.5 years. Commonest clinical form: remitting relapsing (48.1%), followed by progressive relapsing (7%), benign (5.5%) and primary progressive (1.8%). 5.5% died, all with the progressive secondary form. EDSS disability: greater in the progressive secondary form. Magnetic resonance (MR) was the commonest investigation used (84% of the results in concordance and 13% normal). Positive BOC in 70% of cases. We studied 202 episodes. The systems most affected were: sensory and pyramidal. Worsening of EDSS after recovery from the episode: 51.7%. 29% received interferon-beta, with five cases (31%) of major side effects (one psychotic outbursts, three with neutropenia and one generalized allergic reaction). In the Marina Alta the prevalence of EM adjusted for the autochthonous population is in the medium risk zone. The clinical features and course of the disease in our patients are similar to those seen in other national and foreign series. The most worthwhile tests were cranial MR and BOC CSF. Treatment with interferon-beta requires strict control in view of the high frequency of serious side effects seen.

  5. The prevalence and specific characteristics of hospitalised pressure ulcer patients: A multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Ting; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Ruifen; Tian, Suping; Yang, Chaoxia; Gan, Huaxiu; Zhu, Yanying; Liang, Xia; Wang, Ling; Wu, Zhenhua; Huang, Jinping; Hu, Ailing

    2018-02-01

    To ascertain the pressure ulcer prevalence in secondary and tertiary general hospitals in different areas of Guangdong Province in China and explore the possible risk factors that are related to pressure ulcers. Few multicentre studies have been conducted on pressure ulcer prevalence in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data from a total of 25,264 patients were included in the analysis at 25 hospitals in China. The investigators were divided into two groups. The investigators in group 1 examined the patients' skin. When a pressure ulcer was found, a pressure ulcer assessment form was completed. The investigators in group 2 provided guidance to the nurses, who assessed all patients and completed another questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the possible risk factors and pressure ulcer. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in the 25 hospitals ranged from 0%-3.49%, with a mean of 1.26%. The most common stage of the pressure ulcers was stage II (41.4%); most common anatomical locations were sacrum (39.5%) and the feet (16.4%). Braden score (p pressure ulcers from the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in Chinese hospitals was lower than that reported in previous investigations. Specific characteristics of pressure ulcer patients were as follows: low Braden score, longer expected length of stay, double incontinence, an ICU and a medical ward, hospital location in the Pearl River Delta, a university hospital and an older patient. The survey could make managers know their prevalence level of pressure ulcers and provide priorities for clinical nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  7. [Prevalence of dental diseases among Moscow students and need of dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Doroshina, V Iu; Protsenko, A S

    2009-01-01

    A clinical epidemiologic study was made among 432 Moscow students and as a part of it was found the high prevalence rate of pathologies of dentition and variety of nosologic forms. The most common cases were: caries, periodontal disease, deformity and anomalies of tooth position. These findings were necessary to estimate the need of all types of dentistry for Moscow students. It was specified that 43% of students were in need of filling and dental restoration, 35% were in need of crowns of tooth, 22% were in need of dental restoration by means of orthopedic constructions. Endodontic dentistry was necessary for 31% of students, surgical removal - for 8%, periodontal dentistry - for 37%.

  8. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in 6–16-Year-Old Students in Sichuan Province, China

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    Yuan Qu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the point prevalence of mental disorders in school students, multistage cluster stratified random sampling and two-phase survey methods were used to identify 40 primary and middle schools. The students were screened using the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist and diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 19.13%. The prevalence of behavioral problems significantly differed by sex, age, city of residence, and caretaker. The six-month prevalence of any mental disorder was 15.24% (95% CI: 15.49%–16.97%. Psychiatric disorders were more prevalent in boys (17.33% relative to girls (13.11%; p < 0.01. The prevalence of mental disorders significantly differed by community and caretaker, and 36.46% of students exhibited comorbidity. Results demonstrated important mental health issues, with a high incidence of comorbidities, in this population. Students’ mental health requires increased attention, particularly in poverty-stricken areas and left-behind children and adolescents.

  9. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W G; Hulsman, Robert L; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-12

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students' characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Students indicated 'city' (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and 'selection procedure' (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students' medical study. Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students' different approaches is important.

  10. Prevalence of behavioral disorders among elementary students of Alborz province (2010-2011

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    Melisa Hanifi Vahed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioural disorder is a common disorder in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of behavioural disorders and analyse the moderating role of gender and grade in primary school students of Alborz province. Methods: The population of the study consisted of all the primary students from the third grade to the fifth grade in Alborz province. The participants were 375 students who were recruited by multistage random sampling. They completed Rutter Behavioural Evaluation Questionnaire (Teacher’s Form. The moderating role of gender and grade was examined. Data were analysed by chi-square and Fisher log-linear models. Results: The prevalence of behavioural disorders was 12% in the primary school students. The prevalence of behavioural disorders in the fifth grade was more than the third and fourth grades. Sex and sex × grade interaction did not have the moderating role. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of behavioral problems in primary school Alborz was roughly proportional to the average rate of the country. The highest rate of prevalence was observed in the fifth grade.

  11. Prevalence and factors related to smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi District, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K H; Amal, N M; Hanjeet, K; Mashod, M Y; Wan Rozita, W M; Sumarni, M G; Hadzrik, N O

    2006-06-01

    Smoking among adolescent is a public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies on smoking prevalence and its related factors have been conducted in Malaysia, however, they were specific to either urban or rural areas alone. Studies in mixed settlement areas (urban, rural, land development area) had not been intensively investigated. This study reports the prevalence, demographic and factors related to smoking amongst form four students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. A cross-sectional study of 16-year old secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district was conducted using two-stage stratified, proportionate sampling in July 2005. The study instrument used was a validated structured questionnaire on smoking and its related factors. Smoking prevalence was found to be 29.7%. More than 50% of male students were smokers. Prevalence was highest in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) settlement areas. Smoking was associated with having a brother or friend who smokes and poor academic performance. The study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, especially among male students in land development schemes. This situation will contribute to high smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  12. Role of Pre-Course Student Characteristics on Student Learning in Interactive Teaching Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly Anne

    The goal of this dissertation is to broaden our understanding of interactive teaching strategies, in the context of the introductory physics classroom at the undergraduate level. The dissertation is divided into four main projects, each of which investigates a specific aspect of teaching physics interactively. All four projects look towards improving the effectiveness of interactive teaching by understanding how pre-course student characteristics affect the way students learn interactively. We first discuss lecture demonstrations in the context of an interactive classroom using Peer Instruction. We study the role of predictions in conceptual learning. We examine how students' predictions affect what they report having seen during a demonstration. We also examine how student predictions affect what they recall as the outcome of the demonstration at the end of the semester. We then analyze student response patterns to conceptual questions posed during Peer Instruction. We look at the relationship between a student's tendency to switch their answer and pre-course student characteristics like science self-efficacy. Next we elucidate response timing to conceptual questions posed over the course of the semester, in two introductory physics classes taught using Peer Instruction. We look at the relationship between student response times and student characteristics like pre-course physics knowledge, science self-efficacy and gender. We study response times as a way of gaining insight into students thinking in Peer Instruction environments as well as to improve the implementation of Peer Instruction. Finally, we present work on the role of NB, an online collaborative textbook annotation tool, in a flipped, project based, physics class. We analyze the relationship between students' level of online engagement and traditional learning metrics to understand the effectiveness of NB in the context of flipped classrooms. We also report the results of experiments conducted to

  13. Prevalence and predictors of suicidality among medical students in a public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S T; Sherina, M S; Rampal, L; Normala, I

    2015-02-01

    Undergraduate medical students have been the most distressed group among the student population. Depression and anxiety have been found to be more prevalent in this group of students compared to others. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of suicidality among undergraduate medical students in a public university. This was an analytical cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university in Selangor, Malaysia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires from January to February 2013, and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Software (version 21). Out of 625 undergraduate medical students, 537 (85.9%) participated in the study. The prevalence of the suicidality among undergraduate medical students was 7.0%. The significant predictors of suicidality based on multiple logistic regression were the respondent's lifetime suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR 10.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 40.9); depression (AOR 5.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 23.0); breaking off a steady love relationship (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 22.4); hopelessness (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 21.6); and something valued being lost or stolen (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 15.9). These findings indicate that mental health care services should be strengthened at university level. The results show a need for an intervention programme to reduce suicidality among the undergraduate medical students.

  14. Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sarokhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data was analyzed using STATA software Ver.10. Results. In 35 studies conducted in Iran from 1995 to 2012 with sample size of 9743, prevalence of depression in the university students was estimated to be 33% (95% CI: 32–34. The prevalence of depression among boys was estimated to be 28% (95% CI: 26–30, among girls 23% (95% CI: 22–24, single students 39% (95% CI: 37–41, and married students 20% (95% CI: 17–24. Metaregression model showed that the trend of depression among Iranian students was flat. Conclusions. On the whole, depression is common in university students with no preponderance between males and females and in single students is higher than married ones.

  15. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Layz Alves Ferreira; Silva,Camila Damázio da; Ferraz,Gisely Carvalho; Sousa,Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Pereira,Lílian Varanda

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate nursing students seeking to relieve pain and characterizes the pain and relief obtained through the used medication. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was carried out with 211 nursing students from a public university in Goiás, GO, Brazil. A numerical scale (0-10) measured pain intensity and relief. The prevalence of self-medication was 38.8%. The source and main determining factor of this practice were...

  16. Prevalence of specific developmental disorder of scholastic skill in school students in Chandigarh, India

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    Priti Arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been conducted in India to determine the prevalence of learning disabilities in school children which has been reported to be 3-10 per cent among students population. The present study was conducted to find out prevalence of specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills in students of classes VII to XII and to find out feasibility of screening tool in Chandigarh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study on school students was carried out in two phases. The students were drawn from classes VII to XII from 10 schools of Chandigarh, India. Details of academic performance of all the students was taken, subjectively from class teachers and objectively from the marks obtained in the last academic session. In phase I, 2402 students were assessed. In phase II, 108 students were randomly selected for evaluation for assessing sensitivity and specificity of screening proforma for teachers. A total of 124 students from phase I and all students in phase II were assessed in detail. Tests of intelligence (Malin′s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children and Standard Progressive Matrices, and NIMHANS Index for specific learning disability (SLD battery were administered. Results: A total of 38 students were found to be having specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills in phase I, that gave a prevalence of 1.58 per cent. Majority had mixed type of errors on SLD battery. There were more boys diagnosed with specific learning disability. Teacher′s screening instrument had high sensitivity (90.385 and specificity (94.68. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study conducted in community, showed that specific learning disability was not identified even till later age. The screening instrument thus could be used by teachers to suspect students with specific learning disability.

  17. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors among Students of Balıkesir University

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    Nurhan Sarıoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the smoking prevalence and associated factors among the students of Balıkesir University and determine the level of nicotine dependence in smokers. Methods: Six faculties and two graduate schools located at the Balıkesir University campus were enrolled. The cluster method was used as the sampling method. To observe the rates of smoking initiation while studying at the university, first-year and final year students were compared. Results: A total of 1096 students were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.4±2.2 years. The regular smoking prevalence rate was 25.5%, occasional smoking rate was 9.5%, alcohol consumption rate was 28.0%, and drug abuse rate was 5.0%. The mean age for attempting to smoke was 16.6±2.2 years. The leading causes of smoking were curiosity, spiritual space, affection, and to comply with friends. According to the Fagerström questionnaire, the level of nicotine dependence was low in 53.0% of the participants, moderate in 8.7%, and high in 28.4%. The average smoking prevalence rate was 23.6% in first-grade students, whereas it was 44.8% in last-grade students. The factors that influence smoking were as follows: being in the last grade, mother, siblings, and friends who smoke, higher allowance, use of alcohol and drugs. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among males. Conclusion: Last-grade students had a higher smoking prevalence rate than the first-grade students. Family, social environment, and smoking behavior of friends have an influence on smoking. All risk factors, including past history and university period, should be considered together in tobacco control.

  18. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-02-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  20. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Erinfolami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of sociodemographic variables (of the students and their parents with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385 randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  1. HIV prevalence and characteristics of sex work among female sex workers in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Testa, Adrienne; Osman, Mohamed; Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Malungu, Jacqueline; Irving, Greg; Abdalla, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    To measure prevalence of HIV and syphilis and describe characteristics of sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. A cross-sectional survey recruited 237 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A face-to-face, structured interview using handheld-assisted personal interviewing (HAPI) on personal digital assistants (PDAs) was completed and blood collected for serological testing. FSWs 15-19 years old accounted for 6.9% of the population; 20-24 year-old constituted an additional 18.0%. The majority (86.6%) never attended school. International (59.0%) and interzonal (10.7%) migration was common. Most (95.7%) reported no other source of income; 13.8% had five or more clients in the last 7 days. A minority (38.4%) had heard of STIs, even fewer (6.9%) held no misconceptions about HIV. Only 24% of FSW reported using a condom at last transactional sex, and 4% reported ever been tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 5.2% and syphilis prevalence was 3.1%. Sex work in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia, is characterized by high numbers of sexual acts and extremely low knowledge of HIV. This study illustrates the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions focusing on HIV testing, risk-reduction awareness raising, and review of condom availability and distribution mechanisms among FSWs and males engaging with FSWs.

  2. Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, L J; Robbins, J M

    1991-11-01

    Three definitions of somatization were operationalized: (a) high levels of functional somatic distress, measured by the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI) of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; (b) hypochondriasis measured by high scores on a measure of illness worry in the absence of evidence for serious illness; and (c) exclusively somatic clinical presentations among patients with current major depression or anxiety. Of 685 patients attending two family medicine clinics, 26.3% met criteria for one or more forms of somatization. While DSM-III somatization disorder had a prevalence of only 1% in this population, 16.6% of the patients met abridged criteria for subsyndromal somatization disorder (SSI 4,6). Hypochondriacal worry had a prevalence of 7.7% in the clinic sample. Somatized presentations of current major depression or anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 8%. The three forms of somatization were associated with different sociodemographic and illness behavior characteristics. A majority of patients met criteria for only one type of somatization, suggesting that distinct pathogenic processes may be involved in each of the three types.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  4. [Prevalence and characteristics of acute coronary syndromes in a sub-Saharan Africa population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guetta, R; Yao, H; Ekou, A; N'Cho-Mottoh, M P; Angoran, I; Tano, M; Konin, C; Coulibaly, I; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Seka, R; Adoh, A M

    2016-04-01

    To assess prevalence, characteristics and management of acute coronary syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa population. Prospective survey from January, 2010 to December, 2013, carried out among patients aged 18 years old, admitted to intensive care unit of Abidjan Heart Institute for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Four hundred and twenty-five (425) patients were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of ACS was 13.5%. Mean age was 55.4±11 years. Clinical presentation was predominantly ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 71.5% of subjects, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) accounted for 28.5%. Two hundred and eighty patients (65.9%) were transferred by unsafe transportation. Among the 89 patients admitted within 12hours of the onset of symptoms, primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 20 patients (22.5%), or 6.6% of STEMI as a whole. Twenty-five patients (8.2%) received fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase. In-hospital death rate was 10%. The prevalence of acute coronary syndromes is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. Excessive delays of admission and limited technical facilities are the major difficulties of their management in our regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY DISORDERS AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...

  6. THE PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG FEMALES STUDENT AT QATAR UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, E.A.; Rizk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a major worldwide problem with several health consequence such osteoporosis, hyperten- sion, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune diseases and some cancers. The Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among female adult students with associated biochemical markers was not measured in the state of Qatar previously. Aim. Measurement of vitamin D level and other clinical parameters related to vitamin D levels. Methods. Randomly selected 71 female students ...

  7. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

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    Vaqar Talha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.

  8. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Esaki, Hidetake; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Masahiko; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan. We collected bovine colostrum samples from 210 dams from 21 dairy farms in Hokkaido prefecture (Japan) between March and June 2009. L. monocytogenes was detected in samples from 6 (28.6%) of the 21 farms. Of the 210 samples, 16 (7.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. We recovered 80 L. monocytogenes isolates; 44 (55%) isolates were classified as serotype 1/2b and 36 (45%) were classified as serotype 4b. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the 80 isolates revealed six PFGE types. Two PFGE types corresponded to human listeriosis cases. Most L. monocytogenes isolates possessed virulence-associated genes (actA, hly, iap, inlA, inlC, mpl, plcA, plcB, opuCA, prfA, and clpC). One PFGE type isolate possessed an epidemic clone II marker. Our findings suggest that isolates from bovine colostrum have the potential to cause human and animal listeriosis. This is the first study on the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from bovine colostrum obtained from dairy farms. Our results have important implications for improving public health and elucidating the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in bovine colostrum.

  10. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women.

  11. The Prevalence and Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, K A; Osibogun, A; Akinsete, A O; Sadiq, L

    2009-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students and identify factors that influence smoking amongst them. This descriptive and explorative study was conducted among 1,183 secondary school students, selected by multistage sampling from each of the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data was collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. This study recorded a lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% and current smoking prevalence of 17.1% among secondary school students in Nigeria. Most (82%) of the students had seen warnings against smoking and most of them were aware that it is possible for cigarette smoking to damage body organs. Unfortunately, however, seeing such warnings had no significant effect on their decision to smoke or not. The students who smoke were introduced to smoking mainly by their friends (67.4 %), and the television (13.4%). Smoking habits of the respondents were influenced by parents' educational status (psmoke (psmoked. Peer pressure was the main reason cited by respondents for initiating smoking. It is suggested that our smoking prevention programmes be reviewed and appropriate health education and smoking cessation programmes be developed and implemented in order to prevent and control smoking among Nigerian students.

  12. Relationship between cognitive functions and prevalence of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance, we attempted to determine whether cognitive functions were associated with the prevalence of fatigue. Participants were 148 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 152 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades. Participants completed a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) and paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests which could evaluate the abilities of motor processing, immediate, delayed and working memory, selective, divided and alternative attention, retrieve learned material, and spatial construction. We found that in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, slow motor processing was positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the elementary school students and decreases in working memory and divided and alternative attention processing were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the junior high school students. The grade-dependent development of cognitive function influences the severity of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in institutionalized children and adolescents with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; de Jong, Daniël; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2013-10-01

    Psychotropic drugs are a cornerstone in the treatment of psychopathology and/or behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability (ID), despite concerns about efficacy and safety. Studies on the prevalence of psychotropic drug use have mainly been focused on adults with ID or children without ID. Therefore the aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in children with mild ID who were institutionalized in specialized inpatient treatment facilities in The Netherlands. Demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, the nature of the behavioral problems, level of intellectual functioning, and medication data were extracted from medical records using a standardized data collection form. Adjusted relative risks (ARR) for the association between patient characteristics and psychotropic drug use were estimated with Cox regression analysis. Of the 472 included children, 29.4% (n=139) used any psychotropic drug, of which 15.3% (n=72) used antipsychotics (mainly risperidone), and 14.8% (n=70) used psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate). Age, sex, and behavioral problems were associated with psychotropic drug use. Boys had a 1.7 (95%CI 1.1-2.4) higher probability of using psychotropic drugs, compared to girls adjusted for age and behavioral problems. Having any behavioral problem was associated with psychotropic drug use with an ARR of 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.3), adjusted for sex and age. The high prevalence of psychotropic drug use in children with ID is worrisome because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness (especially for behavioral problems) at this young age, and the potential of adverse drug reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Characteristics of Myocardial Bridging in Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Martin Lopez, Elba; Capunay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Vallejos, Javier; Carrascosa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background: Myocardial bridging (MB) are congenital defects of the coronary arteries in which a segment of an epicardial artery lies in the myocardium for part of its course. The current gold standard for diagnosing MB is coronary angiography; however other invasive techniques are also useful. Myocardial bridging can also be visualized with the use of novel non-invasive imaging techniques such as multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of myocardial bridging in patients undergoing multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Material and Methods: A total of 452 consecutive patients were evaluated with 16-row and 64-row MDCT-CA due to the presence of abnormal findings in myocardial perfusion image tests, symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease, and in asymptomatic patients with a family history of coronary artery disease. The presence of MB, their location and characteristics were analyzed. Myocardial bridging were classified as complete and incomplete bridges with respect to continuity of the myocardium over the tunneled segment of the artery involved. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameter during systole and diastole were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MB was 35.18%; 88 were complete and 71 incomplete. Among complete MB, 6 affected both systole and diastole, 27 presented only systolic compression and 55 showed no compression. Incomplete MB showed absence of arterial compression. Conclusions: Multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography detected a higher prevalence of MB in the study population and allowed to classify them and to assess their functional aspects throughout the cardiac cycle. (authors) [es

  15. Prevalence and Characteristics of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Iranian Orofacial Cleft Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Shabnam; Pakshir, Hamidreza; Samady, Hedyeh

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with oral clefts exhibit considerably more dental anomalies than individuals without clefts. These problems could initially be among the symptoms of their disease and/or they may be the side effect of their treatments. Pushback palatoplasty could cause some interference during the development of teeth and result in tooth defects. The study was performed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of developmental dental anomalies in orofacial cleft patients who attended Shiraz Orthodontics Research Center-Cleft Lip and Palate Clinic. We managed to compare dental anomaly traits based on gender and cleft side. Eighty out of 121 cleft patients were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients used pushback palatoplasty in their palate closure surgeries. Intraoral photographs, panoramic and intraoral radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and dental and medical histories were examined and recorded by two observers. Data were analyzed using SPSS PC version 20.0. The differences in the side of cleft and dental anomalies were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The mean age of patients was 14.27 years (SD=5.06). The most frequent cleft type was unilateral cleft lip and palate (50%) followed by bilateral cleft lip and palate (43.75%), cleft palate (2.5%) and cleft lip (1.25%). Male predominance (70%) was observed. 92.5 percent had at least one developmental dental anomaly. The most prevalent anomalies were hypodontia (71.25%) followed by microdontia (30%), root dilacerations (21.25%) and supernumerary teeth (15%). The most prevalent cleft types were unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate with male and left side predominance. Hypodontia, microdontia, dilacerations and supernumerary teeth were the most prevalent developmental dental anomalies among Iranian southwestern cleft patients. The surgical technique used to repair their cleft palate may have played a role in developmental dental defects.

  16. Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: prevalence of age-related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eCarfì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Probable REM Behavior Disorder in Thai Parkinson’s Disease Patients

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    Patama Gomutbutra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that Parkinson’s disease (PD patients who have REM behavior disorder (PD with RBD might be a PD subtype since they have different symptom clusters and disease trajectories from PD without RBD. Objective. To study the prevalence of PD with pRBD and to compare the clinical characteristics with PD without pRBD. The feasibility of clinical interview of items adopted from the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire was also to be determined. Methods. A total of 140 Parkinson's patients visiting neurological clinics during January to December 2016 were enrolled in this study. “Probable RBD (pRBD” was defined as present when the patient answered “yes” to a question adapted from the first Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ. The demographic data, motor symptoms, and nonmotor symptoms were obtained. Results. The prevalence of pRBD among this study’s PD patients was 48.5% (68 out of the total of 140. The median onset of RBD before PD diagnosis was 5 years (range: 0–11 years. By comparison of PD with pRBD and PD without pRBD, this study showed significant difference in the levodopa equivalent dose (742 mg/day versus 566 mg/day; p<0.01, prevalence of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension (35.3% versus 8.3%; p<0.01. The multivariable analysis found that pRBD is independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OR = 5.02, p<0.01. Conclusion. The findings regarding prevalence and main clinical features of PD with pRBD in this study were similar to those of a previous study of PD with polysomnogram- (PSG- proven RBD. This study hypothesized that interviewing by adopted MSQ may be a cost-effective tool for screening RBD. Further studies with direct comparison are needed.

  18. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral bony outgrowth in a Moroccan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualalou, Y; Azaroual, M F; Zaoui, F; Chbicheb, S; Berrada, S

    2014-11-01

    Oral bony outgrowths (OBOs) are localized bony protuberances that arise from the cortical plate. Various types of OBOs have been described, the precise designation of which depends on anatomic location such as torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, buccal exostosis, or palatal exostosis. We had for aim to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of OBOs in a Moroccan population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 15 and June 30, 2011 at the Rabat-Salé teaching hospital dental consultation and treatment center, in Morocco. Three hundred and fifty-three patients (160 female and 193 male patients), 11 to 82 years of age, were examined clinically and radiologically to determine the presence of OBO. Twenty-four patients (6.8%) presented with OBOs. The prevalence for exostosis, torus mandibularis, torus palatinus, and associated OBOs was 3.1%, 2%, 0.8%, and 0.9% respectively. There was a significant difference (P=0,01) between the average age for patients presenting with OBO (43.2±12 years of age) and the average age for patients without any OBO (36.5±16 years of age). The prevalence of OBOs in female patients (7.3%) was higher than in male patients (6.3%) but the difference was not significant (P=0.439). Patients with occlusal parafunctional activity presented with significantly more OBO (P=0.016). The reported prevalence of OBO is extremely variable, according to age, gender, and ethnic group. The occurrence of OBO could be triggered by genetic factors associated with environmental factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Dyslipidemia in rural areas of North China: prevalence, characteristics, and predictive value.

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    Gao, Nannan; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhang, Haiqing; Song, Yongfeng; Zhao, Meng; Ji, Jiadong; Liu, Lu; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2016-09-13

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing worldwide. As a common pathogenic risk factor, dyslipidemia played a great role in the incidence and progress of these diseases. We investigated to achieve accurate and up-to-date information on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associations with other lipid-related diseases in rural North China. Using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design, we conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study of 8528 rural participants aged over 18 years in Shandong Province. Prevalence and characteristics of dyslipidemia were demonstrated. The odds ratios between dyslipidemia types and lipid-related diseases were further analyzed by logistic regression. Among the overall population, 45.8 % suffered from dyslipidemia. The prevalence of lipid abnormality (including high and very high levels) was 18.6, 12.7, 9.8 and 12.7 % for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), respectively. Among all participants with dyslipidemia, 23.9 % were aware, only 11.5 % were treated, 10.0 % were controlled. For subjects with dyslipidemia, the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was highest with a 3.3-fold over that of non-dyslipidmia (OR = 3.30, P Dyslipidemia has become a serious public health issue in rural North China. The rapid increase of high TC and incremental risk of high TG may contribute to the epidemic of AS, NAFLD and DM. It is imperative to develop individualized prevention and treatment guidelines according to dyslipidemia phenotypes.

  20. Prevalence of substance use among college students in Eldoret, western Kenya

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    Kinoti Kiende C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among college and university students predicts substance related problems in later life. Few studies on this phenomenon have been carried out in low income countries, and most focus on primary and secondary school students. This study therefore aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with drug use among university and college students in a low income country. Methods Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using the Self-Administered WHO Model Core Questionnaire to collect information on use of various drugs among students in colleges and university campuses within Eldoret Municipality in Western Kenya. Setting: Four tertiary learning institutions in Eldoret Municipality were randomly selected for inclusion in the study- three tertiary level non-university institutions and one university campus. Subjects: Five hundred students who gave consent to participate in the study, 125 from each of the four participating institutions. The mean age was 22.9 years (18-32, s.d. 2.5, and males made up 52.2% of the sample. Results Lifetime prevalence rate of any substance use was 69.8%, and none of the socio-demographic factors was significantly associated with this. Lifetime prevalence rate of alcohol use was 51.9%, and 97.6% of alcohol users had consumed alcohol in the week prior to the study. The prevalence rate of cigarette use was 42.8%, with males having statistically significantly higher rates than females (p Conclusion The prevalence of substance use among college and university students in Eldoret is high and causes significant physical and psychosocial problems in this population. A large proportion of those using alcohol reported serious adverse effects, raising the necessity of targeted interventions to reduce the risk of subsequent substance dependence and other deleterious consequences.

  1. Dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University: Prevalence, Predictors and outcome

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    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; AlGhamdi, Manar Saleh; Al-Shaibani, Alanoud Nawaf; AlAmri, Fatima Ali; Alharbi, Huda Abdulrahman; Al-Jadani, Arwa Kheder; Alfaidi, Raghad Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, predictors and outcome of dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 435 medical students at KAU, Jeddah selected through stratified random sample method. A pre-constructed, validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect personal and socio-demographic information. Data about menstrual history, stress, smoking were also collected. The severity of dysmenorrhea was scored by the “Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)”. Descriptive and analytical statistics were conducted. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 60.9%. Logistic regression showed that heavy period was the first predictor of dysmenorrhea (aOR=1.94; 95% CI: 1.29- 2.91), followed by stress (aOR=1.90; 95% C.I.: 1.19-3.07). The prevalence of severe dysmenorrhea among the sufferers was 38.6%. Depressed mood was the commonest (80.8%) symptom accompanying dysmenorrhea. Regarding the outcome of dysmenorrhea, 67.5% of the sufferes reported emotional instability, while 28.3% reported absenteeism from the university. Conclusions: A high prevalence of dysmenorrhea was prevalent among medical students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Health promotion, screening programs, and stress management courses are recommended. PMID:26870088

  2. Desirable characteristics for teachers of High Ability/Gifted students

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    Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.

  3. The prevalence and consequences of burnout on a group of preclinical dental students.

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    Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Onal, Banu; Kayrak, Gul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of burnout among a group of Turkish preclinical dental students, to compare the level of burnout and to determine the consequences in structural equation model. Preclinical dental students (n = 329, 50.5% of females and 49.5% of males) aged between 18 and 24 took part in the study. Maslach burnout inventory student version, academic satisfaction scale, and personal information sheet were used to gather data. Pearson correlation analyses, t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The proposed theoretical model was tested via observed variable path analysis using maximum likelihood parameter estimation with AMOS 7.0. About 22.3% of students had high level of emotional exhaustion, 16.7% of students had high level of cynicism, and 17.9% of students suffered from high level of reduced academic efficacy. While the students attending the first grade reported higher level of reduced academic efficacy, the students in the third grade reported higher level of emotional exhaustion. Academic workload played an important role in the development of burnout. As consequences of burnout, students with high levels of burnout intended to change their current major and did not to plan to continue to postgraduate education. Students with high level of burnout reported less level of academic satisfaction and academic achievement. Creating awareness on the burnout of dental students from the preclinical period may be useful for prevention and more compatible dental education environment.

  4. Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample.

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    Teter, Christian J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Boyd, Carol J.; Guthrie, Sally K.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey TO a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported lifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit…

  5. Cyberbullying among College Students: A Look at Its Prevalence at a U.S. Catholic University

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    Webber, May A.; Ovedovitz, Albert C.

    2018-01-01

    The intention of this study was to make a positive contribution to the scant literature on cyberbullying at the postsecondary level. Participants were 187 undergraduate students matriculated at a large U.S. Northeastern metropolitan Roman Catholic university. The focus of the study was on the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization and…

  6. Intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors of Chinese university students: gender differences in prevalence and correlates

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    Chi, X.; van de Bongardt, D.; Hawk, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences among university students in contemporary China regarding (1) the prevalence of various types of intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual behaviors and (2) their sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors. A total of 1,397

  7. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey

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    Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

  8. Global Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation in Students and Heavy Media Use

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    Zhang, Meilan; Tillman, Daniel A.; An, Song A.

    2017-01-01

    The latest two international educational assessments found global prevalence of sleep deprivation in students, consistent with what has been reported in sleep research. However, despite the fundamental role of adequate sleep in cognitive and social functioning, this important issue has been largely overlooked by educational researchers. Drawing…

  9. Prevalence of Flat Foot: Comparison between Male and Female Primary School Students

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    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 7-12 year old students and to investigate the relationship between flat foot and age and sex. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 945 students (460 girls and 485 boys were examined. The presence of flatfoot and the degree of its severity according to Tachdjian's system of grading for flatfoot was assessed. Results: The data showed that the overall prevalence of flat foot was 74% out of which 23% were mild, 34% were moderate and 17% were severe. The prevalence of flat foot in girl and boy students were 75.2% and 72.6% respectively, but this difference was not significant. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of flat foot and age. Discussion: This study showed that flat foot is a common problem among primary school students and should be addressed by responsible organizations.

  10. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components Among Midwestern University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Snyder, Ericka; Cumper, Stephanie; Langolf, Andrea; Trayer, Chelsey; Green, Chelsea

    2017-08-01

    Michigan has the 17th highest adult obesity rate in the United States. Among college-aged adults between 18 and 25 years old, the rate of obesity was 11.6%. Obesity is a key precedent for the development of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among a sample of students at Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 462 students, aged 18-25 years, in Spring 2015 and Fall/Spring 2016 semesters. Students were recruited throughout the campus via flyers, in-class, and Blackboard announcements. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were taken for all students. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the prevalence of metabolic risk components. To explore the association between metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors, students filled out a validated online questionnaire related to their eating habits, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Metabolic syndrome was not prevalent in our sample. However, about one-third of the students had at least one metabolic abnormality, and 6.0% had two metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormalities were low HDL-cholesterol levels (22.0%) and high waist circumference (12.6%), and elevated serum triglyceride (5.8%). Adjusting for other factors, excess adiposity and high visceral fat scores were associated with increased risk of metabolic risk factors, whereas healthy lifestyle practices such as daily breakfast consumption, eating three meals a day, being active, and not smoking were associated with lower risks for MetS. Given the adverse consequences of undiagnosed metabolic abnormalities, efforts to identify and manage MetS among asymptomatic college students, particularly women, is essential and warrants further

  11. High Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis B among Immigrant Students in Canada: A Case for Universal Immunization of Young Adults

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    Ross A Pennie

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and demographic characteristics of positive hepatitis B (HBV serology were determined among post secondary health care students in Ottawa. Ontario. HBV seropositivity was defined as the presence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg or antibodies to HBV core or surface antigens by radioimmunoassay. HBsAg-positive students were advised to visit their family doctors; the health measures that resulted were observed. Among 600 students born in North America, the proportion of HBV seropositive and HBsAg-positive were 0.8 and 0.2%, respectively. Among the 63 students born outside Europe or North America. 22.2% were HBV seropositive (odds ratio 29.7. confidence interval 10.1 to 97.5 and 7.9% were HBsAg-positive (odds ratio 54.2, confidence interval 5.9 to 2568.3. Of the seven HBsAg-positive students, none had known their HBV status – five visited their doctors, two of whom sought and immunized susceptible household contacts. This survey supports the view that many sexually active young adults integrating into Canadian society from immigrant families are unknowingly HBsAg-positive, and when their HBV status is identified to them and their doctors, appropriate measures for the protection of close contacts are often overlooked. Physician education about the management of HBV carriers should be improved and consideration given to the universal HBV immunization of young adults.

  12. Characteristics of online compulsive buying in Parisian students.

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    Duroy, David; Gorse, Pauline; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Online compulsive buying is a little-studied behavioral disorder. To better understand its clinical aspects by focusing on (i) prevalence rate, (ii) correlation with other addictions, (iii) influence of means of access, (iv) motivations to shop to the internet and (v) financial and time-consuming consequences. Cross-sectional study. 200 students in two different centers of Paris Diderot University - Paris VII. Brief self-questionnaires, to screen online compulsive buying, internet addiction, alcohol and tobacco use disorders, to rate frequency of online purchase by private-sale websites, by advertising banners, by mobile phone or to avoid stores, to rate motivations like "more discreet", "lonelier", "larger variety of products", "more immediate positive feelings", and "cheaper" and to assess the largest amount of online purchasing and the average proportion of monthly earnings, and time spent, both day and night. Prevalence of online compulsive buying was 16.0%, while prevalence of internet addiction was 26.0%. We found no significant relationship with cyberdependence, alcohol or tobacco use disorders. Online compulsive buyers accessed more often shopping online by private-sale websites (56.2% vs 30.5%, pmobile phone (22.5% vs 7.9%, p=0.005) and preferred online shopping because of exhaustive offer (p<0.0001) and immediate positive feelings (p<0.0001). Online compulsive buyers spent significantly more money and more time in online shopping. Online compulsive buying seems to be a distinctive behavioral disorder with specific factors of loss of control and motivations, and overall financial and time-consuming impacts. More research is needed to better characterize it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Asthma prevalence among high school students in East Jakarta, 2001, based on ISAAC questionnaire

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    Faisal Yunus

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess asthma prevalence in children between 13-14 years of age in East Jakarta. This study is a cross sectional study which surveyed 2234 high school students between the ages of 13 and 14 years in East Jakarta in 2001 using the ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial challenge test was applied by using methacholine substance to 186 students. Reports based on the ISAAC questionnaire indicate that 7.2% of teenage have had wheezing experience, 4.1% have wheezing within the last 12 months, 1.8% have ever suffered severe asthma attack within the last 12 months, 3.3% have suffered wheezing after exercise, and 6.3% have got night cough while they were not suffering from cold. Prevalence of atopy diseases such as rhinitis and eczema were 14.2% and 3.9%, meanwhile rhinitis and eczema prevalence within the last 12 months according to this study were 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Statistically, there is a significant correlation between wheezing symptom and atopy (p < 0.05. From indepth questionnaire, a significant value of kappa 0.84 related with wheezing within the last 12 months was found. Bronchial challenge test results indicate that sensitivity was 90%, specificity 83.58%, positive predictive value 68.12% and negative predictive value was 95.73%. Asthma prevalence in East Jakarta at 2001 based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8.9%, and cumulative prevalence 11.5%. The ISAAC questionnaire can be used to study asthma prevalence in children at multicenter in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 178-86Keywords: bronchial challenge, high school student, ISAAC questionnaire, East Jakarta, asthma prevalence

  14. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

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    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  15. The Characteristics of the Effective Teacher in Cyprus Public High School: The Students' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoulis, Michalis

    This study examined the teacher characteristics that students considered important in defining teacher effectiveness, focusing on human characteristics, communication skills, and teaching and production characteristics. Students from 25 high schools in Cyprus completed the Classroom Culture Description Questionnaire. Overall, students listed 94…

  16. The Prevalence of Postgraduate Education in Youth Health Among High School Clinicians and Associated Student Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Simon; Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Clark, Terryann

    2016-11-01

    Despite numerous calls to improve training in adolescent health, there is little known about the prevalence or effectiveness of specialized training in adolescent health. A two-stage random sampling cluster design was used to collect nationally representative data from 8,500 students from 91 high schools. Student data were linked to data from a survey of school health clinicians from participating schools on their level of training in youth health. Multilevel models accounting for demographic characteristics of students were used to estimate the association between nurses and physicians training in youth health and health outcomes among students. Almost all nurses and physicians reported some training in youth health, either having attended lectures or study days in youth health (n = 60, 80%) or completed postgraduate papers in youth health (n = 13, 17.3%). Students in schools where the nurses and physicians had received postgraduate training in youth health were less likely than students from schools with clinicians having attended lectures or study days in youth health to report emotional and behavior difficulties (11.8 vs. 12.7, p = .002) and binge drinking (19.6% vs. 24.9%, p = .03). There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms, suicide risk, cigarette, marijuana, contraception use, or motor vehicle risk behaviors among students and level of training among clinicians in their schools' health service. Postgraduate training in youth health among nurses and physicians in school health services is associated with fewer students reporting mental health difficulties and binge alcohol use. These findings support specialized training in youth health for clinicians working predominantly with young people. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Prevalence of Medical Student Mistreatment and Its Association with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alyssa F.; Arora, Vineet M.; Rasinski, Kenneth A.; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical student mistreatment has been recognized for decades and is known to adversely impact students both personally and professionally. Similarly, burnout has been shown to negatively impact students. This study assesses the prevalence of student mistreatment across multiple medical schools and characterizes the association between mistreatment and burnout. Method In 2011, the authors surveyed a nationally representative sample of third-year medical students. Students reported the frequency of mistreatment by attending faculty and residents since the beginning of their clinical rotations. Burnout was measured using a validated two-item version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Of 919 eligible students from 24 different medical schools, 564 (61%) completed the survey. The majority reported at least one incident of mistreatment by faculty (64% [361/562]) and by residents (75.5% [426/562]). Notable minorities experienced recurrent mistreatment, defined as mistreatment categorized as “several” or “numerous” times by student self-report (10.7% [59/562] by faculty and 12.6% [71/562] by residents). Recurrent mistreatment was associated with high burnout (57.4% vs. 31.5%; p<0.01 for recurrent mistreatment by faculty; 49.1% vs. 32.1%; p<0.01 for recurrent mistreatment by residents). Conclusions Medical student mistreatment remains prevalent. Recurrent mistreatment by faculty and residents is associated with medical student burnout. Although further investigation is needed to assess causality, these data provide additional impetus for medical schools to address student mistreatment to mitigate its adverse consequences on their personal and professional well-being. PMID:24667503

  18. Domestic violence in pregnancy: prevalence and characteristics of the pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fátima Susana Jesus; Coutinho, Emília Carvalho; Duarte, João Carvalho; Chaves, Cláudia Margarida Balula; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Amaral, Odete Pereira; Parreira, Vitória Castro

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of domestic violence (physical, psychological or sexual) during pregnancy and to characterise these women. Pregnant women are not immune to domestic violence and therefore may be subject to any form of physical, psychological or sexual violence by partners. Health professionals' knowledge and awareness are important in the identification and intervention of pregnant women who experience domestic violence. Quantitative, descriptive, correlational study, using a nonprobabilistic convenience sample consisting of a total of 852 postpartum women, of whom 370 were experiencing domestic violence according to the criteria adopted through the modified scale of prevalence, applied between February-June 2012 in two Portuguese public health institutions. Authorisation was given by the Ethics Committees/Administration Councils of both institutions involved and the National Committee of Data Protection. The prevalence of DV during pregnancy was 43·4% (physical violence - 21·9%; psychological violence - 43·2%; and sexual violence - 19·6%). These women had the following profile: immigrant (OR = 5·70; IC95% 3·32-9·78), non-Caucasian (OR = 6·27; IC95% 3·76-10·46), single/divorced/widowed (OR = 2·28; IC95% 1·70-3·05), academic qualifications up to year 9 (OR = 4·94; IC95% 3·31-7·37); between 10-12 years of schooling (OR = 2·36; IC95% 1·70-3·29); unemployed (OR = 2·01; IC95% 1·50-2·69); and with a monthly income domestic violence. This is associated with certain sociodemographic factors identified in the study. Psychological violence was the most prevalent during pregnancy. Knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of pregnant women who experience domestic violence is of paramount importance in planning appropriate strategies for their needs during pregnancy. Results indicate the need for nurses to intervene when warning signs of domestic violence against pregnant women are detected. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. By the book: ADHD prevalence in medical students varies with analogous methods of addressing DSM items

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    Paulo Mattos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. Methods: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS adapted for adults. Results: The ASRS was positive for 247 students (37%, although only 83 (7.9% received an ADHD diagnosis. ASRS sensitivity and specificity rates were 0.97 and 0.40, respectively. Probing procedures were used with a subgroup of 226 students, which decreased the number of ADHD diagnoses to 12 (4.5%. Conclusion: Probing for an individual’s real-life examples during the K-SADS interview almost halved ADHD prevalence rate based on the ASRS and K-SADS, which rendered the rate consistent with that typically reported for young adults. In reclassified cases, although examples of inattention did not match the corresponding DSM item, they often referred to another DSM inattention item.

  20. The characteristics of medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.

  1. Smoking prevalence and associated attitudes among high school students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kaya, Didem; Cetindag, Arzuhan; Capik, Emine; Aydogan, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (pattitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.

  2. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Concerning Dietary Supplements among a Student Population in Croatia

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    Sandra Pavičić Žeželj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.

  3. Prevalence of stress in Casablanca medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Loubir, Dalal; Serhier, Zeineb; Diouny, Samir; Battas, Omar; Agoub, Mohamed; Othmani, Mohammed Bennani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recently, an important literature data has reported that medical students experience stress more than students in other disciplines. In contrast, there is a significant shortage of the stress impact on the academic performance. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of stress among Casablanca Medical students and to investigate if there is an association between stress and academic skills. Methods A total of 275 participants studying at Casablanca Medical School were included. The study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, which included four subscales on academic skills perception (Academic competence, Test competence, Time management and Strategic study habits) and a Test Anxiety scale to assess the degree of stress related to exams among medical students. Results The overall findings showed that 52.7% of respondents were stressed by examinations, and the highest stress prevalence was among the fifth-year medical students. Measures of comparative stress degrees between male and female students did not show any statistical significant differences (p=0.34). Correlation analysis revealed negative association between stress and academic competence (-0.394), test competence (-0.426), time management (-0.240), strategic study (-0.183) respectively (peducators and psychologists have to increase clinical awareness of stress among medical students, by establishing strategies for stress management. PMID:25767668

  4. THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF MERAM APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL

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    Ruhusen KUTLU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School and to analyze the affecting factors. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out among 192 students who educated at Meram Apprenticeship School during 2004-2005 academic years. Of 192 students whom participated in this study, 95.8 % ( n= 184 were male, and 4.2 % (n= 8 were female, minimum age was 15, maximum age was 20 (median value= 17 years. When the smoking status was evaluated, 50.5 % (n= 97 were ever-smokers, 7.3 % (n= 14 were ex-smokers, 42.2 % (n=81 were never smokers. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7 years, the highest age was 18 years and the median value was 13 years. When the reasons to start smoking were analysed, 41 students of 97 current smokers stated that they had started smoking because of affecting of social environment and friend groups (40.6 %, n=41, affectation and enthusiasm (27.7 %, n=28, stress and anxiety (21.8 % n=22. According to Fagerstrom criterion, 43 students (42.2 % were assessed very low addictive level, 23 students (n=22.5% were high addictive level. Our results showed that the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School was an important matter. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 424-433

  5. Prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level among medical students in Puducherry, India

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    S Ganesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, depression among medical students is an important health issue at the global level. There is also a paucity of information on its relation to the stress level. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of depression and its relation to stress level and other factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at a tertiary care medical institution in Puducherry, coastal south India. Beck Depression Inventory Scale was used for screening of depression and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale to assess perceived stress level. Data on associated factors were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of depression was found to be 48.4% (215/444. According to the cutoff scores, 229 (51.6% students scored as normal (0–9, 149 (33.6% as mild (10–18, 60 (13.5% as moderate (19–29, 3 (0.7% as severe (30–40, and 3 (0.7% students scored as very severe (>40 depression. Depression was significantly less among those with mild stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.010 and moderate stress level (adjusted OR = 0.099 compared to severe stress level and those without interpersonal problems (adjusted OR = 0.448. Conclusion: Depression is more common among medical students. Stress coping mechanisms and improvement of interpersonal relationship may help to reduce depressive symptoms among medical students.

  6. Exposure to tobacco and nicotine product advertising: Associations with perceived prevalence of use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzberg, Daniel S; Herrera, Ana Laura; Loukas, Alexandra; Pasch, Keryn E

    2018-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to tobacco marketing and perceptions of peer tobacco use among college students. Participants were 5,767 undergraduate students from 19 colleges/universities in the State of Texas. Students completed an online survey, in the spring of 2016, that assessed past 30 day exposure to e-cigarette, cigar, smokeless tobacco, and traditional cigarette advertising across multiple marketing channels, past 30 day use of each product, and perceived prevalence of peer use. Multi-level linear regression models were run to examine the associations between exposure to tobacco advertising and perceptions of peer tobacco use controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, use and school. Greater exposure to advertising was associated with greater perceived prevalence of peer use. Given the normative effects of advertising on perceived peer tobacco use, college tobacco initiatives should include descriptive norms education to counteract inaccurate perceptions.

  7. GENDER CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATION AND LEADERSHIP EXPLICITY IN STUDENTS

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    O B Mikhailova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and empirical analysis of gender studies devoted to the innovative behavior component. The theoretical research on innovative behavior considers its separate aspects: the specificity of decision-making, the flexibility of various actions means, the attitude to risk, the motivation of achievement and value-motivational attitude to activity and leadership. Basing on the theoretical analy- sis of the innovative behavior components, the authors of the article presents an empirical study of gender characteristics of innovative traits and leadership skills among students.

  8. Prevalence of Cardiovascular disease risk among Medical Students in South India

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    Biswajit Paul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are global epidemic and contribute to double burden in developing countries. Individual’s dietary habits and risk behavior influence the onset and progression of CVDs. Medical students are future role models of the society and their knowledge, habits and behavior can influence their practice in prevention of CVDs in general population. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors among a sample of medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical students of the four professional years.  An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, dietary habits and risk behavior among the medical students. Results: Family history of CVD, obesity and hypertension were highly prevalent among the medical students. Majority of them took <5 servings of fruit or vegetables per day (97.6%, ate junk foods (91.3% and had long sedentary activity (47.6%. Taking red meat intake (OR 4.79, junk foods (Odds Ratio, OR 2.59, and snacking habit (OR 1.73 was observed more among male students; no physical activity or sports was significantly more in females. Logistic regression analysis showed that a family history of CVD was strongly associated with hypertension and obesity among medical students while exercise was protective against hypertension. Conclusion: The medical students had very poor compliance to recommended dietary intake and physical activity. Generating awareness, incorporating healthy habits and introducing structured educational programs into medical curriculum will help in changing lifestyle.

  9. Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Eric V; Brazelton, Tom B; Carhart, Elliot D; Studnek, Jonathan R; Tritt, Patricia L; Philip, Genghis A; Burnett, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Traditionally, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators have divided the pediatric population into age groups to assist in targeting their clinical and didactic curriculum. Currently, the accrediting body for paramedic training programs requires student exposure to pediatric patients based entirely on age without specifying exposure to specific pathologies within each age stratification. Identifying which pathologies are most common within the different pediatric age groups would allow educators to design curriculum targeting the most prevalent pathologies in each age group and incorporating the physiologic and psychological developmental milestones commonly seen at that age. Hypothesis It was hypothesized that there are unique clusterings of pathologies, represented by paramedic student primary impressions, that are found in different age groups which can be used to target provider education. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data documented by paramedic students in the Fisdap (Field Internship Student Data Acquisition Project; Saint Paul, Minnesota USA) database over a one-year period. For the purposes of this study, pediatric patients were defined arbitrarily as those between the ages of 0-16 years. All paramedic student primary impressions recorded in Fisdap for patients aged 0-16 years were abstracted. Primary impression by age was calculated and graphed. The frequency of primary impression was then assessed for significance of trend by age with an alpha ≤.05 considered significant. The following primary impressions showed clinically and statistically significant variability in prevalence among different pediatric age groups: respiratory distress, medical-other, abdominal pain, seizure, overdose/poisoning, behavioral, and cardiac. In patients less than 13 years old, respiratory and other-medical were the most common two primary impressions and both decreased with age. In patients 5-16 years old, the prevalence of

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of peripheral retinal degeneration in Chinese adults with high myopia: a cross-sectional prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis S C; Fan, Dorothy S P; Chan, Wai-Man; Tam, Barbara S M; Kwok, Alvin K H; Leung, Alfred T S; Parsons, Hugh

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of peripheral retinal findings in adult Chinese patients with high myopia (refraction degeneration (51.2%), followed by lattice degeneration in 12.2% and retinal holes in 7.5% of eyes. A positive correlation was noted between axial length and the lesions of pigmentary degeneration and pavingstone degeneration. The prevalence of retinal holes was 6.4% and 30.0% in eyes with axial length of or = 30 mm, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.006). A high prevalence of peripheral retinal degenerations was found in adult Chinese high myopes. The presence of retinal holes was positively correlated with very high myopia of an axial length of > or = 30 mm.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

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    Cheng, Hua-Ming, E-mail: moyercheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No. 901, Chung Hwa Road, Yong-Kang, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pau-Yang, E-mail: pausheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Kuo-Hsien, E-mail: moyer20361@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsin-Wen, E-mail: hwhuang660@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mennonite Christian Hospital, 44 Min-chuan Road, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chau-Chin, E-mail: moyermiming@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming; Chang, Pau-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Wen; Lee, Chau-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

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    Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  14. DSM-5 Gambling Disorder: Prevalence and Characteristics in a Substance Use Disorder Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Lior; Denis, Cécile; Peer, Kyle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) replaced the DSM-IV diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) with Gambling Disorder (GD). GD requires four rather than five criteria for the diagnosis and excludes the “Illegal Acts” criterion. We examined the prevalence of GD and its characteristics and validity in a substance use disorder (SUD) sample. Methods Participants (N=6,613) in genetic studies of substance dependence underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. Individuals who reported ever having gambled $10 at least monthly (n = 1,507) were the focus of the analyses. Results Approximately one-third of acknowledged gamblers (n = 563; 8.5% of the total sample) received both PG (DSM-IV) and GD (DSM-5) diagnoses and 678 (10.3% of the total) received a DSM-5 diagnosis, representing an increase of 20.4% relative to DSM-IV. Although the three groups were comparable demographically, the DSM-5-Only group was intermediate between the other two groups on the prevalence of comorbid substance use disorders, the distribution of DSM-IV PG criteria endorsed, and the types of gambling reported. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that the DSM-5-Only group was more likely than the No-Diagnosis group and less likely than the Both-Diagnoses group to acknowledge a gambling problem. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of PG in this SUD sample. Analysis of non-DSM variables suggested that the increased sensitivity of the DSM-5 GD diagnosis successfully identifies a broader set of individuals with clinically significant gambling-related problems. Prospective studies of individuals with GD are needed to validate this finding. PMID:24490711

  15. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of tori and jaw exostoses in a teaching hospital in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawair, Faleh A; Shayyab, Mohammad H; Al-Rababah, Mohammad A; Saku, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of oral bony outgrowths (OBOs); torus palatinus (TP), torus mandibularis (TM), and exostoses in Jordanian dental patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 1 and December 31, 2008 at the University of Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Clinical examinations of 618 patients (354 men and 264 women), 10-82 years of age, were conducted to determine the presence of OBOs. There were 239 subjects (38.7%) who had OBOs. Nearly one-third (34.6%) had TP, TM, or both. The prevalence rates were 25.7% for TM, 15.4% for TP, and 14.4% for exostoses. The OBOs were mostly noted in patients in their fifth decade of life, with attrition, clenching, or bruxism. Women had more TP, but gender differences were not statistically significant in cases of TM and exostoses. Most TP were large in size (71.6%), spindle (41.1%), or flat (40%) in shape, and located at the premolar-molar region (45.3%). The TM were mostly medium to large in size (84.9%), bilateral (81.1%), composed of single node (69.2%), and located at the premolar region (65.4%). Of the studied subjects, 7.1% had mandibular buccal exostosis, 10% had maxillary buccal, and 2.4% had palatal exostoses. Statistically significant associations were noticed between the concurrent existence of OBOs. A relatively high prevalence of OBOs was noted, and this should be taken into consideration when planning periodontal surgery and prosthodontic treatment.

  16. Major Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Their Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn

    2016-09-01

    To identify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and correlations of major chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) among the adult population living in Chiang Mai. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in municipal areas of Chiang Mai. All clinical relevant data collected by face-to-face interview was confirmed by pulmonologists. The chest radiographic findings and post-bronchodilator spirometry were done in all subjects. The aeroallergen skin test and rhinoscopy were performed in all chronic rhinitis and asthma subjects. Five hundred seventy four subjects with mean age 52.9±10.0 years, 59.6% female, and 37.5% smokers were recruited. The prevalence of overall CRDs was 59.2%. Chronic rhinitis was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease (n = 239, 41.6%), followed by asthma (n = 58, 10.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 21, 3.7%). The most common abnormal pulmonary function test was restrictive lung disorders (n = 53, 9.6%). Asthma subjects were determined to be more allergic than chronic rhinitis subjects (58.1% vs. 39.9%, p-value = 0.033). Regarding the disease severity, 14.9% of chronic rhinitis and 10.3% of asthma subjects were classified as moderate to severe degree, whereas 81% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects were classified as moderate to very severe degrees. In asthma patients, there were positive association with chronic rhinitis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.0, p-value Chiang Mai population was significantly high with overlapped respiratory symptoms and varying disease severity. Additionally, chronic rhinitis had correlation with asthma but not with COPD.

  17. [Prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; González-Galilea, Ángel; Gisbert, Javier P; Cucala, Mercedes; Ponce, Julio

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases. An epidemiological, multicenter, mixed design study (retrospective review of randomized clinical records and prospective visits) conducted between February 2010 and March 2011 in 22 Spanish gastroenterology departments. Severe anemia was defined as Hb iron deficiency as ferritin anemia at admission was 60% (95% CI 55 to 65), and anemia was severe (Hb iron deficiency was 54% of evaluable patients (95% CI 47 to 61). Gastrointestinal bleeding at admission was found in 39% of the patients, of whom 83% (121/146) were anemic. At discharge, the proportion of anemic patients was unchanged (from 60% at admission to 58% at discharge) (95% CI 53 to 63) and iron deficiency was found in 41% (95% CI 32 to 50): anemia was severe in 17% and mild/moderate in 41%. During follow-up, at 3-6 months after admission, 44% (95% CI 39 to 50) of evaluable patients continued to have iron deficiency and 28% (95% CI 23 to 32) were still anemic: 5% severe and 23% mild/moderate. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 44% (95% CI: 39-50). During admission, 50% of patients with anemia did not receive treatment. At discharge, 55% were untreated. The prevalence of anemia in patients hospitalized for gastroenterological diseases was very high. Anemia persisted in over a quarter of patients at the follow-up visit. Only half of hospitalized patients received treatment for anemia, even when the anemia was severe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in an adult inpatient setting†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Michelle; Menard, William; Fleming-Ives, Kathryn; Modha, Poonam; Cerullo, Hilary; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, is an often-severe, understudied disorder. We determined BDD’s prevalence and clinical features on a general adult psychiatric inpatient unit. To our knowledge, only one previous prevalence study has been done in this setting. Method One hundred patients completed 3 self-report measures: the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDD-Q), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who screened positive for BDD were interviewed to confirm DSM-IV BDD and its clinical features. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. Results BDD was diagnosed in 16.0% (95% CI=8.7–23.3%) (n=16) of patients. A high proportion of those with BDD reported that BDD symptoms contributed to suicidality. Patients revealed BDD symptoms to a mean of only 15.1%±33.7% lifetime mental health clinicians; only one (6.3%) reported symptoms to his current inpatient psychiatrist. Most did not disclose their symptoms due to embarrassment. Those with BDD were younger (P=.008) and had higher CES-D scores (P=.008). The two groups did not significantly differ on BAI score, demographic characteristics or discharge diagnoses. Conclusions BDD is relatively common but underdiagnosed in psychiatric inpatients and is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. PMID:18164943

  19. Associated tuberculosis and diabetes in Conakry, Guinea: prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, N M; Camara, A; Camara, L M; Diallo, M M; Kaké, A; Bah-Sow, O Y

    2006-09-01

    Anti-tuberculosis centres in Conakry. To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with tuberculosis (TB), identify the associated risk factors and describe the clinical signs of the association of TB and diabetes. A total of 388 patients with TB selected by simple random sampling from the register of cases diagnosed in Conakry were examined and administered a capillary blood glycaemia test to detect diabetes. Thirteen cases of diabetes were identified, giving a prevalence rate of 3.35% (95%CI 1.35-5.35). Four (31%) had not been diagnosed before the survey. The diagnosis of diabetes preceded that of TB by an average of 5 years (range 1-9 years). The clinical characteristics of TB (frequent exposure to infection, site and proportion of new and retreated cases) did not differ from one group to another. Increased age (P Guinea. Because of frequent co-morbidity, systematic testing for diabetes among TB patients may be recommended, particularly if risk factors are present.

  20. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

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    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of acid gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Jackhammer oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Anne-Laure; Ropert, Alain; Bouguen, Guillaume; Siproudhis, Laurent; Boutroux, Dominique; Bretagne, Jean-François; Brochard, Charlène

    2016-10-01

    An association between acid gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Jackhammer oesophagus has been suggested. To assess the prevalence and characteristics of acid-GERD in Jackhammer oesophagus and the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors. Data and outcomes of patients with Jackhammer oesophagus were assessed. Two groups were compared: (i) GERD, defined by endoscopic oesophagitis or by an increase in acid exposure time or by an acid-hypersensitive oesophagus and (ii) non-GERD defined by normal oesophageal acid exposure without acid-hypersensitive oesophagus. Among the 1994 high-resolution manometries performed, 44 Jackhammer oesophagus (2.2%) were included (sex ratio M/F: 19/25; median age: 66 [61-75] years). Nineteen patients (43.2%) had GERD, 16 (36.4%) had no GERD and 9 patients (20.4%) were undetermined. Dysphagia was the predominant symptom (37/43 (86%)). After a median follow-up of 25.3 months [9.6-31.4], dysphagia was improved in 22/36 (61.1%) patients. Dysphagia improvement as well as other symptoms improvement was not associated with GERD status or proton-pump inhibitors use. The prevalence of GERD is high among patients with Jackhammer oesophagus. The rates of symptom improvement in Jackhammer oesophagus were high regardless of the use of proton-pump inhibitors treatment or of the presence of GERD. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aiding troubled employees: the prevalence, cost, and characteristics of employee assistance programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, T D; Steele, P; French, M T; Potter, F J; Rodman, N F; Zarkin, G A

    1996-06-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are job-based programs designed to identify and assist troubled employees. This study determines the prevalence, cost, and characteristics of these programs in the United States by worksite size, industry, and census region. A stratified national probability sample of more than 6400 private, nonagricultural US worksites with 50 or more full-time employees was contacted with a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. More than 3200 worksites responded and were eligible, with a response rate of 90%. Approximately 33% of all private, nonagricultural worksites with 50 or more full-time employees currently offer EAP services to their employees, an 8.9% increase over 1985. These programs are more likely to be found in larger worksites and in the communications/utilities/transportation industries. The most popular model is an external provider, and the median annual cost per eligible employee for internal and external programs was $21.83 and $18.09, respectively. EAPs are becoming a more prevalent point of access to health care for workers with personal problems such as substance abuse, family problems, or emotional distress.

  3. The prevalence of malocclusion among 14-18 years old students in Shiraz

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    Hamidreza Arabiun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Malocclusions are major traits whose prevalence should be noticed, by gender, among high school students to program oral health status in a society and clarify the needs and demands of this orthodontic field. METHODS: In a cross-sectional population-based study, using a stratified random cluster sampling design, a sample of 1338 students of Shiraz, aged 14-18 years from 15 high schools, located in four different regions of Shiraz was obtained and evaluated clinically for malocclusion traits. Using tongue blades, researchers studied the students under normal room illumination conditions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 23.70%. Angle’s classes I, II, and III malocclusion were observed in 12.78%, 9.94%, and 0.97% of the samples, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between sexes. Other malocclusion traits evaluated were edge-to-edge occlusion (4.78%, crossbite (1.93%, and open bite (1.19%. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed a high prevalence of malocclusion class I as well as an edge to edge malocclusion trait. Considering the findings, health care officials are expected to pay more attention to oral health fields.

  4. Anterior mediastinal masses in the Framingham Heart Study: Prevalence and CT image characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and CT image characteristics of anterior mediastinal masses in a population-based cohort and their association with the demographics of the participants. Chest CT scans of 2571 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51% female) were evaluated by two board-certified radiologists with expertise in thoracic imaging for the presence of anterior mediastinal masses, their shape, contour, location, invasion of adjacent structures, fat content, and calcification. For participants with anterior mediastinal masses, a previous cardiac CT scan was reviewed for interval size change of the masses, when available. The demographics of the participants were studied for any association with the presence of anterior mediastinal masses. Of 2571, 23 participants (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.3) had anterior mediastinal masses on CT. The most common CT characteristics were oval shape, lobular contour, and midline location, showing soft tissue density (median 32.1 HU). Fat content was detected in a few cases (9%, 2/23). Six out of eight masses with available prior cardiac CT scans demonstrated an interval growth over a median period of 6.5 years. No risk factors for anterior mediastinal masses were detected among participants’ demographics, including age, sex, BMI, and cigarette smoking. The prevalence of anterior mediastinal masses is 0.9% in the Framingham Heart Study. Those masses may increase in size when observed over 5–7 years. Investigation of clinical significance in incidentally found anterior mediastinal masses with a longer period of follow-up would be necessary

  5. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

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    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  6. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Monika Dybdahl; Braaten, Tonje; Obstfelder, Aud; Abelsen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH), the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005. The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0). Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97). The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70). Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37) than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56). The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93. We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  7. The Prevalence of Speech Disorder in Primary School Students in Yazd-Iran

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    Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication disorder is a widespread disabling problems and associated with adverse, long term outcome that impact on individuals, families and academic achievement of children in the school years and affect vocational choices later in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of speech disorders specifically stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Iran-Yazd. In a descriptive study, 7881 primary school students in Yazd evaluated in view from of speech disorders with use of direct and face to face assessment technique in 2005. The prevalence of total speech disorders was 14.8% among whom 13.8% had speech-sound disorder, 1.2% stuttering and 0.47% voice disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders was higher than in males (16.7% as compared to females (12.7%. Pattern of prevalence of the three speech disorders was significantly different according to gender, parental education and by number of family member. There was no significant difference across speech disorders and birth order, religion and paternal consanguinity. These prevalence figures are higher than more studies that using parent or teacher reports.

  8. Prevalence of Seafood Allergy in Student Living in Bushehr and Borazjan

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    Shockrolla Farrokhi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood allergy is potentially severe, but the prevalence of this group of food allergies in Iran, has not been determined. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of seafood allergy in student living in Bushehr and Borazjan. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, random school survey by using a questionnaire in 2012-13. A total of 608 (36% male, and 64% female were asked questions about personal and family history of allergies, food and seafood allergy. Results: The overall prevalence of food allergy was 12% (Total 73 subjects, 69.8% male and 30.2% female, and seafood allergy was 4.4% (Total 27 subjects, 36.6% male, 43.4% female. Fish allergy (1.4% and shrimp and shellfish allergy (3.5% were reported. The most frequently reported symptoms were skin (49.3%, gastrointestinal (28.7%, and respiratory reactions (2.7%. Seafood allergy was not associated with subjects reporting atopic diseases, significantly (P> 0.05, while the other food allergy was positively associated (P=0.00. Conclusion: Our study is the first report on prevalence estimates for seafood allergy in Bushehr province. Findings indicated high prevalence of seafood allergy in student, therefore further studies and significant health concern is needed.

  9. Prevalence of tobacco use and perceptions of student health professionals about cessation training: results from Global Health Professions Students Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali

    2018-05-26

    Health professionals play an important role in providing advice to their patients about tobacco prevention and cessation. Health professionals who use tobacco may be deterred from providing cessation advice and counselling to their patients. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of tobacco use among student health professionals and describe their attitudes towards tobacco cessation training. Country-wise aggregate data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey on 'c urrent cigarette smoking' (smoking cigarettes on 1 or more days during the past 30 days), and ' curren t use of tobacco products other than cigarettes' (chewing tobacco, snuff, bidis, cigars or pipes, 1 or more days during the past 30 days) were analysed. For each WHO region, we estimated mean prevalence rates of tobacco use weighted by the population of the sampling frame and aggregate proportions for ' health professionals' role' and ' cessation training' indicators using ' metaprop ' command on Stata V.11. A total of 107 527 student health professionals participated in 236 surveys done in four health profession disciplines spanning 70 countries with response rates ranging from 40% to 100%. Overall, prevalence of smoking was highest in European countries (20% medical and 40% dental students) and the Americas (13% pharmacy to 23% dental students). Other tobacco use was higher in eastern Mediterranean (10%-23%) and European countries (7%-13%). In most WHO regions, ≥70% of the students agreed that health professionals are role models, and have a role in advising about smoking cessation to their patients and the public. Only ≤33% of all student health professionals in most WHO regions (except 80% dental students in the Eastern Mediterranean region) had received formal training on smoking cessation approaches and ≥80% of all students agreed that they should receive formal cessation training. Tobacco control should take place together with medical educators to discourage tobacco use among

  10. Academic Self-Efficacy, Faculty-Student Interactions, and Student Characteristics as Predictors of Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore student characteristics, academic self-efficacy, and faculty-student interactions as predictors of grade point average for upper-division (college level third and fourth year) education students at a public 4-year degree-granting community college. The study examined the effects of student characteristics…

  11. Prevalence Rate of Using ٍEcstasy among Medical Sciences Students in Urmia University in 2007

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    Sh. Miri Ghaffarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The present study aims to achieve a comprehensive depiction of ecstasy consumption among the students of Urmia University of medical sciences in 2007.Materials & Methods: Totally 950 students were surveyed in this cross-sectional descriptive study. A census was used as a sampling method. A self-report questionnaire regarding demographic details and ecstasy consumption was completed by students. Data was stored in a database and then was analyzed through descriptive tests by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to determine the correlation coefficient.Results: There were 798 subjects of all target population who had never used this drug. However, 132 subjects (18 regularly, 56 occasionally for fun and 58 at least once consumed ecstasy pills. Thus the point prevalence of ecstasy consumption among the students was 14.19 percent. There were 232 subjects who had never heard of the term “ecstasy". Instead, the knowledge source of the rest about ecstasy was books (116 subject, internet (56 subjects, mass media (489 subjects, friends (28 subjects, and family (2 subjects. A significant relation was observed between ecstasy consumption and other variables (parents' education, residence in student campus, attending parties, smoking, canabis and opium consumption. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the point prevalence of ecstasy pills consumption among university students was 14.19% that raises the need for purposive intervention and the necessity of planning to prevent and decrease this phenomenon.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:67-72

  12. The Comparison of Hookah Smoking Prevalence in Medical Students between 2009 and 2014

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    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hookah smoking is increasing worldwide. It is estimated the worldwide prevalence of daily hookah smoking is 100 million. The aim of this study was to compare hookah smoking prevalence in Islamic Azad University medical students in the city of Ardabil between 2009 and 2014. Method: Of 2956 Islamic Azad University medical students, Ardabil branch, almost 25% of students {737 students (226 males vs. 511 females; 436 subjects at 2009 vs. 301 subjects at 2014} were randomly selected to participate in this survey. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used after verbal informed consent according to the Review Committee of Ardabil Branch Islamic Azad University Medicine School approved protocol. A cluster sampling technique was used. The questions focused on gender, hookah smoking status, and students’ replies for the following issues: (1 Kind of hookah (2 Frequency of smoking (3 Motivation of hookah use (4 Place of smoking use (5 and Second-hand exposure to hookah. Results: Hookah use showed significant decrease in male students compared with five years ago (P<0.05. Frequency of molasses (tobacco with sweetened fruit flavors and mild aromatic smoke use has significantly enhanced among both genders in 2014 compared with 2009 (P<0.05. Furthermore, second-hand exposure to hookah was significantly higher among both nonsmoker genders at 2014 compared with 2009 (32.7% at 2014 vs. 13.2% at 2009. Conclusion: Unfortunately, in spite of knowledge promotion among medicine school students in recent years, hookah use is still prevalent among medical students. Molasses use has significantly increased and second hand exposure to tobacco has escalated since 2009.

  13. Students nurses' knowledge and prevalence of Needle Stick Injury in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Mohammad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Alazzam, Manar; Aloush, Sami; Alsaraireh, Arwa; Alsaraireh, Faris A

    2018-01-01

    Student nurses are at high risk of blood-borne pathogens transmitted via Needle Stick Injury (NSI). Understanding various aspects of NSI is essential if they are to avoid the risks associated with it. The study was conducted to measure student nurses' level of knowledge about NSI and to examine its prevalence and post-exposure measures in Jordan. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A sample of 279 student nurses studying at one private and four government universities distributed throughout Jordan. The study used an online survey composed of 22 questions developed from NSI literature. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: background, to measure students' demographics; knowledge, to measure nurses' understanding of NSI; and prevalence, to measure exposure to NSI and the follow-up measures. Student nurses were recruited through Facebook. The survey was available online for one full semester in 2016/2017. The total number of completed surveys was 279 (response rate=61%). Most of the students were female (n=198; 71%), in their fourth year (n=114; 40.9%). Their mean age was 21years (SD=2.5). The mean score for the knowledge part was 7 out of 10 (SD=1.7). Almost a third of the students had at least one incident of exposure to NSI (n=73; 26.2%). Most of the students who had suffered NSI did not inform their clinical instructors (67.1%) or write an incident report (86.3%). The results showed that there was no significant difference in the knowledge total scores between males and females or between students across different universities. However, a significant difference was found between students in different years of study (F (276, 2)=6.77, p=0.001). Student nurses in Jordan have a moderate understanding of issues regarding NSI. This knowledge improved with seniority. However, exposure to NSI and its under-reporting is a prevalent problem. This study recommends focusing on NSI in the nursing curriculum, and providing more protection and post

  14. Substance use among secondary school students in an urban setting in Nigeria: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshodi, O Y; Aina, O F; Onajole, A T

    2010-03-01

    Substance use continues to be major risk behaviour among youth, with consequent physical and/or mental health complications. The current study aimed to establish the prevalence and associated factors of substance use among selected secondary school students in Lagos. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study among selected secondary school students in Lagos. Permission was obtained from appropriate school authorities; as well as consent from each participant. The WHO Students' Drug Use Questionnaire which had been previously validated in the country was used to obtain the drug use information from the subjects. Analysis of the data was conducted using Epi-info version 5. A total of 402 students were studied - of whom 43.5% (n=175) were males and 56.5% (n=227) females. The mean age was 15.9 years. 83.1% (n=334) lived with their parents, 7.6% (n=31) with their relatives and 7.2% (n=29) with friends. The commonest substances used by the subjects were caffeine (kolanut and coffee), mild analgesics (paracetamol and aspirin) and the antimalarials, most especially chloroquine with lifetime use prevalence rates of 85.7%, 73.8% and 65.7% respectively. Generally, the prevalence rates for lifetime use of the substances varied from 3.8% (n=14) for Heroin and Cocaine to 85.7% (n=344) for psychostimulants; and for current use varying from 2% (n=8) to 56.5% (n=213). For the so called "gateway drugs": alcohol and tobacco, their lifetime use prevalence rates were 9.2% (n=34) and 5.2% (n=19) while the lifetime use prevalence rate for cannabis was 4.4% (n=16). In terms of gender, the prevalence rates for males were generally higher than for their female counterparts except for antibiotics, analgesics, heroin and cocaine. Reasons for using substances included relief from stress, 43.5% (n=175), self medication to treat illness, 23.8% (n=96), and to stay awake at night to study, 14.9% (n=60). Substance use was found to be prevalent among students in this study involving over

  15. Caries prevalence and DMF-T index of Papuan’s students with Betel chewing habit

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    Yohanes Tebai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find the extent of caries prevalence and DMF-T index in Papuan’s students with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Dormitory Bandung, 2007. Betel chewing habit is a chewing action of Areca nut (Areca Catechu Linn, Betel leaves (Piper Betel Folia, Betel fruit (Piper Betle Linn, lime talk (Calcium Hydroxide, and after chew to spent out of the mouth. The research is a descriptive research using the survey technique. Research samples are determined by purposive sampling, and a number of 80 samples are collected, consisting of Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Bandung between 18-to-30 years of age. Research results indicated that caries prevalence is 98.75% with a DMF-T index of 5.46. The conclusion of the reseach is that the caries prevalence and the DMF-T in Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Papuan’s Student Dormitory Bandung, 2007, is in the high category.

  16. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; da Silva, Camila Damázio; Ferraz, Gisely Carvalho; Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Pereira, Lílian Varanda

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate nursing students seeking to relieve pain and characterizes the pain and relief obtained through the used medication. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was carried out with 211 nursing students from a public university in Goiás, GO, Brazil. A numerical scale (0-10) measured pain intensity and relief. The prevalence of self-medication was 38.8%. The source and main determining factor of this practice were the student him/herself (54.1%) and lack of time to go to a doctor (50%), respectively. The most frequently used analgesic was dipyrone (59.8%) and pain relief was classified as good (Md=8.5;Max=10;Min=0). The prevalence of self-medication was higher than that observed in similar studies. Many students reported that relief obtained through self-medication was good, a fact that can delay the clarification of a diagnosis and its appropriate treatment.

  17. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

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    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  19. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

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    Davod Ghaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.

  20. Relationships between dietary habits and the prevalence of fatigue in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Mizuno, Kei; Fukuda, Sanae; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Fatigue, which is a common complaint among medical students, is related to poor academic outcomes. Because impaired dietary habits, such as skipping breakfast and taking meals irregularly, are correlated with poor school performances, whether those dietary habits were associated with the prevalence of fatigue was determined in medical students. The study group consisted of 127 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine. They completed a questionnaire dealing with fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale), lifestyle, and academic performance. On multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and nocturnal sleeping hours, skipping breakfast (completely skipping breakfast everyday versus having breakfast everyday; odds ratio 7.81, 95% confidence interval 2.00-30.52, P = 0.003) and taking meals irregularly (completely irregular versus always regular; odds ratio 6.89, 95% confidence interval 1.20-39.55, P = 0.030) were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue. Skipping breakfast and taking meals irregularly are associated with the prevalence of fatigue in medical students.

  1. Prevalence and impact of headache and migraine among secondary school students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofovwe, Gabriel E; Ofili, Antoinette N

    2010-11-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the overall, age and gender specific prevalence, trigger factors and impact of headache and migraine on quality of life of students attending secondary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Six secondary schools were randomly selected from which students were randomly selected. A self-administered questionnaire was used to screen those with frequent headache, defined as at least 2 episodes of headache unrelated to fever or any underlying disease within the last 12 months or at least 1 episode in the last 6 months preceding the date questionnaire was administered. Another questionnaire based on the ICHD-2 criteria for diagnosis of migraine was then administered to those with frequent headaches. Data analysis was with SPSS 13.0 for Windows. One thousand six hundred and seventy-nine students aged 11-18 years were recruited. The overall prevalence of headache was 19.5%. The prevalence of migraine was 13.5%. Migraine was more common in girls than in boys at all ages. The most common trigger factors included emotional stress, sunlight or bright light, sleep deprivation, and hunger. Inability to participate in outdoor activities, household chores, and school absenteeism were the common impacts on the quality of life of among 76.8% of the migraineurs. Migraine is common and underdiagnosed among secondary school students in Benin City, Nigeria, and negatively impacts on the quality of life including school absenteeism. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  2. [TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION PREVALENCE AMONG NURSING DEGREE STUDENTS IN LA RIOJA UNIVERSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianes Rivada, Elena

    2015-03-01

    . 18 %, respectively). From 19 people who had vaccine scar of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 14 of them (73.68 %) showed some kind of reactivity to tuberculin. The prevalence of TB infection was very low among the students of GUE from UR (0.01). The results aren't as expected, as was conceived one higher prevalence of infection among students more involved in health care. The fact that the results do not match those obtained in similar studies may be due to that they have been made in countries with the highest prevalence of the disease (Latin America). On the other hand it is considered that the low prevalence of tuberculous infection among students of the UR is the right preventive measures developed by institutions which develop clinical practices. Also a suitable training and awareness of students about how to prevent the spread of disease influences the good results obtained. Also, the low prevalence of tuberculous infection could be due to an insufficient time of exposure of these students in the health field to become infected.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, Jory; Rochat, Lucien; Romo, Lucia; Van der Linden, Martial; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Maurage, Pierre; Rothen, Stéphane; Billieux, Joël

    2015-06-01

    While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience. Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors. The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors.

  4. Prevalence and Toxin Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Organic Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Choi, Ok-Kyung; Kwon, Sun-Mok; Cho, Seung-Hak; Park, Byung-Jae; Jin, Na Young; Yu, Yong Man; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2017-08-28

    The prevalence and toxin characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from 39 organic vegetables were investigated. B. thuringiensis was detected in 30 out of the 39 organic vegetables (76.9%) with a mean value of 2.60 log CFU/g. Twenty-five out of the 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (83.3%) showed insecticidal toxicity against Spodoptera exigua . The hblCDA, nheABC , and entFM genes were found to be the major toxin genes, but the ces gene was not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis isolates. The hemolysin BL enterotoxin was detected in all 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (100%). The non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex was found in 27 out of 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (90.0%). The B. thuringiensis tested in this study had similar toxin gene characteristics to B. cereus , which possessed more than one toxin gene. B. thuringiensis could have the potential risk of foodborne illness based on the toxin genes and toxin-producing ability.

  5. Molar-incisor hypomineralization: Prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubha Arehalli Bhaskar; Sapna Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India. Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan. Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged...

  6. Prevalence of absolute pitch: a comparison between Japanese and Polish music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Ken'ichi; Makomaska, Sylwia; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Comparable large-scale surveys including an on-site pitch-naming test were conducted with music students in Japan and Poland to obtain more convincing estimates of the prevalence of absolute pitch (AP) and examine how musical experience relates to AP. Participants with accurate AP (95% correct identification) accounted for 30% of the Japanese music students, but only 7% of the Polish music students. This difference in the performance of pitch naming was related to the difference in musical experience. Participants with AP had begun music training at an earlier age (6 years or earlier), and the average year of commencement of musical training was more than 2 years earlier for the Japanese music students than for the Polish students. The percentage of participants who had received early piano lessons was 94% for the Japanese musically trained students but was 72% for the Polish music students. Approximately one-third of the Japanese musically trained students had attended the Yamaha Music School, where lessons on piano or electric organ were given to preschool children in parallel with fixed-do solfège singing training. Such early music instruction was not as common in Poland. The relationship of AP with early music training is discussed.

  7. Social phobia in Brazilian university students: prevalence, under-recognition and academic impairment in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Carlos Alberto; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; de Lima Osório, Flávia; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Magalhães, Pedro V; Kapczinski, Flávio; Filho, Alaor Santos; Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecília; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the fact that public speaking is a common academic activity and that social phobia has been associated with lower educational achievement and impaired academic performance, little research has examined the prevalence of social phobia in college students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of social phobia in a large sample of Brazilian college students and to examine the academic impact of this disorder. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the MINI-SPIN, used as the indicator of social phobia in the screening phase, were applied to 2319 randomly selected students from two Brazilian universities. For the second phase (diagnostic confirmation), four psychiatrists and one clinical psychologist administered the SCID-IV to subjects with MINI-SPIN scores of 6 or higher. The prevalence of social phobia among the university students was 11.6%. Women with social phobia had significantly lower grades than those without the disorder. Fear of public speaking was the most common social fear. Only two of the 237 students with social phobia (0.8%) had previously received a diagnosis of social phobia and were under treatment. Social phobia comorbidities were not evaluated in this study. The methods of assessment employed by the universities (written exams) may mask the presence of social phobia. This was not a population-based study, and thus the results are not generalizable to the entire population with social phobia. Preventive strategies are recommended to reduce the under-recognition and the adverse impact of social phobia on academic performance and overall quality of life of university students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia among University Students in Hodeida Province, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Al-alimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is one of the most common types of nutritional anemia in the worldwide and considered a major public health problem in developing countries especially in Yemen. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of IDA among apparently healthy Yemeni students at Hodeida University. Method. Five hundred blood samples (326 males and 174 females were collected randomly from medical students at Hodeida University. Participants were subjected to different tests including complete blood counts (CBC, serum ferritin (SF, serum iron (SI, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC. Moreover, a questionnaire was designed to collect demographics, food and drink habits, and socioeconomic status. Result. The overall prevalence of IDA was 30.4%  (n=152, of whom 54.00% were females (n=82 and 46.0% were males (n=70. Students aged 20–22 years were found more anemic with prevalence 59.2% than students aged 17–19 years (25.0% and 23–25 years (15.8%. Statistical analysis showed regularly having breakfast had significant (p < 0.001 role in preventing development of IDA compared with irregularly having breakfast. Infrequent consumption of vegetables/fruits; meat, fish, chicken; tea drinking; low household income; smoking and khat (Catha edulis chewing showed a significant role (p < 0.001 in provoking of IDA, whereas consumption of coffee and cola showed insignificant influence (p=0.585; p=0.513 on IDA. Conclusion. This study revealed that the majority of university students, especially females, have IDA that might become worse by malnutrition, lifestyle habits, and lack of awareness. Our results suggest that IDA can be prevented by providing proper knowledge on the healthful diet, improved lifestyle, and harmful effect of IDA to the students.

  9. Cervicofacial tissue infarction in patients with acute invasive fungal sinusitis: prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Hanbee; Choi, Jin Wook; Cha, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Sung Tae

    2013-03-01

    Tissue infarction is known as one of the characteristic features of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristic MR imaging findings of cervicofacial tissue infarction (CFTI) associated with acute IFS. We retrospectively reviewed MR images in 23 patients with histologically or microbiologically proven acute IFS. CFTI was defined as an area of lack of enhancement in and around the sinonasal tract on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. We divided CFTI into two groups, i.e., intrasinonasal and extrasinonasal. Particular attention was paid to the location of extrasinonasal CFTI and the signal intensity of CFTI on T1- and T2-weighted images. The presence of bone destruction on CT scans was also recorded. CFTI was found in 17 (74%) of 23 patients. All of these 17 patients had intrasinonasal CFTI, and 13 patients also had extrasinonasal CFTI. All 13 patients with extrasinonasal CFTI died of disease directly related to IFS. Various locations were involved in the 13 patients with extrasinonasal CFTI, including the orbit (n = 8), infratemporal fossa (n = 7), intracranial cavity (n = 3), and oral cavity and/or facial soft tissue (n = 4). Various signal intensities were noted at the area of CFTI on T1- and T2-weighted images. Bone destruction was found on CT scans in only 3 of 17 patients with CFTI. CFTI with preservation of the bony wall of the involved sinonasal tract may be a characteristic MR imaging finding of acute IFS. The mortality is very high once the lesion extends beyond the sinonasal tract.

  10. Prevalence and Factors Affecting Dysmenorrhea in Female University Students: Effect on General Comfort Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Demet

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the affecting factors of dysmenorrhea and its effects on overall comfort among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study. The research was carried out between October and November 2013 at a university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 200 female students. The data were analyzed using frequencies, means, SD, χ(2) tests, independent t tests and analysis of variance. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire. The mean age of students in this study group was 20.85 ± 2.15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 84%. The mean severity of pain was 5.78 ± 2.45 on the VAS. The present study found that 45.8% of female students experienced moderate menstrual pain and the most common co-occurring symptoms were irritability (34.6%) and fatigue (21.5%). One-fourth of the students with dysmenorrhea consulted the advice of a physician and the most commonly used methods for pain were analgesics (69%), heat application (56.5%), and rest (71.4%). Family history of dysmenorrhea, education about menstruation, and frequency of menstrual cycle were identified as important factors in the development of dysmenorrhea (p dysmenorrhea (2.57 ± 0.25) was lower than that of students without the condition (2.65 ± 0.23). Also, use of the methods for management of dysmenorrhea was found to increase students' general comfort levels. Therefore, it is important for nurses to educate and advise adolescents and young women about dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of street racing among Ontario high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of street racing among adolescents derived from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), an epidemiological survey of students in Ontario, Canada. The key response variable, self-reported street racing in past year, was examined in relation to grade level, rural/urban, school marks, cannabis use, drinking and driving, cannabis use and driving, and property, physical, drugs, and weapons delinquencies. All survey estimates were weighted, and variance and statistical tests were corrected for the complex sampling design. Of the 3053 9th- to 12th-graders (66% response rate), 5.6 percent of high-schoolers (an estimated 42,000 in the province) and (20.4% of grade 11 and 12 students with an advanced-level or full license) reported driving a car, truck, or sport utility vehicle (SUV) in a street race in the 12 months before the survey. Logistic regression analysis of the advanced-level or fully licensed students in grades 11 and 12 found that males compared to females and students in grade 11 compared to students in grade 12 had significantly higher adjusted odds of street racing. Supportive of problem behavior theory, students who reported property and drug delinquencies compared to students not engaging in these delinquencies also had significantly higher adjusted odds of street racing. This first population-based study in North America suggested that the prevalence of street racing at 1 in 5 of advanced or fully licensed high-schoolers in grades 11 and 12 poses significant public health concerns, especially related to the potential for unintentional injury.

  12. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Robson Aparecido Dos Santos; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires. The first-year group consisted of 150 students, followed by the second-, third-, and fourth-year groups, with 60 students each. Data from 265 students who answered at least the sociodemographic questionnaire and the MBI-SS were analyzed (response rate = 80.3%). One (n = 1, 0.3%) potential participant viewed the Informed Consent Form but did not agree to participate in the study. A total of 187 students (187/265, 70.6%) presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 140 (140/265, 52.8%) had high cynicism, and 129 (129/265, 48.7%) had low academic efficacy. The two-dimensional criterion indicated that 119 (44.9%) students experienced burnout. Based on the three-dimensional criterion, 70 students (26.4%) presented with burnout. The year with the highest frequency of affected students for both criteria was the first year (p = 0.001). Personal attributes were able to explain 11% (ΔR = 0.11) of the variability of burnout under the two-dimensional criterion and 14.4% (R2 = 0.144) under the three-dimensional criterion. This study showed a high prevalence of burnout among medical students in a private school using active teaching methodologies. In the first years of graduation, students' personal attributes (optimism and self-perception of health) and school attributes (motivation and routine of the exhaustive study) were associated with higher levels of burnout. These findings reinforce the need to establish preventive measures focused on the personal attributes of first-year students, providing better

  13. Evaluation of self-medication amongst university students in Abbottabad, Pakistan; prevalence, attitude and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hanif; Khan, Shujaat A; Ali, Sayyad; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Chohan, Ossam; Hassan, Syed M F; Khan, Kashif M; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication is a serious issue in most parts of the world. This study aims to evaluate self-medication among university students of Abbottabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional survey study was carried out in COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad during December 1 - December 31,2011. A sample of 275 students was selected for the study using convenience method of sampling. Data were managed and analyzed via SPSS version 16.0. Inferences were drawn using Z-test Out of 268 respondents (male = 61.6%, female = 38.6%), 138 were non-health professional students whereas 130 were health professional students. The prevalence of self-medication was 95.5%. Most common factor (45.7%) responsible for self-medication was "low severity of disease". Most common symptom (50.8%) that caused self-medication and stocking of medicines was "storage of medicines for multi purposes". Some respondents (22.7%) got addicted due to self-medication. Most of the students trust in allopathic medicines system. High prevalence of self-medication can be controlled through regulatory authorities, mass education and availability of health facilities.

  14. Prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the college students in Chitwan

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    Manohar Pradhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:Students of colleges may be vulnerable to consume tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs due to various factors. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the bachelor level college students of Chitwan.Materials & Methods:This is a descriptive cross sectional study among the 132 bachelor level students at various colleges of Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. The students were chosen by purposive sampling. A standard pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results:A total of 90 (68.2% were males and 42 (31.8% were females. The mean age was 22.2 ± 1.7 years. Seventy four (56.06% responded that they had never consumed tobacco in any form.The number of cigarette smoked ranged from one to 20, with a mean of 7.85± 4.94 years. Forty eight (36.36% never consumed alcohol and (87.87% had never used psychoactive drugs.The most common motivator of the use of smoking, tobacco and psychoactive drugs was curiosity.Conclusion:The prevalence of smoking among the bachelor level students participating in our study was 43.94%, alcohol consumption was 63.63% and psychoactive drugs use was 12.12%. 

  15. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Xinli; Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response...

  16. A Study on Prevalence of Behavioral Disorders in Primary School Students in Abhar

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    Hassan Shams-Esfandabadi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorder among of primary school students in Abhar. Materials & Methods: 600 primary school students (300 boys and 300 girls of public primary schools in Abhar, Iran were used as the sample for this study. Their behavioral disorder scores were obtained by means of Rutter's teachers' questionnaire. Results: Using a cutpoint of 9, the prevalence rate of behavioral disorder was 43.3% among subjects, with boys showing higher rates of behavioral disorder (44.7% than girls (42% but no significant differences were found by gender on rates of behavioral disorders. 6.3 percent of the subjects had severe behavioral disorder. Conclusion: Academic achievement was negatively related to behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by mothers' education on children’s rates of behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by fathers' occupation on children’s rates of behavioral disorder.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female university students in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Aliyu, Muktar H; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide. The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation were significant predictors of GBV. GBV awareness creation programs, legal protection and implementation of an effective redress mechanism are recommended to curb this menace.

  18. Prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome in female students

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    Awanish Kumar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-menstrual syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that appears before the menstrual bleeding. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome among female students of technical institution in Gorakhpur. Two hundred students aged between 15 to 30 years participated in the study and revealed that all the participants of study experienced at least 1 symptom of PMS. The most common physical symptom was joint\\muscle pain (77.5%. Lethargy (83% was reported as most common psychological symptom in the study. The study concluded that prevalence of PMS is 100%, and most of the participants (42.5% have more than 5 symptoms of PMS.

  19. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-03-01

    Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.

  20. Survey of the Prevalence of Burnout, Stress, Depression, and the Use of Supports by Medical Students at One School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Coverdale, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors determined the prevalence of stress, depression, and burnout in medical students and the resources used by students in one school to alleviate psychological distress. Methods: A survey was administered to 526 students in the first 3 years of medical school (336 responders; response rate: 70%) at one institution, using a…

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumpt...

  2. Suicidal Ideation in University Students: Prevalence and Association With School and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Adelino; Cardoso, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSuicidal ideation is often an indicator of mental health problems and a major risk factor for suicide. This study aims to present the prevalence of suicidal ideation and compare students of a Portuguese university by school and gender. A total of 366 individuals from four schools completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (cut-off point ≥ 41 is significant) and specific questions about lifetime and past week suicidal ideation. Frequency analysis and chi-square tests were performed....

  3. Prevalence and patterns of physical activity among medical students in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Padmapriya, Krishnakumar; Krishna, Pushpa; Rasu, Thenna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the leading health indicators. The objective was to study the prevalence and patterns of physical activity among young adults. Methods: 259 Medical students (Men: Women = 116:143) in the age group of 18?22 yrs were interviewed using the official English long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The total level of physical activity and activity in each of the 4 life domains ? work, transport, domestic and gardening and lei...

  4. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...

  5. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...

  6. Prevalence of Depression among University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Sarokhani; Ali Delpisheh; Yousef Veisani; Mohamad Taher Sarokhani; Rohollah Esmaeli Manesh; Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and is the most common cause of disability from diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression among Iranian university students using meta-analysis method. Materials and Methods. Keyword depression was searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MAGIran, Medlib, and SID. Data was analyzed using meta-analysis (random-effects model). Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using ...

  7. The prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in urban minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Black, Sarah; Wang, Julie

    2012-12-01

    Urban minority children are known to have high rates of asthma and allergic rhinitis, but little is known about food allergy in this population. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in an urban pediatric population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records from children seen in the hospital-based general pediatric clinic at Mount Sinai Hospital serving East Harlem, NY, between July 1, 2008 and July 1, 2010 was performed. Charts for review were selected based on diagnosis codes for food allergy, anaphylaxis, or epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions. Of 9,184 children seen in this low-income, minority clinic, 3.4% (313) had a physician-documented food allergy. The most common food allergies were peanut (1.6%), shellfish (1.1%), and tree nuts (0.8%). Significantly more black children (4.7%) were affected than children of other races (2.7%, P food-allergic children, asthma (50%), atopic dermatitis (52%), and allergic rhinitis (49%) were common. Fewer than half had confirmatory testing or evaluation by an allergy specialist, and although most had epinephrine autoinjectors prescribed, most were not prescribed food allergy action plans. This is the largest study of food allergy prevalence in an urban minority pediatric population, and 3.4% had physician-documented food allergy. Significantly more blacks were affected than children of other races. Fewer than half of food-allergic children in this population had confirmatory testing or evaluation by an allergy specialist. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

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    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  9. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae From Five Hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Jae Seok; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min Jeong; Shin, Saeam; Hong, Jun Sung; Lee, Seung Soon; Song, Wonkeun

    2016-11-01

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem because these bacteria are resistant to most antibiotics. CPE remain relatively uncommon in Korea. We report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and molecular epidemiology of CPE isolates collected from five university hospitals in Korea. Between January and December 2015, 393 non-duplicated isolates that were nonsusceptible to ertapenem were analyzed. Production of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase was determined by genotypic tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by using an Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing and oxacillinase (OXA)-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 393 isolates tested, 79 (20.1%) were CPE. Of these 79 isolates, 47 (59.5%) harbored the bla(OXA-232) gene while the remaining isolates carried genes bla(KPC-2) (n=27), bla(IMP-1) (n=4), and bla(NDM-1) (n=1). Among the 24 KPC-2 K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital B, 100% were resistant to carbapenems, 8% to colistin, and 0% to tigecycline. Among the 45 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae at hospital C, 95% were resistant to ertapenem, 68% to imipenem, 95% to meropenem, 10% to colistin, and 24% to tigecycline. PFGE analysis revealed a unique pattern for KPC-2 K. pneumoniae and identified 30 isolates belonging to the dominant pulsotypes (PT)1 and PT2 among 41 OXA-232 K. pneumoniae isolates. CPE strains are present in Korea, with the majority of K. pneumoniae isolates producing OXA-232 and KPC-2. The prevalence and predominant genotypes of CPE show hospital-specific differences.

  10. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: prevalence and specific clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Almudena; González Garcia, M Elena; San José-Valiente, Belén; Bajo Rubio, M Auxiliadora; Celadilla Diez, Olga; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Selgas, Rafael

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66.1±16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio. The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084-1.457, p=0.002), percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893-0.983, p=0.008), total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999, p=0.001) and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992-0.998). Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of problem drinking and characteristics of a single-question screen.

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    Stewart, Scott H; Borg, Keith T; Miller, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders (i.e, abuse and dependence) are common in Emergency Departments (EDs). This study examined 1) the prevalence of these conditions among ED patients and 2) characteristics of a single screening question (having consumed at least five drinks for males or four for females during a single day). Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were analyzed. Logistic regression for clustered data was used to estimate the relative risk for past-year ED use associated with hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence. Contingency tables were analyzed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the single-question screen for detecting these conditions. Hazardous drinking was not associated with ED utilization. Alcohol abuse was associated with a relative risk of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and alcohol dependence with a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI 1.6-2.2). For current drinkers, the single question screen was 0.96, 0.85, and 0.90 sensitive for hazardous drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence, respectively. Individuals with a positive screen in the past year were considered at least hazardous drinkers, and specificity was 0.80, 0.64, and 0.65 for hazardous drinking, abuse, and dependence, respectively. Specificity was modestly increased in women. Most problem drinkers were hazardous drinkers, but only severe alcohol use disorders were particularly prevalent in the ED. The single heavy-drinking-day item appears sensitive for problem drinking. Positive tests must be followed by additional assessment to differentiate hazardous drinking from alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function

  13. Prevalence of Facebook Addiction and Related Factors Among Thai High School Students.

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    Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.

  14. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors

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    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and possible factors associated with the development of burnout among medical students in the first years of undergraduate school. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Barretos School of Health Sciences, Dr. Paulo Prata. A total of 330 students in the first four years of medical undergraduate school were invited to participate in responding to the sociodemographic and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaires. The first-year group consisted of 150 students, followed by the second-, third-, and fourth-year groups, with 60 students each. Results Data from 265 students who answered at least the sociodemographic questionnaire and the MBI-SS were analyzed (response rate = 80.3%). One (n = 1, 0.3%) potential participant viewed the Informed Consent Form but did not agree to participate in the study. A total of 187 students (187/265, 70.6%) presented high levels of emotional exhaustion, 140 (140/265, 52.8%) had high cynicism, and 129 (129/265, 48.7%) had low academic efficacy. The two-dimensional criterion indicated that 119 (44.9%) students experienced burnout. Based on the three-dimensional criterion, 70 students (26.4%) presented with burnout. The year with the highest frequency of affected students for both criteria was the first year (p = 0.001). Personal attributes were able to explain 11% (ΔR = 0.11) of the variability of burnout under the two-dimensional criterion and 14.4% (R2 = 0.144) under the three-dimensional criterion. Conclusion This study showed a high prevalence of burnout among medical students in a private school using active teaching methodologies. In the first years of graduation, students’ personal attributes (optimism and self-perception of health) and school attributes (motivation and routine of the exhaustive study) were associated with higher levels of burnout. These findings reinforce the need to establish preventive measures focused on the personal attributes of first

  15. Prevalence of Sleep Disorder among Medical Students in an Eastern University in Iran

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    Mohsen Heidari Mokarrar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep disorder is mostly an early manifestation of psychological diseases. It is defined as disturbances in the regularity, quality and quantity of sleep as well as daily activity. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 medical students were assessed for sleep status using SHQ and GHQ questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and Chi square test through the statistical package of SPSS V.16. Results: The frequency of sleep disorder among students was found to be 21.5%., which was significantly more common among older students (p<0.05, males (p=0.005, employed students (p=0.004, smokers (p=0.001, and those with other psychological disorders (p=0.001. Conclusion: Sleep disorders were higher among students who were men, smokers, or had psychological disorders, and were also employed students. Although a considerable group of medical students were found to be suffering from sleep disorders, this prevalence was lower than those reported in the previous studies.

  16. PREVALENCE OF UPPER CROSS SYNDROME AMONG THE MEDICAL STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE

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    Iqra Mubeen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper cross syndrome is becoming more prevalent in today’s population. The syndrome is expressed as a postural disorder presenting with over active pectoralis musculature and upper trapezius musculature. Also there is inhibition of lower and middle trapezius musculature, which results in winging of scapula, elevated and abducted scapula. This scapulardyskinesia there by resulted inrounding of shoulders. The syndrome is often associated with bad posture in routine life oroccupation of a person.The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of upper cross syndrome in medical students of Lahore. Methods: A convenience sample of 384 medical students was selected from university of Lahore, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Medical students of age between 17 to 2 years with sound physical and mental state were included. Students with any trauma, recent injury, recent fracture or surgery and any serious underlying pathology that may interfere with mobility of upper limb were excluded from the study. The research was a cross sectional observational study and self-administered questionnaires were circulated among participants and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Reed-co scale was used to analyze the proper alignment of head, neck and shoulder; where as wall push test was used to assess the abnormal protrusion of scapula. Results: The study have revealed that48.7% population of the students haveneck pain;and the results have concluded that high prevalence of upper cross syndrome in medical students of university of Lahore and a 66.8% of population was found to have poor studying posture. Conclusion: In this study relation between upper cross syndrome and bad posture were seen and it was found that the individuals suffering with upper cross syndrome were somehow related to bad posture or indulge in activities which make individual to adopt a posture of high physiologic cost there by leading to muscular imbalance

  17. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and its Association With Body Features in Female Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffi Ahamed, Shaik; Enani, Jawaher; Alfaraidi, Lama; Sannari, Lujain; Algain, Rihaf; Alsawah, Zainah; Al Hazmi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing psychiatric disorder. So far there have not been any studies on BDD in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female medical students and to investigate whether there is an association between BDD and body features of concern, social anxiety and symptoms of BDD. A cross sectional study was carried out on female medical students of the college of medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during January to April, 2015. Data were collected using the body image disturbance questionnaire, Body dysmorphic disorder symptomatology and social interaction anxiety scale. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze the results. Out of 365 students who filled out the questionnaire, 4.4% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.54% to 7.04%) were positive for BDD with skin (75%) and fat (68.8%) as the most frequent body features of concern. Ten features (skin, fat, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, legs, lips, fingers, and shoulders) out of twenty-six were significantly associated with BDD. Arms and chest were independently associated with BDD. The odds of presence of body concern related to "arms" was 4.3 (95% C.I: 1.5, 12.1) times more in BDD subjects than non-BDD subjects, while concern about "chest" was 3.8 (1.3, 10.9) times more when compared to non-BDD subjects. No statistically significant association was observed between BDD and social anxiety (P = 0.13). This was the first study conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) on female medical students, which quantified the prevalence of BDD and identified the body features associated with it. Body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in female medical students but it is relatively rare and an unnoticed disorder.

  18. Social anxiety symptoms and body image dissatisfaction in medical students: prevalence and correlates

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    Jacqueline M. Oliveira Regis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Social anxiety disorder (SAD and body image dissatisfaction (BID are common problems among college students, but few studies focused on medical students. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity and correlates of SAD symptoms and BID among medical students of a Brazilian public university. Methods A cross-sectional study with 479 students, using structured instruments: Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Bivariate analyses were followed by logistic regression models to obtain independent predictors of SAD symptoms, BID and both outcomes combined. Results Most students were single (99% and female (58.7%. The prevalence rates of SAD symptoms (SPIN ≥ 19 and BID (BSQ ≥ 81 were 36.3% and 34.7%, respectively. Depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 19 occurred in 8.8% of the sample. SAD symptoms were independently associated with: BID, thoughts of abandoning the course, difficulty making friends, depressive symptoms, and mental health treatment prior to university. Besides SAD symptoms, BID was associated with female sex, difficulty making friends, depressive symptoms, and body mass index (BMI. Seventy-eight students (16.3% presented SAD symptoms and BID, which was associated with female sex, difficulty making friends, dissatisfaction with the course, depressive symptoms and BMI. Conclusion SAD symptoms and BID are common and related problems that should be screened for among medical students. The identification of specific correlates could contribute to the elaboration of preventive measures, minimizing the distress and negative impact of these mental health problems on relationships and academic performance.

  19. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  20. Factors and Prevalence of Depression in Students at Iran’s Urmia University of Medical Sciences

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    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is characterized by decreased tendency to work, reduced pleasure from work, increased or decreased weight, increased or decreased appetite, insomnia or narcolepsy, irritability, fatigue, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, feelings of guilt, reduced ability to concentrate and think, and thoughts of suicide or actual suicide attempts. In this 2016 study, we examined the factors and prevalence of depression in students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences in Urmia, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 students. Data were collected through the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II: a 21- item standard questionnaire in multiple-choice format to evaluate depression. The questionnaires were distributed randomly by trained students over a period of 5 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 19 software and by descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, logistic regression models, and the chi-squared test. Results: The mean BDI score was 14.67 ± 11.30. Of the study population, 278 (69.8% were men and 120 (30.2% were women. In terms of depression, 40.2% of the students were in the normal range and had no depression, 23.6% were slightly depressed, and 18.3% were partially depressed. Also, 6.03% of students had severe depression, and 3.51% of students had very severe depression. No statistically signi cant relationship was observed between depression and sex (P = 0.11. However, signi cant relationships were observed between depression and education level (P = 0.001, smoking history (P = 0.001, and age (P = 0.023. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically signi cant. Conclusion: The prevalence of different degrees of depression in the plurality of students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences necessitates the development and institution of psychological training classes.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of intended adolescent pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian maternity experiences survey.

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    Sekharan, Vineeth S; Kim, Theresa H M; Oulman, Elizaveta; Tamim, Hala

    2015-11-05

    There is limited research focusing on adolescent women who intended to become pregnant, as majority of research examines unintended adolescent pregnancies. The objective was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of Canadian adolescent women who intended to become pregnant. The analysis was based on the national 2006 Maternity Experiences Survey consisting of women who had a singleton live birth. The sample was restricted to adolescent women between 15 to 19 years of age. The main outcome of this study was the adolescent woman's pregnancy intention. A variety of sociodemographic, maternal, and pregnancy related factors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were reported for all variables. The sample size was 290, weighted to represent 2224 adolescent women. Based on the adjusted model, the odds of experiencing an intended pregnancy were increased if the adolescent woman was between 18-19 years old (OR 2.62, 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57), had a partner (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.99), experienced no violence/abuse (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 1.38, 6.86), and consumed no alcohol before pregnancy (OR 3.17, 95 % CI 1.56, 6.45). Additionally, adolescent women who reported drug use prior to pregnancy were more likely to have an intended pregnancy (OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.95). The findings from this study can be used as the basis for future research to investigate the characteristics and needs represented by this group of adolescents and to aid in the development of effective policies and programs.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of vibrator use among women who have sex with women.

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    Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Reece, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Research suggests that vibrator use may be more prevalent among lesbian/bisexual-identified women. However, previous research has been limited by small samples of lesbian- and bisexual-identified women and has not focused specifically on the characteristics of vibrator use between women. The present study was designed in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of women's use of vibrators with their female sexual partners and to understand the extent to which vibrator use is related to their sexual experiences. Data were collected via a cross-sectional web-based survey from 2,192 women living in the United States and the United Kingdom. All participants reported engaging in sexual behavior with only women in the previous year. Sociodemographic characteristics, vibrator use history, vibrator use perceptions, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Over three-quarters of women in the sample reported a history of vibrator use during solo masturbation/with a female partner and over a quarter of the sample reported use in the previous month. Participants who were older, white, and in a long-term relationship were the most likely to use a vibrator with a female partner in the previous year. Vibrator use lifetime history was unrelated to all FSFI subscales with the exception of pain for lesbian and queer-identified women. In contrast to lifetime use, participants who used a vibrator with a female sexual partner in the previous month scored higher on several of the FSFI domains than women who reported no vibrator use or vibrator use only during solo masturbation in the past month. Vibrator use was common among this sample of women who have sex with women. Women who reported recent vibrator use with other women had higher mean sexual functioning scores than women who reported no vibrator use or vibrator use only during masturbation. Implications for health-care providers are discussed. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms.

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    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-12-01

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

  4. Prevalence of and factors associated with overweight among university students from Rio Branco, Acre – Brazil

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    Gustavo de Souza Moretti

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with overweight among university students from the city of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,104 students (mean age: 24 years from Rio Branco, Acre. Overweight was used as the dependent variable. The following independent variables were studied: socioeconomic variables (gender, age, teaching institution, period of study, marital status, income, household members, living with other people, parent’s education level, and working or not; self-reported health and morbidity variables (health perception, hypertension, diabetes, and altered cholesterol; lifestyle variables (physical activity, watching television, computer use, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The nutritional status was classified based on body mass index. Univariate analysis was performed using Pearson’s chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test. Variables with a p value < 20% on univariate analysis were included in the multiple Poisson regression model. The prevalence of overweight was 35.6%. In the multiple regression model for male students adjusted for age, overweight was associated with marital status, household income, hypertension, and watching television every day. In the model for female students, the variables that remained associated were self-perceived health status, hypertension, and alcohol consumption in the last month. Overweight is determined by a combination of different factors which differed in the present study between men and women.

  5. Prevalence of sedentary behavior and its correlates among primary and secondary school students

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    Rodrigo Wiltgen Ferreira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the students’ exposure to four different sedentary behavior (SB indicators and their associations with gender, grade, age, economic status and physical activity level. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. The SB was collected using the HELENA instrument, composed by screen time questions (TV, video games and internet and sitting activities on school opposite shift. The cut point of ≥2h/day was used to categorize the outcome. The Poisson regression was used for associations between the outcome and the independent variables (95% significance level, controlling for confounding variables and the possible design effect. Results: The sample was composed by 8661 students. The overall prevalence of SB was 69.2% (CI95% 68.1–70.2 on weekdays, and 79.6% (CI95% 78.7–80.5 on weekends. Females were more associated with the outcome, except to electronic games. Advanced grades students were more involved in sitting tasks when compared to the early grades. Older students were more likely to surf on net for ≥2h/day. Higher economic level students were more likely to engage in video games and internet. Active individuals were less likely to engage in SB on weekdays. Conclusions: The prevalence of SB was high, mainly on weekends. The associations with sex, age, grade and physical activity level should be considered into elaboration of more efficient interventions on SB control.

  6. The prevalence and association of stress with sleep quality among medical students.

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    Almojali, Abdullah I; Almalki, Sami A; Alothman, Ali S; Masuadi, Emad M; Alaqeel, Meshal K

    2017-09-01

    Medical students tend to reduce their sleep, in an effort to adjust and cope with their workload and stressful environment. This study estimated the prevalence of and the relationship between poor sleep quality and stress among medical students. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sample of male and female medical students in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the stress level by using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. A high prevalence of poor sleep quality (76%) and stress (53%) were found, with a statistically significant association (pstress are less likely to have poor sleep quality (OR=0.28, pstress and poor sleep quality. A recommendation for the management of medical college is to establish academic counseling centers focusing in promoting good sleep hygiene and strengthening students' study skills and coping with their stressful environment. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic pain: One year prevalence and associated characteristics (the HUNT pain study).

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    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Vatten, Lars; Kaasa, Stein

    2017-12-29

    Background The reported prevalence of chronic pain ranges from 11% to 64%, and although consistently high, the calculated economic burden estimates also vary widely between studies. There is no standard way of classifying chronic pain. We have repeated measurements of pain in a longitudinal population study to improve validity ofthe case ascertainment. In this paper, associations between chronic pain and demographic characteristics, self reported health and functioning, work Incapacity and health care use were investigated in a sample from the general Norwegian population. Methods A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 Study) was invited to report pain every three months during a 12 month period. Chronic pain was defined as moderate pain or more (on the SF-8 verbal rating scale) in at least three out of five consecutive measurements. Self reported health and functioning was measured by seven of the eight subscales on the SF-8 health survey (bodily pain was excluded). Health care utilisation during the past 12 months was measured by self report, and included seeing a general practitioner, seeing a medical specialist and seeing other therapists. The survey data was combined with information on income, education, disability pension awards and unemployment by Statistics Norway, which provided data from the National Education database (NUDB) and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV). Results The total prevalence of chronic pain was 36% (95% CI34-38) among women and 25% (95% CI 22-26) among men. The prevalence increased with age, was higher among people with high BMI, and in people with low income and low educational level. Smoking was also associated with a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Subjects in the chronic pain group had a self-reported health and functioning in the range of 1-2.5 standard deviations below that of those without chronic pain. Among the chronic pain group 52% (95% CI 49-55), of participants

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of rib fractures in ex-preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela; Butler, Sandra; Mactier, Helen; McDevitt, Helen; Young, David; Ahmed, Syed Faisal

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of rib fractures in ex-preterm infants. Infants born at rib fractures, and the case notes of all affected individuals were scrutinized. Of the 3318 eligible preterm infants, 1446 had a total of 9386 chest radiographs. Of these infants, 26 (1.8%) were identified as having a total of 62 rib fractures. Their median (range) gestation at birth was 26 weeks (23-34). The median chronological age of these infants at the time of the radiograph was 14 weeks (5 weeks to 8 months). The median corrected gestational age at the time of the radiograph was 39 weeks (34 weeks to 4 months). Of the 62 fractures, 27 (36%) were sited posteriorly, and 15 (53%) of the infants with posterior rib fractures were diagnosed with osteopathy of prematurity. Classic risk including conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and diuretics, were present in 23 of 26 (88%) infants. A full skeletal survey was performed in 8 of 26 (31%). Investigations for nonaccidental injury occurred in 4 of 26 (15%) cases. Evidence of rib fractures is present in ~2% of ex-preterm infants. The evaluation of these fractures in infancy requires a detailed neonatal history irrespective of the site of rib fracture.

  9. Prevalence, morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of confluent inferior pulmonary veins in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Teiichi; Date, Taro; Tokuda, Michifumi

    2008-01-01

    Although the common trunk of left pulmonary veins (PVs) has been reported as a relatively popular anatomical variation of PVs, little is known about the coalescence of contralateral PVs. The present study was conducted to reveal the prevalence and electrophysiologic characteristics of the confluent inferior common PVs. Anatomical variation in the PV drainage to the left atrium (LA) was assessed using the multidetector computed tomography scan in 326 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent the PV isolation procedure. Coalescence of inferior PVs was observed in 5 cases (1.5%). Both inferior PVs conjoined prior to the junction with the LA in 3 cases, while they coalesced at the LA junction in the other 2 cases. The arrhythmogenic activities of the confluent inferior PVs were generally low in all cases without any ectopic firings triggering the observed AF. All inferior PVs, as well as the superior PVs, were successfully isolated either en bloc at the common trunk or individually at the orifice of each PV. Confluent inferior PVs were present in 1.5% of cases in patients with AF who underwent the PV isolation procedure. Preoperative recognition of this venous anomaly by 3-dimensional imaging is important for smooth and safe ablation. (author)

  10. Therapeutic use of cannabis: Prevalence and characteristics among adults in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Hayley A; Brands, Bruna; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Mann, Robert E

    2017-09-14

    To investigate the prevalence of therapeutic cannabis use within a general population sample of adults and to describe various characteristics associated with use. Data were derived from the 2013 and 2014 CAMH Monitor Survey of adults in Ontario, Canada. This repeated cross-sectional survey employed a regionally stratified design and utilized computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Analyses were based on 401 respondents who reported using cannabis. The data indicated that 28.8% of those who used cannabis in the past year self-reported using cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Of therapeutic users, 15.2% reported having medical approval to use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Cannabis use for therapeutic purposes was associated with more frequent use of cannabis, a moderate to high risk of problematic cannabis use, and a greater likelihood of using prescription opioids for medical purposes. There was little difference in cannabis use for therapeutic purposes according to sex, age, and marital status after adjusting for opioid use and problematic cannabis use. Findings suggest some potential negative consequences of cannabis use for therapeutic purposes; however, further research is needed to better understand the range and patterns of use and their corresponding vulnerabilities.

  11. The Role of Classroom Characteristics for Students' Motivation and Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Rohowski, Susanne; Ohlemann, Svenja; Ittel, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on students enrolled in obligatory vocational education courses in German secondary schools that aim to support students' career exploration. The study examined the relations between student-perceived classroom characteristics (support for autonomy, competence and relatedness), students' intrinsic motivation and their career…

  12. Student Councils: A Tool for Health Promoting Schools? Characteristics and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Ursula; Nowak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participation is a core value for health promoting schools. Student participation at schools is often implemented in various forms of councils. The aims of this article are to summarise the effects of student participation in student councils, to show who benefits most and to discuss characteristics that make student councils effective.…

  13. Institutional Characteristics and College Student Dropout Risks: A Multilevel Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, although access to higher education for American students has improved, student persistence in 4-year institutions is far from assured. There have been a number of research studies on student persistence/dropout in higher education, but most have focused on the characteristics and behavior of students as illustrated by the…

  14. Prevalence of Exercise Addiction Symptomology and Disordered Eating in Australian Students Studying Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has reported the existence of disordered eating in students studying nutrition and dietetics. However, the occurrence of exercise addiction, previously linked to disordered eating, is poorly understood in this group. The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of exercise addiction and the association with disordered eating in a sample of students studying nutrition and dietetics. A secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of exercise addiction to students enrolled in another health-related degree. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 165 undergraduate students. Participants were students of both sexes enrolled in nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy degree programs at an Australian university in August 2013. Participants completed four validated questionnaires for assessment of exercise- and eating-related attitudes and behaviors measuring scores for exercise addiction, weekly volume of physical activity (PA), eating disorder symptoms, and cognitive restraint. Stretch stature and body mass were measured and body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ 2 test were completed to compare groups of students based on sex, degree, or eating attitudes. Spearman's correlation was performed to explore associations between continuous variables (exercise addiction scores, PA volume, and scores for eating attitudes and cognitive restraint). Approximately 23% of nutrition and dietetics students were found to be at risk of exercise addiction (20% females and 35% males; P=0.205), while the majority demonstrated some symptoms of exercise addiction. A similar proportion of at risk individuals was found in the female occupational therapy group (19%; P=1.000). In females (nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy combined), the exercise addiction scores were associated with three other outcome measures: PA volume (r s

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia in high-school students in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing.Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview.Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4% students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18 years participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was -2.78±2.29 diopters and -2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤ -1.00 diopters in the worse eye was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 79.6-81.8%. Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4% wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR = 1.31;95%CI:1.11-1.55, Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28-2.11, attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77, higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09-1.71, longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06-1.93, shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55-2.26, lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16-1.70, and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80-2.87. The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03 significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (≤-6.0 diopters was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81, lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79, and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40.A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of China. With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia

  16. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  17. Clinical Characteristics, Mutation Spectrum, and Prevalence of Åland Eye Disease/Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Marianne N; Kilic-Biyik, Kevser Z; Trotter, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods: A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from...

  18. Characteristics of prevalent and new COPD cases in Greece: the GOLDEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsiki E

    2015-07-01

    diagnosed COPD cases was estimated to be 18.2% (95% confidence interval: 14.9–22.3 per pulmonologist/3 months. Of those newly diagnosed, the majority of patients had mild or moderate airflow limitation (78.2%.Conclusion: The Greek Obstructive Lung Disease Epidemiology and health ecoNomics study reflected the real-life profile of COPD patients and provided evidence on the profile of new COPD cases in Greece. Various demographic factors were delineated, which can assist in designing more effective diagnostic and management strategies for COPD in Greece. Keywords: COPD, characteristics, newly diagnosed, epidemiology, prevalent cases, new cases, health care system, health care management, nationwide sampling 

  19. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  20. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  1. Comparisonof depression prevalence in medical students between the first and last years of Birjand University of Medical Sciences: Brief Article

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    Nahid Rahmani Bidokhti

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Apparently, prevalence of depression in medical students in Birjand university of Medical Sciences is high, although studying medicine is not significantly decisive in the occurrence of the problem.

  2. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and its relationship with anxiety, stress, and depression in intermediate students in Birjand city in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Turi

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated a high prevalence of internet addiction in the students and had significant relationships with anxiety, stress , and depression.This is something that necessitates . interventions aiming at preventing various harms to them.

  3. The prevalence of probable delayed-sleep-phase syndrome in students from junior high school to university in Tottori, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Gen-i; Inoue, Yuichi; Kojima, Kazushige; Ueta, Toshiyuki; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder with a typical onset in the second decade of life. DSPS is characterized by the sleep-onset insomnia and the difficulty in waking at the desired time in the morning. Although DSPS is associated with inability to attend school, the prevalence has been controversial. To elucidate a change in the prevalence of DSPS among young population, epidemiological survey was conducted on Japanese students. A total of 4,971 students of junior high school, senior high school, and university were enrolled in this cross sectional study in Tottori Prefecture. They answered anonymous screening questionnaire regarding school schedule, sleep hygiene and symptomatic items of sleep disorders. The prevalence of probable DSPS was estimated at 0.48% among the total subject students without gender difference. In university, the prevalence of the last year students showed the highest value (1.66%), while that of the first year students showed the lowest value (0.09%) among all school years from junior high school to university. The prevalence increased with advancing university school years. Thus, a considerable number of Japanese students are affected with DSPS. Senior students of university are more vulnerable to the disorder than younger students. Appropriate school schedule may decrease the mismatch between the individual's sleep-wake cycle and the school schedule. Promotion of a regular sleep habit is necessary to prevent DSPS among this population.

  4. The prevalence of barriers for Colombian college students engaging in physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Laverde, David; Hernández-Novoa, Juan Gilberto; Ríos, Marcelo; Rubio, Fernando; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martinez-Torres, Javier

    2014-09-18

    To investigate the prevalence of barriers and their association with Colombia college students engaging in PA. A total of 5,663 students (3,348 male) from three cities in Colombia. In fall 2013, students voluntarily completed a demographic questionnaire, Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Logistic regression analysis of each barrier (adjusted for confusion variables: gender, age and BMI) was used for verifying such association. The most prevalent barriers in overweight individuals were "fear of injury" (87.0%), "lack of skill" (79.8%) and "lack of resources" (64.3%). The group of females revealed a protective association regarding "lack of time" (OR=0.53: 0.47-0.60 95%CI), "social influence" (OR=0.67: 0.60-0.75 95%CI), "lack of energy" (OR=0.54: 0.49-0.61 95%CI), "lack of willpower" (OR=0.57: 0.51- 0.64 95%CI), "lack of skill" (OR=0.76: 0.66-0.87 95%CI) and "lack of resources" (OR=0.79: 0.71-0.89 95%CI). Such observation also appeared in the 20- to 23-yearold age group concerning "social influence" (OR=0.83: 0.74-0.94 95%CI) and in those aged over 23-years-old (OR=0.86: 0.74-0.99 95%CI) regarding "lack of energy". A significant prevalence was found regarding self-perception of barriers leading to students ceasing to engage in PA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Elementary-School Students of Khorramabad

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    parisa Namdari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high

  6. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.

  7. Prevalence of the tobacco product dokha among high school students in Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Annie; Wolff, Kim

    2014-08-01

    Dokha is a mixed tobacco product, smoked through a pipe, traditional in Arabic culture and popular in the UAE. User forums suggest this product may contain higher levels of nicotine and potentially psychoactive properties. However, there have been few published studies on dokha prevalence and health effects. The present study provides initial data on prevalence of use among high school students resident in Dubai, UAE. 416 students were recruited from five English curriculum schools. Respondents completed a questionnaire measuring current and lifetime use of tobacco in the form of cigarettes, water-pipes and dokha. Current tobacco users completed the 'Hooked on Nicotine Checklist for signs of dependency. Data from 394 subjects were analyzed with mean age 16.9 years. Regular use (weekly or daily) of tobacco had relatively high prevalence (23.4%) compared to international data and was driven by use of the local tobacco, dokha. Dokha forms a commonly used tobacco product among young people in the UAE from both Arab and Western national groups. Little is currently known about the health and dependence risks of this product. The paper adds to the few studies calling for timely research into this and other emerging tobacco products.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors to tadalafil consumption in colombian college students during first semester of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martínez-Torres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of sexual practices in young adults is required to run preventive actions aimed at the reduction of transmitted sexual diseases and unwanted pregnancies. To determine the prevalence Sildenafil Citrate consumption and its associated factors in College Students, during the first half-year of 2013. A crosssectional, descriptive study was conducted between April and June of 2013, the sample size was 340, and all of them are male college students, aged 18 to 26 years; all information were collected using a structured survey. The prevalence of Viagra or Sildenafil Citrate was 7,56% (CI95% 4,6%-10,6%; the main predisposing factors for its use is to suffer of Male Erectile Dysfunction (OR 14.72, CI95% 5.29 to 40.96, when it was adjusted by a multivariate model this association increases about 50% (OR 21.67, CI95% 6.27 to 74.89 and curiosity about this drug (OR 4 21 CI95% 1.63 to 11.3 is the second one. Although Sildenafil Citrate consumption has low prevalence; it is mainly related with men who have suffered erectile dysfunction and curiosity to experience its effects.

  9. [Binge Eating Disorder: Prevalence, Associated Factors and Obesity in University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Adaucio; Gómes, Angélica; Jiménez, Baudimar; Jiménez, Francismar; León, Greidys; Majano, Anny; Rivas, Daniuska; Rodríguez, Mairoly; Soto, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is a disorder of eating behavior that can affect people of all ages. To determine the prevalence of BED according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V, associated factors and their relationship to obesity in university students at Barquisimeto (Venezuela), between September 2013 and February 2014. A study was conducted on a sample of 497 university students of both sexes (371 females), between 18 and 28 years old. A questionnaire was applied and anthropometric measurements were recorder: Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (CW) and waist-height ratio (WHR). The prevalence of BED was 3.20%. Factors associated with BED were body image dissatisfaction, family dysfunction, and depressive symptoms. BED was significantly associated with global obesity and central obesity. Changes in diagnostic criteria of BED, introduced in DSM-V, do not appear to increase the prevalence of BED. Important psychosocial factors associated with BED were identified. BED was strongly associated with global and central obesity. Further studies need to be carried out, withmore rigorous designs to elucidate the effects of the new definition by DSM-V, and to determine the causal nature of the associations found. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of traumatic events and PTSD symptoms among secondary school students in Baghdad

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    Ashraf Al-Hadethe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.

  11. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0-57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted "choose least" or "not recommended" items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  12. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygidakis, N A; Dimou, G; Briseniou, E

    2008-12-01

    This was to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of MIH in a group of Greek children. During the years 2003--2005, all MIH cases diagnosed according to the recently set criteria were selected from the new patients clinic of a Community Dental Centre for Children (Athens). Age, gender and teeth involved were recorded. The severity of MIH was determined collectively by dividing the affected teeth in two groups; a) mild defect (demarcated opacities) and b) moderate/severe defect (enamel breakdown and atypical restorations). Evaluation of the distribution of the affected teeth within MIH cases was performed in a separate group of 225 affected children aged 8-12 years with their entire 12 'index' teeth erupted. From the 3,518, 5.5 to 12 year old children that were examined, there were 360 (10.2%) children with MIH, 211 (58.6%) females and 149 (41.4%) males, with 1,926 affected teeth, 1,231 molars and 695 incisors. In the molars group, maxillary molars were more frequently affected (87.8/90.3%) than mandibular (81.7/82.2%). In the central incisor group, maxillary teeth were also more frequently affected (50/55%) than mandibular (24.4/25%), while laterals were the least affected. In all there were 37.9% molars with moderate/severe defects as compared with 4.9% incisors, the remaining 62.1% and 95.1% respectively being mild. The various associations between the affected teeth were evaluated in the sub-group of 225 MIH children with all 'index' teeth erupted (1,286 affected teeth, 776 molars and 510 incisors), with mean number of affected teeth per child being 5.7; separately for molars 3.4 and for incisors 2.2. In these cases 28.4% of the children had only molars affected and 71.6% had both molars and incisors. In descending order the associations of affected teeth more frequently found were: 4 molars/2 incisors (23.5%), 4 molars/4 incisors (16.8%), 4 molars alone (15.1%) and 2 molars alone (9.7%), the remaining being much less. As age increased the

  13. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis among elementary and middle school students in Changsha city and its impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Wang, M; Xie, J; Li, W; Zhang, X; Wang, T; Tan, G

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among elementary and middle school students and examine its impact on their quality of life. Stratified sampling and cluster sampling surveys were performed among 10-17-year-old students in Changsha city from June 2011 to April 2012. In the stratified sampling survey, the self-reported allergic rhinitis rate was 42.5 per cent. Further examination demonstrated that the average prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 19.4 per cent. The cluster sampling survey demonstrated that 214 of 814 students appeared to be atopic (26.3 per cent). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma was 17.2 and 2.1 per cent, respectively. In total, 71 atopic individuals (8.7 per cent) were without any symptoms of allergic disease. Further analysis showed that allergic rhinitis influenced the students' sleep, emotions and memory (p students' sleep, emotions and memory.

  14. Burden in family caregivers of the elderly: prevalence and association with characteristics of the elderly and the caregivers

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    Lara de Sa Neves Loureiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional, epidemiological study aimed to estimate the prevalence of burden among family caregivers of impaired elderly residents in the city of João Pessoa, and to identify associations between the mean burden and social and demographic characteristics of the elderly and the caregivers. A total number of 240 elderly residents in a previously drawn census tract participated in this research. The sample was composed of 52 elderly and their caregivers. For data collection, a questionnaire was applied with questions on social and demographic characteristics of elderly and caregivers, and the Burden Interview Scale was used. Results showed a high prevalence of burden among caregivers (84.6%, in which a statistically significant association was found with the following characteristics: retired elderly, elderly as head of family, spousal caregivers, and caregivers with less education. The findings of this study may contribute to the development of activities focused on formal and emotional support for the caregivers.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome identified by a stepwise approach

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    Inoue H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiromasa Inoue,1 Takahide Nagase,2 Satoshi Morita,3 Atsushi Yoshida,4 Tatsunori Jinnai,4 Masakazu Ichinose5 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Department of Biomedical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, 4Medical Department, AstraZeneca K.K., Osaka, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background and objective: There is increasing recognition of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS, which shares some features of both asthma and COPD; however, the prevalence and characteristics of ACOS are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ACOS among patients with COPD and its characteristics using a stepwise approach as stated in the recent report of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD. Methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study enrolled outpatients who were receiving medical treatment for COPD. Clinical data, including spirometry results, were retrieved from medical records. For symptom assessment, patients were asked to complete the Clinical COPD questionnaire and the modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire. Results: Of the 1,008 patients analyzed, 167 (16.6% had syndromic features of ACOS. Of the total number of patients, 93 and 42 (9.2% and 4.2% also had a predefined clinical variability of ≥12%/≥200 mL and ≥12%/≥400 mL in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, respectively, and therefore were identified as having ACOS. Conversely, the number of patients who had either syndromic or spirometric feature of ACOS was 595 (59.0%, ≥12%/≥200 mL FEV1 clinical variability, and 328 patients (32.5%, ≥12%/≥400 m

  16. Which characteristics of nursing home residents influence differences in malnutrition prevalence? An international comparison of The Netherlands, Germany and Austria.

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    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud

    2014-03-28

    Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students.

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    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among physical education students.

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    Ferrari, Elisa Pinheiro; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among physical education students enrolled in a public university. This study evaluated 236 students and assessed body image perception (silhouette scale), sociodemographic variables (sex, age, parental education, marital status, university course, work, living arrangement, study shift, and income), physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version), dietary habits, tobacco use, excessive intake of alcohol (questions from the tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and nutrition domains of the FANTASTIC instrument), and nutritional status (body mass index [BMI]). Descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and crude and adjusted multinomial regression were used. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 69.5%; 44.1% were dissatisfied with excess weight. BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² was associated with dissatisfaction with excess weight; factors associated with dissatisfaction with slimness were being male, eating an unhealthy diet, and smoking tobacco. Our findings suggest that female college students with a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m² are more likely to present dissatisfaction with excess weight. Being male, eating an unhealthy diet, engaging in physical activity for smoking tobacco were the variables associated with dissatisfaction with thinness.

  19. Prevalence and profile of alcohol consumption among university students in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisoto, Pablo; Cacho, Raúl; López-Goñi, José J; Vaca, Silvia; Jiménez, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the main health and social problems in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in the prevalence and psychosocial profile of problematic consumers among university students. We surveyed 3,232 students by using the AUDIT and psychosocial scales. To discriminate the explanatory value of each variable, a CHAID segmentation analysis was used. The prevalence of alcohol consumption was 92.24% in men and 82.86% in women. In total, 49.73% of men and 23.80% of women reported problematic consumption. In men, the profile of problematic consumption was defined by higher scores in anxiety and depression, especially if they showed higher levels of psychological stress and lower life engagement. In women, problematic consumption showed a tendency towards psychological inflexibility, especially in those with lower life engagement. There is a need to prioritise attention to alcohol consumption in university students and to design different interventions for men and women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of headaches in Japanese elementary and junior high school students: A school-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masahide; Yokoyama, Koji; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Koichi; Kawamata, Ryou; Matsumoto, Shizuko; Yamagata, Takanori

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have investigated pediatric headaches in Japan. Thus, we examined the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of headaches among elementary and junior high school students in Japan. In this school-based study, children aged 6-15years completed a questionnaire based on the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3β to assess headache characteristics and related disability. Of the 3285 respondents, 1623 (49.4%) experienced headaches. Migraine and tension-type headaches (TTH) were reported by 3.5% and 5.4% of elementary school students, respectively, and by 5.0% and 11.2% of junior high school students. Primary headaches increased with age. Compared with TTH sufferers, the dominant triggers in migraine sufferers were hunger (odds ratio=4.7), sunny weather (3.3), and katakori (neck and shoulder pain) (2.5). Compared with TTH, migraine caused higher headache-related frustration (P=0.010) as well as difficulty concentrating (P=0.017). Migraine-related disability was greater among junior high school students (feeling fed up or irritated, P=0.028; difficulty concentrating, P=0.016). TTH-related disability was also greater among junior high school students (feeling fed up or irritated, P=0.035). Approximately half of the students who complained of headache-related disability were not receiving medical treatment. This is the first detailed study of headaches in Japanese children to include elementary school students. Nearly 50% of the school children reported headaches and the disruption of daily activities caused by migraine was higher among junior high students than elementary school students. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Prevalence of Allergic Contact Sensitization of Practicing and Student Nurses

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    A Akan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis (CD is a significant problem among nurses. Although there are reports about the prevalence of CD from different parts of the world, data about its frequency in Turkey and about allergic contact sensitization among nurses is insufficient. Objective: To define the frequency and patterns of allergic contact sensitization and related symptoms in practicing and student nurses. Methods: There were 123 nurses in our hospital practicing in the in-patient clinics. All were invited to participate in the study. 69 working-in nurses and 79 student nurses participated in the study. The main reason for refusal of nurses was that they were usually having a shower daily after a hard working day and they had to postpone having a bath for 3 days if they had a patch test on their back. A ready-to-use patch test system (TRUE test® with 29 standardized test substances was applied to all of the participants. History about symptoms of CD and allergic diseases was investigated by questionnaire. Results: While 34.8% (24/69 of practicing nurses had symptoms of CD, 19% (15/79 of student nurses reported the symptoms (p=0.039. The most prevalent positive reaction was to nickel sulfate followed by thimerosal. There was no difference for positive reaction rates between practicing and student nurses. Nurses who had symptoms of CD were older than those without symptoms (p=0.003. The participants with symptoms of CD were more frequently from practicing nurses (p=0.047. Conclusion: CD is more frequent in practicing nurses than student nurses; allergic contact sensitization is not. This may be attributed to the length of occupation that is also correlated well with the length of exposure to the occupational irritants.

  2. Non-cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities: An In-depth Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification and intervention issues and, beyond that, the relevance of non-cognitive characteristics is often left unconsidered. Accordingly, this study aims to conduct an in-depth review of the non-cognitive characteristics of these students for identification and intervention purposes. Detailed analysis was performed on 23 publications. High levels of negative emotions, low self-perception, and adverse interpersonal relationships, as well as high levels of motivation, coping skills and perseverance were found among these students. A common characteristic was a high degree of frustration with the academic situation. The study reveals that these students show considerably duality in their non-cognitive characteristics which requires tailored counseling skills to provide effective support for their learning needs.

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella , and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella , thereby posing a threat to public health.

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Bed-Sharing Among Black and White Infants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm Ward, Trina C; Robb, Sara Wagner; Kanu, Florence A

    2016-02-01

    To examine: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of bed-sharing among non-Hispanic Black and White infants in Georgia, and (2) differences in bed-sharing and sleep position behaviors prior to and after the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2005 recommendations against bed-sharing. Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data were obtained from the Georgia Department of Public Health. Analysis was guided by the socioecological model levels of: Infant, Maternal, Family, and Community/Society within the context of race. Data from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to address the first objective and from 2000 to 2004 and 2006 to 2011 to address the second objective. Rao-Scott Chi square tests and backward selection unconditional logistic regression models for weighted data were built separately by race; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 6595 (3528 Black and 3067 White) cases were analyzed between 2004 and 2011. Significantly more Black mothers (81.9 %) reported "ever" bed-sharing compared to White mothers (56 %), p Blacks, the final model included infant age, pregnancy intention, number of dependents, and use of Women, Infant and Children (WIC) Services. For Whites, the final model included infant age, maternal age, financial stress, partner-related stress, and WIC. When comparing the period 2000-2004 to 2006-2011, a total of 10,015 (5373 Black and 4642 White cases) were analyzed. A significant decrease in bedsharing was found for both Blacks and Whites; rates of non-supine sleep position decreased significantly for Blacks but not Whites. Continued high rates of bed-sharing and non-supine sleep position for both Blacks and Whites demonstrate an ongoing need for safe infant sleep messaging. Risk profiles for Black and White mothers differed, suggesting the importance of tailored messaging. Specific research and practice implications are identified and described.

  5. Prevalence of colour blindness among the first year medical & dental students of Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M I; Nahar, L; Dad, M S; Islam, M F; Uddin, M M

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the etiology, type and prevalence of colour blindness & to create awareness among the blind personnel. A survey of colour blindness among 239 ( male-87 & female-152) Medical and Dental first year students during their medical checkup before admission into Mymensingh Medical College in the session of 2012-2013 was done. Among them 8(male-7, female-1) were colour blind and prevalence was 3.35 % with a marked male predominance (male 8.04%, female 0.66 %). In view of the potential difficulties faced by such personnel in clinical works, detection during medical admission allowed appropriate counseling regarding subject selection for their future carrier.

  6. PREVALENCE OF INTERNET ADDICTION: A PILOT STUDY IN A GROUP OF ITALIAN HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS

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    Mario Campanella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of Internet Addiction (IA amongst a group of high-school students living in Southern Italy. Method: 560 hundred students of both sexes of a “Liceo Classico” who volenteered for the study were included. They completed a smaller version of a specific questionnaire for IA developed by us. Results: 500, out of the total of 560 questionnaires that were returned, were correctly completed and could be analyzed. The main findings were that almost all students used the smartphone to access Internet. About 16% of them used it for a time ranging between 90 and 120 minutes a day, and the remaining less than one hour. The most used applications were Facebook and Whatsup. Fifty percent of the students owned a videogame console, and dedicated less than two hours a day on videogames. The ensuing data were presented to the students and a debate was promoted amongst them. Conclusions: Internet and related technology are now part of the everyday life especially of adolescents. The benefits and limits of them should be underlined. On the same time, an incresead awareness on the possibility of developing an excessive use until a real addiction should be promoted amongst younger generations.

  7. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MODERN STUDENT

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    Y. V. Kukanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the findings of a sociological research, conducted in January 2013 and aimed at defining the modern student’s socio-psychological profile. The survey involved 415 students aged from 17 to 22, studying at Moscow State Regional University, Russian State University of Tourism and Services, and the Financial and Technological Academy. The questionnaire, entitled to reveal the social facts, affecting students’ activity and behavior, as well as the conscious phenomena (motives, values, attitudes, etc., registered the students’ opinions on a wide range of both the social life and professional preference issues.The research presents the students’ socio-demographic characteristics, personal value orientations in different activity spheres, and cultural level; socialization problems and specifics of cooperation and interrelation with surrounding people being denoted along with participation in social and political life, and informal organizations.The main conclusion of the research emphasizes the fact of students’ exposure to the complicated socialization conditions. However, despite the adaptation problems, the author points out the growth of self-consciousness and intention to defend their opinions as the distinctive feature of that social group, the self-esteem being the primary behavior regulator. 

  8. Prevalence of Primary Dysmenorrhea and Factors Associated with Its Intensity Among Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nahal; Huang, Mary Soo Lee; Gan, Wan Ying; Zulida, Rejali; Safavi, Sayyed Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a womanhood problem around the world and negatively affects quality of life. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and to determine the factors associated with its intensity. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 311 undergraduate female students aged 18 to 27 years in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Socio-demographic characteristics and menstrual factors were obtained through interviews with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was 89.1%. Residing at home, younger age, lower number of years of formal education for the mother, positive family history of dysmenorrhea, higher severity of bleeding, and shorter menstrual period intervals were significantly associated with the higher intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common health concern among young women. Being aware of the factors that are associated with its intensity makes it possible for health professionals to organize better focused programs to reduce the adverse effects of dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reading and spelling skills in German third graders: Examining the role of student and context characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Larsen, Ross A A; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Fäsche, Anika

    2015-12-01

    Educational processes and outcomes are influenced by a multitude of factors, including individual and contextual characteristics. Recently, studies have demonstrated that student and context characteristics may produce unique and cumulative effects on educational outcomes. The study aimed to investigate (1) the relative contribution of student, classroom, and school characteristics to reading fluency and orthographic spelling, (2) the relative contribution of specific predictors to reading fluency and orthographic spelling within the sets of student, classroom, and school characteristics, and (3) whether the contribution of student, classroom, and school characteristics differs for reading fluency and orthographic spelling. Participants were 789 German third-grade students from 56 classrooms in 34 schools. Students completed an intelligence test and a questionnaire assessing self-control. Reading fluency and orthographic spelling performance were assessed using standardized achievement tests. Multilevel structural equation modelling was used to control for the hierarchical structure of educational data. Variances in students' reading and spelling skills were in large part explained by student characteristics (>90%). Classroom and school characteristics yielded little variance. Student-level intelligence and self-control were significantly related to reading fluency. For orthographic spelling, student-level intelligence and self-control, class-average intelligence, and, at the school level, the socio-economic status of the school's neighbourhood were significant predictors. Future research needs to investigate relevant classroom and school factors that may directly and indirectly relate to academic outcomes. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh

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    Nurshad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors

  11. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2017-07-25

    Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The

  12. Prevalence and co-occurrence of compulsive buying, problematic Internet and mobile phone use in college students in Yantai, China: relevance of self-traits

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    Zhaocai Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now, most research in the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB has been developed from samples in western developed countries, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence and co-morbidities of CB, problematic Internet use (PIU and problematic mobile phone use (PMPU in college students in Yantai, China. Moreover, based on the lack of research focusing on differences between CB and addiction, we will explore whether CB and PIU/PMPU individuals are characterized by the same self-traits (i. e., self-control, self-esteem and self-efficacy related profile. Methods A total of 601 college students were involved in this cross-sectional study. Compulsive buying, problematic Internet and mobile phone use and self-traits were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. The demographic information and use characteristics were included in the questionnaires. Results The incidence of CB, PIU and PMPU were 5.99, 27.8 and 8.99% respectively. In addition, compared with rural students, students from cities are more likely to get involved in CB. Students using mobile phone to surf the Internet displayed higher risk of PIU than counterparts using computer. Students using Internet or mobile phone longer are more prone to problematic use. Furthermore, we found the strong correlations and high co-morbidities of CB, PIU and PMPU and self-control was the most significant predictor for all three disorders. However, self-esteem and self-efficacy were significant predictors only for CB. Conclusions Our findings indicated that with the prevalence of CB and PMPU roughly equivalent to that demonstrated in previous studies, PIU in Chinese college students is serious and deserves more attention. Furthermore, besides the impulsive aspect common with addiction, CB is also driven by painful self-awareness derived from low self-regard which implies the obsessive-compulsive aspect.

  13. Prevalence and co-occurrence of compulsive buying, problematic Internet and mobile phone use in college students in Yantai, China: relevance of self-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaocai; Shi, Mingyan

    2016-12-01

    Until now, most research in the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) has been developed from samples in western developed countries, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence and co-morbidities of CB, problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) in college students in Yantai, China. Moreover, based on the lack of research focusing on differences between CB and addiction, we will explore whether CB and PIU/PMPU individuals are characterized by the same self-traits (i. e., self-control, self-esteem and self-efficacy) related profile. A total of 601 college students were involved in this cross-sectional study. Compulsive buying, problematic Internet and mobile phone use and self-traits were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. The demographic information and use characteristics were included in the questionnaires. The incidence of CB, PIU and PMPU were 5.99, 27.8 and 8.99% respectively. In addition, compared with rural students, students from cities are more likely to get involved in CB. Students using mobile phone to surf the Internet displayed higher risk of PIU than counterparts using computer. Students using Internet or mobile phone longer are more prone to problematic use. Furthermore, we found the strong correlations and high co-morbidities of CB, PIU and PMPU and self-control was the most significant predictor for all three disorders. However, self-esteem and self-efficacy were significant predictors only for CB. Our findings indicated that with the prevalence of CB and PMPU roughly equivalent to that demonstrated in previous studies, PIU in Chinese college students is serious and deserves more attention. Furthermore, besides the impulsive aspect common with addiction, CB is also driven by painful self-awareness derived from low self-regard which implies the obsessive-compulsive aspect.

  14. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

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    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  15. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among college students of Bhavnagar, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra; Tiwari, Deepak Sachidanand; Vala, Ashok Ukabhai; Bhatt, Renish Bhupendrabhai

    2016-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced during the specific time of menstrual cycle. Prevalence data of PMS and PMDD is sparse among college girls in India. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of PMS and PMDD among college students of Bhavnagar (Gujarat), its associated demographic and menstrual factors, to rank common symptoms and compare premenstrual symptom screening tool (PSST) with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR defined PMDD (SCID-PMDD) for sensitivity and specificity. A cross-sectional survey was done in five colleges of Bhavnagar. Of 529 subjects approached, 489 college girls were finally analyzed for sociodemographic data, menstrual history, and PSST. SCID-PMDD was applied among those who were positive on PSST and 20% of those who were negative. The data were analyzed using OpenEpi Version 2. Chi-square test was done for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for PSST. The prevalence of PMS was 18.4%. Moderate to severe PMS was 14.7% and PMDD was 3.7% according to DSM IV-TR and 91% according to International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) edition criteria. The symptoms commonly reported were "fatigue/lack of energy," "decrease interest in work," and "anger/irritability." The most common functional impairment item was "school/work efficiency and productivity." PSST has 90.9% sensitivity, 57.01% specificity, and 97.01% predictive value of negative test. Prevalence of PMS among college students is similar to other studies from Asia. PSST is a useful screening tool for PMS, and it should be confirmed by more specific tool as by SCID-PMDD. Routine screening with PSST can identify college girls who can improve with treatment.

  16. Reproducibility of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in populations with low, intermediate, and high prevalence of coronary artery disease by multidetector computer tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina C; Linde, Jesper J; Fuchs, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the interobserver agreement of visual coronary plaque characteristics by 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in three populations with low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence and to identify determinants for the reproducible assessment of these plaque characteristics...

  17. Prevalence of Migraine Among Medical Students in Zahedan Faculty of Medicine (Southeast of Iran

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    Mohammad R. Shahrakai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Migraine is a refer pain which is common in adults and children. Migraine and its frequently limits the daily life activities. Since medical students are subjected to stresses regarding lots of tests and the implicit responsibility to the courses, the purpose of the present study carried out to evaluate the prevalence of migraine among medical students in Zahedan University. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was performed on 210 (male 94 and female 116 medical students in Zahedan faculty of Medicine during an academic year (2005 to 2006. The questionnaire was specified on demographic data and headache questions based on International Headache Society (IHS. Students’ Migraine was confirmed by clinical interviews, general physical and neurological examinations then the data obtained were analyzed using v 11 of SPSS, Chi square. Afterward the percentage and the mean (±SD along with the statistical difference (P<0.05 of the T-tests were calculated. Results and Discussion: The present study showed that the rate of headache during recent academic years was 90.5% in males and 88.8 % in females. The prevalence of migraine was 7.14 % in both sex (migraine without aura 4.29% and migraine with aura 2.86%. The most common of migraine triggers was stress, (73% sleeplessness (52.5%, too much reading (39.25% and fasting (39.55%. In this sense the moderate light and severe incidence were 52.27%, 38.18% and 9.09%. The prevalence of migraine did not have any relations with gender but there was a relation between having migraine and number of studying years.

  18. Prevalence of dental caries and associated factors among 12 years old students in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andegiorgish, Amanuel Kidane; Weldemariam, Bizen Weldmicheal; Kifle, Meron Mehari; Mebrahtu, Filmon Gebreysus; Zewde, Henos Keflom; Tewelde, Micheal Gebregziabhir; Hussen, Mohammed Anwar; Tsegay, Winta Kesete

    2017-12-29

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases of childhood in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries in Eritrea. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among 12 years old school children in Eritrea. A school based cross sectional study was conducted among 225 twelve years old students in two selected schools. One school from randomly selected urban and rural subzones of the country were selected. WHO adopted questionnaire and a standard checklist were used to collect relevant data. To assess dental caries, two examiners were calibrated by a certified dentist and inter observer agreement was calculated using the Cohen's Kappa statistic (0.82). All data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of dental caries was 78%, without significant difference between males (78%) and females (79%).The mean DMFT value was 2.50 (±2.21). The decayed component contributed 98.3% of the score as it had 2.44 (±1.2) share to the mean DMFT value. The first molar was the most affected tooth with a DMFT value of 1.55 (±1.36). The mean significant caries index score (SiC) was 4.97 (±1.9) which is higher than the upper limit of SiC value of 3 set by the WHO as a global average. More than half of the respondents had never visited a dentist and out of the students who had utilized a dental health facility, 82% of visits were due to dental pain while visits for regular checkups were cited by only 6.6% of the respondents. Dental caries was found to be a common public health problem among 12 years old Eritrean students. The prevalence of dental caries, mean DMFT and SiC scores were higher than the average score of other developing countries. Gaps in dental health service utilization, dental health practices and suboptimal water fluoride levels contribute to poor dental health among school children in Eritrea.

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia, 2016

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    Belete GT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gizachew Tilahun Belete,1 Dereje Hayilu Anbesse,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Mohammed Seid Hussen1 1Department of Optometry, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Myopia is an important cause of correctable visual impairment and preventable blindness worldwide. Prevalence rates are approximately 20%–35% among the older teenage population globally. It has a medical burden of pathologic complications such as maculopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. High school students experience high-performance and study pressures in the preparation for the final national examination. As a result they are exposed to excessive near work and indoor activities. They are also ignored for regular screening. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 high school students with systematic random sampling method from April 18 to April 29, 2016, in three full-cycle high schools (9th–12th grades. A standardized structured questionnaire, Snellen acuity chart, pinhole, retinoscope, trial case lenses, pen torch, and direct ophthalmoscope were used to collect data. Results: A total of 495 study participants were included, and they had a mean age of 17.48±1.59 years. The prevalence of myopia was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2, 17.9. Family history of myopia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.08 [95% CI: 4.30, 15.16], school being private (AOR=2.88 [95% CI: 1.02, 8.11], longer time spent for near work (AOR=2.89 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.43], longer time spent partaking in indoor activities (AOR=4.32 [95% CI: 1.69, 10.99], shorter near working distance (AOR=3.06 [95% CI: 1.33, 7.06], lack of outdoor sport activities (AOR=2.27 [95% CI: 1.05, 4.90], use of visual display units (AOR=2.81 [95% CI

  20. [Relationships between prevalence of youth risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Chie; Nozu, Yuji; Kudo, Masako; Sato, Yuki; Kubo, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Naoko; Iwata, Hideki; Watanabe, Motoi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify relationships between prevalence of risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students. Data from a national survey, the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 (the subjects were 9,778 students: 5,027 males, 4,751 females, in the first grade to the third grade of 102 schools randomly selected among high schools throughout Japan) was used for this analysis. We focused on nine items of risk behavior in JYRBS: "lack of vigorous physical activity," "skipping breakfast," "current cigarette use," "current alcohol use," "lifetime thinner use," "ever had sexual intercourse," "rarely or never wore seatbelts," "in a physical fight," and "seriously considered attempting suicide." Students with less than six hours of sleep duration accounted for approximately 40% of males and females. The odds ratios of prevalence of each of the nine risk behaviors were calculated on the basis of the group "six hours or more and less than eight hours" of sleep, whose prevalence of risk behaviors was the lowest. In the group with "four hours or more and less than six hours," the odds ratios of "lack of vigorous physical activity" and "skipping breakfast" for both males and females were significantly high. Furthermore, in the group with shorter sleep duration of "less than four hours," the odds ratios of all nine risk behaviors for males (odds ratios: 1.47-3.28) and eight risk behaviors (except for "rarely or never wore seatbelts") for females (1.54-4.68) were significantly high. On the other hand, in the group with long sleep duration of "10 hours or more," the odds ratios of "current cigarette use" and "lifetime thinner use" for both males and females were significantly high. It was shown that short sleep duration of less than six hours and long sleep duration of 10 hours or more related to the prevalence of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. It was suggested that sleep duration should be considered as an important category

  1. Prevalence of Orthorexia nervosa among college students based on Bratman's test and associated tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundros, Joanna; Clifford, Dawn; Silliman, Kathryn; Neyman Morris, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Disordered eating is prevalent among college student populations, and Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is being explored as a new type of eating disorder. There is currently no standardized ON diagnostic tool, and the majority of ON research has been conducted among European populations. The present study explored the Bratman Orthorexia Test (BOT) for ON diagnosis, and its relationship to validated tools for assessing disordered eating, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies among college students attending a western university. A convenience sample of 448 college students with a mean age of 22 years was recruited to complete an online survey that included the BOT, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory, Revised (OCI-R) and demographics. Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square, and multiple linear regressions were used for analyses. The average BOT score was 4.71, near the "health fanatic" range, with Hispanic/Latino subjects and overweight/obese students having significantly higher median BOT scores. Gender, age, and college major were not significantly associated with BOT score. Significant positive correlations were observed between total BOT and EAT-26 scores (r = .47, p < 0.01), BOT and BDDQ scores (r = .25, p < 0.01), and BOT and OCI-R scores (r = .19, p < 0.01). ON tendencies may exist among college students and Hispanic/Latino and overweight/obese students may be at increased risk. Further research is needed to determine ON risk factors among diverse student populations in order to inform prevention and treatment approaches on college campuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Troubled Spirits: Prevalence and Predictors of Religious and Spiritual Concerns among University Students and Counseling Center Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad V.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    The authors conducted a study of 5,472 university students to identify the prevalence and predictors of religious and spiritual concerns. Approximately 25% of the sample reported considerable distress related to such concerns. Logistic regression analyses revealed that students with considerable distress related to religious or spiritual concerns…

  3. Chinese College Students' Perceptions of Characteristics of Excellent Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Keeley, Jared; Buskist, William

    2015-01-01

    We "employed the Teacher Behavior Checklist" (TBC) to investigate Chinese college students' perceptions of excellent teachers' qualities and then compared the results to those from previously collected data from American and Japanese students. Chinese students tended to favor additional structure both in the classroom and in teachers'…

  4. Prevalence and attitude of university students towards mobile phone use while driving in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil; Atta, Hazem; Alyaseen, Mujtaba Ahmed; Albagshe, Ammar Jameel; Alattallah, Haidar Ghalib

    2018-02-08

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and attitude of university students towards mobile phone use while driving. The present study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and ninety-three participants were recruited for this study. Attitude, consequences and their involvement in various reckless behaviours pertaining to the use of mobile phone while driving were checked by a questionnaire. Overall, the majority of the respondents (90%) use a mobile phone while driving. About half of the participants had experienced consequences regarding texting while driving and had engaged in reckless behaviour. The majority of the students of Faculty of Medicine, Engineering Sciences, Earth Sciences, Administration and Economics and Orientation Classes were more frequently texting while driving (p mobile phone while driving.

  5. Risk factors and the prevalence of anorexia nervosa among female students in Serbia

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    Lazarević Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The widespread symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN in young women require to draw professional attention to this problem in Serbia. In previous research on AN, insecure attachment styles, perfectionism and concerns about body shape were identified as notable risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of AN among female students and assess the importance of these factors in its development. Methods. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were applied to a sample of 500 randomly selected female students of the University of Belgrade, the mean age of 22.44 years (min 18, max 35. In addition, Body Mass Index (BMI was also calculated. Results. Although 38 (7.6% female students displayed symptoms of AN (EAT > 30 and 13 (2.6% had BMI indicating anorexia nervosa syndrome (BMI ≤ 17.50 kg/m2, only 1 (0.2% student fulfilled both criteria. The majority of female students (60.4% had some type of insecure attachment style. There is a significant influence of attachment styles on symptoms of AN: female students with insecure attachment styles have a significantly higher mean score on the EAT compared to those with secure attachment style (F = 7.873; p < 0.01. There was a positive correlation between scores on the EAT and FMPS (r = 0.217; p < 0.01, and scores on the EAT and BSQ (r = 0.388; p < 0.01. Conclusions. The obtained results show the prevalence of AN of 0.2% among female students and indicate the importance of insecure attachment styles, perfectionism and concern about body shape as risk factors. Activities for the prevention of AN in this subpopulation should include internet-based therapy and special counseling services with specific programs focusing on emotion-regulation skills through mindfulness, acceptance and commitment techniques, as well as specific cognitive

  6. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

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    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  7. [Prevalence of and factors related to depression in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet; Ertekin, Kamil; Harlak, Hacer; Dereboy, Ciğdem

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of and factors related to depression in high school students. A total of 805 (n = 367 girls; n = 438 boys) first year students from three high schools in the city of Aydin filled in a self-report questionnaire that contained questions about socio-demographics, academic achievement and religious belief. It included also a depression rating scale, social support scale, problem solving inventory and an assertiveness scale. T-tests, chi-square tests, Pearson moment products correlation coefficients, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. 141 students (17.5%) scored on and above the cut-off point on the Children Depression Inventory (CDI). In the first regression analyses low self-esteem, low grade point average (GPA) and low perceived social support from friends in boys, and low self-esteem, low paternal educational level and low social support from friends were the predictors of girls' depression. When self-esteem scores were excluded, low GPA, low perceived social support from friends and family, and inefficient problem solving skills were predictors of depression in boys; low perceived social support from friends and family, low paternal educational level, and inefficient problem solving skills were the independent predictors of depression in girls. Depression is prevalent in high school students. Low self-esteem, low perceived social support from peers and family, and inefficient problem solving skills appears to be risk factors for adolescent depression. Low GPA for boys and low paternal education for girls were gender specific risk factors. Psychosocial interventions geared for increasing self-esteem, social support and problem solving skills may be effective in the prevention and treatment of adolescent depression.

  8. Prevalence of Substance Abuse among Senior Secondary Students in Mainland Local Government, Lagos

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    George N. Ani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Use of drugs among adolescents is a global phenomenon eating deep into the fabrics of our society. Students are most vulnerable at this transformative stage in their life. Available report indicates that Nigeria is currently the highest consumer of cannabis and amphetamine in Africa. What is the prevalence of this abuse by students? Methodology: This research was a cross sectional descriptive design to identify the prevalence of substance abuse among students in public senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government, Lagos. A sample size of two hundred and sixty two was determined and used from randomly selected five out of the nine public schools identified. Multi stage sampling (including simple random and systematic sampling and probability proportional to size methods were usefully employed in scientific selection of 262 samples and subsequent data collection in a total sample frame of 1,938 students. Self-administered questionnaire consisting of open and close-ended questions generated using research objectives was used in data collection. Result: It identified that 19.5% had smoked cigarette once or more in their lifetime. 77.2% had used alcohol once or more in a life time while 7.7% used marijuana, 8.4% tranquilizers and 1.9% cocaine all in a life time respectively. Conclusion: It recommended strict regulation of alcohol and tobacco products import and use in public places as well as aggressive dissemination of information on the dangers of substance use and abuse.

  9. A Systematic Review of the Relationships between Principal Characteristics and Student Achievement. REL 2016-091

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement was created for educators, administrators, policy-makers, and other individuals interested in a comprehensive catalogue of research on relations between principal characteristics and student achievement. It synthesizes what is known about…

  10. Online, Instructional Television and Traditional Delivery: Student Characteristics and Success Factors in Business Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, Douglas P.; Rochelle, Carolyn F.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education has surged in recent years while research on student characteristics and factors leading to successful outcomes has not kept pace. This study examined characteristics of regional university students in undergraduate Business Statistics and factors linked to their success based on three modes of delivery - Online, Instructional…

  11. Characteristics Leading Teachers to Nominate Secondary Students as Gifted in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Torrano, Daniel; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Sainz, Marta

    2013-01-01

    What are the characteristics leading teachers to nominate gifted students in Spain? To answer this question, several demographic (i.e., gender, grade) and psychological (i.e., multiple intelligences, emotional intelligence, intellectual aptitude, and divergent thinking) characteristics of 563 secondary students nominated as gifted by their…

  12. What Do College Students Want? A Prioritization of Instructional Behaviors and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Cranmer, Gregory A.; Sollitto, Michael; Labelle, Sara; Lancaster, Alexander L.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by Rhetorical and Relational Goals Theory, this study examined college students' preferences for effective teaching behaviors and characteristics. Students (n = 209) articulated qualities in their ideal instructor by prioritizing 10 instructional behaviors and characteristics from the rhetorical and relational traditions (assertive,…

  13. Learning Context When Studying Financial Planning in High Schools: Nesting of Student, Teacher, and Classroom Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, Sharon M.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Brewton, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in social construction theory, the current study investigates the learning context when studying financial planning in high school by analyzing the nesting of student, teacher and classroom characteristics. Key findings were that three student characteristics (initial financial knowledge, gender, senior grade level), one teacher variable…

  14. Prevalence and association of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder with academic performance among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein Shehadeh, Jumana; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M

    2018-04-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is particularly a female psychological disorder that has consequences on female students' behavior, cognitive abilities, mental health status, and academic performance. To examine the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and PMDD, and their relationship with academic performance among female university students in Jordan. Prospective-correlational design was employed among 858 university students. Data collected in regards to daily record of signs of PMDD and PMS, academic motivation, and student's involvement. Prevalence of PMS was 92.3% and that of PMDD was 7.7%. There were significant differences in self-determination levels between students with PMS and those with PMDD. PMDD symptoms have a negative impact on female students' academic performance; thus, mental health professionals have a major role in determining factors that buffer severity of PMDD among females. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prevalence of refractive errors in students in Northeastern Brazil Prevalência dos erros refrativos em estudantes do Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in the public and private school system in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Refractometry was performed on both eyes of 1,024 randomly selected students, enrolled in the 2001 school year and the data were evaluated by the SPSS Data Editor 10.0. Ametropia was divided into: 1- from 0.1 to 0.99 diopter (D; 2- 1.0 to 2.99D; 3- 3.00 to 5.99D and 4- 6D or greater. Astigmatism was regrouped in: I- with-the-rule (axis from 0 to 30 and 150 to 180 degrees, II- against-the-rule (axis between 60 and 120 degrees and III- oblique (axis between > 30 and 120 and OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das ametropias em estudantes das redes pública e privada de Natal-RN. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada refratometria de 2.048 olhos de estudantes matriculados no ano letivo de 2001 e os dados avaliados com planilha do SPSS Data Editor 11. As ametropias foram divididas em: 1- de 0,1 até 0,99D (dioptria; 2- 1,0 até 2,99D; 3- 3,00 até 5,99D e 4- 6D ou maior. O astigmatismo foi reagrupado em I- a favor da regra (eixo entre 0 a 30 e 150 a 180 graus, II- contra a regra (eixo entre 60 e 120 graus e III- oblíquo (eixo entre >30 e 120 e <150 graus. A faixa etária foi categorizada em 1- 5 a 10 anos, 2- 11 a 15 anos, 3- 16 a 20 anos, 4- 21anos ou mais. RESULTADOS: Dos erros refrativos, a hipermetropia foi o mais comum com 71%, em seguida astigmatismo, 34% e miopia, 13,3%. 48,5% dos míopes e 34,1% dos hipermétropes tinham astigmatismo. De acordo com as dioptrias, 58,1% dos míopes estão no grupo 1, 39% distribuídos entre os grupos 2 e 3. Os hipermétropes enquadram-se em sua maioria no grupo 1 (61,7% e o astigmatismo no mesmo grupo com 70,6%. A associação dos eixos do astigmatismo dos dois olhos mostrou 95,2% com eixo a favor da regra nos dois olhos, diminuindo a porcentagem para os do eixo contra a regra (82,1% e menor ainda para os do eixo oblíquo, apenas 50%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados

  16. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Prevalence of Indoor Tanning Among US High School Students, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Holman, Dawn M; Jones, Sherry Everett; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P

    2018-07-01

    To examine the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning behavior using nationally representative samples of US high school students younger than 18 years. We combined data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 41 313) to analyze the association between 2 types of state indoor tanning laws (age restriction and parental permission) and the prevalence of indoor tanning during the 12 months before the survey, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and survey year, and stratified by gender. Age restriction laws were associated with a 47% (P tanning prevalence among female high school students. Parental permission laws were not found to be associated with indoor tanning prevalence among either female or male high school students. Age restriction laws could contribute to less indoor tanning, particularly among female high school students. Such reductions may reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer.

  17. Age-related prevalence and characteristics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in periodontitis patients living in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Rolf; Höglund-Åberg, Carola; Haubek, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Background: The presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontitis has been extensively studied for decades. Objective: To study the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in younger and older periodontitis patients and to genetically characterize isolates...

  18. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  19. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Kurtuncu, Meltem; Kulakci, Hulya; Celik, Sevim

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an energy metabolism disorder which results in the excessive storage of fat and may also lead to physical and psychological problems. Since the 1980s, obesity has drastically increased across all age and socio-economic groups around the world. The purpose of the study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the age group of 6-15 years. This was a population-based cross-sectional study on 868 students in Bahçelievler elementary school in Zonguldak, Turkey from March to April in 2010. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements. The median age was 10.3 ± 2.1; 47.6% of the children were female and 52.4% of them were male. About 70.2% of the students consumed fast food. It was identified that 67.1% of the students in the 6-10-year age group and 32.9% in 11-15-year age group were obese (P = 0.000). The obesity prevalence of children with one or two siblings was higher than the ones with more than two siblings (P = 0.001). The study concluded that there were certain criteria related to development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and taking certain precautions could be effective in preventing it.

  20. Prevalence of Dyslexia among Male Students in Primary Schools and Its Relationship with Obesity and Being Overweight in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background The most important process in childhood and adolescence is learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslexia among primary male school students and the relationship between dyslexia, obesity and overweight. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1000 male students (first to fifth grade) in primary schools (20 schools) by using the multi-stage random sampling (50 students were selected randomly from each school). Data collection instrument...

  1. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ganesh S.; Jain, Animesh; Hegde, Supriya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Depression among medical students is an area of increasing concern worldwide. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among medical students. Materials and Methods: A stratified random sample of 400 students was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory by investigators. Associations between depression and class of studying, social factors like alcohol use, drug addiction, family problems, family history of depression, and st...

  2. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  3. Students' Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placklé, Ingeborg; Könings, Karen D.; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Struyven, Katrien; Libotton, Arno; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Engels, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument - the Inventory Powerful Learning…

  4. Noncognitive characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities: An in-depth systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification

  5. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, J. R.; Ossevoort, M. A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M. J.

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive e-learning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  6. The influence of student characteristics on the use of adaptive e-learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Ossevoort, M.A.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive e-learning materials can help teachers to educate heterogeneous student groups. This study provides empirical data about the way academic students differ in their learning when using adaptive elearning materials. Ninety-four students participated in the study. We determined characteristics

  7. The Developmental Characteristics of Engagement in Service-Learning for Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Yan, Wenfan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the development characteristics of Chinese college students' engagement during a service-learning project with a case study method: 273 reflective journals from 31 college students who participated in service-learning were analyzed. Results indicated that students' overall engagement showed 4…

  8. Non-cognitive characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities : An in-depth systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification

  9. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  10. Characteristics, prevalence, and outcomes of diabetic foot ulcers in Africa. A systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Mauro; Pizzol, Damiano; Tiago, Armindo; Putoto, Giovanni; Avogaro, Angelo; Fadini, Gian Paolo

    2018-05-26

    Among non-communicable diseases, diabetes represents a growing public health problem in Africa, where diabetes-related needs remain mostly unmet and the disabling features of foot are worsened by hygienic, cultural, and healthcare issues. We aimed to review clinical characteristics, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with diabetic foot ulcer in Africa. We searched the literature for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies reporting the characteristics of patients with diabetic foot in African countries, with a particular focus on ulcer prevalence, amputation rate, and mortality. Fifty-five full-text papers and ten abstracts were retrieved, reporting data from 19 African countries on 56,173 diabetic patients. According to the data collected, the overall prevalence of foot ulcers was 13% and increased over time, especially since 2001. Approximately 15% of patients with foot lesions underwent major amputation and 14.2% died during hospitalization. In patients with diabetic ulcers, insulin therapy was uncommon and neuropathy was the most common predisposing factor, but the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease correlated with amputation rates. Amputation and mortality decreased over time, probably as result of the implementation of screening programs in the last ten years. Mortality was directly related to previous amputation. The diabetic foot disease in Africa is a growing problem and is burden by high rate of in-hospital mortality. Educational interventions and screening programs including evaluation of the vascular status may play a crucial role to counter diabetic foot disease in Africa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence, characteristics and management of headache experienced by people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a cross sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Joanne; Wand, Benedict

    2017-08-01

    Headache is the most common type of pain reported by people with schizophrenia. This study aimed to establish prevalence, characteristics and management of these headaches. One hundred participants with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder completed a reliable and valid headache questionnaire. Two clinicians independently classified each headache as migraine, tension-type, cervicogenic or other. The 12-month prevalence of headache (57%) was higher than the general population (46%) with no evidence of a relationship between psychiatric clinical characteristics and presence of headache. Prevalence of cervicogenic (5%) and migraine (18%) was comparable to the general population. Tension-type (16%) had a lower prevalence and 19% of participants experienced other headache. No one with migraine was prescribed migraine specific medication; no one with cervicogenic and tension-type received best-practice treatment. Headache is a common complaint in people with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with most fitting recognised diagnostic criteria for which effective interventions are available. No one in this sample was receiving best-practice care for their headache.

  12. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors among a sample of university students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of Indian society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors in a sample of Indian university students. In a cross-sectional survey assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among a sample of randomly selected university students. The sample included 800 university students from non health (mainly sciences) courses Gitam University in India. The students were 541 (67.6%) males and 259 (32.4%) females in the age range of 17-20 years (M age 18.2 years, SD=1.0). 37.5% were overweight or obese, 26.8% overweight (≥23-27.4 BMI) and 10.7% obese (≥27.5 kg/m(2)), 11.7% underweight (obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women). In multivariate analysis among men lack of non-organised religious activity (odds ratio=OR 0.85, confidence interval=CI 0.77-0.95), lower dietary risk knowledge (OR=0.64, CI=0.41-0.99), tobacco use (OR=2.23, CI=1.14-4.38), and suffering from depression (OR=1.59, CI=1.00-2.47) were associated with overweight/obesity, and younger age (OR=0.32, CI=0.12-0.90), lives away from parents or guardians (OR=1.79, CI=1.04-3.07), healthy dietary practices (OR=1.95, CI=1.02-3.72) and 9 or more hours sleep duration (OR=0.28, CI=0.09-0.96) were associated with central obesity. In bivariate analysis among women, lack of social support, lower dietary risk knowledge, tobacco use, and 9 or more hours sleep duration were associated with overweight/obesity and lives away from parents or guardians and abstinence from alcohol associated with central obesity. The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity. Several gender specific health risk practices were identified including lack of dietary risk knowledge, shorter sleep duration, living away from parents or guardians, tobacco use and lack of social support and

  13. Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity and Its Associated Factors among University Students from 22 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2% males and 8913 (56.8% females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6. Body mass index (BMI was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women. In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.

  14. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 22 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander

    2014-07-21

    Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.

  15. Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity and Its Associated Factors among University Students from 22 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T. Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H.; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes. PMID:25050651

  16. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  17. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...

  18. Study on the prevalence and underlying factors of myopia among the students of a medical college in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiny George, Biju Baby Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few decades earlier, wearing spectacles was a province of adults over 40 years of age. Now we see more children and adolescents with spectacles/contact lenses. Various studies in Asian population show a dramatic increase in refractive error, especially myopia among school and college students. More advanced levels of education like medical education that involves extensive near work such as reading and writing have been repeatedly associated with greater myopia prevalence Objective: To study the prevalence and the underlying factors of myopia in MBBS students of a Medical college in Kerala. Research methodology: One hundred and sixty two MBBS students (2009 – 2012 batches were examined. 40 students were selected from each class by systematic random sampling technique, their visual acuity was checked using Snellen’s Chart and Diopters were obtained. Details of factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of myopia was observed as 39.5%. First and second year students had a greater percentage of myopia with 40% & 52.5% respectively. 40.6% of myopics had positive family history of myopia (p = 0.003. Duration of TV watching and computer use showed a significant relation with myopia. (p = 0. 033, 0.009. Reading hours, type of light used, playing or texting with cell phone and sleeping habits of students were not significant. Conclusion: Prevalence of myopia was high among medical students (39.5%. Significance of genetic predisposition was well appreciated in our study.

  19. Imaging Characteristics and Prevalence of Pancreatic Carcinoma in Kosovo During 2011-2015 - Diagnostic Method as Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hasbahta, Gazmed; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the 10thmost common malignancy and the 4thlargest cancer killer in adults. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clini...

  20. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Planken, R. Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Methods Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ?150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. R...

  1. Is it the intervention or the students? using linear regression to control for student characteristics in undergraduate STEM education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Roddy; Freeman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Although researchers in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are currently using several methods to analyze learning gains from pre- and posttest data, the most commonly used approaches have significant shortcomings. Chief among these is the inability to distinguish whether differences in learning gains are due to the effect of an instructional intervention or to differences in student characteristics when students cannot be assigned to control and treatment groups at random. Using pre- and posttest scores from an introductory biology course, we illustrate how the methods currently in wide use can lead to erroneous conclusions, and how multiple linear regression offers an effective framework for distinguishing the impact of an instructional intervention from the impact of student characteristics on test score gains. In general, we recommend that researchers always use student-level regression models that control for possible differences in student ability and preparation to estimate the effect of any nonrandomized instructional intervention on student performance.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2012-11-13

    In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic relationships and urban native

  3. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xinli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students

  4. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic

  5. [Prevalence of suicide ideation among middle school students in China: a systematic analysis of studies between 2000 and 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-wei; Yao, Ying-shui