Wilhelm, Jennifer; Jackson, C.; Toland, M. D.; Cole, M.; Wilhelm, R. J.
Many astronomical concepts cannot be understood without a developed understanding of four spatial-mathematics domains defined as follows: a) Geometric Spatial Visualization (GSV) - Visualizing the geometric features of a system as it appears above, below, and within the system’s plane; b) Spatial Projection (SP) - Projecting to a different location and visualizing from that global perspective; c) Cardinal Directions (CD) - Distinguishing directions (N, S, E, W) in order to document an object’s vector position in space; and d) Periodic Patterns - (PP) Recognizing occurrences at regular intervals of time and/or space. For this study, differences were examined between groups of sixth grade students’ spatial-scientific development pre/post implementation of an Earth/Space unit. Treatment teachers employed a NASA-based curriculum (Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning), while control teachers implemented their regular Earth/Space units. A 2-level hierarchical linear model was used to evaluate student performance on the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) and four spatial-mathematics domains, while controlling for two variables (gender and ethnicity) at the student level and one variable (teaching experience) at the teacher level. Overall LPCI results show pre-test scores predicted post-test scores, boys performed better than girls, and Whites performed better than non-Whites. We also compared experimental and control groups’ by spatial-mathematics domain outcomes. For GSV, it was found that boys, in general, tended to have higher GSV post-scores. For domains CD and SP, no statistically significant differences were observed. PP results show Whites performed better than non-Whites. Also for PP, a significant cross-level interaction term (gender-treatment) was observed, which means differences in control and experimental groups are dependent on students’ gender. These findings can be interpreted as: (a) the experimental girls scored higher than the
The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)
Serevina, V.; Muliyati, D.
This research aims to develop students’ performance assessment instrument based on scientific approach is valid and reliable in assessing the performance of students on basic physics lab of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). This study uses the ADDIE consisting of stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The student performance assessment developed can be used to measure students’ skills in observing, asking, conducting experiments, associating and communicate experimental results that are the ‘5M’ stages in a scientific approach. Each grain of assessment in the instrument is validated by the instrument expert and the evaluation with the result of all points of assessment shall be eligible to be used with a 100% eligibility percentage. The instrument is then tested for the quality of construction, material, and language by panel (lecturer) with the result: 85% or very good instrument construction aspect, material aspect 87.5% or very good, and language aspect 83% or very good. For small group trial obtained instrument reliability level of 0.878 or is in the high category, where r-table is 0.707. For large group trial obtained instrument reliability level of 0.889 or is in the high category, where r-table is 0.320. Instruments declared valid and reliable for 5% significance level. Based on the result of this research, it can be concluded that the student performance appraisal instrument based on the developed scientific approach is declared valid and reliable to be used in assessing student skill in SHM experimental activity.
Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd
This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.
Ruiz, Maria Jose; Bermejo, Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Sainz, Marta
Introduction: Academic performance is usually generally explained by student's intelligence, although other factors such as personality and motivation also account for it. Factors associated with a more complex thought process in adolescence are also beginning to gain importance in the prediction of academic performance. Among these forms of…
Weiner, John M.; And Others
A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…
van Manen, S. M.
In May 2007 the Open University (U.K.) in conjunction with the MK (Milton Keynes) Gallery invited performance artists Noble and Silver to work with a group of students to design innovative methods of disseminating their research to a general audience. The students created a multitude of well-received live and multimedia performances based on their research. Students found they greatly benefited from the artists' and each others' different viewpoints and backgrounds, resulting in improved communication skills and varying interpretations of their own topic of interest. This work focuses on research aimed at identifying precursory activity at volcanoes using temperature, earthquake and ground movement data, to aid improvement of early warning systems. For this project an aspect of the research relevant to the public was chosen: the importance of appropriately timed warnings regarding the possibility of an eruption. If a warning is issued too early it may cause complacency and apathy towards the situation, whereas issuing a warning too late may endanger lives and property. An interactive DVD was produced which leads the user through the events preceding a volcanic eruption. The goal is to warn the public about the impending eruption at the most appropriate time. Data is presented in short film clips, after which questions are posed. Based on the player's answers the consequences or follow-up events of the choices are explored. We aim to improve and expand upon this concept in the near future, as well as making the DVD available to schools for educational purposes.
Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd
This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…
This study investigated the cognitive processes and reader characteristics of sixth graders who had good and poor performance when reading scientific text with diagrams. We first measured the reading ability and reading self-efficacy of sixth-grade participants, and then recorded their eye movements while they were reading an illustrated…
Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming
The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Jacobsen, Rasmus Højbjerg; Wallin, Johan A
The aim of this study is to compare PhD students' performance with respect to gender using a number of matching methods. The data consists of fine-grained information about PhD-students at the Institute of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark. Men and women are matched...... of gender differences in productivity and citation impact....
Lucas, Keith B.; Tulip, David F.
This investigation was undertaken in order to establish the status of scientific literacy among three groups of secondary school students in four Brisbane, Australia high schools, and to reduce the apparent reticence of science teachers to evaluate students' achievement in the various dimensions of scientific literacy by demonstrating appropriate…
van Eyk, Huub J.; Hooiveld, Michiel H. W.; Van Leeuwen, Thed N.; Van der Wurff, Bert L. J.; De Craen, Anton J. M.; Dekker, Friedo W.
Aim: To assess the number of students who published at least one scientific paper during the course of their medical studies. Methods: Names and initials of all students who received their medical degree in 2006 or 2007 in one of the six participating university medical centers in the Netherlands
Chinchilla-Rodriguez, Z.; Miguel, S.; Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ovalle-Perandones, M.A.; Olmeda-Gomez, C.
This article explores the capacity of Latin America in the generation of scientific knowledge and its visibility at the global level. The novelty of the contribution lies in the decomposition of leadership, plus its combination with the results of performance indicators. We compare the normalized citation of all output against the leading output, as well as scientific excellence (Chinchilla, et al. 2016a; 2016b), technological impact and the trends in collaboration types and normalized citation. The main goal is to determine to what extent the main Latin American producers of scientific output depend on collaboration to heighten research performance in terms of citation; or to the contrary, whether there is enough autonomy and capacity to leverage its competitiveness through the design of research and development agendas. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study adopting this approach at the country level within the field of N&N. (Author)
Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming
The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, and even English. We classified scientific training into four levels. We found that literature reading could significantly improve students' test scores in general courses. Students who received scientific training carried out experiments more effectively and published articles performed better than their untrained counterparts in biochemistry and molecular biology examinations. The questionnaire survey demonstrated that the trained students were more confident of their course learning, and displayed more interest, motivation and capability in course learning. In summary, undergraduate academic performance is improved by scientific training. Our findings shed light on the novel strategies in the management of undergraduate education in the medical school. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):379-384, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Wilhelm, Jennifer; Toland, Michael D.; Cole, Merryn
Differences were examined between groups of sixth grade students? spatial-scientific development pre/post implementation of an Earth/Space unit. Treatment teachers employed a spatially-integrated Earth/Space curriculum, while control teachers implemented their Business as Usual (BAU) Earth/Space units. A multi-level modeling approach was used in a…
Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…
To help students develop the scientific abilities desired in the 21st century workplace, four different types of student design tasks—observation, verification, application, and investigation experiments—have been developed and implemented in our calculus-based introductory courses. Students working in small groups are engaged in designing and conducting their own experiments to observe some physical phenomena, test a physical principle, build a real-life device, solve a complex problem, or conduct an open-inquiry investigation. A preliminary study has shown that, probed by a performance-based task, the identified scientific abilities are more explicitly demonstrated by design-lab students than non-design lab students. In this paper, detailed examples of the design tasks and assessment results will be reported.
The evidential support for scientific claims is quantitatively and qualitatively superior to that for supernatural claims, yet students may not appreciate this difference in light of the fact that both types of claims are learned in similar ways (through testimony rather than firsthand observation) and perform similar functions (explaining…
In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…
There is no data about the performance of scientific researchers in biomedicine in our environment that can be use by individual subjects to compare their execution with their pairs. Using the Scopus browser the following data from 115 scientific researchers in biomedicine were obtained: actual institution, number of articles published, place on each article within the author list as first, last or unique author, total number of citations, percentage of citations due to the most cited paper, and h-index. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and simple lineal regressions. Most of scientific researches in the sample are from the National Institutes of the Health Ministry or some of the research institutes or faculties at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Total number of publications was biomedicine in Mexico City, which can be used to compare the productivity of individual subjects with their pairs.
Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won
This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…
Tallent, N; Mellor-Crummey, J; Adhianto, L; Fagan, M; Krentel, M [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, science teams are tackling problems that require simulation and modeling on petascale computers. As part of activities associated with the SciDAC Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) and the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI), Rice University is building software tools for performance analysis of scientific applications on the leadership-class platforms. In this poster abstract, we briefly describe the HPCToolkit performance tools and how they can be used to pinpoint bottlenecks in SPMD and multi-threaded parallel codes. We demonstrate HPCToolkit's utility by applying it to two SciDAC applications: the S3D code for simulation of turbulent combustion and the MFDn code for ab initio calculations of microscopic structure of nuclei.
Tallent, N; Mellor-Crummey, J; Adhianto, L; Fagan, M; Krentel, M
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, science teams are tackling problems that require simulation and modeling on petascale computers. As part of activities associated with the SciDAC Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) and the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI), Rice University is building software tools for performance analysis of scientific applications on the leadership-class platforms. In this poster abstract, we briefly describe the HPCToolkit performance tools and how they can be used to pinpoint bottlenecks in SPMD and multi-threaded parallel codes. We demonstrate HPCToolkit's utility by applying it to two SciDAC applications: the S3D code for simulation of turbulent combustion and the MFDn code for ab initio calculations of microscopic structure of nuclei
Full Text Available It is important to consider quality and efficacy concerning online courses. This study was accomplished with Master’s students in order to promote technical production regardingClinical Biochemistry online course. In web, www.bioq.educacao.biz, it was accessible strategic and organizational management training in distance learning course. Enrolled students(7, monitors (3 and the manager (1 have made use of thevirtual environment asa channel of communication as well as to construct the extension course (80 hours. Some strategies were discussed and planned for the purpose of a significant apprenticeship. In all, there were 173 standard contents available, which were 4 audiovisual presentations, 13 debating forums, 1 chat, 10 classes,77 scientific articles, 30 tests, 3 glossaries, 1 mini-library, 18 links, 3 texts and 13 folders. Although the managerwas not responsible for the construction ofthe contents, system reports have shown that the manager’s attendance and permanence online were three times superior to other users. It once more revealed that new Information and Communication Technologies(ICTs requires from the manager to plan an efficient pedagogical orientation.
Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…
Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J
This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.
Cole, Merryn; Wilhelm, Jennifer; Yang, Hongwei
Relationships between sixth grade students' moon journaling and students' spatial-scientific reasoning after implementation of an Earth/Space unit were examined. Teachers used the project-based Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning curriculum. We used a regression model to analyze the relationship between the students' Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) post-test score variables and several predictors, including moon journal score, number of moon journal entries, student gender, teacher experience, and pre-test score. The model shows that students who performed better on moon journals, both in terms of overall score and number of entries, tended to score higher on the LPCI. For every 1 point increase in the overall moon journal score, participants scored 0.18 points (out of 20) or nearly 1% point higher on the LPCI post-test when holding constant the effects of the other two predictors. Similarly, students who increased their scores by 1 point in the overall moon journal score scored approximately 1% higher in the Periodic Patterns (PP) and Geometric Spatial Visualization (GSV) domains of the LPCI. Also, student gender and teacher experience were shown to be significant predictors of post-GSV scores on the LPCI in addition to the pre-test scores, overall moon journal score, and number of entries that were also significant predictors on the LPCI overall score and the PP domain. This study is unique in the purposeful link created between student moon observations and spatial skills. The use of moon journals distinguishes this study further by fostering scientific observation along with skills from across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines.
Malony, Allen D.
Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper . There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress
Markomanolis, George S.
Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.
Attempts to enhance students' appreciation for the scientific nature of psychology typically focus on training in scientific reasoning and methodology along with direct involvement in research activities. The underlying assumption appears to be that given sufficient knowledge and experience, students' perceptions of the discipline will change as…
Dian Clara Natalia Sihotang
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine whether: (1 the student’s achievement taught by using Scientific Inquiry Teaching Models is better than that of taught by using Direct Instruction; (2 the student’s achievement who have a high scientific attitude is better than student who have low scientific attitude; and (3 there is interaction between Scientific Inquiry Teaching Models and scientific attitude for the student’s achievement. The results of research are: (1 the student’s achievement given learning through Scientific Inquiry Teaching Models better than Direct Instruction; (2 the student’s achievement who have a high scientific attitude better than student who have low scientific attitude; and (3 there was interaction between Scientific Inquiry Teaching Models and scientific attitude for student’s achievement which this models is better to apply for student who have a high scientific attitude.
The aim of the Student Scientific Conference was review of works of students and post-graduate students from universities of the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic. The proceedings of the conference contain 43 abstracts of Biological Section, 69 abstracts of Chemical Section, 18 abstracts of Environmental Section, 15 abstracts of Geography and Cartography Section, and 31 abstracts of Geology Section
de Andrade, Vanessa; Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica
This article describes a system of analysis aimed at characterizing students' scientific explanations. Science education literature and reform documents have been highlighting the importance of scientific explanations for students' conceptual understanding and for their understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, and despite general agreement regarding the potential of having students construct their own explanations, a consensual notion of scientific explanation has still not been reached. As a result, within science education literature, there are several frameworks defining scientific explanations, with different foci as well as different notions of what accounts as a good explanation. Considering this, and based on a more ample project, we developed a system of analysis to characterize students' explanations. It was conceptualized and developed based on theories and models of scientific explanations, science education literature, and from examples of students' explanations collected by an open-ended questionnaire. With this paper, it is our goal to present the system of analysis, illustrating it with specific examples of students' collected explanations. In addition, we expect to point out its adequacy and utility for analyzing and characterizing students' scientific explanations as well as for tracing their progression.
Tirado, Juan M.; Higuero, Daniel; Carretero, Jesus
Institutions such as NASA, ESA or JAXA find solutions to distribute data from their missions to the scientific community, and their long term archives. This is a complex problem, as it includes a vast amount of data, several geographically distributed archives, heterogeneous architectures with heterogeneous networks, and users spread around the world. We propose a novel architecture (HIDDRA) that solves this problem aiming to reduce user intervention in data acquisition and processing. HIDDRA is a modular system that provides a highly efficient parallel multiprotocol download engine, using a publish/subscribe policy which helps the final user to obtain data of interest transparently. Our system can deal simultaneously with multiple protocols (HTTP,HTTPS, FTP, GridFTP among others) to obtain the maximum bandwidth, reducing the workload in data server and increasing flexibility. It can also provide high reliability and fault tolerance, as several sources of data can be used to perform one file download. HIDDRA architecture can be arranged into a data distribution network deployed on several sites that can cooperate to provide former features. HIDDRA has been addressed by the 2009 e-IRG Report on Data Management as a promising initiative for data interoperability. Our first prototype has been evaluated in collaboration with the ESAC centre in Villafranca del Castillo (Spain) that shows a high scalability and performance, opening a wide spectrum of opportunities. Some preliminary results have been published in the Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science .  D. Higuero, J.M. Tirado, J. Carretero, F. Félix, and A. de La Fuente. HIDDRA: a highly independent data distribution and retrieval architecture for space observation missions. Astrophysics and Space Science, 321(3):169-175, 2009
Although most researchers focus on scientists' creativity, students' scientific creativity should be considered, especially for high school and college students. It is generally assumed that most professional creators in science emerge from amateur creators. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' scientific creativity and selected variables including creativity, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, science achievement, the nature of science, and attitudes toward science for finding significant predictors of eleventh grade students' scientific creativity. A total of 130 male eleventh-grade students in three biology classes participated in this study. The main instruments included the Test of Divergent Thinking (TDT) for creativity measurement, the Creativity Rating Scale (CRS) and the Creative Activities and Accomplishments Check Lists (CAACL ) for measurement of scientific creativity, the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS) for measurement of the nature of science, and the Science Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) for measurement of attitudes toward science. In addition, two instruments on measuring students' abilities of problem finding and abilities of formulating hypotheses were developed by the researcher in this study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise multiple regressions. The major findings suggested the following: (1) students' scientific creativity significantly correlated with some of selected variables such as attitudes toward science, problem finding, formulating hypotheses, the nature of science, resistance to closure, originality, and elaboration; (2) four significant predictors including attitudes toward science, problem finding, resistance to closure, and originality accounted for 48% of the variance of students' scientific creativity; (3) there were big differences between students with a higher and a lower degree of scientific
Miguel Angel Vinuesa
Full Text Available Acting scientifically is a competence to be developed by medical students and expressed by them when physicians. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between scientific aptitude in medical applicants incoming to Rosario Interamerican Open University (UAI and their academic performance in Human Genetics and Histology. Seventy four out of 102 students (29 male and 45 female filled in the aptitude scientific model (ASM designed by D’Ottavio & Bassan (1989. For both, Human Genetics and Histology, performance of the students was considered as satisfactory when they reached a minimum of 85% correct answers in their objective periodic and final examinations. Conversely, lower performance was considered as less than satisfactory. The aforementioned 74 students correctly answered 3.89 ± 1.96 of the 12 ASM problems; average for males was 4.50 ± 1.99 and that for females, 3.48 ± 1.83, (p < 0.025. Students with a satisfactory performance in Histology (n = 34 showed higher scientific aptitude 4.67 ± 2.04 compared with those (n = 40 that had a less than satisfactory one 3.02 ± 1.36 (p <0.001. Significant gender differences were registered: males (n = 14 5.42 ± 2.37 vs. (n = 15 3.20 ± 1.14, p < 0.01, and females (n = 22 4.18 ± 1.56 vs. (n = 23 2.78 ± 1.47, p < 0.01. Concerning Human Genetics, those students with a satisfactory performance (n = 46 revealed higher scientific aptitude: 4.00 ± 2.00 than those with a less than satisfactory one (n = 28: 2.71 ± 1.04, p < 0.01. As in Histology, significant gender differences appeared: males (n = 18 5.22 ± 2.12 vs. (n = 11 3.54 ± 1.21, p < 0.05, and females, (n = 30 3.90 1.70 vs.(n = 15 2.33 ± 1.70, p<0.01. Summing up, in both subject matters students with a satisfactory performance evidenced a higher average of scientific aptitude than that of the studied population. Consequently, we interpret that the degree of scientific aptitude could be a predictive variable of future academic
Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta; Weiner, Arlene W.; Lesgold, Alan M.
Computer environments could support students in engaging in cognitive activities that are essential to scientific practice and to the understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge, but that are difficult to manage in science classrooms. The authors describe a design for a computer-based environment to assist students in conducting dialectical activities of constructing, comparing, and evaluating arguments for competing scientific theories. Their choice of activities and their design respond to educators' and theorists' criticisms of current science curricula. They give detailed specifications of portions of the environment.
Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.
Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701 ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013
Corrales-Reyes, Ibraín Enrique; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto Juan
The scientific production of medical students in Latin America, is poor and below their potential. The reason for this is the low theoretical and practical knowledge of scientific writing, a low margin for new knowledge generation, a heavy academic and clinical load, and the expected profile of the medical school graduate. In the present short communication, we propose teaching courses in research methodology, scientific writing in English and Spanish, a personalized search for students and mentors with research aptitudes. Also, we propose academic and material stimuli for publishing, rewards for the best papers made by students and the development and support of scientific student journals. Other proposals are the requirement to publish a paper for graduation, and sharing the most outstanding experiences.
Grady, Julie R; Dolan, Erin L; Glasson, George E
Students' experiences with science integrated into agriscience courses contribute to their developing epistemologies of science. The purpose of this case study was to gain insight into the implementation of scientific inquiry in an agriscience classroom. Also of interest was how the tenets of the nature of science were reflected in the students' experiments. Participants included an agriscience teacher and her fifteen students who were conducting plant experiments to gain insight into the role of a gene disabled by scientists. Data sources included classroom observations, conversations with students, face-to-face interviews with the teacher, and students' work. Analysis of the data indicated that the teacher viewed scientific inquiry as a mechanical process with little emphasis on the reasoning that typifies scientific inquiry. Students' participation in their experiments also centered on the procedural aspects of inquiry with little attention to scientific reasoning. There was no explicit attention to the nature of science during the experiments, but the practice implied correct, incorrect, and underdeveloped conceptions of the nature of science. Evidence from the study suggests a need for collaboration between agriscience and science teacher educators to design and conduct professional development focused on scientific inquiry and nature of science for preservice and practicing teachers.
Evans, Ben; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Druken, Kelsey; Evans, Bradley; Fraser, Ryan; Ip, Alex; Kemp, Carina; King, Edward; Minchin, Stuart; Larraondo, Pablo; Pugh, Tim; Richards, Clare; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley
The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages Earth Systems data collections sourced from several domains and organisations onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node to further Australia's national priority research and innovation agenda. The NCI HPD Node has rapidly established its value, currently managing over 10 PBytes of datasets from collections that span a wide range of disciplines including climate, weather, environment, geoscience, geophysics, water resources and social sciences. Importantly, in order to facilitate broad user uptake, maximise reuse and enable transdisciplinary access through software and standardised interfaces, the datasets, associated information systems and processes have been incorporated into the design and operation of a unified platform that NCI has called, the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The key goal of the NERDIP is to regularise data access so that it is easily discoverable, interoperable for different domains and enabled for high performance methods. It adopts and implements international standards and data conventions, and promotes scientific integrity within a high performance computing and data analysis environment. NCI has established a rich and flexible computing environment to access to this data, through the NCI supercomputer; a private cloud that supports both domain focused virtual laboratories and in-common interactive analysis interfaces; as well as remotely through scalable data services. Data collections of this importance must be managed with careful consideration of both their current use and the needs of the end-communities, as well as its future potential use, such as transitioning to more advanced software and improved methods. It is therefore critical that the data platform is both well-managed and trusted for stable production use (including transparency and reproducibility), agile enough to incorporate new technological advances and
The aim of the Student Scientific Conference was to review the works of students and post-graduate students from universities of the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic as well as from Slovak Academy of Sciences and Czech Academy of Sciences. The proceedings of the conference contain 63 abstracts of Biological Section, 16 abstracts of Didactic Section, 39 abstracts of Environmental Section, 15 abstracts of Geography Section, 12 abstracts of Geology Section, and 42 abstracts of Chemical Section
Clinger, Alicia Farr
In response to an increased emphasis on disciplinary literacy in the secondary science classroom, an investigation of the literacy processes utilized by high school students while reading scientific text was undertaken. A think-aloud protocol was implemented to collect data on the processes students used when not prompted while reading a magazine…
Only 14.7% knew the engines used for finding medical literature. Conclusion: The low knowledge score is due to lack of application of research in the academic curriculum; however, the students have a fairly positive attitude. The knowledge is expected to improve with the intended policy to include practical research in the ...
Roland, C G; Cox, B G
All students at Mayo Medical School take a course in scientific writing during their sophomore and junior years. Early in the sophomore year they receive a self-instructional text designed to help them avoid 15 common writing faults. Comparison of pretest and posttest results for two classes, with a total of 89 students, indicates significant improvement (p less than .001). Later in his sophomore year, each student writes a minithesis; and during his junior year he reports on work done in a clinical or laboratory research project, preparing it as a paper submissible to a scientific journal. Professional editors work as preceptors with the students, critiquing their manuscripts, which are revised until they receive satisfactory ratings.
Wallace, Michael L.
This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS
Markomanolis, George S.; Hadri, Bilel; Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin; Feki, Saber
Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays
Bybee, Rodger; McCrae, Barry
International assessments provide important knowledge about science education and help inform decisions about policies, programmes, and practices in participating countries. In 2006, science was the primary domain for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), supported by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Compared to the school curriculum orientation of Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), PISA provides a perspective that emphasises the application of knowledge to science and technology-related life situations. The orientation of PISA includes both knowledge and attitudes as these contribute to students' competencies that are central to scientific literacy. In addition to students' knowledge and competencies, the 2006 PISA survey gathered data on students' interest in science, support for scientific enquiry, and responsibility towards resources and environments. The survey used both a non-contextualised student questionnaire and contextualised questions. The latter is an innovative approach which embedded attitudinal questions at the conclusion of about two-thirds of the test units. The results presented in this article make connections between students' attitudes and interests in science and scientific literacy.
Roland, Charles G.; Cox, Barbara G.
Describes a course required for Mayo Medical School students that includes a self-instructional test on 15 common writing faults, a minithesis, and a clinical laboratory research project prepared as a paper submissible to a scientific journal and critiqued by professional editors. (JT)
Krasny, Marianne E.; Trautmann, Nancy; Carlsen, William; Cunningham, Christine
This book contains the student edition of the Environmental Inquiry curriculum series developed at Cornell University. It is designed to teach learning skills for investigating the behaviors of non-native and native species and demonstrate how to apply scientific knowledge to solve real-life problems. This book focuses on strange intruders…
Nielsen, Mathias Wullum
The focus on excellence and quality assurance in the academy has spawned a signifi cant increase in the use of bibliometric measures in performance assessments of individual researchers. This article investigates the organizational consequences of this development through a gender lens. Based...... scholars, evaluators using bibliometrics risk disadvantaging candidates diverging from the norm with implications for gender stratifi cation. Despite these potential biases, bibliometric measures come to function as technologies supporting a managerial narrative of the gender-blind organization....... They adhere to the prevailing ethos of the academic meritocracy by standardizing the criteria for organizational advancement and ensuring transparency and accountability in the selection process. While bibliometric tools in this sense may lead to the recruitment of scientists with a strong CV and track record...
Improving Performances in the Public Sector: The Scientific Management Theory ... adopts the principles for enhanced productivity, efficiency and the attainment of ... of the public sector, as observed and reported by several scholars over time.
Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua
Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.
Dori, Y. J.; Zohar, A.; Fischer-Shachor, D.; Kohan-Mass, J.; Carmi, M.
This paper describes an Israeli national-level research examining the extent to which admissions of elementary school students to the gifted programmes based on standardised tests are gender-fair. In the research, the gifted students consisted of 275 boys, 128 girls, and additional 80 girls who were admitted to the gifted programme through affirmative action (AA). To assess these young students' scientific thinking skills, also referred to as science practices, open-ended questions of case-based questionnaires were developed. The investigated scientific thinking skills were question posing, explanation, graphing, inquiry, and metacognition. Analysis of the students' responses revealed that gifted girls who entered the programmes through AA performed at the same level as the other gifted students. We found significant differences between the three research groups in question posing and graphing skills. We suggest increasing gender-fairness by revising the standard national testing system to include case-based narratives followed by open-ended questions that assess gifted students' scientific thinking skills. This may diminish the gender inequity expressed by the different number of girls and boys accepted to the gifted programmes. We show that open-ended tools for analysing students' scientific thinking might better serve both research and practice by identifying gifted girls and boys equally well.
Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C
Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.
Tasker, Tammy Q.; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert
This article examines a 7th grade teacher's pedagogical practices to support her students to provide peer feedback to one another using technology during scientific inquiry. This research is part of a larger study in which teachers in California and Washington and their classes engaged in inquiry projects using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry. Videotapes of classroom lessons and artifacts such as student work were collected as part of the corpus of data. In the case examined, Ms. E supports her students to collectively define "meaningful feedback," thereby improving the quality of feedback that was provided in the future. This is especially timely, given the attention in Next Generation Science Standards to cross-cutting concepts and practices that require students discuss and debate ideas with each other in order to improve their understanding and their written inquiry reports (NGSS, 2013).
Ault, Marilyn; Craig-Hare, Jana; Frey, Bruce; Ellis, James D.; Bulgren, Janis
Reason Racer is an online, rate-based, multiplayer game that applies specific game features in order to engage middle school students in introductory knowledge of and thinking related to scientific argumentation. Game features include rapid and competitive play, timed performance, immediate feedback, and high rates of response across many…
Aydeniz, Mehmet; Baksa, Kristen; Skinner, Jane
The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of an apprenticeship program on high school students' understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Data related to seventeen students' understanding of science and scientific inquiry were collected through open-ended questionnaires. Findings suggest that although engagement in authentic…
Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.
We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including...
Jorissen, K.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditional HPC resources for materials science or quantum chemistry applications.
Kostina, Ekaterina; Phu, Hoang; Rannacher, Rolf
This proceedings volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Third International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing held at the Hanoi Institute of Mathematics, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), March 6-10, 2006. The conference has been organized by the Hanoi Institute of Mathematics, Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), Heidelberg, and its International PhD Program ``Complex Processes: Modeling, Simulation and Optimization'', and Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology. The contributions cover the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of scientific computing and present recent advances in theory, development of methods, and applications in practice. Subjects covered are mathematical modelling, numerical simulation, methods for optimization and control, parallel computing, software development, applications of scientific computing in physics, chemistry, biology and mechanics, environmental and hydrology problems, transport, logistics and site loca...
Hoang, Xuan; Rannacher, Rolf; Schlöder, Johannes
This proceedings volume gathers a selection of papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, which took place in Hanoi on March 5-9, 2012. The conference was organized by the Institute of Mathematics of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR) of Heidelberg University, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, and the Vietnam Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics. The contributions cover the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of scientific computing and present recent advances in theory, development of methods, and practical applications. Subjects covered include mathematical modeling; numerical simulation; methods for optimization and control; parallel computing; software development; and applications of scientific computing in physics, mechanics and biomechanics, material science, hydrology, chemistry, biology, biotechnology, medicine, sports, psychology, transport, logistics, com...
Phu, Hoang; Rannacher, Rolf; Schlöder, Johannes
This proceedings volume highlights a selection of papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, which took place in Hanoi, Vietnam on March 16-20, 2015. The conference was jointly organized by the Heidelberg Institute of Theoretical Studies (HITS), the Institute of Mathematics of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR) at Heidelberg University, and the Vietnam Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics, Ministry of Education The contributions cover a broad, interdisciplinary spectrum of scientific computing and showcase recent advances in theory, methods, and practical applications. Subjects covered numerical simulation, methods for optimization and control, parallel computing, and software development, as well as the applications of scientific computing in physics, mechanics, biomechanics and robotics, material science, hydrology, biotechnology, medicine, transport, scheduling, and in...
Bowen, G. Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Recent research in scientific laboratories shows that inscriptions - graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables, mathematical formulae, and so forth - are central to scientific practice. Research also shows that inscriptions are pervasive elements in science textbooks. This study examines inscriptions in texts usually available to students in high school and undergraduate science courses: course textbooks and journal articles. Four complementary analyses of the content of these resources are presented: (i) an enumeration of the types of inscriptions in those resources; (ii) a semiotic analyses of the content of representative inscriptions; (iii) an interpretation by graduates of a science program of an inscription common to all three resources; and (iv) a comparison of an inscription found in textbooks and lectures with its original presentation in a scientific journal. Differences exist in frequency of different types of inscriptions; these frequencies appear unrelated to interpretive competencies of the students for whom they are intended. We suggest alterations made in inscriptions as they are moved from professional journals to textbooks contributed to confounding their interpretation. Implications for both science education and the use of inscriptions in textbooks are discussed.
May, S.; Clements, C.; Erickson, P. J.; Rogers, A.
A 21st century education needs to teach students how to manage information in an ever more digital age. High school students (like all of us) are inundated with information, and informed citizenship increasingly depends on the ability to be a critical consumer of data. In the scientific community, experimental data from remote, high quality systems are becoming increasingly available in real time. The same networks providing data also allow scientists to use the ubiquity of internet access to enlist citizen scientists to help with research. As a means of addressing and leveraging these trends, we describe a classroom unit developed as part of the NSF Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory in the summer of 2010. The unit uses accessible, real-time science data to teach high school physics students about the nature and process of scientific research, with the goal of teaching how to be an informed citizen, regardless of eventual vocation. The opportunity to study the atmosphere provides increased engagement in the classroom, and students have an authentic experience of asking and answering scientific questions when the answer cannot simply be found on the Web. MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a relatively inexpensive tool for measuring mesospheric ozone by taking advantage of the sensitivity of commercially produced satellite TV dishes to the 11.072545 GHz rotational transition of ozone. Because the signal from ozone in the lower atmosphere is pressure-broadened, the system is able to isolate the signal from the 1% of Earth’s ozone that comes from the mesosphere. Our teaching unit takes advantage of measurements collected since 2008 from six East Coast observing sites at high schools and colleges. Data are available online within a day of their collection, and an easy to use web interface allows students to track mesospheric ozone in frequency, time of day, or day of year. The
Federer, Meghan Rector
Assessment is a key element in the process of science education teaching and research. Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment is a major challenge for science education reforms. Prior research has documented several limitations of instrument types on the measurement of students' scientific knowledge (Liu et al., 2011; Messick, 1995; Popham, 2010). Furthermore, a large body of work has been devoted to reducing assessment biases that distort inferences about students' science understanding, particularly in multiple-choice [MC] instruments. Despite the above documented biases, much has yet to be determined for constructed response [CR] assessments in biology and their use for evaluating students' conceptual understanding of scientific practices (such as explanation). Understanding differences in science achievement provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Using the integrative framework put forth by the National Research Council (2012), this dissertation aimed to explore whether assessment biases occur for assessment practices intended to measure students' conceptual understanding and proficiency in scientific practices. Using a large corpus of undergraduate biology students' explanations, three studies were conducted to examine whether known biases of MC instruments were also apparent in a CR instrument designed to assess students' explanatory practice and understanding of evolutionary change (ACORNS: Assessment of COntextual Reasoning about Natural Selection). The first study investigated the challenge of interpreting and scoring lexically ambiguous language in CR answers. The incorporation of 'multivalent' terms into scientific discourse practices often results in statements or explanations that are difficult to interpret and can produce faulty inferences about student knowledge. The results of this study indicate that many undergraduate biology majors
Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A; Armstrong, Robert C; Bernholdt, David E; Dahlgren, Tamara L; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L; Kenny, Joseph P; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A; Kumfert, Gary; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L
Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.
Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A; Armstrong, Robert C; Bernholdt, David E; Dahlgren, Tamara L; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L; Kenny, Joseph P; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A; Kumfert, Gary; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L
Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly
Singh, Vikash; Mayer, Philipp
Scientific writing is a demanding task and many students need more time than expected to finish their research articles. To speed up the process, we highlight some tools, strategies as well as writing guides. We recommend starting early in the research process with writing and to prepare research articles, not after but in parallel to the lab or field work. We suggest considering scientific writing as a team enterprise, which needs proper organization and regular feedback. In addition, it is helpful to select potential target journals early and to consider not only scope and reputation, but also decision times and rejection rates. Before submission, instructions to authors and writing guides should be considered, and drafts should be extensively revised. Later in the process editor's and reviewer's comments should be followed. Our tips and tools help students and advisors to structure the writing and publishing process, thereby stimulating them to develop their own strategies to success. Copyright © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Liao, Ya-Wen; She, Hsiao-Ching
This study reports the impacts of the Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR) digital learning system on eighth grade students' concept construction, conceptual change, and scientific reasoning involving the topic of "atoms". A two-factorial experimental design was carried out to investigate the effects of the approach…
Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando; Rehr, John
Cloud computing has the potential to open up high-performance computational science to a much broader class of researchers, owing to its ability to provide on-demand, virtualized computational resources. However, before such approaches can become commonplace, user-friendly tools must be developed that hide the unfamiliar cloud environment and streamline the management of cloud resources for many scientific applications. We have recently shown that high-performance cloud computing is feasible for parallelized x-ray spectroscopy calculations. We now present benchmark results for a wider selection of scientific applications focusing on electronic structure and spectroscopic simulation software in condensed matter physics. These applications are driven by an improved portable interface that can manage virtual clusters and run various applications in the cloud. We also describe a next generation of cluster tools, aimed at improved performance and a more robust cluster deployment. Supported by NSF grant OCI-1048052.
Danch, J. M.
The Woodbridge Township New Jersey School District has a 4-year high school Science Research program that depends on the enrollment of students with the prerequisite skills to conduct authentic scientific research at the high school level. A multifaceted approach to training elementary teachers in the methods of scientific investigation, data collection and analysis and communication of results was undertaken in 2017. Teachers of predominately grades 4 and 5 participated in hands on workshops at a Summer Tech Academy, an EdCamp, a District Inservice Day and a series of in-class workshops for teachers and students together. Aspects of the instruction for each of these activities was facilitated by high school students currently enrolled in the High School Science Research Program. Much of the training activities centered around a "Learning With Students" model where teachers and their students simultaneously learn to perform inquiry activities and conduct scientific research fostering inquiry as it is meant to be: where participants produce original data are not merely working to obtain previously determined results.
Rees, Colin J; Bevan, Roisin; Zimmermann-Fraedrich, Katharina; Rutter, Matthew D; Rex, Douglas; Dekker, Evelien; Ponchon, Thierry; Bretthauer, Michael; Regula, Jaroslaw; Saunders, Brian; Hassan, Cesare; Bourke, Michael J; Rösch, Thomas
Colonoscopy is a widely performed procedure with procedural volumes increasing annually throughout the world. Many procedures are now performed as part of colorectal cancer screening programmes. Colonoscopy should be of high quality and measures of this quality should be evidence based. New UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards have been developed by a working group with consensus agreement on each standard reached. This paper reviews the scientific basis for each of the quality measures published in the UK standards. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D
Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology.
Elliot, N; Kohn, S; Smolinski, B
With the increasing complexity and interdisciplinary nature of scientific applications, code reuse is becoming increasingly important in scientific computing. One method for facilitating code reuse is the use of components technologies, which have been used widely in industry. However, components have only recently worked their way into scientific computing. Language interoperability is an important underlying technology for these component architectures. In this paper, we present an approach to language interoperability for a high-performance parallel, component architecture being developed by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) group. Our approach is based on Interface Definition Language (IDL) techniques. We have developed a Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), as well as bindings to C and Fortran. We have also developed a SIDL compiler and run-time library support for reference counting, reflection, object management, and exception handling (Babel). Results from using Babel to call a standard numerical solver library (written in C) from C and Fortran show that the cost of using Babel is minimal, where as the savings in development time and the benefits of object-oriented development support for C and Fortran far outweigh the costs
Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the importance of holding effective scientific Olympiads for medical sciences students, this study aimed to evaluate experts’ viewpoints in regard to their necessity, costs, achievements, barriers and solutions. Methods: In this qualitative study, required data were collected using open-ended questions through self-development questionnaires, which were filled out by experts. Data were analyzed through content-analysis methods. To select participants, a purpose-based sampling method was applied up to the point of information saturation. Thus, this study was performed with 20 individuals. Results: The main necessity and philosophy of holding Olympiads expressed by the experts were: promoting health sector performance, extension of interrelationships between universities, development of scientific competition and incensement of students’ creativity. The majority of participants believed that the achievements of holding these Olympiads are negligible versus their costs. The most important barriers were: absence of appropriate relationships between universities, lack of proper support for holding these Olympiads, the low motivation of professors, noninterested students and the shortage of resources and facilities. Furthermore, the most important solutions included: performance evaluation of previous Olympiads, increasing incentives and motivations as well as suitable planning. Conclusion: According to experts’ viewpoints, although holding scientific Olympiads is necessary for medical students, during past years, the achievements of such Olympiads versus theirs costs seem negligible and there are lots of barriers in the path of achieving their goals and philosophy.
Thoron, Andrew C.; Myers, Brian E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inquiry-based agriscience instruction on student scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is defined as the use of the scientific method, inductive, and deductive reasoning to develop and test hypothesis. Developing scientific reasoning skills can provide learners with a connection to the…
Anisa, A.; Widodo, A.; Riandi, R.
Argumentation is one factor that can help improve critical thinking skills. Arguing means to defend statements with the various data, denials, evidence, and reinforcement that support the statement. The research aimed to capture the quality of argument skills by students in grade 12 high school students and in postgraduate student on social-scientific issues of cancer. Both group subjects are not in the same school or institution, chosen purposively with the subject of 39 high school students of grade 12 in one district of West Java and 13 students of Biology education postgraduate in one of University in West Java - Indonesia. The results of the quality structure of arguments in both subject groups show the same pattern, which is claim - warrant - and ground, with the quality of counterclaim aspects on the postgraduate students look better than grade 12 students. This provides an illustration that the ability in argumentation between students and teachers in the socio-scientific issue of cancer should be evaluate so that the learning process would be more refined in schools.
Dahlgren, Tamara Lynn [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Performance-driven interface contract enforcement research aims to improve the quality of programs built from plug-and-play scientific components. Interface contracts make the obligations on the caller and all implementations of the specified methods explicit. Runtime contract enforcement is a well-known technique for enhancing testing and debugging. However, checking all of the associated constraints during deployment is generally considered too costly from a performance stand point. Previous solutions enforced subsets of constraints without explicit consideration of their performance implications. Hence, this research measures the impacts of different interface contract sampling strategies and compares results with new techniques driven by execution time estimates. Results from three studies indicate automatically adjusting the level of checking based on performance constraints improves the likelihood of detecting contract violations under certain circumstances. Specifically, performance-driven enforcement is better suited to programs exercising constraints whose costs are at most moderately expensive relative to normal program execution.
Stone, Elisa M
New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations-for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls-and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level.
Stone, Elisa M.
New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations—for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls—and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508
Jewett, Elizabeth; Kuhn, Deanna
Engagement in purposeful problem solving involving social science content was sufficient to develop a key set of inquiry skills in low-performing middle school students from an academically and economically disadvantaged urban public school population, with this skill transferring to a more traditional written scientific thinking assessment instrument 3weeks later. Students only observing their peers' activity or not participating at all failed to show these gains. Implications are addressed with regard to the mastery of scientific thinking skills among academically disadvantaged students. Also addressed are the efficacy of problem-based learning and the limits of observational learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei
This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and a Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students' general interest of science, their parents' occupations and perceived difficulty of science significantly associated with their scientific competencies. However, there was no gender gap in terms of scientific competencies.
Doert, Marlene [Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration
The MAGIC telescopes are a system of two 17 m Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes, which are located at 2200 m above sea level at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary Island of La Palma. In this presentation, we report on recent scientific highlights gained from MAGIC observations in the galactic and the extragalactic regime. We also present the current status and performance of the MAGIC system after major hardware upgrades in the years 2011 to 2014 and give an overview of future plans.
Engaging teaching material through performance art and music can improve the long-term retention of scientific content. Additionally, the development of effective performance skills are a powerful tool to communicate scientific concepts and information to a broader audience that can have many positive benefits in terms of career development and the delivery of professional presentations. While arts integration has been shown to increase student engagement and achievement, relevant artistic materials are still required for use as supplemental activities in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) courses. I will present an original performance poem, "Tectonic Petrameter: A Journey Through Earth History," with instructions for its implementation as a play in pre-university and undergraduate geoscience classrooms. "Tectonic Petrameter" uses a dynamic combination of rhythm and rhyme to teach the geological time scale, fundamental concepts in geology and important events in Earth history. I propose that using performance arts, such as "Tectonic Petrameter" and other creative art forms, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching students and the broader non-scientific community about Earth's long and complex history.
Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger
Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.
Galano, Silvia; Zappia, Alessandro; Smaldone, Luigi; Testa, Italo
In this study we investigated the views about Scientific Inquiry (SI) of about 300 students at the beginning of the secondary school course (14–15 years old). An adapted version of the Views On Scientific Inquiry (VOSI) questionnaire was used as research instrument. The questionnaire, focused on six specific aspects of SI, was submitted before and after a six-hours in-classroom delivery of a teaching learning sequence (TLS) that targeted explicitly the six SI aspects. We first analyzed responses using a five-level categorization: a) informed view; b) mixed or partially correct view; c) na¨ıve view; d) unclear; e) not given. Two independent researchers iteratively analyzed the data with a final inter-rater reliability of about 90%. Then, we collapsed the initial categories into three macro-categories: C1) informed/partial view; C2) na¨ıve view; C3) unclear or not given; and calculated the shift in the macrocategorization between pre- and post-test. Finally, we investigated a possible relationship between how the TLSs were enacted and the students’ achievements. Data show that the percentage of students’ informed responses only slightly increased between pre- and post-test in the majority of the targeted aspects. Moreover, students’ achievements seem to depend on how the teachers enacted the TLSs. Our results suggest that short inquiry-based teaching interventions are not sufficient to effectively teach SI aspects. Moreover, our results suggest to develop specific training courses aimed at improving teachers’ own beliefs and practices about SI.
Mariana, N.; Siahaan, P.; Utari, S.
Scientific reasoning is one of the most important ability. This study aims to determine the profile of scientific reasoning of junior high school students about the concept of static fluid. This research uses a descriptive method with a quantitative approach to get an idea about the scientific reasoning of One Roof Junior Secondary School Student Kotabaru Reteh in Riau. The technique of collecting data is done by test of scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning capability refers to Furtak’s EBR (Evidence Based Reasoning) scientific reasoning indicator that contains the components of claims, data, evidence, and rules. The result obtained on each element of scientific reasoning is 35% claim, 23% data, 21% evidence and 17% rule. The conclusions of this research that scientific reasoning of Satu Atap Junior Secondary School student Kotabaru Reteh, Riau Province still in the low category.
Walker, D.W.; Messina, P.; Baille, C.F.
Recently a number of advanced architecture machines have become commercially available. These new machines promise better cost-performance then traditional computers, and some of them have the potential of competing with current supercomputers, such as the Cray X/MP, in terms of maximum performance. This paper describes an on-going project to evaluate a broad range of advanced architecture computers using a number of complete scientific application programs. The computers to be evaluated include distributed- memory machines such as the NCUBE, INTEL and Caltech/JPL hypercubes, and the MEIKO computing surface, shared-memory, bus architecture machines such as the Sequent Balance and the Alliant, very long instruction word machines such as the Multiflow Trace 7/200 computer, traditional supercomputers such as the Cray X.MP and Cray-2, and SIMD machines such as the Connection Machine. Currently 11 application codes from a number of scientific disciplines have been selected, although it is not intended to run all codes on all machines. Results are presented for two of the codes (QCD and missile tracking), and future work is proposed
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: 1 to develop scientific problem-solving abilities test based on scientific knowledge about atmosphere and weather for seventh grade students and 2 to study the scientific problem-solving abilities of seventh grade students. The samples used in this study were 47 students who were studying in seventh grade in academic year 2015 of a school in Chai Nat province, Thailand. Purposive sampling was applied for identifying the samples. The research instrument of this study was the scientific problem-solving abilities test developed by the researcher. The research data was analyzed by comparing students’ scores with the criteria and considering students’ answers in each element of scientific problem-solving abilities. The results of the study were as follows: The scientific problem-solving abilities test composed of 2 parts. The first part was multiple-choice questions which was composed of 4 situations, a total of 20 questions. The Index of Item Objective Congruence of this part was varied in the range between 0.67 – 1.00. The difficulty and the discrimination level were in the range between 0.33 – 0.63 and 0.27 – 0.67, respectively. The reliability levels of this part was equal to 0.81. The second part of the test was subjective questions which composed of 2 situations, a total of 10 questions. The Index of Item Objective Congruence of this part was varied in the range between 0.67 – 1.00. The reliability level of this part was equal to 0.83. Besides, all questions in the test were covered all elements of scientific problem-solving abilities ; 1 identifying the problem 2 making the hypothesis 3 collecting data and knowledge to solve the problem 4 identifying problem-solving method and 5 predicting the characteristics of the results. The problem-solving abilities of the students revealed that 40.43% of students (n=19 were in a moderate level and 59.57% of students (n=28 were in a low level with the
Wilson, Kristy J; Rigakos, Bessie
The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students' understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of items and ratings for the dimensions. Comparison of the terms used and connections between terms on student flowcharts revealed an enhanced and more nuanced understanding of the scientific process, especially in the areas of application to society and communication within the scientific community. We propose that SPFA can be used in a variety of circumstances, including in the determination of what curricula or interventions would be useful in a course or program, in the assessment of curriculum, or in the evaluation of students performing research projects. © 2016 K. J. Wilson and B. Rigakos. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan
Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.
Greenberg, Kathleen P.
A detailed rubric initially designed as a scoring instrument for grading APA-style empirical research reports was tested for its ability to help students improve their scientific writing skills. Students who used the rubric while preparing their reports wrote a higher quality report than did students who did not. Students also improved the quality…
Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam
Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…
Lee, Yeung Chung; Grace, Marcus
Education for scientific literacy entails the development of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge and value judgments to decisions about real-life issues. This paper reports an attempt to involve secondary level biology students in making decisions about an authentic socio-scientific issue--that of bat conservation--through…
Deng, Yang; Wang, Houxiong
Attending to practice has become a significant topic in science education today. As scientific argumentation is a typical form of scientific practice as well as an important educational practice, more and more attention has been paid to it by science education researchers. Evaluating students' competence in scientific argumentation is one of the…
Erdogan, Sezen Camci
The purpose of this study is to determine science teaching attitudes and scientific attitudes of pre-service teachers of gifted students due to gender and grade level and also correlation among these variables. It is a survey study that the group is 82 students attending Gifted Education undergraduate level. Data is gathered by Scientific Attitude…
Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching
This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…
Kömek, Emre; Yagiz, Dursun; Kurt, Murat
The purpose of this study is to analyze scientific literacy levels relevant to science and technology classes among gifted students that participate in scientific activities at science and art centers. This study investigated whether there was a significant difference in scientific literacy levels among gifted students according to the areas of…
Full Text Available Introduction: The nurse according to the Supreme Chamber of Nurses and Midwives is a person able to recognize the health condition of an individual or group and can create a care plan and realize it. The nurse should be primarily autonomous in making decisions about nursing care and organizing nursing care. Each competent nurse can make a proper assessment of a given situation, makes decisions efficiently and is able to quickly select the right methods of conduct. The awareness that science is always the foundation of practice is extremely important. This is how the profession of a nurse was shaped over the years. These scientific achievements greatly influence the increase of the professional nurse's prestige. Objective: The aim of the work is to gain knowledge about the perception of nursing, as a scientific discipline and nurses, by students of the nursing field. Material and methods: The study covered 100 people who are students of nursing, finishing the three-year education period. The selection of respondents was random. The study group consisted of 100% women aged 20-35, living in urban areas (51% and rural (49%. The research method used in the work is a diagnostic survey. The research tool used is a self-help questionnaire. Results: Nursing understood 16% of respondents as a profession, 3% considered them as a scientific discipline, 1% as a learning system. The vast majority of respondents (92% stated that nursing is both theoretical and practical science. The nurses' forms of activity, which contribute to the development of nursing, 73% of them reported upgrading professional qualifications, 7% writing scientific papers, 2% participation in scientific research, 1% participation in the preparation of apprentices to the profession and 1% activity in organizations unions. The most important features that should be possessed by a good nurse include: diligence and accuracy of performed procedures (25%, possessing rich knowledge in the field
Zhou, Shaona; Han, Jing; Koenig, Kathleen; Raplinger, Amy; Pi, Yuan; Li, Dan; Xiao, Hua; Fu, Zhao; Bao, Lei
Scientific reasoning is an important component under the cognitive strand of the 21st century skills and is highly emphasized in the new science education standards. This study focuses on the assessment of student reasoning in control of variables (COV), which is a core sub-skill of scientific reasoning. The main research question is to investigate the extent to which the existence of experimental data in questions impacts student reasoning and performance. This study also explores the effects of task contexts on student reasoning as well as students' abilities to distinguish between testability and causal influences of variables in COV experiments. Data were collected with students from both USA and China. Students received randomly one of two test versions, one with experimental data and one without. The results show that students from both populations (1) perform better when experimental data are not provided, (2) perform better in physics contexts than in real-life contexts, and (3) students have a tendency to equate non-influential variables to non-testable variables. In addition, based on the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, a possible progression of developmental levels of student reasoning in control of variables is proposed, which can be used to inform future development of assessment and instruction.
Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen
In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...
Gede Wartawan Putu
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of portfolio assessment in teaching physics and scientific attitude. The research was conducted on students of high school in Singaraja. Research was an quasi- experimental study by using “The Posttest-Only Control Group Design”. The research involved 152 high school students of class X of science as samples, taken with multistage random sampling technique. Portfolio assessment was integrated with physics learning. The implementation of the portfolio assessment included four key elements such as the students' work folders, clear assessment criteria, and self-assessment, and conference between teacher and students. The data needed in this research was the students' scientific attitude which included the aspect of curiosity, respect for evidence, the willingness to change ideas, and critical reflection. Data needed in this research included scientific attitudes students. A Likert scale instrument was used to measure the scientific attitude students. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with SPSS 20.0 at significance level α = 0.05. The results showed there are differences in the scientific attitude students who take physics learning with assessment portfolios and students who take physics learning with assessment of conventional. The findings of this study indicate that portfolio assessment in learning physics significantly affect the scientific attitude students.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of portfolio assessment in teaching physics and scientific attitude. The research was conducted on students of high school in Singaraja. Research was an quasi- experimental study by using “The Posttest-Only Control Group Design”. The research involved 152 high school students of class X of science as samples, taken with multistage random sampling technique. Portfolio assessment was integrated with physics learning. The implementation of the portfolio assessment included four key elements such as the students' work folders, clear assessment criteria, and self-assessment, and conference between teacher and students. The data needed in this research was the students' scientific attitude which included the aspect of curiosity, respect for evidence, the willingness to change ideas, and critical reflection. Data needed in this research included scientific attitudes students. A Likert scale instrument was used to measure the scientific attitude students. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with SPSS 20.0 at significance level a = 0.05. The results showed there are differences in the scientific attitude students who take physics learning with assessment portfolios and students who take physics learning with assessment of conventional. The findings of this study indicate that portfolio assessment in learning physics significantly affect the scientific attitude students.
Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Blum, L. W.; Gerhardt, D.
The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a spacecraft mission developed and operated by students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The 3U CubeSat was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in September 2012. The massively successful mission far outlived its 4 month estimated lifetime and stopped transmitting data after over two years in orbit in December 2014. CSSWE has contributed to 15 scientific or engineering peer-reviewed journal publications. During the course of the project, over 65 undergraduate and graduate students from CU's Computer Science, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering Departments, as well as the Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department participated. The students were responsible for the design, development, build, integration, testing, and operations from component- to system-level. The variety of backgrounds on this unique project gave the students valuable experience in their own focus area, but also cross-discipline and system-level involvement. However, though the perseverance of the students brought the mission to fruition, it was only possible through the mentoring and support of professionals in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department and CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cooperative Learning with a Dual Situated Learning Model (CLDSLM and a Dual Situated Learning Model (DSLM on (a conceptual understanding (CU and (b scientific reasoning (SR among Form Four students. The study further investigated the effect of the CLDSLM and DSLM methods on performance in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning among students with different motivation levels. A quasi-experimental method with the 3 x 2 Factorial Design was applied in the study. The sample consisted of 240 stu¬dents in six (form four classes selected from three different schools, i.e. two classes from each school, with students randomly selected and assigned to the treatment groups. The results showed that students in the CLDSLM group outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group—who, in turn, significantly outperformed other students in the traditional instructional method (T group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. Also, high-motivation (HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the T groups in conceptual understanding and scientific reasoning. Furthermore, HM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group in scientific reasoning but did not significantly outperform their counterparts on conceptual understanding. Also, the DSLM instructional method has significant positive effects on highly motivated students’ (a conceptual understanding and (b scientific reason¬ing. The results also showed that LM students in the CLDSLM group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the DSLM group and (T method group in scientific reasoning and conceptual understanding. However, the low-motivation students taught via the DSLM instructional method significantly performed higher than the low-motivation students taught via the T method in scientific reasoning. Nevertheless, they did not
Bechvaya Maria, R.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a performance assessment tool research and teaching staff on the basis of a rating system that allows for the analysis of the results of key personnel of the higher school for criteria and determine the size of incentive payments. The rating model wage researchers and teachers bases on strengthening the incentive function of wages, aimed at personalization of scientific and educational activities of employees, which in modern conditions is the most relevant for use. The functions of stimulation, such as economic, moral and social are considered. The analysis methodologies for assessing university in the world and national rankings on the basis of which formed a system of indicators for assessing the activities of academic staff of higher education is represented. The necessity of development of an information system through which it is possible to carry out comprehensive analysis, that is to monitor the number of registered employees, to determine the share indices in the total ranking, to conduct the ranking points received by employees by industry and science in the context of structural units. The proposed information system is one element of technology assessment of effectiveness of the academic staff designed to evaluate the effectiveness of their activities and incentives, allows the analysis of criteria, based on which can be applied informed management decisions regarding the development of social and labor relations in the highest school.
Supratman; Ryane, S.; Rustina, R.
This study aims to explore the extent to which the use of analogy reasoning when students conduct conjecture in developing the scientific approach, so that the knowledge of the students can be used to build new knowledge. Analysis was conducted on student learning outcomes in Ciamis district. Based on these results, it was found the teacher not give an opportunity to the students to make conjecture on the students in problem solving as well as the construction of new knowledge. Moreover, teachers do not take advantage of analogical reasoning and scientific approach in constructing new knowledge.
Bråten, Ivar; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Strømsø, Helge I.; Ferguson, Leila E.
Students read six documents that varied in terms of their perspectives on a scientific issue and the trustworthiness of the source features. After reading, students wrote essays, rank-ordered the documents according to perceived trustworthiness, and provided reasons for their rank-order decisions. Students put the most trust in a textbook and a…
Holmes, Jeffrey D.
Could the same interests that draw many students to psychology also predict departure from the major? I present a comparison of students and instructors with respect to professional interests and views of the scientific nature of psychology (Study 1) and an examination of the link between student interests and persistence in the major (Study 2).…
Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin
A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…
Steinberg, Richard N.; Cormier, Sebastien; Fernandez, Adiel
Common forms of testing of student understanding of science content can be misleading about their understanding of the nature of scientific thinking. Observational astronomy integrated with related ideas of force and motion is a rich context to explore the correlation between student content knowledge and student understanding of the scientific…
Ferenc, Jaroslav; Cervenák, Filip; Bircák, Erik; Juríková, Katarína; Goffová, Ivana; Gorilák, Peter; Huraiová, Barbora; Plavá, Jana; Demecsová, Loriana; Duríková, Nikola; Galisová, Veronika; Gazdarica, Matej; Puškár, Marek; Nagy, Tibor; Nagyová, Sona; Mentelová, Lucia; Slaninová, Miroslava; Ševcovicová, Andrea; Tomáška, Lubomír
As future scientists, university students need to learn how to avoid making errors in their own manuscripts, as well as how to identify flaws in papers published by their peers. Here we describe a novel approach on how to promote students' ability to critically evaluate scientific articles. The exercise is based on instructing teams of students to…
Kollet, Stefan; Görgen, Klaus; Vereecken, Harry; Gasper, Fabian; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kulkarni, Ketan; Kurtz, Wolfgang; Sharples, Wendy; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Simmer, Clemens; Sulis, Mauro; Vanderborght, Jan
The Centre of High-Performance Scientific Computing (HPSC TerrSys) was founded 2011 to establish a centre of competence in high-performance scientific computing in terrestrial systems and the geosciences enabling fundamental and applied geoscientific research in the Geoverbund ABC/J (geoscientfic research alliance of the Universities of Aachen, Cologne, Bonn and the Research Centre Jülich, Germany). The specific goals of HPSC TerrSys are to achieve relevance at the national and international level in (i) the development and application of HPSC technologies in the geoscientific community; (ii) student education; (iii) HPSC services and support also to the wider geoscientific community; and in (iv) the industry and public sectors via e.g., useful applications and data products. A key feature of HPSC TerrSys is the Simulation Laboratory Terrestrial Systems, which is located at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC) and provides extensive capabilities with respect to porting, profiling, tuning and performance monitoring of geoscientific software in JSC's supercomputing environment. We will present a summary of success stories of HPSC applications including integrated terrestrial model development, parallel profiling and its application from watersheds to the continent; massively parallel data assimilation using physics-based models and ensemble methods; quasi-operational terrestrial water and energy monitoring; and convection permitting climate simulations over Europe. The success stories stress the need for a formalized education of students in the application of HPSC technologies in future.
Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.
The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.
Atif Omar Bin Tareef
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the current status of scientific research at the University of Jordan as perceived by graduate students and the differences between students of science and humanities faculties, and to identify their opinions regarding ways to improve scientific research at the University of Jordan. The study followed a descriptive methodology based on a survey that was developed specifically for the purpose of this study. The survey consisted of 40 items covering 5 themes, and was distributed to a sample of 104 male and female participants representing science and humanities faculties. The data were analyzed, using the two-way ANOVA, the standard deviation and means. In addition, students’ opinions and obstacles to effective participation of graduate students were categorized. The results showed significant differences between students’ assessment of the status of scientific research in science and humanities faculties, which was (3.2 for students in humanities faculties and (2.8 for students in science faculties. The difference also appeared in all the five domains of the scientific research, while there was no presence of gender effect, neither was there effect for the interaction between the variables (gender and the faculty. The study recommended to provide financial support to scientific research, and to establish a refereed scientific Journal for publishing students’ innovative ideas and research projects. Keywords: Scientific research, Graduate students.
Naohiro Shichijo; Silvia Rita Sedita; Yasunori Baba
Using Stokes's (1997) "quadrant model of scientific research", this paper deals with how the entrepreneurial orientation of scientists affects their scientific performance by considering its impact on scientific production (number of publications), scientific prestige (number of forward citations), and breadth of research activities (interdisciplinarity). The results of a quantitative analysis applied to a sample of 1,957 scientific papers published by 66 scientists active in advanced materia...
Providing students with continuous and personalized feedback on their performance is an important part of encouraging self regulated learning. As part of our higher education platform, we built a set of data visualizations to provide feedback to students on their assignment performance. These visualizations give students information about how they…
As part of the National Science Foundation Science Literacy through Science Journalism (SciJourn) research and development initiative (http://www.scijourn.org ; Polman, Saul, Newman, and Farrar, 2008) a quasi-experimental design was used to investigate what impact incorporating science journalism activities had on students' scientific literacy. Over the course of a school year students participated in a variety of activities culminating in the production of science news articles for Scijourner, a regional print and online high school science news magazine. Participating teachers and SciJourn team members collaboratively developed activities focused on five aspects of scientific literacy: placing information into context, recognizing relevance, evaluating factual accuracy, use of multiple credible sources and information seeking processes. This study details the development process for the Scientific Literacy Assessment (SLA) including validity and reliability studies, evaluates student scientific literacy using the SLA, examines student SLA responses to provide a description of high school students' scientific literacy, and outlines implications of the findings in relation to the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012) and classroom science teaching practices. Scientifically literate adults acting as experts in the assessment development phase informed the creation of a scoring guide that was used to analyze student responses. Experts tended to draw on both their understanding of science concepts and life experiences to formulate answers; paying close attention to scientific factual inaccuracies, sources of information, how new information fit into their view of science and society as well as targeted strategies for information seeking. Novices (i.e., students), in contrast, tended to ignore factual inaccuracies, showed little understanding about source credibility and suggested
Bech Andersen, Sofie; Østergaard, Lauge; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup
Introduction: Undergraduate research among medical students is essential in the education of future physicians and scientists. This study aimed to evaluate the scientific yield of extracurricular undergraduate research among medical students. Methods: Medical students at the University of Copenha...... in cardiology (14.1%). Car - diology was also associated with the greatest scientific yield with a median number of 0.8 publications per year after the students concluded their undergraduate research period. Three or more years after concluding their undergraduate research, 32.8% of the students had continued...... specialty and also the specialty with the greatest scientific yield. A third of the undergraduate re - search students continued doing research in the context of a PhD programme....
Brown, Dale; Bateman, David N.
Through the student activities of the Profession and Career Package (PAC), general principles taught in an introductory business course, "Principles of Management," are made relevant to students' future career plans. The development of the PAC approach, its objectives, and student reaction to this method are discussed. (JMD)
Lazonder, A.W.; Janssen, N.
Recent longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have examined how scientific reasoning skills such as experimenting, making inferences and evaluating evidence develop in young science learners. Results, although informative, likely underestimate children’s true capabilities because data in these
" The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has implemented a Zambeel Aztera storage system and software to accelerate the productivity of scientists running high performance scientific simulations and computations" (1 page).
Roheni; Herman, T.; Jupri, A.
This study investigates the skills of elementary school students’ in problem solving through the Scientific Approach. The purpose of this study is to determine mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Scientific Approach is better than mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Direct Instruction. This study is using quasi-experimental method. Subject of this study is students in grade V in one of state elementary school in Cirebon Regency. Instrument that used in this study is mathematical problem solving skills. The result of this study showed that mathematical problem solving skills of students who learn by using Scientific Approach is more significant than using Direct Instruction. Base on result and analysis, the conclusion is that Scientific Approach can improve students’ mathematical problem solving skills.
This study examined reasoning and problem solving by 182 12th grade students in Taiwan when considering a socio-scientific issue regarding the use of nuclear energy. Students' information preferences, background characteristics, and eleven everyday scientific thinking skills were scrutinized. It was found most participants displayed a willingness to take into account both scientific and social information in reasoning the merits of a proposed construction of a nuclear power plant. Students' reasoning scores obtained from the "information reasoning style" test ranged from -0.5 to 1.917. And, the distribution was approximately normal with mean and median at around 0.5. For the purpose of categorization, students whose scores were within one standard deviation from the mean were characterized as having a "equally disposed" reasoning style. One hundred and twenty-five subjects, about 69%, belonged to this category. Students with scores locating at the two tails of the distribution were assigned to either the "scientifically oriented" or the "socially oriented" reasoning category. Among 23 background characteristics investigated using questionnaire data and ANOVA statistical analysis, only students' science performance and knowledge about nuclear energy were statistically significantly related to their information reasoning styles (p religion, and the political party preference. For everyday scientific thinking skills, interview data showed that both "scientifically oriented" students and those who were categorized as "equally disposed to using scientific and social scientific sources of data" displayed higher frequencies than "socially oriented" ones in using these skills, except in the use of the "multidisciplinary thinking" skill. Among the 11 skills assessed, the "scientifically oriented" students outperformed the "equally disposed" ones only in the use of 3 thinking skills; namely, searching for or recalling scientific concepts/evidence, recognizing and evaluating
Yustina, Yustina; Suwondo, Suwondo
The purpose of this research was to got the information about student's scientific attitude and creativity of product and correlation both of it in enviromental issues through project based learning. This research was conducted from January to June 2015. Sample in this research were 34 students of 2014 grade in FKIP Biologi UR used parameters were (1) scientific attitude with 4 indicators (curiosity, cooperative, carefulness and discipline); (2) creativity of product. Observation instrument m...
The teaching of research methodology to graduate science students places an emphasis on scientific reasoning and on the generation and evaluation of evidence in support of research conclusions. Very little attention is paid to the teaching of scientific creativity, the processes for generation of new ideas, hypotheses, and theories. By contrast,…
Bilgin, Ali; Boedeker, Peter; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.
Vocabulary is at the surface level of language usage; thus, students need to develop mathematical and scientific vocabulary to be able to explicitly communicate their mathematical and scientific reasoning with others. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) have both created…
Bybee, Rodger W.
This article describes the idea of scientific literacy as defined in PISA, discusses relevant results of PISA, and clarifies meaningful relationships between PISA data and scientific competencies of U.S. students. Finally, the author includes insights and recommendations for contemporary leadership in science education. (Contains 8 tables and 1…
Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam
Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using
Ruebush, Laura; Sulikowski, Michelle; North, Simon
Scientific modeling is an integral part of contemporary science, yet many students have little understanding of how models are developed, validated, and used to predict and explain phenomena. A simple modeling exercise led to significant gains in understanding key attributes of scientific modeling while revealing some stubborn misconceptions.…
Çalik, Muammer; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Küçük, Zeynel; Artun, Hüseyin
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of "Environmental Chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (InT) and scientific inquiry abilities. The study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68…
Heming, Thomas A; Nandagopal, Shobha
Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with "English as a second language" (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge.
As more concerns have been raised about withholding answers during science teaching, this article argues for a need to detach 'withholding answers' from 'hands-on' investigation tasks. The present study examined students' learning of light-related content through three conditions: 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (hands-on only: HO), 'hands-on' + 'withholding' (hands-on investigation with answers withheld: HOW), and no 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (direction instruction: DI). Students were assessed in terms of how well they (1) knew the content taught in class; (2) reasoned with the learned content; and (3) applied the learned content to real-life situations. Nine classes of students at 4th and 5th grades, N = 136 in total, were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. ANCOVA results showed that students in the hands-on only condition reasoned significantly better than those in the other two conditions. Students in this condition also seemed to know the content fairly better although the advance was not significant. Students in all three conditions did not show a statistically significant difference in their ability to apply the learned content to real-life situations. The findings from this study provide important contributions regarding issues relating to withholding answers during guided scientific inquiry.
Diggle, Peter; Chetwynd, Amanda
"Most introductory statistics text-books are written either in a highly mathematical style for an intended readership of mathematics undergraduate students, or in a recipe-book style for an intended...
Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley
Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate as non-minority students. Kelman (1958, 2006) describes a tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) by which a person orients to a social system. To test if this model predicts integration into the scientific community, we conducted analyses of data from a national panel of minority science students. A structural equation model framework showed that self-efficacy (operationalized consistent with Kelman’s ‘rule-orientation’) predicted student intentions to pursue a scientific career. However, when identification as a scientist and internalization of values are added to the model, self-efficacy becomes a poorer predictor of intention. Additional mediation analyses support the conclusion that while having scientific self-efficacy is important, identifying with and endorsing the values of the social system reflect a deeper integration and more durable motivation to persist as a scientist. PMID:21552374
Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Amélia Ferreira, Maria
Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement of clinical practice. Purposes: This work aimed to study the relevance given by Portuguese medical students to a core of scientific skills, and their judgment about their own ability to execute those skills. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of medical course in the same period. An assessment istrument, exploring the importance given by Portuguese medical students to scientific skills in high school, to clinical practice and to their own ability to execute them, was designed, adapted and applied specifically to this study. Results: Students' perceptions were associated with gender, academic year, previous participation in research activities, positive and negative attitudes toward science, research integration into the curriculum and motivation to undertake research. The viewpoint of medical students about the relevance of scientific skills overall, and the ability to execute them, was independently associated with motivation to be enrolled in research. Conclusions: These findings have meaningful implications in medical education regarding the inclusion of a structural research program in the medical curriculum. Students should be aware that clinical practice would greatly benefit from the enrollment in research activities. By developing a solid scientific literacy future physicians will be able to apply new knowledge in patient care.
Aguilar, C.; Swartz, D.
Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) is a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center focused on improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models. The Center is divided into three sections including Knowledge Transfer, Research, and Education and Diversity. The Science Education and Diversity mission is to educate and train people with diverse backgrounds in Climate and Earth System Science by enhancing teaching and learning and disseminating science results through multiple media. CMMAP is partnering with two local school districts to host an annual global climate conferences for high school students. The 2008 Colorado Global Climate Conference seeks "To educate students on global and local climate issues and empower them to se their knowledge." The conference is sponsored by CMMAP, The Governor's Energy Office, Poudre School District, Thompson School District, Clif Bar, and Ben and Jerry's Scoop Shop of Fort Collins. The conference seeks to inspire students to pursue future education and careers in science fields. Following an opening welcome from the Governor's Energy Office, Keynote Piers Sellers will discuss his experiences as an atmospheric scientist and NASA astronaut. Students will then attend 3 out of 16 breakout sessions including such sessions as "Hot poems, Cool Paintings, and the treasures of Antiquity of Climate Change", "Mitigation vs Adaptation", "Bigfoot Walks(What Size is our carbon footprint?)" "The Wedges: Reduc ing Carbon Emissions", and "We the People: Climate and Culture of Climate Change" to name a few. Using The Governor's High School Conference on the Environment sponsored by the Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education as a model we are developing statewide partnerships to bring high school students together to look at global climate issues that will impact their future and of which they can be part of the solution through their education and career paths. In addition to
Mumford, Kevin J.; Ohland, Matthew W.
Using undergraduate student records from six large public universities from 1990 to 2003, the authors analyze the characteristics and performance of students by major in two economics courses: Principles of Microeconomics and Intermediate Microeconomics. This article documents important differences across students by major in the principles course…
Rahayu, S.; Meyliana, M.; Arlingga, A.; Reny, R.; Siahaan, P.; Hernani, H.
The aim of this study is to develop lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution environmental topic for seventh-grade junior high school students. Environmental pollution topic split into several subtopics namely air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. The composing of lesson plans were developed based on socio-scientific issues with five stages, namely (1) Motivate; (2) Challenge; (3) Collect scientific evidence; (4) Analyse the evidence; (5) Build knowledge and make connections; and (6) Use evidence. While student worksheets contain articles on socio-scientific issues, practice, and there are a few questions to determine students’ reasoning. The method that is used in this research is research and development (R & D method). Development model used in this study is a model of Plomp that consists of four stages, namely: (1) Initial Research; (2) Design; (3) Realization or Construction; (4) Testing, evaluation and revision; (5) Implementation, while the research was limited to the fourth stage. Lesson plans and student worksheets based on socio-scientific issues was validated through an expert validation. The result showed that lesson plans and student worksheets based socio-scientific issues on pollution theme have a very decent and be able to apply in science classroom.
Yildirim, Sefa; Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif
In this study, it was aimed to identify the scientific research-related anxiety levels of the undergraduate students studying in the department of faculty of science and letters and faculty of education to analyse these anxiety levels in terms of various variables (students' gender, using web based information sources, going to the library,…
Morier, Dean; Keeports, David
A study investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary course on the scientific method on the attitudes of 34 college students toward the paranormal. Results indicated that the course substantially reduced belief in the paranormal, relative to a control group. Student beliefs in their own paranormal powers, however, did not change. (Author/MSE)
This study aims to 1) enable primary school students to develop models that will help them understand and analyze a system, through a learning process based on system dynamics approach, 2) examine and evaluate students' models related to socio-scientific issues using certain criteria. The research method used is a case study. The study sample…
Gungor, Sema Nur; Ozer, Dilek Zeren; Ozkan, Muhlis
This study re-evaluated 454 science projects that were prepared by primary school students between 2007 and 2011 within the scope of Science Projects Event for Primary School Students. Also, submitted to TUBITAK BIDEB Bursa regional science board by MNE regional work groups in accordance with scientific research methods and techniques, including…
Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.
This paper reports on the challenge of evaluating students' scientific literacy in a writing-to-learn context, as illustrated by our experience with an online science-writing project. In this mixed methods study, year 9 students in a case study class (13-14 year olds, n?=?26) authored a series of two "hybridised" short stories that…
Huang, Hsi-Yu; Wu, Hui-Ling; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lin, Yu-Ren
This study investigated how the different discussion approaches in Facebook influenced students' scientific knowledge acquisition and the nature of science (NOS) views. Two eighth- and two ninth-grade classes in a Taiwanese junior high school participated in the study. In two of the classes students engaged in synchronous discussion, and in the…
Dirrigl, Frank J., Jr.; Noe, Mark
Teaching scientific writing in biology classes is challenging for both students and instructors. This article offers and reviews several useful "toolkit" items that improve student writing. These include sentence and paper-length templates, funnelling and compartmentalisation, and preparing compendiums of corrections. In addition,…
Amsel, Eric; Ashley, Aaron; Baird, Todd; Johnston, Adam
Two studies explored conceptual change in undergraduate psychology students' acceptance of the scientific foundations of the discipline. In Study 1, Introductory Psychology students completed the Psychology as Science questionnaire (PAS) at the beginning and end of the semester and did so from their own (Self Condition) and their instructors'…
Foong, Chan-Choong; Daniel, Esther G. S.
This paper argues the possible simultaneous development and transfer of students' argumentation skills from one socio-scientific issue to another in a Confucian classroom. In Malaysia, the Chinese vernacular schools follow a strict Confucian philosophy in the teaching and learning process. The teacher talks and the students listen. This case study…
Kaja Høiseth Brugård
This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...
Danch, J. M.
Developed to allow high school students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Peer Mentoring Program was a supplement to existing science instruction for students in a self-contained classroom. Peer mentors were high school seniors at the end of a three-year advanced science research course who used their experience to create and develop inquiry-based research activities appropriate for students in the self- contained classroom. Peer mentors then assisted cooperative learning groups of special education students to facilitate the implementation of the research activities. Students with special needs successfully carried out an original research project and developed critical thinking and laboratory skills. Prior to embarking on their undergraduate course of study in the sciences, peer mentors developed an appreciation for the need to bring original scientific research to students of all levels. The program will be expanded and continued during the 2007-2008 school year.
Impey, C.; Buxner, S.
We have been conducting a study of university students' science literacy for the past 24 years. Based on the work of the National Science Board's ongoing national survey of the US public, we have administered the same survey to undergraduate science students at the University of Arizona almost every year since 1989. Results have shown relatively little change in students' overall science literacy, descriptions of science, and knowledge of basic science topics for almost a quarter of a century despite an increase in education interventions, the rise of the internet, and increased access to knowledge. Several trends do exist in students' science literacy and descriptions of science. Students who exhibit beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon (e.g., lucky numbers, creationism) consistently have lower science literacy scores and less correct descriptions of scientific phenomenon. Although not surprising, our results support ongoing efforts to help students generate evidence based thinking.
Richard N. Steinberg
Full Text Available Common forms of testing of student understanding of science content can be misleading about their understanding of the nature of scientific thinking. Observational astronomy integrated with related ideas of force and motion is a rich context to explore the correlation between student content knowledge and student understanding of the scientific thinking about that content. In this paper, we describe this correlation in detail with a focus on a question about the relative motion of the Sun and the Earth. We find that high achieving high school students throughout New York City struggle with what constitutes scientific justification and thought processes, but can improve these skills tremendously in an inquiry-oriented summer astronomy-physics program.
Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame
This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…
Forbes, Cory; Vo, Tina; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina
The water cycle is a large, complex system that encompasses ideas across the K-12 science curriculum. By the time students leave fifth grade, they should understand "that a system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot" and be able to describe both components and processes…
Genet, R.; Armstrong, J.; Blanko, P.; Boyce, G. B. P.; Brewer, M.; Buchheim, R.; Calanog, J.; Castaneda, D.; Chamberlin, R.; Clark, R. K.; Collins, D.; Conti, D.; Cormier, S.; FItzgerald, M.; Estrada, C.; Estrada, R.; Freed, R.; Gomez, E.; Hardersen, P.; Harshaw, R.; Johnson, J.; Kafka, S.; Kenney, J.; Monanan, K.; Ridgely, J.; Rowe, D.; Silliman, M.; Stojimirovic, I.; Tock, K.; Walker, D.
(Abstract only) Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research - double star astrometry - was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program - supported in part by the National Science Foundation - is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science' specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.
Genet, Russell; Armstrong, James; Blanko, Philip; Boyce, Grady Boyce, Pat; Brewer, Mark; Buchheim, Robert; Calanog, Jae; Castaneda, Diana; Chamberlin, Rebecca; Clark, R. Kent; Collins, Dwight; Conti, Dennis Cormier, Sebastien; Fitzgerald, Michael; Estrada, Chris; Estrada, Reed; Freed, Rachel Gomez, Edward; Hardersen, Paul; Harshaw, Richard; Johnson, Jolyon Kafka, Stella; Kenney, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Ridgely, John; Rowe, David Silliman, Mark; Stojimirovic, Irena; Tock, Kalee; Walker, Douglas; Wallen, Vera
Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research-double star astrometry-was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program-supported in part by the National Science Foundation-is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science-specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.
Adakin, A; Chubarov, D; Nikultsev, V; Belov, S; Kaplin, V; Sukharev, A; Zaytsev, A; Kalyuzhny, V; Kuchin, N; Lomakin, S
Novosibirsk Scientific Center (NSC), also known worldwide as Akademgorodok, is one of the largest Russian scientific centers hosting Novosibirsk State University (NSU) and more than 35 research organizations of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences including Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Institute of Computational Technologies (ICT), and Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (ICM and MG). Since each institute has specific requirements on the architecture of the computing farms involved in its research field, currently we've got several computing facilities hosted by NSC institutes, each optimized for the particular set of tasks, of which the largest are the NSU Supercomputer Center, Siberian Supercomputer Center (ICM and MG), and a Grid Computing Facility of BINP. Recently a dedicated optical network with the initial bandwidth of 10 Gbps connecting these three facilities was built in order to make it possible to share the computing resources among the research communities of participating institutes, thus providing a common platform for building the computing infrastructure for various scientific projects. Unification of the computing infrastructure is achieved by extensive use of virtualization technologies based on XEN and KVM platforms. The solution implemented was tested thoroughly within the computing environment of KEDR detector experiment which is being carried out at BINP, and foreseen to be applied to the use cases of other HEP experiments in the upcoming future.
AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Performance in Vocational Education in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State. GO Ojo ... title Home- School Factors and Students' Academic Performance in Vocational Education ...
Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr
Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…
la Cour, Lisbeth
In this paper we analyze the study performance data for three cohorts of students for the course in Economics at the Business Diploma (herafter HD) study program at Copenhagen Business School. Out main findings are 1) that students with the lowest level of math from high school are performing worse...
Olson, Joel D.; Ringhand, Darlene G.; Kalinski, Ray C.; Ziegler, James G.
What is the best way to assign graduate business students to online team-based projects? Team assignments are frequently made on the basis of alphabet, time zones or previous performance. This study reviews personality as an indicator of student online team performance. The personality assessment IDE (Insights Discovery Evaluator) was administered…
Full Text Available Customer satisfaction has long been recognized as a central concept of all business activities. Satisfaction can serve as an indicator of success of the company, both in the past and present, as well as an indicator of future performance. High quality service to students is a prerequisite of maintaining competitiveness in the market of higher education. A relationship that is created between the expectations of students and their satisfaction with the quality of service that provides educational institution plays an important role in shaping the reputation of academic institutions. Academic institutions are becoming aware of the importance of student satisfaction, because satisfaction positively influences their decision to continue their education at this institution, and the positive word of mouth that will attract prospective students. Satisfaction will affect student motivation, and therefore their performance. This paper provides insight into the marketing aspects of customer satisfaction, primarily insight into the satisfaction of students in the educational sector. The aim is to establish the influence of satisfaction various factors related to the university and higher education to the satisfaction of student life, and does student life satisfaction affect the overall happiness and student performance. The research was conducted on the student population of the University of Split, on a sample of 191 respondents. The research was conducted with the help of online survey questionnaire. The claim that student’s satisfactions with housing affect the satisfaction with the quality of student life is rejected. The results confirmed that the student’s satisfaction with university contents, university bodies and services, teaching, teaching methods and academic reputation affects the satisfaction of student life and student life satisfaction affect the student performance.
Allison, Elizabeth Rowland
This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify
Kelly, G. J.; Prothero, W. A.
Writing activities can improve student understanding of scientific content and processes. We have studied student writing to identify the challenges that students face in composing scientific arguments and to clarify features that constitute quality in scientific writing. We have applied argumentation analysis for the assessment of students' use of evidence in a general education oceanography course. Argumentation analysis refers to the systematic examination of ways that conclusions are supported with evidence. The student writers were supported by an interactive CD-ROM, "Our Dynamic Planet," which provided students with "point and click" access to real earth data and allowed them to solve many problems associated with plate tectonics. Plate boundary types (using quakes, volcanoes, elevation profiles, and heat flow) and plate motion can be determined (seafloor age, island ages/hot spots) with this technology. First, we discuss the structure of scientific argument and how this structure can be made accessible to undergraduate students. Second, we present examples of argumentation analysis applied to student writing. These examples demonstrate how use of large scale geological data sets can be used to support student writing. Third, we present results from a series of studies to show ways that students adhere to the genre conventions of geological writing through use of theoretical claims, multiple lines of evidence, and cohesive terms. These results, combined with our evidence-based orientation to instruction, formed the basis for modifications in the course instruction. These instructional modifications include providing detailed examples of data based observations and interpretations, heuristics for assessing other students' arguments, and quick write exercises with similar but simplified writing tasks. More information about the CD-ROM may be found at http://oceanography.geol.ucsb.edu/.
Nurafni; Siswanto, R. D.; Azhar, E.
A scientific approach is a learning process designed so that learners can actively construct concepts, encourage learners to find out from various sources through observation, and not just be told. Therefore, learning by scientific approach offers a solution, because the goals, principles, and stages of the scientific approach allow for a good understanding of the students. Because of the absence of teaching materials “polyhedron geometry based on scientific approach” which is widely published in Indonesia, then we need to develop the teaching materials. The results obtained in this study are the tasks presented on teaching materials with a scientific approach both in defining the cube and the beam, identify and solve problems related to the properties and elements of cubes and beams, making cube and beam nets, solving problems related to cube and beam nets, solving problems related to cube and beam surface area. Beginning with the difficulties students face. Then, based on the results of interviews with teachers and analysis of student difficulties on each indicator, researchers revise the teaching materials as needed. Teaching materials that have not found any more student difficulties then the teaching materials are considered valid and ready for use by teachers and students.
Full Text Available This study investigated the number and nature of gifted female and male students' scientific, societal, and moral questions concerning science. The participants (=658 of this study were 16–19-year-old international students from 55 countries and two continents, Asia and Europe. They applied to participate in the Millennium Youth Camp held in 2011 in Finland. The students came from scientifically and mathematically oriented schools, and they had shown an interest towards science through competitions, school success, and their own research. The students were asked to formulate questions they would like to get answers to during the camp. The nature and number of the students' questions were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The results showed that the boys asked more scientific questions than the girls, and the girls asked more societal questions than the boys. The students asked less questions about morality than scientific or societal questions. The most common questions about morality were related to pollution and fresh air, environmental problems, and water protection. The results point to the need for teachers to teach socioscientific issues and discuss moral questions related to science.
Xing, Wan-jin; Morigen, Morigen
The classroom is the main venue for undergraduate teaching. It is worth pondering how to cultivate undergraduate's research ability in classroom teaching. Here we introduce the practices and experiences in teaching reform in genetics for training the research quality of undergraduate students from six aspects: (1) constructing the framework for curriculum framework systematicaly, (2) using the teaching content to reflect research progress, (3) explaining knowledge points with research activities, (4) explaining the scientific principles and experiments with PPT animation, (5) improving English reading ability through bilingual teaching, and (6) testing students' analysing ability through examination. These reforms stimulate undergraduate students' enthusiasm for learning, cultivate their ability to find, analyze and solve scientific problems, and improve their English reading and literature reviewing capacity, which lay a foundation for them to enter the field of scientific research.
A. Lynn Stephens
Full Text Available We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.
Krumhansl, K.; Krumhansl, R.; Brown, C.; DeLisi, J.; Kochevar, R.; Sickler, J.; Busey, A.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Block, B.
The collection of large quantities of scientific data has not only transformed science, but holds the potential to transform teaching and learning by engaging students in authentic scientific work. Furthermore, it has become imperative in a data-rich world that students gain competency in working with and interpreting data. The Next Generation Science Standards reflect both the opportunity and need for greater integration of data in science education, and emphasize that both scientific knowledge and practice are essential elements of science learning. The process of enabling access by novice learners to data collected and used by experts poses significant challenges, however, recent research has demonstrated that barriers to student learning with data can be overcome by the careful design of data access and analysis tools that are specifically tailored to students. A group of educators at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and scientists at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station are collaborating to develop and test a model for student engagement with scientific data using a web-based platform. This model, called Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean, provides students with the ability to plot and analyze tracks of migrating marine animals collected through the Tagging of Pacific Predators program. The interface and associated curriculum support students in identifying relationships between animal behavior and physical oceanographic variables (e.g. SST, chlorophyll, currents), making linkages between the living world and climate. Students are also supported in investigating possible sources of human impact to important biodiversity hotspots in the Pacific Ocean. The first round of classroom testing revealed that students were able to easily access and display data on the interface, and collect measurements from the animal tracks and oceanographic data layers. They were able to link multiple types of data to draw powerful
Soni Nugroho Yuliono
Full Text Available Teaching materials that available in the school to learn physics especially scientific-based is limited and become one of the obstacles to achieving the learning objectives on electromagnetic waves maerial. The research aims is to gain scientific Physics-based learning modules for high school grade XII students who have met the eligibility criteria, determine the effectiveness of using scientific-based learning modules Physics to improve motivation and learning outcomes from students of grade XII High School. The development of this research on Physics module using 4D development procedure which consist of the steps of define, design, development, and dissemination. Definition phase consists of the teacher and student’s needs analysis process, material analysis, as well as the formulation of the learning module. The design phase of physics learning modules according to the stage of scientific learning are integrated into the module. The development phase consists of the development process of the modules from the design results, validating the feasibility, module revision, limited testing, and the use of scientifically-based learning modules Physics in grade XII IPA 1 Batik 2 Surakarta senior high school. The deployment phase is the deployment process module to another Senior High School in Surakarta. Data Analysis for the study is quantitative descriptive analysis based on the score criteria and analysis of increasing student motivation through N-gain. Conclusion obtained are ; 1 Physics-based scientific learning modules that developed meet the eligibility criteria on aspects of content and presentation, language, the chart, and aspects of learning. The module is declared worthy of the ideals validation results with the percentage of 85.16%, 83.66% by students and teachers in the response phase of the deployment of 85.93%, which is included in the category of "very good"; 2 Physics-based scietific learning modules with material scientific
Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei
This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and…
Wiwin, E.; Kustijono, R.
The purpose of the study is to describe the use of Physics practicum to train the science process skills and its effect on the scientific attitudes of the vocational high school students. The components of science process skills are: observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, and communicating. The established scientific attitudes are: curiosity, honesty, collaboration, responsibility, and open-mindedness. This is an experimental research with the one-shot case study design. The subjects are 30 Multimedia Program students of SMK Negeri 12 Surabaya. The data collection techniques used are observation and performance tests. The score of science process skills and scientific attitudes are taken from observational and performance instruments. Data analysis used are descriptive statistics and correlation. The results show that: 1) the physics practicum can train the science process skills and scientific attitudes in good category, 2) the relationship between the science process skills and the students' scientific attitude is good category 3) Student responses to the learning process using the practicum in the good category, The results of the research conclude that the physics practicum can train the science process skill and have a significant effect on the scientific attitude of the vocational highschool students.
Using a socio-psycholinguistic perspective of literacy and a social-semiotic analysis of texts, this study investigates how six students made meaning of informational texts. The students came to school from a variety of English and Spanish language backgrounds. The research question being asked was 'How do Latino(a) fourth and fifth grade students make meaning of English informational texts?' Miscue analysis was used as a tool to investigate how students who have been labeled non-struggling readers by their classroom teacher and are from various language backgrounds approached five informational texts. In order to investigate students' responses to the nature of informational texts, this dissertation draws on commonly occurring structures within texts. Primary data collected included read alouds and retellings of five texts, retrospective miscue analysis, and interviews with six participant students. Two of these participants are discussed within this dissertation. Secondary data included classroom observations and teacher interviews. This study proposes that non-native speakers may use scientific concept placeholders as they transact with informational texts. The use of scientific concept placeholders by a reader indicates that the reader is engaged in the meaning making process and possesses evolving scientific knowledge about a phenomenon. The findings suggest that Latino(a) students' understandings of English informational texts is influenced not only by a student's language development but also (1) the nature of the text; (2) the reading strategies that a student uses, such as the use of placeholders; (3) the influence of the researcher during the aided retelling. This study contributes methodological tools to assess English language learners' reading. The conclusions presented within this study also support the idea that students from a variety of language backgrounds slightly altered their reliance on certain cuing systems as they encountered various sub
This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary chemistry. A random sampling technique was used to select 6 secondary schools out of 10 secondary schools in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State. 200 students, 20 teachers and 6 principals ...
We also surveyed learning experience of a batch of graduating doctors in neurosciences (n=50) and surveyed the staff and students' perception of the teaching of neurophysiology. The students performances in neurophysiology was comparatively poorer than in cardiovascular and endocrinology aspects of the subject over ...
Steventon, Candace E.
A personalized parenting program was implemented to address poor academic performance and low self-esteem of high school students. Student records, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Behavior Evaluation Scale, and teacher surveys were employed to identify and measure academic and/or self-perception growth. Parents participated in an 8-week…
Wilson, Kristy J.; Rigakos, Bessie
The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology,…
Ida M.B. Nielsen
Full Text Available Until recently, performance gains in processors were achieved largely by improvements in clock speeds and instruction level parallelism. Thus, applications could obtain performance increases with relatively minor changes by upgrading to the latest generation of computing hardware. Currently, however, processor performance improvements are realized by using multicore technology and hardware support for multiple threads within each core, and taking full advantage of this technology to improve the performance of applications requires exposure of extreme levels of software parallelism. We will here discuss the architecture of parallel computers constructed from many multicore chips as well as techniques for managing the complexity of programming such computers, including the hybrid message-passing/multi-threading programming model. We will illustrate these ideas with a hybrid distributed memory matrix multiply and a quantum chemistry algorithm for energy computation using Møller–Plesset perturbation theory.
Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermilab; Paterno, Marc [Fermilab
We present an evaluation of the performance of a Spark implementation of a classification algorithm in the domain of High Energy Physics (HEP). Spark is a general engine for in-memory, large-scale data processing, and is designed for applications where similar repeated analysis is performed on the same large data sets. Classification problems are one of the most common and critical data processing tasks across many domains. Many of these data processing tasks are both computation- and data-intensive, involving complex numerical computations employing extremely large data sets. We evaluated the performance of the Spark implementation on Cori, a NERSC resource, and compared the results to an untuned MPI implementation of the same algorithm. While the Spark implementation scaled well, it is not competitive in speed to our MPI implementation, even when using significantly greater computational resources.
Anderson, Kate T.; Zuiker, Steven J.
This study introduces performative identity as a lens for understanding student participation in discursive classroom routines and potentials for fostering student agency and enhanced learning. We argue that student negotiation of performative identities can facilitate productive transformations of individual and group trajectories. This study…
Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.
For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.
Ting, Kan Lin; Siew, Nyet Moi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of outdoor school ground lessons on Year Five students' science process skills and scientific curiosity. A quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The participants in the study were divided into two groups, one subjected to the experimental treatment, defined as…
González-Howard, María; McNeill, Katherine L.
Recent education reform efforts have included an increasing push for school science to better mirror authentic scientific endeavor, including a focus on science practices. However, despite expectations that all students engage in these language-rich practices, little prior research has focused on how such opportunities will be created for…
Dega, Bekele Gashe; Govender, Nadaraj
This study compares the scientific and alternative conceptions of energy and momentum of university first-year science students in Ethiopia and the US. Written data were collected using the Energy and Momentum Conceptual Survey developed by Singh and Rosengrant. The Concentration Analysis statistical method was used for analysing the Ethiopian…
Simmons, Alexandria D.; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Amin, Shivas; Rosell, Rosemarie C.
Anyone who has taught an introductory biology lab has sat at their desk in front of a towering stack of lengthy lab reports and wondered if there was a better way to teach scientific writing. We propose the use of a one-page format that we have called a "mini-report," which we believe better allows students to understand the structure…
In this research, it is aimed to determine the effect of the attitudes of postgraduate students towards scientific research and codes of conduct, supported by digital script. This research is a quantitative study, and it has been formed according to pre-test & post-test research model of experiment and control group. In both groups, lessons…
Collins, Eva-Maria S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.
This article presents the combination of three enhanced educational approaches for training future scientists. These methods incorporate skills generally not introduced in the freshman year: student-led blackboard introductions; the writing of scientific papers; and the design, execution, and presentation of an independent lab module. We tested…
Socio-scientific issues (SSI) are recommended by many science educators worldwide for learners to acquire first hand experience to apply what they learned in class. This investigated experiences of teacher-researcher and students in using SSI in Physical Science, Second Semester, School Year 2012-2013. Latest and controversial news articles on…
D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.
Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…
Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement…
Schuch, Linda, Ed.
"Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on using scientifically based practices to improve student achievement and teacher effectiveness. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who have worked closely…
McCright, Aaron M.
Promoting sustainability and dealing with complex environmental problems like climate change demand a citizenry with considerable scientific and quantitative literacy. In particular, students in the STEM disciplines of (biophysical) science, technology, engineering, and mathematics need to develop interdisciplinary skills that help them understand…
van Vondel, Sabine; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul
The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of a video feedback coaching intervention for upper-grade primary school teachers on students' cognitive gains in scientific knowledge. This teaching intervention was designed with the use of inquiry-based learning principles for teachers, such as the empirical cycle and the posing of…
Cincera, Jan; Medek, Michal; Cincera, Pavel; Lupac, Miroslav; Tichá, Irena
Background: Development of scientific understanding of secondary school students is considered to be one of the goals of environmental education. However, it is not quite clear what instructional strategies and what other factors contribute to the effectiveness of environmental education programs promoting this goal. Purpose: The aim was to…
Fulton, James P.; Sabatino, Linda
During the last two years we have developed a precalculus course customized around biology by using the scientific method as a framework to engage and motivate biology students. Historically, the precalculus and calculus courses required for the Suffolk County Community College biology curriculum were designed using examples from the physical…
V. V. Guzikova
Full Text Available Introduction. In modern education, against the backdrop of rapidly increasing processes of informatization and globalization as well as the requirements of specialists’ mobility, one of the priorities is vocational-oriented education in foreign languages. It ensures the formation of students’ ability to communicate in foreign languages in specific professional, business, scientific spheres and situations, taking into account the peculiarities of their future profession. The aims of this article are the following: to reveal the peculiarities of the organization of teaching foreign languages in the master’s degree of a non-linguistic high school; to present effective methods, approaches, and techniques of working with master students of the direction of “Musical Education”. Methodology and research methods. In the process of the research, such theoretical scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, specification, and generalization were used. The experimental design of the present study was based on the concept of Lifelong Learning. The methods of interview, observation and testing were applied. Results and scientific novelty. The authors have developed a set of exercises for mastering the skills of conducting a scientific discussion by the master students of the direction “Music Education”. The proposed technique has a cross-disciplinary character. It is designed to teach the students how to effectively communicate with colleagues in a foreign (English language when performing professional tasks, including scientific and research activities. The samples of particular tasks are given. Practical significance. The research materials may be of interest to methodologists, educators, and teachers of the system of continuous professional education.
Simonneaux, Laurence; Simonneaux, Jean
In this article, we study third-year university students' reasoning about three controversial socio-scientific issues from the viewpoint of education for sustainable development: local issues (the reintroduction of bears in the Pyrenees in France, wolves in the Mercantour) and a global one (global warming). We used the theoretical frameworks of social representations and of socio-scientific reasoning. Students' reasoning varies according to the issues, in particular because of their emotional proximity with the issues and their socio-cultural origin. About this kind of issues, it seems pertinent to integrate into the operations of socio-scientific reasoning not only the consideration of values, but also the analysis of the modes of governance and the place given to politics.
Arieska, M.; Syamsurizal, S.; Sumarmin, R.
Students having difficulty in identifying and describing the vertebrate animals as well as less skilled in science process as practical. Increased expertise in scientific skills, one of which is through practical activities using practical guidance based on scientific approach. This study aims to produce practical guidance vertebrate taxonomy for biology education students PGRI STKIP West Sumatra valid. This study uses a model of Plomp development consisting of three phases: the initial investigation, floating or prototype stage, and the stage of assessment. Data collection instruments used in this study is a validation sheet guiding practicum. Data were analyzed descriptively based on data obtained from the field. The result of the development of practical guidance vertebrate taxonomic validity value of 3.22 is obtained with very valid category. Research and development has produced a practical guide based vertebrate taxonomic scientific approach very valid.
Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy
There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.
Darja Skribe Dimec
Full Text Available Photosynthesis is the most important biochemical process on Earth. Most living beings depend on it directly or indirectly. Knowledge about photosynthesis enables us to understand how the world functions as an ecosystem and how photosynthesis acts as a bridge between the non-living and living worlds. It is, therefore, understandable that photosynthesis is included in national curricula around the world. The practice unfortunately shows that students at all school levels mostly learn about photosynthesis by rote. Consequently, they have difficulties understanding this vital process. Research also shows many misconceptions in relation to photosynthesis among students of different ages. Based on these, the main aim of our study was to explore the scientific conceptions about photosynthesis held by primary school pupils and student teachers of biology. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing seven biology content questions. The sample consisted of 634 participants, 427 primary school pupils (aged 11–14, and 207 student teachers of biology (aged 20–23. We found that the populations of primary school pupils and student teachers of biology differ greatly concerning scientific conceptions of photosynthesis. The student teachers showed good and complex understanding of photosynthesis, while pupils showed some misconceptions (location of chlorophyll and photosynthesis in a plant, transformation of energy in photosynthesis. Analysis of the development of scientific conceptions about photosynthesis with age showed that there is very little progress among primary school pupils and none among biology student teachers. More involvement of student teachers of biology in practical work at primary schools during their study was suggested to make student teachers aware of, and better understand pupils’ misconceptions.
Norton, Charles D.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.
We illustrate how Fortran 90 supports object-oriented concepts by example of plasma particle computations on the IBM SP. Our experience shows that Fortran 90 and object-oriented methodology give high performance while providing a bridge from Fortran 77 legacy codes to modern programming principles. All of our object-oriented Fortran 90 codes execute more quickly thatn the equeivalent C++ versions, yet the abstraction modelling capabilities used for scentific programming are comparably powereful.
Matthew J Smith
Full Text Available International collaboration is becoming increasingly important for the advancement of science. To gain a more precise understanding of how factors such as international collaboration influence publication success, we divide publication success into two categories: journal placement and citation performance. Analyzing all papers published between 1996 and 2012 in eight disciplines, we find that those with more countries in their affiliations performed better in both categories. Furthermore, specific countries vary in their effects both individually and in combination. Finally, we look at the relationship between national output (in papers published and input (in citations received over the 17 years, expanding upon prior depictions by also plotting an expected proportion of citations based on Journal Placement. Discrepancies between this expectation and the realized proportion of citations illuminate trends in performance, such as the decline of the Global North in response to rapidly developing countries, especially China. Yet, most countries' show little to no discrepancy, meaning that, in most cases, citation proportion can be predicted by Journal Placement alone. This reveals an extreme asymmetry between the opinions of a few reviewers and the degree to which paper acceptance and citation rates influence career advancement.
Resendes, Karen K.
Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of scientific dishonesty is scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore this study investigates the experiences with and the attitudes towards various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD-students at the medical faculties of all Norwegian universities. Method Anonymous questionnaire distributed to all post graduate students attending introductory PhD-courses at all medical faculties in Norway in 2010/2011. Descriptive statistics. Results 189 of 262 questionnaires were returned (72.1%. 65% of the respondents had not, during the last year, heard or read about researchers who committed scientific dishonesty. One respondent had experienced pressure to fabricate and to falsify data, and one had experienced pressure to plagiarize data. On average 60% of the respondents were uncertain whether their department had a written policy concerning scientific conduct. About 11% of the respondents had experienced unethical pressure concerning the order of authors during the last 12 months. 10% did not find it inappropriate to report experimental data without having conducted the experiment and 38% did not find it inappropriate to try a variety of different methods of analysis to find a statistically significant result. 13% agreed that it is acceptable to selectively omit contradictory results to expedite publication and 10% found it acceptable to falsify or fabricate data to expedite publication, if they were confident of their findings. 79% agreed that they would be willing to report misconduct to a responsible official. Conclusion Although there is less scientific dishonesty reported in Norway than in other countries, dishonesty is not unknown to doctoral students. Some forms of scientific misconduct are considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct, but a high level of willingness to report misconduct.
In a time when domestic and foreign policy is becoming increasingly dependent on a robust understanding of scientific concepts (especially in regards to climate science), it is of vital importance that non-specialist students taking geoscience courses gain an understanding not only of Earth system processes, but also of how to discern scientific information from "spin". An experimental introductory level environmental geology course was developed at the Glendale Community College in Glendale, Arizona, in the fall of 2010 that sought to integrate collaborative learning, online resources, and science in the media. The goal of this course was for students to end the semester with not just an understanding of basic Earth systems concepts, but also with a set of tools for evaluating information presented by the media. This was accomplished by integrating several online sites that interface scientific data with popular web tools (ie, Google Maps) and collaborative exercises that required students to generate ideas based on their observations followed by evaluation and refinement of these ideas through interactions with peers and the instructor. The capstone activity included a series of homework assignments that required students to make note of science-related news stories in the media early in the semester, and then gradually begin critically evaluating these news sources, which will become their primary source of post-college geoscience information. This combination of activities will benefit students long after the semester has ended by giving them access to primary sources of scientific information, encouraging them to discuss and evaluate their ideas with their peers, and, most importantly, to critically evaluate the information they receive from the media and their peers so that they can become more scientifically literate citizens.
McLaughlin, H.E.; Hendricks, J.S.
Several computing platforms were evaluated with the MCNP4B Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The DEC AlphaStation 500/500 was the fastest to run MCNP4B. Compared to the HP 9000-735, the fastest platform 4 yr ago, the AlphaStation is 335% faster, the HP C180 is 133% faster, the SGI Origin 2000 is 82% faster, the Cray T94/4128 is 1% faster, the IBM RS/6000-590 is 93% as fast, the DEC 3000/600 is 81% as fast, the Sun Sparc20 is 57% as fast, the Cray YMP 8/8128 is 57% as fast, the sun Sparc5 is 33% as fast, and the Sun Sparc2 is 13% as fast. All results presented are reproducible and allow for comparison to computer platforms not included in this study. Timing studies are seen to be very problem dependent. The performance gains resulting from advances in software were also investigated. Various compilers and operating systems were seen to have a modest impact on performance, whereas hardware improvements have resulted in a factor of 4 improvement. MCNP4B also ran approximately as fast as MCNP4A
Hayati, R. S.
This research aim is develop the potential of Taka Bonerate National Park as learning resources through edutourism with scientific approach to improve student learning outcomes. Focus of student learning outcomes are students psychomotor abilities and comprehension on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The edutourism development products are teacher manual, edutourism worksheet, material booklet, guide’s manual, and Taka Bonerate National Park governor manual. The method to develop edutourism products is ADDIE research and development model that consist of analysis, design, development and production, implementation, and evaluation step. The subjects in the implementation step were given a pretest and posttest and observation sheet to see the effect of edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach to student learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The data were analyzed qualitative descriptively. The research result is edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach can improve students learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park can be an alternative of learning method on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics.
Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David
While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10 and 12 students' understanding of genetics in terms of reasoning. The pretest and posttest forms of the diagnostic instrument were used alongside other methods in evaluating students' understanding of genetics in a case-based qualitative study on teaching and learning with multiple representations in three Western Australian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that a two-tier diagnostic instrument is useful in probing students' understanding or misunderstanding of scientific concepts and ideas. The diagnostic instrument in this study was designed and then progressively refined, improved, and implemented to evaluate student understanding of genetics in three case schools. The final version of the instrument had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively, for its pretest and the posttest forms when it was administered to a group of grade 12 students (n = 17). This two-tier diagnostic instrument complemented other qualitative data collection methods in this research in generating a more holistic picture of student conceptual learning of genetics in terms of scientific reasoning. Implications of the findings of this study using the diagnostic instrument are discussed.
Magnussen, Rikke; Damgaard Hansen, Sidse; Planke, Tilo
for student-research collaboration is to investigate if and how this type of game concept can strengthen authentic experimental practice and the creation of new knowledge in science education. Researchers and game developers tested the game in three separate high school classes (Class 1, 2, and 3). The tests...... were documented using video observations of students playing the game, qualitative interviews, and qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. The focus of the tests has been to study players' motivation and their experience of learning through participation in authentic scientific inquiry....... In questionnaires conducted in the two first test classes students found that the aspects of doing “real scientific research” and solving physics problems were the more interesting aspects of playing the game. However, designing a game that facilitates professional research collaboration while simultaneously...
Mihanović, Zoran; Batinić, Ana Barbara; Pavičić, Jurica
Customer satisfaction has long been recognized as a central concept of all business activities. Satisfaction can serve as an indicator of success of the company, both in the past and present, as well as an indicator of future performance. High quality service to students is a prerequisite of maintaining competitiveness in the market of higher education. A relationship that is created between the expectations of students and their satisfaction with the quality of service that provides educatio...
Ganguly, Sohinee; Kulkarni, Mrinmoyi; Gupta, Meenakshi
There are two dominant strains in the literature on academic performance, the attribution studies and the self-efficacy studies. The present study attempted to incorporate these two strains while examining the academic performance of engineering undergraduate students in India. Time management and perceived stress were included in the model to…
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.
Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…
Integrating mathematics into science classrooms has been part of the conversation in science education for a long time. However, studies on student learning after incorporating mathematics in to the science classroom have shown mixed results. Understanding the mixed effects of including mathematics in science has been hindered by a historical focus on characteristics of integration tangential to student learning (e.g., shared elements, extent of integration). A new framework is presented emphasizing the epistemic role of mathematics in science. An epistemic role of mathematics missing from the current literature is identified: use of mathematics to represent scientific mechanisms, Mechanism Connected Mathematics (MCM). Building on prior theoretical work, it is proposed that having students develop mathematical equations that represent scientific mechanisms could elevate their conceptual understanding and quantitative problem solving. Following design and implementation of an MCM unit in inheritance, a large-scale quantitative analysis of pre and post implementation test results showed MCM students, compared to traditionally instructed students) had significantly greater gains in conceptual understanding of mathematically modeled scientific mechanisms, and their ability to solve complex quantitative problems. To gain insight into the mechanism behind the gain in quantitative problem solving, a small-scale qualitative study was conducted of two contrasting groups: 1) within-MCM instruction: competent versus struggling problem solvers, and 2) within-competent problem solvers: MCM instructed versus traditionally instructed. Competent MCM students tended to connect their mathematical inscriptions to the scientific phenomenon and to switch between mathematical and scientifically productive approaches during problem solving in potentially productive ways. The other two groups did not. To address concerns about teacher capacity presenting barriers to scalability of MCM
Glenn, Tina Heard
Academic achievement of public school students in the United States has significantly fallen behind other countries. Students' lack of knowledge of, or interest in, basic science and math has led to fewer graduates of science, technology, engineering, and math-related fields (STEM), a factor that may affect their career success and will certainly affect the numbers in the workforce who are prepared for some STEM jobs. Drawing from self-determination theory and achievement theory, the purpose of this correlational study was to determine whether there were significant relationships between high school academic performance in science classes, motivations (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation), and academic performance in an introductory online college biology class. Data were obtained at 2 points in time from a convenience multiethnic sample of adult male ( n =16) and female (n = 49) community college students in the southeast United States. Correlational analyses indicated no statistically significant relationships for intrinsic or extrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, or self-regulation with high school science mean-GPA nor college biology final course grade. However, high school academic performance in science classes significantly predicted college performance in an entry-level online biology class. The implications of positive social change include knowledge useful for educational institutions to explore additional factors that may motivate students to enroll in science courses, potentially leading to an increase in scientific knowledge and STEM careers.
Chitnork, Amporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
The research aimed to enhance Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach. The participants included 45 Grade 10 students who were studying in a school in Nongsonghong, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention was the force unit which was provided based on Yuenyong (2006) STS approach. Students learned about the STS electric field unit for 4 weeks. The students' scientific argumentation was interpreted based on Toulmin's argument pattern or TAP. The TAP provided six components of argumentation including data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals and backing. Tools of interpretation included students' activity sheets, conversation, journal writing, classroom observation and interview. The findings revealed that students held the different pattern of argumentation. Then, they change pattern of argumentation close to the TAP. It indicates that the intervention of STS electric field unit enhance students to develop scientific argumentation. This finding may has implication of further enhancing scientific argumentation in Thailand.
This paper examines the relationship between excellence scholarships and research productivity, scientific impact, and degree completion. Drawing on the entire population of doctoral students in the province of Quebec, this pa- per analyzes three distinct sources of data: students, excellence scholarships, and scientific publications. It shows…
Craig-Hare, Jana; Ault, Marilyn; Rowland, Amber
The purpose of this study was to investigate the types of argumentation discourse displayed by students when they engaged in chat as part of an online multiplayer game about both socioscientific and scientific topics. Specifically, this study analyzed discourse episodes created by middle school students as they discussed scientific and…
Acar, Omer; Turkmen, Lutfullah; Roychoudhury, Anita
Students' poor argumentation in the context of socio-scientific issues has become a concern in science education. Identified problems associated with student argumentation in socio-scientific issues are misevaluation of evidence, naive nature of science conceptualizations, and inappropriate use of value-based reasoning. In this theoretical paper,…
Batchelor, R.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R. E.
To help young scientists succeed in our field we should not only model scientific methods and inquiry, but also train them in the art of scientific writing - after all, poorly written proposals, reports or journal articles can be a show stopper for any researcher. Research internships are an effective place to provide such training, because they offer a unique opportunity to integrate writing with the process of conducting original research. This presentation will describe how scientific communication is integrated into the SOARS program. Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) is an undergraduate-to graduate bridge program that broadens participation in the geosciences. SOARS aims to foster the next generation of leaders in the atmospheric and related sciences by helping students develop investigative expertise complemented by leadership and communication skills. Each summer, interns (called protégés) attend a weekly seminar designed to help them learn scientific writing and communication skills. The workshop is organized around the sections of a scientific paper. Workshop topics include reading and citing scientific literature, writing an introduction, preparing a compelling abstract, discussing results, designing effective figures, and writing illuminating conclusions. In addition, protégés develop the skills required to communicate their research to both scientists and non-scientists through the use of posters, presentations and informal 'elevator' speeches. Writing and communication mentors guide protégés in applying the ideas from the workshop to the protégés' required summer scientific paper, poster and presentation, while a strong peer-review component of the program gives the protégés a taste of analyzing, critiquing and collaborating within a scientific forum. This presentation will provide practical tips and lessons learned from over ten years of scientific communications workshops within the SOARS program
Novak, Ivón T C; Bejarano, Paola Antón; Rodríguez, Fernando Marcos
This work is presented from a "problematic" perspective in the attempt to establish a dialogic relationship between the educator and the student-subject, mediated by the object of knowledge. It is oriented to the integral education of the helping students departing from a closer approach to the scientific research. This work was carried out by a teacher and two hired students. This project was developed in relation with the profile required for the career of medicine in the Faculty of Medicine of the National University of Cordoba which--among other aspects- addresses the importance of "adopting a positive attitude towards research based on knowledge and the application of the scientific methodology" and towards "the development of a responsible self-learning and continuous improvements" (sic). Thus, this work tries to be aligned with this perspectives. I. Characterization of the scientific methodology. Search for bibliography and discussion of scientific works. II. Optimization of the methodology for the observation of leucocytes: blood samples donated by healthy people, non-coagulating with citrate or with EDTA (Blood reservoir of the UNC (National University of Cordoba) n = 20. a) Blood smear of full blood. b) centrifugation at 200g of plasma and aspirated leucocytes after erythro sedimentation and re suspension of the cell pellet and cyto-dispersion. Cytological and cyto-chemical techniques. I. Deeper knowledge about blood field was achieved. It generated an appropriate atmosphere to produce scientific questioning and the activities involved in the process were carried out responsibly. II. Better results were achieved using EDTA for the observation and analysis of leucocytes. It was possible to attain the objectives for an approach to a scientific research as well as for a contribution towards a responsible development in the continuous learning process.
Scientific attitude is need of today's society for peaceful and meaningful living of every person in a multicultural world. A case study was conducted at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Riau, Pekanbaru in order to describe the scientific attitude that shaped by research-based teaching (RBT). Eighteen students of English for Biology bilingual program were selected from 88 regular students as a subject of the study. RBT designed consists of 9 steps: 1) field observations, 2) developing research proposals, 3) research proposal seminar, 4) field data collecting, 5) data analyzing & ilustrating, 6) writing research papers, 7) preparing power point slides, 8) creating a scientific poster, 9) seminar & poster session. Data were collected by using check list observation instuments during 14 weeks (course sessions), then analyzed by using descriptive-quantitative method. The results showed that RBT were able to shape critical-mindedness, suspended judgement, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude as well as tolerance of uncertainty. These attitudes which shaped were varies according to every steps of learning activities. It's seems that the preparation of scientific posters and research seminar quite good in shaping the critical-mindedness, suspended judgment, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude, as well as tolerance of uncertainty. In conclusion, the application of research-based teaching through the English for Biology courses could shape the students scientific attitudes. However, the consistency of the appearance of a scientific attitude in every stage of Biology-based RBT learning process need more intensive and critical assessment.
Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In
Oliveras, B.; Márquez, C.; Sanmartí, N.
This research analyses what happens when a critical reading activity based on a press article dealing with an energy-related problem is implemented with two groups of students of 13-14 years old and 16-17 years old in the same school (a total of 117 students). Specifically, the research analyses the students' profiles from the standpoint of their attitudes to the information given in the news story and the use they make of it when writing an argumentative text. It also analyses the difficulties the students have when it comes to applying their knowledge about energy in a real-life context. Lastly, some strategies are suggested for helping students to critically analyse the scientific content of a newspaper article. Three reader profiles were identified (the credulous reader, the ideological reader and the critical reader). No significant differences were found in reading profiles in terms of age or scientific knowledge. The findings show that the activity helped to link science learning in school with facts relating to an actual context, particularly in the case of students with more science knowledge.
Dutke, Stephan; Grefe, Anna Christina; Leopold, Claudia
In an experiment with 65 high-school students, we tested the hypothesis that personalizing learning materials would increase students' learning performance and motivation to study the learning materials. Students studied either a 915-word standard text on the anatomy and functionality of the human eye or a personalized version of the same text in…
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the students’ achievement in answering modified lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning (MLCTSR questions in overall science teaching and by every aspect of scientific reasoning abilities. There are six aspects related to the scientific reasoning abilities that were measured; they are conservatorial reasoning, proportional reasoning, controlling variables, combinatorial reasoning, probabilistic reasoning, correlational reasoning. The research is also conducted to see the development of scientific reasoning by using levels of inquiry models. The students reasoning ability was measured using the Modified Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (MLCTSR. MLCTSR is a test developed based on the test of scientific reasoning of Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in 2000 which amounted to 12 multiple-choice questions. The research method chosen in this study is descriptive quantitative research methods. The research design used is One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The population of this study is the entire junior high students class VII the academic year 2014/2015 in one junior high school in Bandung. The samples in this study are one of class VII, which is class VII C. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling. The results showed that there is an increase in quantitative scientific reasoning although its value is not big.
Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie
The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.
Bigot-Cormier, Florence; Nicolaï, Marie-Pierre; Martinez, Claire-Marie; Bethmont, Valérie; Guinot, Benjamin
The quality of our environment and especially air quality is a hot topic in any urban environment. Hourly air quality data tend to be easily available to the populations either in the news or on mobile phones. Studies underlining the relationship between environment and health exist in developed countries, but the results cannot be used in such different environmental and sociological contexts as the ones we have in China. In collaboration with the CNRS, students from the Lycée Français de Shanghai (LFS- 5th and 2nd grade) undertake a study in order to obtain an empiric relationship between the atmospheric pollutants they are exposed to in and out the classrooms, and their own health. This study is a part of a scientific and educational project including Beijing, and possibly other foreign schools in Asia later on. The atmospheric pollution in China is essentially caused by particles from different sizes mainly coming from coal combustion. First, in order to quantify the pollution at Shanghai, the students are recording information regarding fine particles as PM2.5 and PM1.0, NO2, SO2, and O3 using active and passive sensors indoors and outdoors, within the school campus. CO2, temperature and relative humidity are used to qualify the confinement rate indoors. In parallel, approximately 100 students (chosen regarding their age, health records, residence time in China…) and some teachers are going to complete a monthly survey regarding their health. Moreover, they will perform some specific measurements to obtain their breathing performances by spirometry, and an indication of the inflammation of their lower airways by exhaled NO measurements. The protocol of these experimentations and the first results will be presented in the poster. At the end of the project, these results will allow us to get a better knowledge about the air pollution we are exposed to, within the school campus, which will help us to adopt an optimized risk management protocol when pollution
Kenyon, George; Barnes, Cynthia
The university accreditation process now puts more emphasis on self assessment. This change requires universities to identify program objectives, performance indicators, and areas for improvement. Many accrediting institutions are requiring that institutions communicate clearly to constituents: 1) what learning outcomes were achieved by students,…
Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay
Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Groppi, Flavia; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Bonardi, Mauro L.; Bazzocchi, Anna
In Italy the 'nuclear issue' was for a long time a taboo. A way to approach this theme to make the public more trusting of nuclear issues is to discuss radioactivity and ionizing radiation starting from young students. An experimental activity that involves secondary school students has been developed. The approach is to have students engaged in activities that will allow them to understand how natural radioactivity is a part of our everyday environment. This would include how radiation enters our lives in different ways, to demonstrate that natural radioactive sources found in soil, water, and air contribute to our exposure to natural ionizing radiation and how this exposure effects human health. Another objective is to develop a new technique for teaching physics which will enhance scientific interest of students in applications of nuclear physics in both environmental and physical sciences.
Reynolds, Julie A.; Thompson, Robert J.
One of the best opportunities that undergraduates have to learn to write like a scientist is to write a thesis after participating in faculty-mentored undergraduate research. But developing writing skills doesn't happen automatically, and there are significant challenges associated with offering writing courses and with individualized mentoring. We present a hybrid model in which students have the structural support of a course plus the personalized benefits of working one-on-one with faculty. To optimize these one-on-one interactions, the course uses BioTAP, the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol, to structure engagement in scientific peer review. By assessing theses written by students who took this course and comparable students who did not, we found that our approach not only improved student writing but also helped faculty members across the department—not only those teaching the course—to work more effectively and efficiently with student writers. Students who enrolled in this course were more likely to earn highest honors than students who only worked one-on-one with faculty. Further, students in the course scored significantly better on all higher-order writing and critical-thinking skills assessed. PMID:21633069
Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.
Full Text Available This research recognizes the cognitive contributions to the students participating in the Third Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics that will define the advancement and strengthening in the construction of its conceptual dimension in the scientific literacy. This paper is based, mainly, on qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design: case study; however, some data are interpreted through quantitative methodologies (descriptive design with an explanatory and exploratory touch for the analysis of a sample of 54 high school students, finalists in the category A of the Olympics, through the use of tools such as a documentary study and a survey, in July 2009. The information generated was analyzed using elements of inferential and descriptive statistics, figures and histograms. It was proved that there is a better cognitive management in the topics assessed, an increase in the students’ academic performance as the tests are applied, a commitment for the academic update supported by the development of several tasks for previous preparation, curriculum contributions unprecedented based on our sample, a consent to optimize student’s knowledge about Biology, which will allow the application of scientific notions to diversify and renew the knowledge, according to what is established in the principles of scientific literacy.
Tyler, Betty M; Liu, Ann; Sankey, Eric W; Mangraviti, Antonella; Barone, Michael A; Brem, Henry
After over 50 years of scientific contribution under the leadership of Harvey Cushing and later Walter Dandy, the Johns Hopkins Hunterian Laboratory entered a period of dormancy between the 1960s and early 1980s. In 1984, Henry Brem reinstituted the Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory, with a new focus on localized delivery of therapies for brain tumors, leading to several discoveries such as new antiangiogenic agents and Gliadel chemotherapy wafers for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Since that time, it has been the training ground for 310 trainees who have dedicated their time to scientific exploration in the lab, resulting in numerous discoveries in the area of neurosurgical research. The Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory has been a unique example of successful mentoring in a translational research environment. The laboratory's philosophy emphasizes mentorship, independence, self-directed learning, creativity, and people-centered collaboration, while maintaining productivity with a focus on improving clinical outcomes. This focus has been served by the diverse backgrounds of its trainees, both in regard to educational status as well as culturally. Through this philosophy and strong legacy of scientific contribution, the Hunterian Laboratory has maintained a positive and productive research environment that supports highly motivated students and trainees. In this article, the authors discuss the laboratory's training philosophy, linked to the principles of adult learning (andragogy), as well as the successes and the limitations of including a wide educational range of students in a neurosurgical translational laboratory and the phenomenon of combining clinical expertise with rigorous scientific training.
Finding accurate predictors of tertiary academic performance, specifically for disadvantaged students, is essential because of budget constraints and the need of the labour market to address employment equity. Increased retention, throughput and decreased dropout rates are vital. When making admission decisions, the
Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William
To review the state of research on the association between obesity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating obesity, school performance, and rates of student absenteeism. A table with brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes is included. Research demonstrates…
There has been a proliferation of coaching centres in Lagos State. These run side-by-side conventional schools offering general education. Stakeholders in the education industry have raised questions on the relevance of these coaching centres particularly in terms of students' academic performance, teaching ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this research has described difference: (1 skill of student science process between inquiry training assist media of handout and direct instruction, (2 skill of student science process between student possess attitude scientific upon and under of mean, and (3 interaction of inquiry training assist media handout and direct instruction with attitude scientific increase skill of student science process. Type of this research is experiment quasi, use student of senior high school Private sector of Prayatna as population and chosen sample by cluster sampling random. The instrument used essay test base on skill of science process which have valid and reliable. Data be analysed by using ANAVA two ways. Result of research show that any difference of skill of student science process (1 between inquiry training assist media of handout and direct instruction, where inquiry training assist media of handout better then direct instruction, (2 between student possess attitude scientific upon and under of mean, where possess attitude scientific upon of mean better then student possess attitude scientific under of mean and (3 any interaction between inquiry training assist media of handout and direct instruction with attitude scientific increase skill of student science process, where interaction in class direct instruction better then inquiry training assist media of handout.
Sousa-Silva, Clara; McKemmish, Laura K.; Chubb, Katy L.; Gorman, Maire N.; Baker, Jack S.; Barton, Emma J.; Rivlin, Tom; Tennyson, Jonathan
Involving students in state-of-the-art research from an early age eliminates the idea that science is only for the scientists and empowers young people to explore STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) subjects. It is also a great opportunity to dispel harmful stereotypes about who is suitable for STEM careers, while leaving students feeling engaged in modern science and the scientific method. As part of the Twinkle Space Mission’s educational programme, EduTwinkle, students between the ages of 15 and 18 have been performing original research associated with the exploration of space since January 2016. The student groups have each been led by junior researchers—PhD and post-doctoral scientists—who themselves benefit substantially from the opportunity to supervise and manage a research project. This research aims to meet a standard for publication in peer-reviewed journals. At present the research of two ORBYTS teams have been published, one in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series and another in JQSRT; we expect more papers to follow. Here we outline the necessary steps for a productive scientific collaboration with school children, generalising from the successes and downfalls of the pilot ORBYTS projects.
Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Taderera, Ever; Mandimika, Elinah
The study seeks to establish scientific evidence of the factors affecting academic performance for first year accounting students using four selected courses at the University of Zimbabwe. It uses Ordinary Least Squares method to analyse the influence of personal and family background on performance. The findings show that variables age gender,…
Single, Peg Boyle; Muller, Carol B.; Cunningham, Christine M.; Single, Richard M.
In this article, we report on electronic discussion lists (e-lists) sponsored by MentorNet, the National Electronic Industrial Mentoring Network for Women in Engineering and Science. Using the Internet, the MentorNet program connects students in engineering and science with mentors working in industry. These e-lists are a feature of MentorNet's larger electronic mentoring program and were sponsored to foster the establishment of community among women engineering and science students and men and women professionals in those fields. This research supports the hypothesis that electronic communications can be used to develop community among engineering and science students and professionals and identifies factors influencing the emergence of electronic communities (e-communities). The e-lists that emerged into self-sustaining e-communities were focused on topic-based themes, such as balancing personal and work life, issues pertaining to women in engineering and science, and job searching. These e-communities were perceived to be safe places, embraced a diversity of opinions and experiences, and sanctioned personal and meaningful postings on the part of the participants. The e-communities maintained three to four simultaneous threaded discussions and were sustained by professionals who served as facilitators by seeding the e-lists with discussion topics. The e-lists were sponsored to provide women students participating in MentorNet with access to groups of technical and scientific professionals. In addition to providing benefits to the students, the e-lists also provided the professionals with opportunities to engage in peer mentoring with other, mostly female, technical and scientific professionals. We discuss the implications of our findings for developing e-communities and for serving the needs of women in technical and scientific fields.
Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Augiene, Dalia
The development of student abilities of scientific research activity (SRA) in the process of studies appears as a highly important area. In the course of studies, students not only increase their general competencies, acquire professional abilities and skills but also learn to conduct research. This does not mean that all students will build their…
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…
Cheng, Ping-Han; Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn; Chang, Shih-Hui Gilbert; Kuo, Fan-Ray Revon
In recent years, many universities have opened courses to increase students' knowledge in the field of nanotechnology. These have been shown to increase students' knowledge of nanotechnology, but beyond this, advanced and applied nanotechnology courses should also focus on learning motivation and scientific enquiry abilities to equip students to…
Resendes, Karen K
Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Musawi, Ali S.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah K.; Al-Hajri, Fatemah H.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of interacting with animations using mobile devices on grade 12 students' spatial and reasoning abilities. The study took place in a grade 12 context in Oman. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experimental group of 32 students and a control group of 28 students. The experimental group studied chemistry using mobile tablets that had a digital instructional package with different animation and simulations. There was one tablet per student. A spatial ability test and a scientific reasoning test were administered to both groups prior and after the study, which lasted for 9 weeks. The findings showed that there were significant statistical differences between the two groups in terms of spatial ability in favour of the experimental group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of reasoning ability. The authors reasoned that the types of animations and simulations used in the current study featured a wide range of three-dimensional animated illustrations at the particulate level of matter. Most probably, this decreased the level of abstractness that usually accompanies chemical entities and phenomena and helped the students to visualize the interactions between submicroscopic entities spatially. Further research is needed to decide on types of scientific animations that could help students improve their scientific reasoning.
Akey, Ann Kosek
This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations, and observations of class meetings. Students came into the course having strong practical experience with plants from their agricultural backgrounds. Students did not always connect aspects of plant biology that they studied in class, particularly respiration and photosynthesis, to plant growth requirements. The instructor was able to bridge the gap between some practical knowledge and textbook knowledge with experiences other than the Fast Plant project. Most students held an incomplete picture of plant reproduction that was complicated by differences between agricultural and scientific vocabulary. There is need for teaching approaches that help students tie together their knowledge of plants into a cohesive framework. Experiences that help students draw on their background knowledge related to plants, and which give students the opportunity to examine and discuss their ideas, may help students make more meaningful connections. The Fast Plant project, a positive experience for most students, was seen by these undergraduate students as being more helpful in learning about scientific experimentation than about plants. The process of designing and carrying out their own experiments gave students insight into experimentation, provoked their curiosity, and resulted in a sense of ownership and accomplishment.
Donnelly, Dermot; O'Reilly, John; McGarr, Oliver
Practical work is often noted as a core reason many students take on science in secondary schools (high schools). However, there are inherent difficulties associated with classroom practical work that militate against scientific inquiry, an approach espoused by many science educators. The use of interactive simulations to facilitate student inquiry has emerged as a complement to practical work. This study presents case studies of four science teachers using a virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) with their students in an explicitly guided inquiry manner. Research tools included the use of the Inquiry Science Implementation Scale in a `talk-aloud' manner, Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol for video observations, and teacher interviews. The findings suggest key aspects of practical work that hinder teachers in adequately supporting inquiry and highlight where a VCL can overcome many of these difficulties. The findings also indicate considerations in using the VCL in its own right.
Caous, Cristofer André; Machado, Birajara; Hors, Cora; Zeh, Andrea Kaufmann; Dias, Cleber Gustavo; Amaro Junior, Edson
To propose a measure (index) of expected risks to evaluate and follow up the performance analysis of research projects involving financial and adequate structure parameters for its development. A ranking of acceptable results regarding research projects with complex variables was used as an index to gauge a project performance. In order to implement this method the ulcer index as the basic model to accommodate the following variables was applied: costs, high impact publication, fund raising, and patent registry. The proposed structured analysis, named here as RoSI (Return on Scientific Investment) comprises a pipeline of analysis to characterize the risk based on a modeling tool that comprises multiple variables interacting in semi-quantitatively environments. This method was tested with data from three different projects in our Institution (projects A, B and C). Different curves reflected the ulcer indexes identifying the project that may have a minor risk (project C) related to development and expected results according to initial or full investment. The results showed that this model contributes significantly to the analysis of risk and planning as well as to the definition of necessary investments that consider contingency actions with benefits to the different stakeholders: the investor or donor, the project manager and the researchers.
Cristofer André Caous
Full Text Available Objective: To propose a measure (index of expected risks to evaluateand follow up the performance analysis of research projects involvingfinancial and adequate structure parameters for its development.Methods: A ranking of acceptable results regarding researchprojects with complex variables was used as an index to gauge aproject performance. In order to implement this method the ulcerindex as the basic model to accommodate the following variableswas applied: costs, high impact publication, fund raising, and patentregistry. The proposed structured analysis, named here as RoSI(Return on Scientific Investment comprises a pipeline of analysis tocharacterize the risk based on a modeling tool that comprises multiplevariables interacting in semi-quantitatively environments. Results:This method was tested with data from three different projects in ourInstitution (projects A, B and C. Different curves reflected the ulcer indexes identifying the project that may have a minor risk (project C related to development and expected results according to initial or full investment. Conclusion: The results showed that this model contributes significantly to the analysis of risk and planning as well as to the definition of necessary investments that consider contingency actions with benefits to the different stakeholders: the investor or donor, the project manager and the researchers.
Tate, Erika Dawn
School science instruction that connects to students' diverse home, cultural, or linguistic experiences can encourage lifelong participation in the scientific dilemmas that impact students' lives. This dissertation seeks effective ways to support high school students as they learn complex science topics and use their knowledge to transform their personal and community environments. Applying the knowledge integration perspective, I collaborated with education, science, and community partners to design a technology enhanced science module, Improving Your Community's Asthma Problem. This exemplar community science curriculum afforded students the opportunity to (a) investigate a local community health issue, (b) interact with relevant evidence related to physiology, clinical management, and environmental risks, and (c) construct an integrated understanding of the asthma problem in their community. To identify effective instructional scaffolds that engage students in the knowledge integration process and prepare them to participate in community science, I conducted 2 years of research that included 5 schools, 10 teachers, and over 500 students. This dissertation reports on four studies that analyzed student responses on pre-, post-, and embedded assessments. Researching across four design stages, the iterative design study investigated how to best embed the visualizations of the physiological processes breathing, asthma attack, and the allergic immune response in an inquiry activity and informed evidence-based revisions to the module. The evaluation study investigated the impact of this revised Asthma module across multiple classrooms and differences in students' prior knowledge. Combining evidence of student learning from the iterative and evaluation studies with classroom observations and teacher interviews, the longitudinal study explored the impact of teacher practices on student learning in years 1 and 2. In the final chapter, I studied how the Asthma module and
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.
Yoo, Wucherl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koo, Michelle [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cao, Yu [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nugent, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Big data is prevalent in HPC computing. Many HPC projects rely on complex workflows to analyze terabytes or petabytes of data. These workflows often require running over thousands of CPU cores and performing simultaneous data accesses, data movements, and computation. It is challenging to analyze the performance involving terabytes or petabytes of workflow data or measurement data of the executions, from complex workflows over a large number of nodes and multiple parallel task executions. To help identify performance bottlenecks or debug the performance issues in large-scale scientific applications and scientific clusters, we have developed a performance analysis framework, using state-ofthe- art open-source big data processing tools. Our tool can ingest system logs and application performance measurements to extract key performance features, and apply the most sophisticated statistical tools and data mining methods on the performance data. It utilizes an efficient data processing engine to allow users to interactively analyze a large amount of different types of logs and measurements. To illustrate the functionality of the big data analysis framework, we conduct case studies on the workflows from an astronomy project known as the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and the job logs from the genome analysis scientific cluster. Our study processed many terabytes of system logs and application performance measurements collected on the HPC systems at NERSC. The implementation of our tool is generic enough to be used for analyzing the performance of other HPC systems and Big Data workows.
This thesis examines the application of machine learning algorithms to predict whether a student will be successful or not. The specific focus of the thesis is the comparison of machine learning methods and feature engineering techniques in terms of how much they improve the prediction performance. Three different machine learning methods were used in this thesis. They are linear regression, decision trees, and naïve Bayes classification. Feature engineering, the process of modification ...
Santika, A. R.; Purwianingsih, W.; Nuraeni, E.
Critical thinking is a skills the which students should have in order to face 21st century demands. Critical thinking skills can help people in facing their daily problems, especially problems roommates relate to science. This research is aimed to analyze students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject. The method used in this research was descriptive method. The research subject is first-grade students’ in senior high school. The data collected by interview and open-ended question the which classified based on framework : (1) question at issue, (2) information (3) purpose (4) concepts (5) assumptions, (6) point of view, (7) interpretation and inference, and (8) implication and consequences, then it will be assessed by using rubrics. The result of the data showed students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject is in low and medium category. Therefore we need a learning activity that is able to develop student’s critical thinking skills, especially regarding issues of social science.
Divan, Aysha; Mason, Sam
In this article we describe the effectiveness of a programme-wide communication skills training framework incorporated within a one-year biological sciences taught Masters course designed to enhance the competency of students in communicating scientific research principally to a scientific audience. In one class we analysed the numerical marks…
Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam
Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.
Stone, Brian Andrew
Scientific inquiry is widely used but pervasively misunderstood in elementary classrooms. The use of inquiry is often attached to direct instruction models of teaching, or is even passed as textbook readings or worksheets. Previous literature on scientific inquiry suggests a range or continuum beginning with teacher-directed inquiry on one extreme, which involves a question, process, and outcome that are predetermined by the teacher. On the other end of the continuum is an element of inquiry that is extremely personal and derived from innate curiosity without external constraints. This authentic inquiry is defined by the study as primal inquiry. If inquiry instruction is used in the elementary classroom, it is often manifested as teacher-directed inquiry, but previous research suggests the most interesting, motivating, and lasting content is owned by the individual and exists within the individual's own curiosity, questioning and processes. Therefore, the study examined the impact of teacher-directed inquiry in two elementary fourth grade classrooms on climate-related factors including interest, motivation, engagement, and student-generated inquiry involvement. The study took place at two elementary classrooms in Arizona. Both were observed for ten weeks during science instruction over the course of one semester. Field notes were written with regard for the inquiry process and ownership, along with climate indicators. Student journals were examined for evidence of primal inquiry, and twenty-two students were interviewed between the two classrooms for evidence of low climate-related factors and low inquiry involvement. Data from the three sources were triangulated. The results of this qualitative study include evidence for three propositions, which were derived from previous literature. Strong evidence was provided in support of all three propositions, which suggest an overall negative impact on climate-related factors of interest, motivation, and engagement for
Pierce, Donna M.; McNeal, K. S.; Radencic, S. P.; Schmitz, D. W.; Cartwright, J.; Hare, D.; Bruce, L. M.
Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) is a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three nearby school districts. The primary goal of the program is to strengthen the communication and scientific reasoning skills of graduate students in geosciences, physics, chemistry, and engineering by placing them in area middle school and high school science and mathematics classrooms for ten hours a week for an entire academic year as they continue to conduct their thesis or dissertation research. Additional impacts include increased content knowledge for our partner teachers and improvement in the quality of classroom instruction using hands-on inquiry-based activities that incorporate ideas used in the research conducted by the graduate students. Current technologies, such as Google Earth, GIS, Celestia, benchtop SEM and GCMS, are incorporated into many of the lessons. Now in the third year of our program, we will present the results of our program to date, including an overview of documented graduate student, teacher, and secondary student achievements, the kinds of activities the graduate students and participating teachers have developed for classroom instruction, and the accomplishments resulting from our four international partnerships. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program (Award No. DGE-0947419), which is part of the Division for Graduate Education of the National Science Foundation.
Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N
Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
MOHD AFIFI BAHURUDIN SETAMBAH
Full Text Available The lack of reasoning skills has been recognized as one of the contributing factors to the declined achievement in the Trends in Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA assessments in Malaysia. The use of socio-scientific issues (SSI as a learning strategy offers the potential of improving the level of students' reasoning skills and consequently improves students’ achievement in science subjects. This study examined the development of a measurement model of reasoning skills among science students based on SSI using the analysis of moment structure (AMOS approach before going to second level to full structured equation modelling (SEM. A total of 450 respondents were selected using a stratified random sampling. Results showed a modified measurement model of reasoning skills consisting of the View Knowledge (VK was as a main construct. The items that measure the level of pre-reflection of students fulfilled the elements of unidimensionality, validity, and reliability. Although the level of student reasoning skills was still low but this development of measurement model could be identified and proposed teaching methods that could be adopted to improve students’ reasoning skills.
Kochanski, K.; Klishin, A.
Laboratory work is often STEM students' primary exposure to key creative and communicative skills in the sciences, including experimental design, trouble shooting, team work, and oral presentations. The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) teaches these skills by inviting high school students to investigate simple unsolved systems instead of reproducing familiar results. Students work in teams to form hypotheses, gather data, and present their results orally in a tournament format. The IYPT has published 17 questions yearly since 1988, and its archives are an efficient source of experimental problems for outreach programs and have also been used for first-year undergraduate project classes (Planisic, 2009). We present insights and outcomes from two schools in which we introduced a new extracurricular program based on the IYPT model. Twenty-four students worked in small teams for three hours per day for six weeks. Surprisingly, most teams chose problems in unfamiliar subject areas such as fluid dynamics, and tailored their approaches to take advantage of individual skills including soldering, photography, and theoretical analysis. As the program progressed, students developed an increasingly intuitive understanding of the scientific method. They began to discuss the repeatability of their experiments without prompting, and were increasingly willing to describe alternative hypotheses.
Mathematics education is considered as the basic right that all students have to .... Descriptive Statistics on the Total Score of Students. ( ). Minimum. Score .... where Ghanaian students' worst performances were recorded in applying. Also, the ...
McAuliffe, C.; Ledley, T.; Dahlman, L.; Haddad, N.
One of the challenges faced by Earth science teachers, particularly in K-12 settings, is that of connecting scientific research to classroom experiences. Helping teachers and students analyze Web-based scientific data is one way to bring scientific research to the classroom. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) was developed as an online resource to accomplish precisely that. The EET consists of chapters containing step-by-step instructions for accessing Web-based scientific data and for using a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. For example, in one EET chapter, users download Earthquake data from the USGS and bring it into a geographic information system (GIS), analyzing factors affecting the distribution of earthquakes. The goal of the EET Workshops project is to provide professional development that enables teachers to incorporate Web-based scientific data and analysis tools in ways that meet their curricular needs. In the EET Workshops project, Earth science teachers participate in a pair of workshops that are conducted in a combined teleconference and Web-conference format. In the first workshop, the EET Data Analysis Workshop, participants are introduced to the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). They also walk through an Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) chapter and discuss ways to use Earth science datasets and tools with their students. In a follow-up second workshop, the EET Implementation Workshop, teachers share how they used these materials in the classroom by describing the projects and activities that they carried out with students. The EET Workshops project offers unique and effective professional development. Participants work at their own Internet-connected computers, and dial into a toll-free group teleconference for step-by-step facilitation and interaction. They also receive support via Elluminate, a Web
Turner, Kent Alan
Gamification is the act of introducing game elements in any aspect of life. In this case, it is a classroom. The operating model of BioCraft was a role-playing game that reinforced deaf students' use of new vocabulary in a gamified environment. BioCraft addressed the problem of deaf students acquiring scientific terms and using these scientific terms bilingually in academic language. BioCraft also established a student-centered learning atmosphere that promoted intersubjectivity, appropriation, and self-determination. In BioCraft, students became avatars of new organisms living on a new planet who needed to learn about living systems, adaptations, and genetics in order to survive. The results of the operating model suggested that gamification had an effect on deaf students' motivation and frequency of using new scientific terms with minimal persuasion from the teacher.
Lahti, Richard Dennis, II
Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and
M. Akhyar Lubis
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students. Who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning, to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students? Who can think logically high is better than the students who have the potential to think logically low, analyze whether there is an interaction between scientific inquiry learning model with logical thinking skills to students' science process skills. This research is a quasi-experimental design with the two-group pretest-posttest design. The study population is all students of class X SMA Negeri 4 Padangsidimpuan semester II academic year 2016/2017. The The research instrument consists of two types: science process skills instrument consists of 10 questions in essay form which has been declared valid and reliable, and the instrument ability to think logically in the form of multiple choice is entirely groundless and complements (combination. The resulting data, analyzed by using two path Anava. The results showed that science process skills of students who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning. Science process skills of students who can think logically high are better than the students who can think logically low, and there is an interaction between learning model scientific inquiry and conventional learning with the ability to think logically to improve students' science process skills.
Paliaukiene, Vilma; Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Eimontas, Jonas; Skeryte-Kazlauskiene, Monika
Music performance anxiety (MPA) affects amateurs, students and professional musicians. We aimed to analyse MPA among students of music performance in a higher education academy in Lithuania. A sample of 258 music performance arts students of the Lithuanian Music and Theatre Academy participated in this study. The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety…
Mayfield, Teresa J; Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Floyd, Kevin W; Greenbaum, Eli
Scientists are increasingly called upon to communicate with the public, yet most never receive formal training in this area. Public understanding is particularly critical to maintaining support for undervalued resources such as biological collections, research data repositories, and expensive equipment. We describe activities carried out in an inquiry-driven organismal biology laboratory course designed to engage a diverse student body using biological collections. The goals of this cooperative learning experience were to increase students' ability to locate and comprehend primary research articles, and to communicate the importance of an undervalued scientific resource to nonscientists. Our results indicate that collaboratively created, research-focused informational posters are an effective tool for achieving these goals and may be applied in other disciplines or classroom settings.
Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann
Full Text Available In the search for strategies to arouse the interest of undergraduate students in science, it was proposed the project "Colloquiums in Physiology" in order to disseminate and discuss scientific discoveries and improve the students’ interest in Physiology. This work aimed to verify the perception of participants about the impact of this activity. The activity included lectures throughout the semester and at the end of each lecture, a questionnaire was applied to listeners. Among the 171 students who answered the questionnaire, 81% (n=139 considers that this proposal increased their interest in physiology, 96% (n=164 believes that it is an important activity and achieved its goal of promote science disclosure, and 83% (n=142 stated that the project promotes interaction between research, teaching and outreach activities. Thus, it highlights the importance of this type of event for the academic formation.
Farida, I. I.; Jumadi; Wilujeng; Senam
The aims of this study are: to develop android-based science instructional media and to reveal the characteristic, the quality, and the effectiveness of android-based science instructional media with global warming topic to increase junior high school students’ scientific literacy. This study is a development research. The instructional media were reviewed by a media expert, a material expert, science teachers, peer reviewers, and students. The data was collected using media evaluation questionnaires. The results of the study showed that: (1) the android-based science instructional media has characteristics including interesting visualization, easy to use, flexible, and practical, (2) the android-based science instructional media was appropriate for teaching, in terms of material evaluation aspects, media evaluation aspects, and based on student test results, and (3) the android-based science instructional media can effectively used for teaching.
Zakiya, Hanifah; Sinaga, Parlindungan; Hamidah, Ida
The results of field studies showed the ability of science literacy of students was still low. One root of the problem lies in the books used in learning is not oriented toward science literacy component. This study focused on the effectiveness of the use of textbook-oriented provisioning capability science literacy by using multi modal representation. The text books development method used Design Representational Approach Learning to Write (DRALW). Textbook design which was applied to the topic of "Kinetic Theory of Gases" is implemented in XI grade students of high school learning. Effectiveness is determined by consideration of the effect and the normalized percentage gain value, while the hypothesis was tested using Independent T-test. The results showed that the textbooks which were developed using multi-mode representation science can improve the literacy skills of students. Based on the size of the effect size textbooks developed with representation multi modal was found effective in improving students' science literacy skills. The improvement was occurred in all the competence and knowledge of scientific literacy. The hypothesis testing showed that there was a significant difference on the ability of science literacy between class that uses textbooks with multi modal representation and the class that uses the regular textbook used in schools.
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the capacity for self-evaluation of University students undergoing tests involving mathematics, linguistic and formal reasoning. Subjects were asked to estimate the number of correct answers and subsequently to compare their performance with that of their peers. We divided the subjects into three groups on the basis of performance: poor, middle and top performers. The results demonstrate that all the subjects in all tests showed good awareness of their level of actual performance. Analyzing comparative assessments, the results reported in literature by Kruger and Dunning were confirmed: poor performers tend to significantly overestimate their own performance whilst top performers tend to underestimate it. This can be interpreted as a demonstration that the accuracy of comparative self-evaluations depends on a number of variables: cognitive and metacognitive factors and aspects associated with self-representation. Our conclusion is that cognitive and metacognitive processes work as “submerged” in highly subjective representations, allowing dynamics related to safeguarding the image one has of oneself to play a role.
An emerging question in business education is whether all students would benefit from distance learning and if student performance can be predicted prior to enrollment in an online course based on student characteristics. In this paper, the role of student characteristics on academic performance is examined in the context two different online…
Full Text Available This article addresses the performance of scientific applications that use the Python programming language. First, we investigate several techniques for improving the computational efficiency of serial Python codes. Then, we discuss the basic programming techniques in Python for parallelizing serial scientific applications. It is shown that an efficient implementation of the array-related operations is essential for achieving good parallel performance, as for the serial case. Once the array-related operations are efficiently implemented, probably using a mixed-language implementation, good serial and parallel performance become achievable. This is confirmed by a set of numerical experiments. Python is also shown to be well suited for writing high-level parallel programs.
Abed, Osama H.
This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…
Presents data collected concerning scientific, religious, and magic-occult connections from Finnish, Estonian, and Michigan primary teacher students to answer questions such as Do we find any differences between the credibility estimates?, Are there any differences between primary teacher students raised in different societies and educated in…
Aruan, Susan A.; Okere, Mark I. O.; Wachanga, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to establish the extent to which biology scientific creativity skills are influenced by the students' culture and gender in Turkana County. A mixed method research design was used. This involved cross sectional survey and ethnographic study. The target population comprised all form three students in sub county schools…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Science-Technology-Society (STS) curriculum on students' scientific literacy, problem solving and decision making. Four hundred and eighty (480) Senior Secondary two science and non-science students were randomly selected from intact classes in six secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of…
Al Hassan, Esam Idress K.
The purpose of this study was to identify the perspectives of using Internet on the scientific research among the Postgraduate Students at the University of Khartoum. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method, the population consisted of all Postgraduate students at the University of Khartoum (Master & Ph.D.), registered during the…
Friedrich, Jon M.
Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish…
Berson, Eric Bruckner
This dissertation introduces the construct of "worthwhileness" as an important aspect of students' "practical" epistemologies of science (Sandoval, 2005). Specifically, it examines how students conceptualize what makes a scientific research question worthwhile, through a close analysis of the criteria they use for…
Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.
Among science educators, current interest in undergraduate research (UR) is influenced both by the traditional role of the research apprenticeship in scientists' preparation and by concerns about replacing the current scientific workforce. Recent research has begun to demonstrate the range of personal, professional, and intellectual benefits for STEM students from participating in UR, yet the processes by which student-advisor interactions contribute to these benefits are little understood. We employ situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger, Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge in 1991) to examine the role of student-advisor interactions in apprenticing undergraduate researchers, particularly in terms of acculturating students to the norms, values, and professional practice of science. This qualitative study examines interviews with a diverse sample of 73 undergraduate research students from two research-extensive institutions. From these interviews, we articulate a continuum of practices that research mentors employed in three domains to support undergraduate scientists-in-training: professional socialization, intellectual support, and personal/emotional support. The needs of novice students differed from those of experienced students in each of these areas. Novice students needed clear expectations, guidelines, and orientation to their specific research project, while experienced students needed broader socialization in adopting the traits, habits, and temperament of scientific researchers. Underrepresented minority students, and to a lesser extent, women, gained confidence from their interactions with their research mentors and broadened their future career and educational possibilities. Undergraduate research at research-extensive universities exemplifies a cycle of scientific learning and practice where undergraduate researchers are mentored by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, who are
Affordable and accessible technology has advanced tremendously in the last decade allowing educational paradigms to change dramatically to more student-centered, experiential and project-based models. Additionally, as the need to increase the number of students entering STEM fields in the United States becomes more critical it is imperative to understand the factors that determine student career pathways and to provide opportunities for students to experience, understand and pursue scientific endeavors. The Institute for Student Astronomical Research was founded in order to provide a means for high school and early undergraduate students to engage in meaningful and relevant scientific research. A major goal is to give students the experience of true-to-life scientific investigation from the planning and proposal stages to the data collection and analysis, writing up and presenting of scientific findings and finally to the publication of results. Furthermore, the Institute is designed to collect data on how involvement in the Science Research Seminars influences educational and career choices for students in longitudinal studies following participants for several years. In the first year of the online course of the Institute 10 student teams conducted original research and published their findings in peer-reviewed journals. Lessons learned from the pilot year are being applied to the Institute as efforts to scale up the program are underway.
Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.
This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…
Dhaqane, Mahad Khalif; Afrah, Nor Abdulle
This study examines the role of satisfaction on students' academic performance and investigates the relationship between satisfaction of students and academic performance and explores other factors that contribute academic performance. A correlation research was used. The study population was the third and the last year students of Benadir…
Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.
The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.
Suparno, Sudomo, Rahardjo, Boedi
Experts and practitioners agree that the quality of vocational high schools needs to be greatly improved. Many construction services have voiced their dissatisfaction with today's low-quality vocational high school graduates. The low quality of graduates is closely related to the quality of the teaching and learning process, particularly teaching materials. In their efforts to improve the quality of vocational high school education, the government have implemented Curriculum 2013 (K13) and supplied teaching materials. However, the results of monitoring and evaluation done by the Directorate of Vocational High School, Directorate General of Secondary Education (2014), the provision of tasks for students in the teaching materials was totally inadequate. Therefore, to enhance the quality and the result of the instructional process, there should be provided students' worksheets that can stimulate and improve students' problem-solving skills and soft skills. In order to develop worksheets that can meet the academic requirements, the development needs to be in accordance with an innovative learning approach, which is the soft skill-based scientific approach.
Do Won Kwak; Flavio Menezes; Carl Sherwood
This paper assesses quantitatively the impact on student performance of a blended learning experiment within a large undergraduate first year course in statistics for business and economics students. We employ a differences- in-difference econometric approach, which controls for differences in student characteristics and course delivery method, to evaluate the impact of blended learning on student performance. Although students in the course manifest a preference for live lectures over online...
Del Monte, Ettore; Soffitta, Paolo; Morelli, Ennio; Pacciani, Luigi; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Rubini, Alda; Uberti, Olga; Costa, Enrico; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Mastropietro, Marcello; Rapisarda, Massimo
The XAA1.2 is a custom ASIC chip for silicon microstrip detectors adapted by Ideas for the SuperAGILE instrument on board the AGILE space mission. The chip is equipped with 128 input channels, each one containing a charge preamplifier, shaper, peak detector and stretcher. The most important features of the ASIC are the extended linearity, low noise and low power consumption. The XAA1.2 underwent extensive laboratory testing in order to study its commandability and functionality and evaluate its scientific performances. In this paper we describe the XAA1.2 features, report the laboratory measurements and discuss the results emphasizing the scientific performances in the context of the SuperAGILE front-end electronics
Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie
In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel's MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Maria Cristina Soares de Gouveia
Full Text Available The papper analyses the emergence of a cientific knowledege about the student, during the XIX century, student defined according to his generation identity. In this sense, we focus an national context (Portugal and a specifically historical period (last decades of the century. The primary sources were the pedagogical magazines, that was used as strategical vehicule of scientific knowledge difusion, teacher education and improvement of pedagogical experts powerty. The cientificist perspective, refered to Spencer s positivist model of science, characterized the magazine. Into this perspective, is possible to identify the epistemological references of the cientific discourses about the individual development, that changed during the period. If in the first numbers of the vehicule, Comtes historical perspective of understanding the individual development was central, gradually lost its importance. The higienism, recorring to the concept of race to understand and quantificate the fisiological characters of the students turned to be the most important knowledge about the individual developmet, racially defined. So, the reserach demonstrate the tension beetwen race and history on the knowledge production about individual, cultural and social phenomenous during the XIX century, specially on investigations about individual development.
Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.
This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…
Khaleel, Mohammad A.
This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on 'Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing' held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to (1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; (2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; (3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and (4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.
Khaleel, Mohammad A.
This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.
This research examines the effects student jobs have on the study performance, and the competency and career development of hospitality management students. A 13-item survey was administered to a sample of 82 hospitality management students to see how they think about their student job. Qualitative data was ...
Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid
The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…
Виктор Семенович Корнилов
Full Text Available In article attention that when training in the inverse problems for differential equations at students scientific and cognitive potential develops is paid. Students realize that mathematical models of the inverse problems for differential equations find the application in economy, the industries, ecology, sociology, biology, chemistry, mathematician, physics, in researches of the processes and the phenomena occurring in water and earth’s environment, air and space.Attention of the reader that in training activity to the inverse problems for differential equations at students the scientific outlook, logical, algorithmic, information thinking, creative activity, independence and ingenuity develop is focused. Students acquire skills to apply knowledge of many physical and mathematical disciplines, to carry out the analysis of the received decision of the reverse task and to formulate logical outputs of application-oriented character. Solving the inverse problems for differential equations, students acquire new knowledge in the field of applied and calculus mathematics, informatics, natural sciences and other knowledge.
Yenni, Rita; Hernani, Widodo, Ari
The study aims to determine the increasing of students' science literacy skills on content aspects and competency of science by using Integrated Science teaching materials based Socio-scientific Issues (SSI) for environmental pollution theme. The method used in the study is quasi-experiment with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The students of experimental class used teaching materials based SSI, whereas the students of control class were still using the usual textbooks. The result of this study showed a significant difference between the value of N-gain of experimental class and control class, whichalso occurred in every indicator of content aspects and competency of science. This result indicates that using of Integrated Science teaching materials based SSI can improve content aspect and competency of science and can be used as teaching materials alternative in teaching of Integrated Science.
Suryanti; Ibrahim, M.; Lede, N. S.
The results of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) study on the scientific literacy of Indonesian students since the year 2000 have been still far below the international average score of 500. This could also be seen from the results of the science literacy test of 5th-grade students of primary school in Indonesia which showed that 60% of students are still at level ≤ 3 (value classroom action research using a process skills approach to the science literacy level of primary students (n = 23). This research was conducted in 2 cycles with stages of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Students’ ability in scientific literacy was measured by using description and subjective tests of context domains, knowledge, competencies, and attitudes. In this study, researchers found an improvement in students’ science literacy skills when learning using a process skills approach. In addition, students’ scientific attitude is also more positive. In activities for learning science, students should be challenged as often as possible so that they have more practice using their scientific knowledge and skills to solve problems presented by teachers in the classroom.
Maggio, Margrit P; Villegas, Hilda; Blatz, Markus B
optical magnifying devices such as magnification loupes are increasingly used in clinical practice and educational settings. However, scientific evidence to validate their benefits is limited. This study assessed the effect of dental magnification loupes on psychomotor skill acquisition during a preclinical operative dentistry course. the performance of first-year dental students was assessed during an Advanced Simulation Course (AS) using virtual reality-based technology (VRBT) training. The test group consisted of 116 dental students using magnification loupes (+MAG), while students not using them (-MAG, n = 116) served as the control. The following parameters were evaluated: number of successfully passing preparation procedures per course rotation, amount of time per tooth preparation, number of times students needed computer assistance and evaluation, and amount of time spent in the computer assistance and evaluation mode per procedure. Data were collected on each student through VRBT during the preparation procedure and stored on a closed network server computer. Unpaired t tests were used to analyze mean differences between the groups. In addition, student acceptance of magnification loupes was measured and evaluated through survey interpretation. +MAG students completed more preparations, worked faster per procedure, and used the computer-assisted evaluation less frequently and for shorter periods, therefore displaying greater overall performance. The survey revealed a high degree of student acceptance of using magnification. dental magnification loupes significantly enhanced student performance during preclinical dental education and were considered an effective adjunct by the students who used them.
This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...
Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…
This study investigated the poor performance of students in Chemistry. The widespread poor performance and the negative attitudes towards chemistry of secondary school students have been largely ascribed to teaching problems. A random sample of 109 students from St Pius X College Bodo City was used. The research ...
Rahman, Fazal ur; Jumani, Nabi Bux; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Chisti, Saeed ul Hasan; Abbasi, Fahim
The impact of metacognitive awareness on students' performance has been examined in the present study. 900 students of grade X participated in the study. Metacognitive awareness was measured using inventory, while performance of students was measured with the help of researcher made test in the subject of chemistry. Results indicated that…
Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel
Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…
This study investigated the effect of family type on Secondary School students\\' performance in physics in Ilorin metropolis. The sample comprised one hundred Senior Secondary II students from four schools in Ilorin metropolis. The instrument for the study titled \\"Effect of Family type on Students\\' Performance in Physics ...
Diaz, Alicia; Lord, Joan
This report, Focusing on Student Performance Through Accountability, shows that more students, in all groups, are meeting state standards. And parents, communities and education leaders are better informed about student performance than ever before. It shows that large gaps remain in every state. If the state is to reach the No Child Left Behind…
Cohen, Jeremy; Filippis, Ioannis; Woodbridge, Mark; Bauer, Daniela; Hong, Neil Chue; Jackson, Mike; Butcher, Sarah; Colling, David; Darlington, John; Fuchs, Brian; Harvey, Matt
Cloud computing infrastructure is now widely used in many domains, but one area where there has been more limited adoption is research computing, in particular for running scientific high-performance computing (HPC) software. The Robust Application Porting for HPC in the Cloud (RAPPORT) project took advantage of existing links between computing researchers and application scientists in the fields of bioinformatics, high-energy physics (HEP) and digital humanities, to investigate running a set of scientific HPC applications from these domains on cloud infrastructure. In this paper, we focus on the bioinformatics and HEP domains, describing the applications and target cloud platforms. We conclude that, while there are many factors that need consideration, there is no fundamental impediment to the use of cloud infrastructure for running many types of HPC applications and, in some cases, there is potential for researchers to benefit significantly from the flexibility offered by cloud platforms.
not being able to recall information from memory, use of wrong units, ... Handy and Johnstone  working with white children examined students' ..... mathematical algorithms that make demands on the memory capacity of the students.
O'Reilly, C.; Meixner, T.; Bader, N.; Carey, C.; Castendyk, D.; Gougis-Darner, R.; Fuller, R.; Gibson, C.; Klug, J.; Richardson, D.; Stomberg, J.
Scientists are increasingly using sensor-collected, high-frequency datasets to study environmental processes. To expose undergraduate students to similar experiences, our team has developed six classroom modules that utilize large, long-term, and sensor-based, datasets for science courses designed to: 1) Improve quantitative skills and reasoning; 2) Develop scientific discourse and argumentation; and 3) Increase student engagement in science. A team of ten interdisciplinary faculty from both private and public research universities and undergraduate institutions have developed flexible modules suitable for a variety of undergraduate courses. These modules meet a series of pedagogical goals that include: 1) Developing skills required to manipulate large datasets at different scales to conduct inquiry-based investigations; 2) Developing students' reasoning about statistical variation; and 3) Fostering desirable conceptions about the nature of environmental science. Six modules on the following topics are being piloted during the 2014-15 and 2015-16 academic years prior to broad dissemination: 1) Temporal stream discharge evaluation using USGS data; 2) Temporal stream nutrient loads and eutrophication risk using USGS and MCM-LTER data; 3) Climate change using NOAA weather and Vostok ice core data; 4) Lake ice-off dates using GLEON data; 5) Thermal dynamics in lakes using GLEON data; and 6) Lake metabolism dynamics using GLEON data. To assess achievement of the pedagogical goals, we will use pre/post questionnaires and video-recordings of students working on modules. Questionnaires will contain modified items from the Experimental Design Ability Test (Sirum & Humberg 2011), the Views on the Nature of Science questionnaire (Lederman et al. 2001), and a validated instrument to measure students' ideas about variation (Watson et al. 2003). Information gained from these assessments and recordings will allow us to determine whether our modules are effective at engaging
R.M. Chandima Ratnayake
Full Text Available Even though remarkable progress has been made over recent years in the design of performance measurement frameworks and systems, many companies are still primarily relying on traditional financial performance measures. This paper presents an overview of modern descendents and historical antecedents of performance measurement and attempts to give philosophical definition, in fact addressed the evolution of traditional ways of measuring performance. The paper suggests that modern frameworks have indeed addressed the organizations external to them while satisfying the conditions internal to them and providing an analogy of the notion of kuhn’s scientific paradigm. This analogy is consistent with the fundamental proposition of Kuhnian philosophy of science, that progress only happens thorough successive and abrupt shifts of paradigm.
Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador
This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…
Leblebicioglu, G.; Abik, N. M.; Capkinoglu, E.; Metin, D.; Dogan, E. Eroglu; Cetin, P. S.; Schwartz, R.
Scientific inquiry is widely accepted as a method of science teaching. Understanding its characteristics, called Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI), is also necessary for a whole conception of scientific inquiry. In this study NOSI aspects were taught explicitly through student inquiries in nature in two summer science camps. Students conducted four inquiries through their questions about surrounding soil, water, plants, and animals under the guidance of university science educators. At the end of each investigation, students presented their inquiry. NOSI aspects were made explicit by one of the science educators in the context of the investigations. Effectiveness of the science camp program and its retention were determined by applying Views of Scientific Inquiry (VOSI-S) (Schwartz et al. 2008) questionnaire as pre-, post-, and retention test after two months. The patterns in the data were similar. The science camp program was effective in developing three of six NOSI aspects which were questions guide scientific research, multiple methods of research, and difference between data and evidence. Students' learning of these aspects was retained. Discussion about these and the other three aspects is included in the paper. Implications of differences between school and out-of-school science experiences are also discussed.
Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi
This study used a model of Concurrent Embedded with the aim of: (1) determine the difference between the conceptual understanding and mathematical power of students grade fourth who take the constructivist learning using scientific approach and direct learning, (2) determine the interaction between learning approaches and initial competence on the mathematical power and conceptual of understanding, and (3) describe the mathematical power of students grade fourth. This research was conducted in the fourth grade elementary school early 2015. Data initial competence and mathematical power obtained through tests, and analyzed using statistical tests multivariate and univariate. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) There are differences in the concept of understanding and mathematical power among the students who follow the scientifically-based constructivist learning than students who take the Direct Learning in terms of students initial competency (F = 5.550; p = 0.007 problem solving and contributes tremendous increase students' math skills. Researcher suggested that the learning of mathematics in schools using scientifically- based constructivist approach to improve the mathematical power of students and conceptual understanding.
Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S and ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S and ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754
Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754
Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In Colleges Of ... in Clothing and Textiles more than foods and Nutrition and Home Management. ... poor attitude of students towards clothing and Textiles, lack of enough time ...
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia
There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. Communication, research and organisational/learning skills are core competences acquired by scientific research activity. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived performance of a core of transversal skills, related with scientific research, by Portuguese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 611 Portuguese students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of the medical course, during the same academic year. A validated questionnaire was applied for this purpose. Medical students felt confident regarding the majority of the analyzed transversal skills, particularly regarding team work capacity (72.7% perceived their own capacity as good). On the other hand, the perceived ability to manage information technology, time and to search literature was classified only as sufficient by many of them. The progression over the medical course and participation in research activities were associated with an increasing odds of a good perceived performance of skills such as writing skills (research activity: OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.34-2.97) and English proficiency (research activity: OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06-2.38/final year medical students: OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.42-5.45). In this line, the early exposure to research activities along undergraduate medical education is an added value for students and the implementation of an integrated research program on medical curriculum should be considered.
Full Text Available One important issue in the Science Education debate over the last century was how to prepare a more relevant science education of the 21st Century that emphasizes on promoting scientific literacy through a more meaningful science education program. In response to this call, a general science education elective course code named MPS1163 Epistemological, Social and Ethical Issues in Science and Technology was designed and implemented starting in Semester 2 Session 2009/2010. By the end of Semester 2 Session 2012/2013 the course has been running for 7 semesters and had invited 128 postgraduate students from 7 different programs, including a PhD program. A questionnaire was distributed to 26 course participants at the end of semester 2 Session 2012/2013. The objective of the questionnaire was to seek their personal assessment on their knowledge and understanding on the eleven course contents taken during the whole semester. The results indicated that there was a mean increment of between 40- 50% on their knowledge and understanding on the topics covered compared to their knowledge and understanding before taking the course. The second part of the questionnaire consisted of six items, using five point Likert Scale, seeking their suggestions for improving a more relevant science education through the elective course. The response was commendable. Implications of the study related to course contents and students opinions on the course contents and suggestions for the improvement of the course are discussed in this paper.
The objective of the study is threefold. Firstly, the study explores the learning approaches adopted by students in completing their Business Finance. Secondly, it examines the impact that learning approaches has on the student's academic performance. Finally, the study considers gender differences in the learning approaches adopted by students and in the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance. The Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) was used...
Feil, D; Kristian, M; Mitchell, N
To compare admission data and academic performances of medical students younger and older than 25, and to qualify older students' experiences and perceptions in medical school. The authors reviewed 1988-1991 data for applications to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. Data included GPAs and MCAT scores, as well as ratings for reference letters, autobiographical statements, and interviews. For those same years, the authors measured students' academic performances in the preclinical and clinical years. The authors compared the data by students' age: "younger" students, aged 17 to 24; and "older" students, aged 25 and above. All enrolled students took the Derogatis Stress Profile, and the older students participated in focus groups. The older applicants had lower GPAs and MCAT scores, but higher interview and reference letter ratings. For older accepted students, basic science course scores were lower than those of younger students, but clinical scores did not differ significantly between the groups. The two groups had similar stress levels, although older students tested lower in driven behavior, relaxation potential, attitude posture, and hostility. In focus groups, the older students spoke of learning style differences, loss of social support, and loss of professional identity. Different scores in admission criteria suggest that McGill uses different standards to select older medical students. Older students admitted under different criteria, however, do just as well as do younger students by their clinical years. A broad-based study of admission criteria and outcomes for the older student population is warranted.
Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.
The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding
Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola
us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...... the importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....
Jones, Nancy L; Peiffer, Ann M; Lambros, Ann; Guthold, Martin; Johnson, A Daniel; Tytell, Michael; Ronca, April E; Eldridge, J Charles
A multidisciplinary faculty committee designed a curriculum to shape biomedical graduate students into researchers with a high commitment to professionalism and social responsibility and to provide students with tools to navigate complex, rapidly evolving academic and societal environments with a strong ethical commitment. The curriculum used problem-based learning (PBL), because it is active and learner-centred and focuses on skill and process development. Two courses were developed: Scientific Professionalism: Scientific Integrity addressed discipline-specific and broad professional norms and obligations for the ethical practice of science and responsible conduct of research (RCR). Scientific Professionalism: Bioethics and Social Responsibility focused on current ethical and bioethical issues within the scientific profession, and implications of research for society. Each small-group session examined case scenarios that included: (1) learning objectives for professional norms and obligations; (2) key ethical issues and philosophies within each topic area; (3) one or more of the RCR instructional areas; and (4) at least one type of moral reflection. Cases emphasised professional standards, obligations and underlying philosophies for the ethical practice of science, competing interests of stakeholders and oversight of science (internal and external). To our knowledge, this is the first use of a longitudinal, multi-semester PBL course to teach scientific integrity and professionalism. Both faculty and students endorsed the active learning approach for these topics, in contrast to a compliance-based approach that emphasises learning rules and regulations.
Greher, Michael R; Wodushek, Thomas R
Performance validity testing refers to neuropsychologists' methodology for determining whether neuropsychological test performances completed in the course of an evaluation are valid (ie, the results of true neurocognitive function) or invalid (ie, overly impacted by the patient's effort/engagement in testing). This determination relies upon the use of either standalone tests designed for this sole purpose, or specific scores/indicators embedded within traditional neuropsychological measures that have demonstrated this utility. In response to a greater appreciation for the critical role that performance validity issues play in neuropsychological testing and the need to measure this variable to the best of our ability, the scientific base for performance validity testing has expanded greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. As such, the majority of current day neuropsychologists in the United States use a variety of measures for the purpose of performance validity testing as part of everyday forensic and clinical practice and address this issue directly in their evaluations. The following is the first article of a 2-part series that will address the evolution of performance validity testing in the field of neuropsychology, both in terms of the science as well as the clinical application of this measurement technique. The second article of this series will review performance validity tests in terms of methods for development of these measures, and maximizing of diagnostic accuracy.
Scientific Community Laboratories, developed by The University of Maryland, have shown initial promise as laboratories meant to emulate the practice of doing physics. These laboratories have been re-created by incorporating their design elements with the University of Toledo course structure and resources. The laboratories have been titled the Scientific Learning Community (SLC) Laboratories. A comparative study between these SLC laboratories and the University of Toledo physics department's traditional laboratories was executed during the fall 2012 semester on first semester calculus-based physics students. Three tests were executed as pre-test and post-tests to capture the change in students' concept knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of uncertainty. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was used to evaluate students' conceptual changes through the semester and average normalized gains were compared between both traditional and SLC laboratories. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) was conducted to elucidate students' change in attitudes through the course of each laboratory. Finally, interviews regarding data analysis and uncertainty were transcribed and coded to track changes in the way students understand uncertainty and data analysis in experimental physics after their participation in both laboratory type. Students in the SLC laboratories showed a notable an increase conceptual knowledge and attitudes when compared to traditional laboratories. SLC students' understanding of uncertainty showed most improvement, diverging completely from students in the traditional laboratories, who declined throughout the semester.
Fiondella, F.; Davi, N. K.; Wattenberg, F.; Pringle, P. T.; Greidanus, I.; Oelkers, R.
histories of cliff dwellings and pueblos in the US Southwest. Our modules are designed to give undergraduate students a sense of the scientific process, from fieldwork and logistics, to data processing and data analysis.
Over the past two years, the teachers and students in Carter County, Kentucky have been utilizing goal setting. As a result, the district has shown tremendous growth on not only state assessments, but also on local assessments. Additionally, the number of students meeting benchmarks for college and career readiness has increased significantly. The…
Transitions in an era of globalisation and universal change impact on postgraduate training of students at higher education institutions. This study aimed to determine completion rates for postgraduate programmes in Education at one higher education institution, to identify the students\\' needs and to investigate their ...
Chang, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai
We investigated the impact of an augmented reality (AR) versus interactive simulation (IS) activity incorporated in a computer learning environment to facilitate students' learning of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) on nuclear power plants and radiation pollution. We employed a quasi-experimental research design. Two classes (a total of 45…
The aim of this study was to reveal whether there were differences in the understanding of scientific models according to their conceptions of lunar phases. The participants were 252 10th grader in South Korea. They were asked to respond SUMS (Students Understanding of Models in Science) instrument and to draw and explain why the different lunar…
Russ, Rosemary S.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Hammer, David; Mikeska, Jamie
Science education reform has long focused on assessing student inquiry, and there has been progress in developing tools specifically with respect to experimentation and argumentation. We suggest the need for attention to another aspect of inquiry, namely "mechanistic reasoning." Scientific inquiry focuses largely on understanding causal…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of technology-embedded scientific inquiry (TESI) on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 117 SSSTs (68 females and 49 males aged 21-23 years) enrolled in an Environmental Chemistry elective course. Within a quasi-experimental design, the…
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Brain Based Teaching Approach in enhancing students' scientific understanding of Newtonian Physics in the context of Form Four Physics instruction. The technique was implemented based on the Brain Based Learning Principles developed by Caine & Caine (1991, 2003). This brain compatible…
Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne
Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based…
Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.
Bergey, Bradley W.; Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Liang, Senfeng; Natarajan, Uma; Karakus, Melissa
The primary aim of the study was to examine whether performance on a science assessment in an immersive virtual environment was associated with changes in scientific inquiry self-efficacy. A secondary aim of the study was to examine whether performance on the science assessment was equitable for students with different levels of computer game…
Ibrahim, Hamdi H. M.
Students look for evidence of service quality when selecting a university to attend. Student dissatisfaction with the quality of service may reduce student motivation in online higher-education settings, and low levels of motivation may lead to inferior student performance and a persistently high dropout rate. The purpose of this quantitative,…
Downes, Turlough P.
As our understanding of the world around us increases it becomes more challenging to make use of what we already know, and to increase our understanding still further. Computational modeling and simulation have become critical tools in addressing this challenge. The requirements of high-resolution, accurate modeling have outstripped the ability of desktop computers and even small clusters to provide the necessary compute power. Many applications in the scientific and engineering domains now need very large amounts of compute time, while other applications, particularly in the life sciences, frequently have large data I/O requirements. There is thus a growing need for a range of high performance applications which can utilize parallel compute systems effectively, which have efficient data handling strategies and which have the capacity to utilise current and future systems. The High Performance and Scientific Applications topic aims to highlight recent progress in the use of advanced computing and algorithms to address the varied, complex and increasing challenges of modern research throughout both the "hard" and "soft" sciences. This necessitates being able to use large numbers of compute nodes, many of which are equipped with accelerators, and to deal with difficult I/O requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
Simpson, Raymond W.
Traditionally, scientific camera systems were partitioned with a `camera head' containing the CCD and its support circuitry and a camera controller, which provided analog to digital conversion, timing, control, computer interfacing, and power. A new, unitized high performance scientific CCD camera with dual speed readout at 1 X 106 or 5 X 106 pixels per second, 12 bit digital gray scale, high performance thermoelectric cooling, and built in composite video output is described. This camera provides all digital, analog, and cooling functions in a single compact unit. The new system incorporates the A/C converter, timing, control and computer interfacing in the camera, with the power supply remaining a separate remote unit. A 100 Mbyte/second serial link transfers data over copper or fiber media to a variety of host computers, including Sun, SGI, SCSI, PCI, EISA, and Apple Macintosh. Having all the digital and analog functions in the camera made it possible to modify this system for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for use on a remote controlled submersible vehicle. The oceanographic version achieves 16 bit dynamic range at 1.5 X 105 pixels/second, can be operated at depths of 3 kilometers, and transfers data to the surface via a real time fiber optic link.
Wu, Kesheng; Byna, Surendra; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie
As high-performance computing approaches exascale, the existing I/O system design is having trouble keeping pace in both performance and scalability. We propose to address this challenge by adopting database principles and techniques in parallel I/O systems. First, we propose to adopt an array data model because many scientific applications represent their data in arrays. This strategy follows a cardinal principle from database research, which separates the logical view from the physical layout of data. This high-level data model gives the underlying implementation more freedom to optimize the physical layout and to choose the most effective way of accessing the data. For example, knowing that a set of write operations is working on a single multi-dimensional array makes it possible to keep the subarrays in a log structure during the write operations and reassemble them later into another physical layout as resources permit. While maintaining the high-level view, the storage system could compress the user data to reduce the physical storage requirement, collocate data records that are frequently used together, or replicate data to increase availability and fault-tolerance. Additionally, the system could generate secondary data structures such as database indexes and summary statistics. We expect the proposed Scientific Data Services approach to create a “live” storage system that dynamically adjusts to user demands and evolves with the massively parallel storage hardware.
The study investigated the influence of types of exceptionality on the self perception of students with special needs. It examined the influence of sex of students with special needs on their self perception. It also compared the academic performance of male and female students with special needs. One instrument named Self ...
As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…
The percentage is used to show that the level of the performance and achievement of the students. The findings suggest that possible intervention to help the students score high academic achievement should focus on teachers' training, enabling students to work hard persevere to succeed, identifying effective study ...
Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam
Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…
This study examined the relationship between level of stress and students' academic performance in Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select 300 students for the study. A “Students' Stress Level Questionnaire ...
Zabrucky, Karen M.; Moore, DeWayne; Agler, Lin-Miao Lin; Cummings, Andrea M.
In the present study, we assessed students' metacomprehension knowledge and examined the components of knowledge most related to comprehension of expository texts. We used the Revised Metacomprehension Scale (RMCS) to investigate the relations between students' metacomprehension knowledge and comprehension performance. Students who evaluated and…
... performance of undergraduate Pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Nigeria ... was conducted using self-completed questionnaires among Pharmacy students of ... Pharmacy students; Test Competence, Time Management; Test Anxiety ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.
Hadgu, Rim Mekonnen; Huynh, Sophia; Gopalan, Chaya
Lecture capture technology is fairly new and has gained interest among higher institutions, faculty and students alike. Live-lecture (LL) is captured in real-time and this recording, LC, is made available for students to access for later use, whether it be for review purpose or to replace a missed class. Student performance was compared between…
Dederichs, Anne; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt
The introduction of performance-based codes in Denmark in 2004 requires new competences from people working with different aspects of fire safety in the industry and the public sector. This abstract presents an attempt in reducing problems with handling and analysing the mathematical methods...... and CFD models when applying performance-based codes. This is done within the educational program "Master of Fire Safety Engineering" at the department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. It was found that the students had general problems with academic methods. Therefore, a new...
He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei
Because of the excellent intrinsic properties, especially the strong mechanical strength, extraordinarily high surface area and extremely high conductivity, graphene is deemed as a versatile building block for fabricating functional materials for energy production and storage applications. In this article, the recent progress in the assembly of binder-free and self-standing graphene-based materials, as well as their application in supercapacitors are reviewed, including electrical double layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and asymmetric supercapacitors. Various fabrication strategies and the influence of structures on the capacitance performance of 3D graphene-based materials are discussed. We finally give concluding remarks and an outlook on the scientific design of binder-free and self-standing graphene materials for achieving better capacitance performance.
Wang, Teng [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Yandong [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
The growth of computing power on large-scale sys- tems requires commensurate high-bandwidth I/O system. Many parallel file systems are designed to provide fast sustainable I/O in response to applications soaring requirements. To meet this need, a novel system is imperative to temporarily buffer the bursty I/O and gradually flush datasets to long-term parallel file systems. In this paper, we introduce the design of BurstMem, a high- performance burst buffer system. BurstMem provides a storage framework with efficient storage and communication manage- ment strategies. Our experiments demonstrate that BurstMem is able to speed up the I/O performance of scientific applications by up to 8.5 on leadership computer systems.
Lucchetta, Giulio; Berlato, Francesco; Rando, Riccardo; Bastieri, Denis; Urso, Giorgio, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
Over the past two decades, both X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy have experienced great progress. However, the region of the electromagnetic spectrum around ∼1 MeV is not so thoroughly explored. Future medium-sized gamma-ray telescopes will fill this gap in observations. As the timescale for the development and launch of a medium-class mission is ∼10 years, with substantial costs, we propose a different approach for the immediate future. In this paper, we evaluate the viability of a much smaller and cheaper detector: a nano-satellite Compton telescope, based on the CubeSat architecture. The scientific performance of this telescope would be well below that of the instrument expected for the future larger missions; however, via simulations, we estimate that such a compact telescope will achieve a performance similar to that of COMPTEL.
Marks, Nicola J
Scientists play an important role in framing public engagement with science. Their language can facilitate or impede particular interactions taking place with particular citizens: scientists' "speech acts" can "perform" different types of "scientific citizenship". This paper examines how scientists in Australia talked about therapeutic cloning during interviews and during the 2006 parliamentary debates on stem cell research. Some avoided complex labels, thereby facilitating public examination of this field. Others drew on language that only opens a space for publics to become educated, not to participate in a more meaningful way. Importantly, public utterances made by scientists here contrast with common international utterances: they did not focus on the therapeutic but the research promises of therapeutic cloning. Social scientists need to pay attention to the performative aspects of language in order to promote genuine citizen involvement in techno-science. Speech Act Theory is a useful analytical tool for this.
Gerber, Richard; Allcock, William; Beggio, Chris; Campbell, Stuart; Cherry, Andrew; Cholia, Shreyas; Dart, Eli; England, Clay; Fahey, Tim; Foertter, Fernanda; Goldstone, Robin; Hick, Jason; Karelitz, David; Kelly, Kaki; Monroe, Laura; Prabhat,; Skinner, David; White, Julia
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities are on the verge of a paradigm shift in the way they deliver systems and services to science and engineering teams. Research projects are producing a wide variety of data at unprecedented scale and level of complexity, with community-specific services that are part of the data collection and analysis workflow. On June 18-19, 2014 representatives from six DOE HPC centers met in Oakland, CA at the DOE High Performance Operational Review (HPCOR) to discuss how they can best provide facilities and services to enable large-scale data-driven scientific discovery at the DOE national laboratories. The report contains findings from that review.
Natalya O. Vaganova
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reveal features and possibilities of research work in the organizations of secondary professional education. Methods. Theoretical methods involve analysis of legislative, normative documents; comparison and generalization of the findings of scientists on research activities. Empirical methods: pedagogical observation, to study the experience of organization of research work. Results. The definition of «research ability» is proposed; the system of organization of research activity in the organization of secondary vocational education, including the identification of approaches to the concept of «research» is developed; development of a program of research skills formation is given; definition of subjective functional relationships for the implementation of the programmer of research; the development of training programs for teaching staff the organization of the secondary professional education to the organization and conduct of research activities with students; creation of innovative infrastructure as a set of resources and means to ensure the maintenance of research activities. Scientific novelty. An attempt to fill the gaps in the methodology of organization of research activity in organizations of secondary vocational education is taken. Peculiarities of the educational programs of secondary vocational education, defining the forms of research activities are disclosed. Approaches to the concept of «research», the formation of research skills and development of professional-pedagogical competences of teachers as subjects of research activities are proposed. Practical significance. The use of suggested approaches to conducting research in organizations of secondary vocational education can increase the level of students and extend the functionality of teachers.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.
Full Text Available This study examined differences in perfectionism, depression, anxiety, and academic performance between premedical (N = 104 and non-premedical (N = 76 undergraduate students. Results indicated that premedical students did not differ significantly from non-premedical students in perfectionistic self-criticism, personal standards perfectionism, depression, or anxiety. Perfectionistic high standards were not correlated with depression or anxiety for either group. Self-critical perfectionism was positively correlated with depression and anxiety, with comparable effect sizes, for both groups of students. Premedical students and non-premedical students drastically differed in their reported academic performance (GPA. For premedical students, PS perfectionism was related to higher GPA, however PS perfectionism in non-premedical students had a negligible effect in increasing GPA. The implications of these results for interventions and future research are discussed.
Silva, Erica Tatiane da; Nunes, Maria de Fátima; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Cláudio R
Comprehensive assessment of students' academic performance plays an important role in educational planning. The aim of this study was to investigate variables that influence student's performance in a retrospective sample including all undergraduate students who entered in a Brazilian dental school, in a 20-year period between 1984 and 2003 (n=1182). Demographic and educational variables were used to predict performance in the overall curriculum and course groups. Cluster analysis (K-means algorithm) categorized students into groups of higher, moderate or lower performance. Clusters of overall performance showed external validity, demonstrated by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Lower performance groups had the smallest number of students in overall performance and course groups clusters, ranging from 11.8% (clinical courses) to 19.2% (basic courses). Students' performance was more satisfactory in dental and clinical courses, rather than basic and non-clinical courses (pstudent's performance was predicted by lower time elapsed between completion of high school and dental school admission, female gender, better rank in admission test, class attendance rate and student workload hours in teaching, research and extension (R(2)=0.491). Findings give evidence about predictors of undergraduate students' performance and reinforce the need for curricular reformulation focused on with improvement of integration among courses.
Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Hollo, Alexandra; Robertson, Rachel E.; Maggin, Daniel M.
Physical health may be an important variable that influences students' behavioral and academic performance in school settings. Poor health status is hypothesized to negatively influence student performance even in the presence of evidence-based practices. In this study, teachers reported their perceptions of students' health status as well as…
Full Text Available This research is quasi experiment with control group pretest-postest design. The sampel in this research using the techique of purposive sampling so the samples used were two classes of the 11th grade students of SMAN 14 Bandung in the academic year 2017/2018. The experiment group uses saintific approach using Quantum Learning strategy and control group uses saintific approach. In collecting the data the researcher will use the test of problem solving ability and self regulated learning as the instrument. The aims of this research are to:1find out the improvement of students mathematical problem solving through scientific approach using Quantum Learning study, 2 find out students self regulated learning through scientific approach using Quantum Learning.
This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic ... Recommendations were made on how to promote further development of science teachers in Nigeria. ... physical sciences like chemistry, engineering and.
as necessary and important, very little justification was given for their .... Chemistry laboratory activities refer to the practical activities which students ..... equations, formulae, definitions, terminology, physical properties, hazards or disposal.
Cian, Heidi; Cook, Michelle
Student teachers struggle to identify themselves as teachers in their field placement during their student teaching year, and some of the difficulty can be attributed to the change they encounter when they must communicate scientific ideas to students in a language that differs from how they recently learned science at the university level. Using developmental levels of student teaching (Drafall and Grant in Music Educators Journal, 81(1), 35-38, 1995), we explore how three cases differ in their use of verbal classroom discourse over the course of their student teaching year. We use data from six observations, post-observation debriefs, reflections associated with the observations, and responses to assignments from the student teachers' teaching classes as data to demonstrate how the cases differ in the proficiency of their verbal communication in their classroom placement. We find that when student teachers have difficulty communicating science to their students, they struggle to use lectures effectively or engage students in meaningful conversation or questioning. This work suggests a need for more study as to the causes of different communication proficiencies and how methods instructors can help teachers develop awareness of the value of their verbal discourse interactions with students.
Hameed, Saddam Mohammed; Mohammed, Essam Mahmoud
The current research aims know the effectiveness of enriching the physics curriculum for students in middle school electronic learning in the development of their thinking and scientific their direction towards physics, sample formed from second grade students in Sinae intermediate school 64 students (32) student as experimental group & (32)…
Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron
The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University ofGuelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay
Congdon, Heather Brennan; Nutter, Douglas A; Charneski, Lisa; Butko, Peter
To compare student academic performance and the student experience in the first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program between the main and newly opened satellite campuses of the University of Maryland. Student performance indicators including graded assessments, course averages, cumulative first-year grade point average (GPA), and introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) evaluations were analyzed retrospectively. Student experience indicators were obtained via an online survey instrument and included involvement in student organizations; time-budgeting practices; and stress levels and their perceived effect on performance. Graded assessments, course averages, GPA, and IPPE evaluations were indistinguishable between campuses. Students' time allocation was not different between campuses, except for time spent attending class and watching lecture videos. There was no difference between students' stress levels at each campus. The implementation of a satellite campus to expand pharmacy education yielded academic performance and student engagement comparable to those from traditional delivery methods.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...
Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…
Dai, Qiumin; Xing, Daoming; Fang, Xiande; Zhao, Yingjie
Highlights: • A model is presented to evaluate the IR radiation between translucent surfaces. • Comprehensive ascent and thermal models of balloons are established. • The effect of IR transmissivity on film temperature distribution is unneglectable. • Atmospheric IR radiation is the primary thermal factor of balloons at night. • Solar radiation is the primary thermal factor of balloons during the day. - Abstract: Internal infrared (IR) radiation is an important factor that affects the thermal performance of high altitude balloons. The internal IR radiation is commonly neglected or treated as the IR radiation between opaque gray bodies. In this paper, a mathematical model which considers the IR transmissivity of the film is proposed to estimate the internal IR radiation. Comprehensive ascent and thermal models for high altitude scientific balloons are established. Based on the models, thermal characteristics of a NASA super pressure balloon are simulated. The effects of film IR property on the thermal behaviors of the balloon are discussed in detail. The results are helpful for the design and operation of high altitude scientific balloons.
S.A. Oloruntoba1 ,J.L.Akinode2
This paper investigates the relationship between students' preadmission academic profile and final academic performance. Data Sample of students in one of the Federal Polytechnic in south West part of Nigeria was used. The preadmission academic profile used for this study is the 'O' level grades(terminal high school results).The academic performance is defined using student's Grade Point Average(GPA). This research focused on using data mining technique to develop a model for predicting stude...
Lyubartseva, Ganna; Mallik, Uma Prasad
Numerous studies suggest that attendance may be one of the key factors which influence student performance. Although there have been many studies in introductory science courses, there have been virtually no studies which analyze and compare students' performance from different types of institutions as well as different level of classes. Our study…
Alves, Paulo; Miranda, Luísa; Morais, Carlos
This paper focuses mainly on the relation between the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) and students' performance. Therefore, virtual learning environments are characterised and a study is presented emphasising the frequency of access to a VLE and its relation with the students' performance from a public higher education institution…
McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.
Researchers focusing on parent involvement continue to concentrate their efforts on the relationship between involvement and student performance in isolation of the school context in which involvement occurs. This research outlines an ecology of involvement and how this social context affects parent involvement and student performance. Relying on…
Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández
The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…
Seiver, Daniel Alan; Haddad, Kamal; Do, Andrew
Many academic disciplines have examined the role that variation in Jungian personality types plays in the academic performance of college students. Different personality types tend to have different learning styles, which in turn influence student performance in a variety of college courses. To measure the impact of learning styles on student…
Ketelhut, Diane Jass
This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and…
While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…
Ma, Donglin; Cai, Zheng
Recently, Su et al. propose an innovative design, referred as the “SYZ” design, for China’s new project of a 12 m optical-infrared telescope. The SYZ telescope design consists of three aspheric mirrors with non-zero power, including a relay mirror below the primary mirror. SYZ design yields a good imaging quality and has a relatively flat field curvature at Nasmyth focus. To evaluate the science-compatibility of this three-mirror telescope, in this paper, we thoroughly compare the performance of SYZ design with that of Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design, a conventional two-mirror telescope design. Further, we propose the Observing Information Throughput (OIT) as a metric for quantitatively evaluating the telescopes’ science performance. We find that although a SYZ telescope yields a superb imaging quality over a large field of view, a two-mirror (RC) telescope design holds a higher overall throughput, a better diffraction-limited imaging quality in the central field of view (FOV < 5‧) which is better for the performance of extreme Adaptive Optics (AO), and a generally better scientific performance with a higher OIT value. D. Ma & Z. Cai contributed equally to this paper.
Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.
Berriman, G Bruce; Deelman, Ewa; Juve, Gideon; Rynge, Mats; Vöckler, Jens-S
The current model of transferring data from data centres to desktops for analysis will soon be rendered impractical by the accelerating growth in the volume of science datasets. Processing will instead often take place on high-performance servers co-located with data. Evaluations of how new technologies such as cloud computing would support such a new distributed computing model are urgently needed. Cloud computing is a new way of purchasing computing and storage resources on demand through virtualization technologies. We report here the results of investigations of the applicability of commercial cloud computing to scientific computing, with an emphasis on astronomy, including investigations of what types of applications can be run cheaply and efficiently on the cloud, and an example of an application well suited to the cloud: processing a large dataset to create a new science product.
Geissbuhler, Antoine; Jethwani, Kamal; Kovarik, Carrie; Person, Donald A; Vladzymyrskyy, Anton; Zanaboni, Paolo; Zolfo, Maria
Abstract Objective To summarize the experience, performance and scientific output of long-running telemedicine networks delivering humanitarian services. Methods Nine long-running networks – those operating for five years or more– were identified and seven provided detailed information about their activities, including performance and scientific output. Information was extracted from peer-reviewed papers describing the networks’ study design, effectiveness, quality, economics, provision of access to care and sustainability. The strength of the evidence was scored as none, poor, average or good. Findings The seven networks had been operating for a median of 11 years (range: 5–15). All networks provided clinical tele-consultations for humanitarian purposes using store-and-forward methods and five were also involved in some form of education. The smallest network had 15 experts and the largest had more than 500. The clinical caseload was 50 to 500 cases a year. A total of 59 papers had been published by the networks, and 44 were listed in Medline. Based on study design, the strength of the evidence was generally poor by conventional standards (e.g. 29 papers described non-controlled clinical series). Over half of the papers provided evidence of sustainability and improved access to care. Uncertain funding was a common risk factor. Conclusion Improved collaboration between networks could help attenuate the lack of resources reported by some networks and improve sustainability. Although the evidence base is weak, the networks appear to offer sustainable and clinically useful services. These findings may interest decision-makers in developing countries considering starting, supporting or joining similar telemedicine networks. PMID:22589567
Lazcano, Ximena; Villalón, Francisco; Vera, Soledad; Conget, Paulette
To optimize the teaching-learning process it is fundamental to know the representations that students have regarding knowledge. Epistemological beliefs are implicit theories that guide the practical actions of people. To characterize and compare epistemological beliefs regarding the nature and acquisition of scientific knowledge of health career students. Between 2012 and 2013, 726 students coursing first, third or fifth year from six health careers answered a validated questionnaire that includes closed and open questions aimed to characterize their epistemological beliefs about scientific knowledge. Irrespective of the career, when students had to select predefined answers, most of them appeared as constructivists (61%). On the other hand, when they had to argue, the majority seemed objectivist (47%). First-year medical students have the highest frequency of constructivist epistemological beliefs (56%). Paradoxically, the lowest percentage is found (34%) in the fifth year. The students of the health careers, in particular those of Medicine, recognize that knowledge is not acquired immediately (83%) and that its distribution is shared (92%). Discordance between selections and arguments suggests that epistemological sophistication is achieved declaratively but not practically. The lower proportion of students who presented constructivist beliefs in the fifth year compared to first year of Medicine could be associated with the pedagogical approaches used in the different cycles of the career.
Abadi, M. K.; Pujiastuti, H.; Assaat, L. D.
The scientific approach is the characteristic of the curriculum 2013. In learning to use a scientific approach, learning process consists of five stages: observe, ask, try, reasoning and convey. In the curriculum 2013 the source of learning is a book, print media, electronic and about nature or relevant learning resources. Most of the print instructional materials on the market does not appropriate in the curriculum 2013. Teaching materials with a scientific approach, beside that to the teaching materials should motivate students to not be lazy, do not get bored, and more eager to learn mathematics. So the development of scientific-based interactive teaching materials that if this approach to answer the challenge. The purpose of this research is to create teaching materials appropriate to the curriculum 2013 that is based on scientific approach and interactive. This study used research and developed methodology. The results of this study are scientific based interactive teaching materials can be used by learners. That can be used by learners are then expected to study teaching materials can be used in android smartphone and be used portable.
Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Justason, Michael; Meyertholen, Andrew; Wilson, Brian
We measured the personality type of the students in a large introductory physics course of mostly life science students using the True Colors instrument. We found large correlations of personality type with performance on the precourse Force Concept Inventory (FCI), both term tests, the postcourse FCI, and the final examination. We also saw correlations with the normalized gain on the FCI. The personality profile of the students in this course is very different from the profile of the physics faculty and graduate students, and also very different from the profile of students taking the introductory physics course intended for physics majors and specialists.
therefore a useful strategy to enhance learning and reasoning.. At the University of Limpopo (Medunsa campus) in Ga-Rankuwa,. 25 km north-west of Pretoria, South Africa, students are introduced at the beginning of their medical degree programme to procedural and clinical communication skills as separate skills.
Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year stu- dents (614 boys and ... Respondents were requested to provide information on their own characteristics, father ... stocked libraries and also experienced and ... relation student lives with, number of siblings, ..... Service, 2007) and it is very likely that they.
Cristian Marius TOMA
Full Text Available The National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation 2007 – 2013, called herein the National Plan II, represents the main instrument used to implement the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation. Universities play a unique role in the development of the knowledge-based society, through its contribution to knowledge generation, transmission, dissemination and utilization. The essential role of the university is to shape the highly qualified human resource, a process that implies a symbiosis between the education and research, the education system performances contributing in this way to a great extent to the society development. The highly qualified human resource represents an important asset of a nation. This study is dedicated to the analysis of the assessment criteria for the Exploratory Research Projects (ERP handed in the competitions in 2007, 2008, 2011 and 2012 and to highlight the importance of improving the assessment criteria in order to improve their quality.
Full Text Available Cultural heritage is a relevant issue in contemporary society. While its preservation is a challenge, its dissemination, can contribute for an economic balance between costs and benefits. Scientific heritage can be considered as a special domain of cultural heritage, not yet sought by the mass tourism, but worth being preserved as the roots of today’s knowledge. Considering that university students of engineering and computer science traditionally do not address cultural or scientific heritage issues in their syllabus, and that they constitute a layer of young citizens that will come to be influential in the future of society, an effort was undertaken to focus on this theme in disciplines of different courses, allying the learning of technical skills with the natural interest of younger people for 3D and animation for the profit of heritage. The goal was to raise the awareness of this particular group to the importance of maintaining heritage issues, in particular, in a virtual way, both for documentation and for divulgating their existence. Raising funds for buildings’ restoration, attracting the public to visit buildings and collections that are outside the usual tourism routes, contributing to revenue generation, or allowing virtual visits of not accessible issues, complementing physical visits on site, were the general aims of the proposed projects. A survey was undertaken under the participating students to evaluate how the projects influenced their attitude towards heritage. The obtained feedback was very positive: 76% agreed that the project alerted them for the importance of preserving historical and cultural heritage, while 72% considered it was interesting that the topic of digital cultural heritage was used for the assessments of
Jin, Yier [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)
As technology advances, computer systems are subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber-attacks that compromise both their security and integrity. High performance computing platforms used in commercial and scientific applications involving sensitive, or even classified data, are frequently targeted by powerful adversaries. This situation is made worse by a lack of fundamental security solutions that both perform efficiently and are effective at preventing threats. Current security solutions fail to address the threat landscape and ensure the integrity of sensitive data. As challenges rise, both private and public sectors will require robust technologies to protect its computing infrastructure. The research outcomes from this project try to address all these challenges. For example, we present LAZARUS, a novel technique to harden kernel Address Space Layout Randomization (KASLR) against paging-based side-channel attacks. In particular, our scheme allows for fine-grained protection of the virtual memory mappings that implement the randomization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by hardening a recent Linux kernel with LAZARUS, mitigating all of the previously presented side-channel attacks on KASLR. Our extensive evaluation shows that LAZARUS incurs only 0.943% overhead for standard benchmarks, and is therefore highly practical. We also introduced HA2lloc, a hardware-assisted allocator that is capable of leveraging an extended memory management unit to detect memory errors in the heap. We also perform testing using HA2lloc in a simulation environment and find that the approach is capable of preventing common memory vulnerabilities.
High stress levels in nursing students may affect memory, concentration, and problem-solving ability, and may lead to decreased learning, coping, academic performance, and retention. College students with higher levels of learned resourcefulness develop greater self-confidence, motivation, and academic persistence, and are less likely to become anxious, depressed, and frustrated, but no studies specifically involve nursing students. This explanatory correlational study used Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Rosenbaum's Self Control Scale (SCS) to explore learned resourcefulness, stressors, and academic performance in 53 baccalaureate nursing students. High levels of personal and academic stressors were evident, but not significant predictors of academic performance (p = .90). Age was a significant predictor of academic performance (p = learned resourcefulness scores than females and Caucasians. Studies in larger, more diverse samples are necessary to validate these findings.
High performance computing (HPC) platforms are evolving to more heterogeneous configurations to support the workloads of various applications. The current hardware landscape is composed of traditional multicore CPUs equipped with hardware accelerators that can handle high levels of parallelism. Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are popular high performance hardware accelerators in modern supercomputers. GPU programming has a different model than that for CPUs, which means that many numerical kernels have to be redesigned and optimized specifically for this architecture. GPUs usually outperform multicore CPUs in some compute intensive and massively parallel applications that have regular processing patterns. However, most scientific applications rely on crucial memory-bound kernels and may witness bottlenecks due to the overhead of the memory bus latency. They can still take advantage of the GPU compute power capabilities, provided that an efficient architecture-aware design is achieved. This dissertation presents a uniform design strategy for optimizing critical memory-bound kernels on GPUs. Based on hierarchical register blocking, double buffering and latency hiding techniques, this strategy leverages the performance of a wide range of standard numerical kernels found in dense and sparse linear algebra libraries. The work presented here focuses on matrix-vector multiplication kernels (MVM) as repre- sentative and most important memory-bound operations in this context. Each kernel inherits the benefits of the proposed strategies. By exposing a proper set of tuning parameters, the strategy is flexible enough to suit different types of matrices, ranging from large dense matrices, to sparse matrices with dense block structures, while high performance is maintained. Furthermore, the tuning parameters are used to maintain the relative performance across different GPU architectures. Multi-GPU acceleration is proposed to scale the performance on several devices. The
Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos
Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.
Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting
This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.
Malleus, Elina; Kikas, Eve; Kruus, Sigrid
This study describes primary school students' knowledge about rainfall, clouds and rainbow formation together with teachers' predictions about students' performance. In our study, primary school students' (N = 177) knowledge about rainfall and rainbow formation was examined using structured interviews with open-ended questions. Primary school…
Thompson, E. David; Bowling, Bethany V.; Markle, Ross E.
Studies over the last 30 years have considered various factors related to student success in introductory biology courses. While much of the available literature suggests that the best predictors of success in a college course are prior college grade point average (GPA) and class attendance, faculty often require a valuable predictor of success in those courses wherein the majority of students are in the first semester and have no previous record of college GPA or attendance. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the ACT Mathematics subject exam and Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning in predicting success in a major's introductory biology course. A logistic regression was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a combination of scientific reasoning (SR) scores and ACT math (ACT-M) scores to predict student success. In summary, we found that the model—with both SR and ACT-M as significant predictors—could be an effective predictor of student success and thus could potentially be useful in practical decision making for the course, such as directing students to support services at an early point in the semester.
Laboratory education can play a vital role in developing a learner's autonomy and scientific inquiry skills. In an innovative, mutation-based learning (MBL) approach, students were instructed to redesign a teacher-designed standard experimental protocol by a "mutation" method in a molecular genetics laboratory course. Students could choose to delete, add, reverse, or replace certain steps of the standard protocol to explore questions of interest to them in a given experimental scenario. They wrote experimental proposals to address their rationales and hypotheses for the "mutations"; conducted experiments in parallel, according to both standard and mutated protocols; and then compared and analyzed results to write individual lab reports. Various autonomy-supportive measures were provided in the entire experimental process. Analyses of student work and feedback suggest that students using the MBL approach 1) spend more time discussing experiments, 2) use more scientific inquiry skills, and 3) find the increased autonomy afforded by MBL more enjoyable than do students following regimented instructions in a conventional "cookbook"-style laboratory. Furthermore, the MBL approach does not incur an obvious increase in labor and financial costs, which makes it feasible for easy adaptation and implementation in a large class.
Cloke, Jonathan; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko
The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time
Eric De Sturler
Full Text Available Recently, the first commercial High Performance Fortran (HPF subset compilers have appeared. This article reports on our experiences with the xHPF compiler of Applied Parallel Research, version 1.2, for the Intel Paragon. At this stage, we do not expect very High Performance from our HPF programs, even though performance will eventually be of paramount importance for the acceptance of HPF. Instead, our primary objective is to study how to convert large Fortran 77 (F77 programs to HPF such that the compiler generates reasonably efficient parallel code. We report on a case study that identifies several problems when parallelizing code with HPF; most of these problems affect current HPF compiler technology in general, although some are specific for the xHPF compiler. We discuss our solutions from the perspective of the scientific programmer, and presenttiming results on the Intel Paragon. The case study comprises three programs of different complexity with respect to parallelization. We use the dense matrix-matrix product to show that the distribution of arrays and the order of nested loops significantly influence the performance of the parallel program. We use Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting to study the parallelization strategy of the compiler. There are various ways to structure this algorithm for a particular data distribution. This example shows how much effort may be demanded from the programmer to support the compiler in generating an efficient parallel implementation. Finally, we use a small application to show that the more complicated structure of a larger program may introduce problems for the parallelization, even though all subroutines of the application are easy to parallelize by themselves. The application consists of a finite volume discretization on a structured grid and a nested iterative solver. Our case study shows that it is possible to obtain reasonably efficient parallel programs with xHPF, although the compiler
Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis
Assessing the career performance of scientists has become essential to modern science. Bibliometric indicators, like the h-index are becoming more and more decisive in evaluating grants and approving publication of articles. However, many of the more used indicators can be manipulated or falsified by publishing with very prolific researchers or self-citing papers with a certain number of citations, for instance. Accounting for these factors is possible but it introduces unwanted complexity that drives us further from the purpose of the indicator: to represent in a clear way the prestige and importance of a given scientist. Here we try to overcome this challenge. We used Thompson Reuter's Web of Science database and analyzed all the papers published until 2000 by ~1500 researchers in the top 30 departments of seven scientific fields. We find that over 97% of them have a citation distribution that is consistent with a discrete lognormal model. This suggests that our model can be used to accurately predict the performance of a researcher. Furthermore, this predictor does not depend on the individual number of publications and is not easily ``gamed'' on. The authors acknowledge support from FCT Portugal, and NSF grants
Popular culture abounds with ill-conceived notions about Earth’s processes. Movies, books, music, television and even video games frequently misrepresent fundamental scientific principles, warping viewers’ perceptions of the world around them. First year geoscience students are not immune to pop culture’s portrayal of earth science and the misconceptions they bring to Geology 101 cloud their ability to differentiate between fact and fiction. Working within ...
Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice
Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel
This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.
Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.
In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…
Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Bilotto, Luigi; Loughman, James
The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model of optometry training at UniLúrio in Mozambique. There are many composite elements to the development of sustainable eye health structures, and appropriate education for eye health workers remains a key determinant of successful eye care development. However, from the first intake of 16 students, only 9 students graduated from the program, whereas only 6 graduated from the second intake of 24 students. This low graduation rate is attributable to a combination of substandard academic performance and student dropout. The aim of this article was to identify factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique. Nine lecturers (the entire faculty) and 15 students (9 from the first intake and 6 from the second) were recruited to the study. Clinical competency assessments were carried out on the students, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with the course lecturers, and a course evaluation questionnaire was completed by students. The results were combined to understand the complexities surrounding the optometry student training and performance. One student out of nine from the first intake and three students out of six from the second were graded as competent in all the elements of the refraction clinical competency examination. Analysis of data from the interviews and questionnaire yielded four dominant themes that were viewed as important determinants of student refraction competencies: student learning context, teaching context, clinic conditions and assessment, and the existing operating health care context. The evaluations have helped the university and course partners to better structure the teaching and adapt the learning environments by recommending a preparatory year and a review of the curriculum and clinic structure, implementing more transparent entry requirements, increasing awareness of
Jarque, Pilar; García-Paz, Maria; Olivares, Conchi; Fernández-Boán, Isabel
Secondary school students in Spain commonly show little knowledge on the way science is produced and diffused. To familiarize students with the scientific method and scientific communication, we have simulated a scientific congress on Earth Sciences at the secondary school level. Since 2002, the congress takes place yearly and it is attended by teachers and students from high schools of our hometown and beyond. Since its onset, the project follows several phases: (i) In the first phase (First Call), 14- to 18-year-old students are invited to register by means of brochures containing basic information on the congress (terms, conditions and main topics). (ii) Teachers from each participating school explain students the basis of scientific posters and oral presentations and encourage them to participate in the congress. (iii) Students prepare presentations describing the results of small scientific experiments carried out for this purpose and present them to the local organizing committee. (iv) The committee then reviews all presentations and select the best ones for public exposition. (v) In the final phase, the congress takes place. It includes registration, opening ceremony attended by educational authorities, plenary conference delivered by an outstanding local scientist, coffee break, oral presentations and closing ceremony. The project lasts for one day. It has been attended by an average of 250 students and teachers from 4 schools, and has been widely reported in the local media. Post-congress evaluation shows that the project is highly motivating for students and it improves student knowledge on scientific research and communication.
Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.
Full Text Available Education is life blood for development of country. This paper explores the impact of various factors on student performance. Data was collected from ten (10 Govt. & Private schools in Rawalpindi. Out of 1100 hundred responded 600 hundred responses inducted in this study. Simple regression employed in this study to test the hypothesis. The result concluded that both factor have significant negative relationship with student performance. In future, the difference of performance level among male and female may be explored in term of pick & drop facility, university distance from home and other responsibility due on male student as they grow.
Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Price, Addison F.
This study investigated changes in male and female students' prediction and postdiction calibration accuracy and bias scores, and the predictive effects of explanatory styles on these variables beyond gender. Seventy undergraduate students rated their confidence in performance before and after a 40-item exam. There was an improvement in students'…
Full Text Available Despite the increase in Latin America of Higher Education coverage, grave dropout problems persist that question the role of educational experiences to foster students’ academic engagement. This study was carried out in Colombia and sought to establish the relationship between the five benchmarks that compose academic engagement and the academic performance of a group of Colombian university students. The transversal and correlational study used the Spanish version of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE that measures students’ level of participation in five dimensions: Academic challenge, active and collaborative learning, student-faculty interaction, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment and its relationship to academic performance. The findings of 1906 students from 7 universities indicate that there are statistically significant, but weak correlations between the items that compose the benchmarks and students’ academic performance, which lead to reflect upon key aspects to strengthen the education experiences offered to university students.
Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.
Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Keumho; Hur, Yera; Kim, Ji-Ha
Despite the importance of selecting students whom are capable for medical education and to become a good doctor, not enough studies have been done in the category. This study focused on analysing the medical students' academic performance (grade point average, GPA) differences, flunk and dropout rates by admission types. From 2004 to 2010, we gathered 369 Konyang University College of Medicine's students admission data and analyzed the differences between admission method and academic achievement, differences in failure and dropout rates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), ordinary least square, and logistic regression were used. The rolling students showed higher academic achievement from year 1 to 3 than regular students (p dropout rate by admission types, regular admission type students showed higher drop out rate than the rolling ones which demonstrates admission types gives significant effect on flunk or dropout rates in medical students (p students tend to show lower flunk rate and dropout rates and perform better academically. This implies selecting students primarily by Korean College Scholastic Ability Test does not guarantee their academic success in medical education. Thus we suggest a more in-depth comprehensive method of selecting students that are appropriate to individual medical school's educational goal.
Huhn, D; Lauter, J; Roesch Ely, D; Koch, E; Möltner, A; Herzog, W; Resch, F; Herpertz, S C; Nikendei, C
Particularly at the beginning of their studies, international medical students face a number of language-related, social and intercultural challenges. Thus, they perform poorer than their local counterparts in written and oral examinations as well as in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in the fields of internal medicine and surgery. It is still unknown how international students perform in an OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine compared to their local fellow students. All students (N = 1033) taking the OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine and an accompanying written examination in their eighth or ninth semester between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. The OSCE consisted of four different stations, in which students had to perform and manage a patient encounter with simulated patients suffering from 1) post-traumatic stress disorder, 2) schizophrenia, 3) borderline personality disorder and 4) either suicidal tendency or dementia. Students were evaluated by trained lecturers using global checklists assessing specific professional domains, namely building a relationship with the patient, conversational skills, anamnesis, as well as psychopathological findings and decision-making. International medical students scored significantly poorer than their local peers (p International students showed poorer results in clinical-practical exams in the field of psychosocial medicine, with conversational skills yielding the poorest scores. However, regarding factual and practical knowledge examined via a multiple-choice test, no differences emerged between international and local students. These findings have decisive implications for relationship building in the doctor-patient relationship.
A binary logit model is used to investigate the determinants of students' performance in the final high school examination. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year students (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were requested ...
Students' Academic Performance in English Language and Mathematics ... passed at credit level by secondary schools students in public examinations. A credit level ..... ls O n lin e: www.a jo l.in fo. T ab le 1. : P ercen tage of p asses and failu.
Zubairu, Umaru Mustapha; Sakariyau, Olalekan Busra
In this paper, the association between religiosity and academic performance among accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is explored, as recent research demonstrates a positive association between religiosity and academic success. Students' religiosity was measured using proxies from an Islamic…
This study explored the learning strategies of 500 undergraduate students in higher education in the Wa Campus of the University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana and the effect on their performance and carrier aspirations. Twenty lecturers and managers of three development organisations that receive students ...
Ayodele, Timothy Oluwafemi; Oladokun, Timothy Tunde; Gbadegesin, J.T.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting academic performance of real estate students in a developing country like Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study were collected with the aid of questionnaire served on 152 final year real estate students of
Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Mirdad, Fatemeh
The present study aims at exploring the influence of school design on student performance. The participants consisted of 150 students who studied at two Iranian public school and private school in Mashhad City. School Design and Planning Laboratory (SDPL) model of Georgia University (and Tanner (2009)) was used as an appraisal indicator of school…
The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…
This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Questionnaires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at KNUST in 2007 ...
Jonick, Christine; Schneider, Jennifer; Boylan, Daniel
The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of different response formats on student performance on introductory accounting exam questions. The study analyzes 1104 accounting students' responses to quantitative questions presented in two formats: multiple-choice and fill-in. Findings indicate that response format impacts student…
Logman, P.S.W.M.; Kaper, W.H.; Ellermeijer, A.L.; Lindell, A.; Kähkönen, A.-L.; Viiri, J.
In a teaching-learning sequence on the subject of energy we have tried technological design contexts to motivate students by using only context-based reasons to perform experiments on the subject of energy. We use these experiments to have the students reinvent practical laws of energy conservation
Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tan, Yue; Chiu, Chien-Jung
The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of concept maps as a learning tool where knowledge transfer is the goal. This article includes an evaluation of the learning performance of 42 undergraduate students enrolled in a nanotech course at a university in Taiwan. Canonical correlation and MANOVA analyses were employed to…
Langevin, Elizabeth L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…
Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Walrave, Michel; Heirman, Wannes; Van Hal, Guido
The non-medical use of stimulants for academic performance enhancement is becoming a more common practice among college and university students. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of enhancing their academic performance. Based on an extended model of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, psychological distress, procrastination, substance use, and alcohol use on students' intention to use stimulants to improve their academic performance. The sample consisted of 3,589 Flemish university and college students (mean age: 21.59, SD: 4.09), who participated anonymously in an online survey conducted in March and April 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that subjective norm is the strongest predictor of students' intention to use stimulant medication, followed by attitude and perceived behavioral control. To a lesser extent, procrastinating tendencies, psychological distress, and substance abuse contribute to students' intention. Conclusions/ Importance: Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations on how to curtail students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of improving their academic performance. In addition, we urge researchers to identify other psychological variables that might be related to students' intention.
Norzaidi, Mohd Daud; Salwani, Mohamed Intan
Purpose: Using the extended task-technology fit (TTF) model, this paper aims to examine technology resistance, technology satisfaction and internet usage on students' performance. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Johor, Malaysia and questionnaires were distributed to 354 undergraduate students.…
Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P., Jr.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro G.
This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students' learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of…
This work used the ex post facto to design and deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students academic performances in social studies. The sample comprised 330 JSS III students (130 male and 200 female) drawn from 50 out of 73 schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Two instruments were ...
Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Carpenter, Jon; Davies, Thomas
The quality of a Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA) program, similar to other undergraduate and graduate programs in business and other disciplines, is typically directly related to the quality of its students. While there is a considerable published scholarly work on MBA student performance, there is very little research to predict student…
Yeboah, Alex Kumi; Smith, Patriann
The study investigated the relationship between minority students' use of technology, social media, the number of online courses, program of study, satisfaction, and academic performance. Participants in the study were a diverse student body regarding age, gender, and educational level, and functioned at both undergraduate and graduate levels.…
Smith, Michael E.; Zsidisin, George A.; Adams, Laural L.
The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various…
Dean, Kathy Lund; Fornaciari, Charles J.
Over a five-year period, we made a persistent observation: Course structures and routines, such as assignment parameters, student group process rules, and grading schemes were being consistently ignored. As a result, we got distracted by correcting these structural issues and were spending less time on student assignment performance. In this…
Mattson, E.; Versteeg, R.; Ankeny, M.; Stormberg, G.
Leblebicioglu, G.; Metin, D.; Capkinoglu, E.; Cetin, P. S.; Eroglu Dogan, E.; Schwartz, R.
Although nature of science (NOS) and nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI) are related to each other, they are differentiated as NOS is being more related to the product of scientific inquiry (SI) which is scientific knowledge whereas NOSI is more related to the process of SI (Schwartz et al. 2008). Lederman et al. (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 65-8, 2014) determined eight NOSI aspects for K-16 context. In this study, a science camp was conducted to teach scientific inquiry (SI) and NOSI to 24 6th and 7th graders (16 girls and 8 boys). The core of the program was guided inquiry in nature. The children working in small groups under guidance of science advisors conducted four guided-inquiries in the nature in morning sessions on nearby plants, animals, water, and soil. NOSI aspects were made explicit during and at the end of each inquiry session. Views about scientific inquiry (VASI) (Lederman et al. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51, 65-8, 2014) questionnaire was applied as pre- and post-test. The results of the study showed that children developed in all eight NOSI aspects, but higher developments were observed in "scientific investigations all begin with a question" and "there is no single scientific method," and "explanations are developed from data and what is already known" aspects. It was concluded that the science camp program was effective in teaching NOSI.
Holding scientific conceptions and having the ability to accurately predict students' preconceptions are a prerequisite for science teachers to design appropriate constructivist-oriented learning experiences. This study explored the types and sources of students' preconceptions of electric circuits. First, 438 grade 3 (9 years old) students were…
This article reports a case study on classroom interaction in teacher education in Norway. It addresses how teacher students in the school subject Norwegian constitute scientific talk in a student-led discussion. First, the analysis reveals tension in the classroom conversation between "mundane talk"--that is, where students make claims…
Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno
The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course characteristics and student characteristics have shown to influence student performance as well. However, these different sets of features are rarely combined or compared. Therefore, in the current study we...
Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.
The data support the hypothesis that students who performed well in one discipline were likely to .... predict success in the clinical curriculum (Baciewicz,. 1990). Similarly ... the International Association of Medical Science. Educators. 17-20.
girls) who obtained the basic requirements for courses that they ... Academic performance of students from less endowed senior high ... 106 ... only pay academic facility user fees. The second ..... certificate education, Pro is senior executive.
Students taught. Introductory Technology through team teaching approach performed ... Vocational education differs in both concept and status in different nations of ... completion of the course, can carry out simple daily maintenance of motor.
Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final Practical Examination ... Staff development courses can be held to coordinate the work of the school ... to authentic individual nursing care of patients so that they use the individual ...
Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.
Hernandez-Ocampo Sonia Patricia
Full Text Available Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve their aural comprehension. The students were given the task of designing listening activities to be worked on as micro-teaching sessions and were asked to describe their experience by answering a survey. The results showed that students developed the ability to think critically since they needed to make the best decisions regarding the audio level and the design of the activities. They also appeared to have become more autonomous as they realized they could be responsible for their improvement in listening. Additionally, there were evident changes in the teachers’ roles.Es común que los hablantes de español se quejen de su comprensión oral en inglés. Parece que los profesores no siempre dan a sus estudiantes estrategias para mejorar al respecto. En este artículo se describe la experiencia pedagógica desarrollada en una universidad colombiana con el propósito de ayudar a los estudiantes de inglés intermedio de una licenciatura a mejorar su comprensión auditiva. Se pidió a los estudiantes desarrollar actividades de escucha para ser trabajadas en sesiones de microenseñanza y describir su experiencia, contestando una encuesta. Los resultados evidenciaron que los estudiantes desarrollaron su pensamiento crítico en la medida que necesitaban tomar decisiones con respecto al nivel de dificultad del audio y al diseño de las actividades mismas. También se mostraron más autónomos por cuanto se hicieron conscientes de su responsabilidad en el mejoramiento de su comprensión oral. Adicionalmente, se dieron cambios en los papeles del profesor.
Suhail Mamoud Al–Zoubi
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to identify talented students' levels of satisfaction with the performance of the gifted centers. The sample of the study consisted of (142 gifted and talented students enrolled in the Najran Centers for Gifted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to the sample of the study. The results revealed that talented students were highly satisfied with the administration and teachers, whereas they were only moderately satisfied with enrichment activities, teaching methods, student relationships and facilities and equipment. Moreover, results also showed that there were no significant differences could be attributed to gender or to the level of schooling.
correlation design. ... the JSC examinations were a good predictor of performance at SSC ..... Table 12: Effects of the Independent Variables (JSCE 2000) on the .... JAMB Brochure, Abuja: Joint Admissions and Matriculation Examinations, 2-3.
Baker, Dale R.; Piburn, Michael
This is a report of the effects of a scientific literacy course on the skills, cognitive ability, and attitude of students in the first year of high school. Specifically, the research examines (1) whether it is possible to teach scientific skills, (2) whether a literacy curriculum affects attitude and cognitive ability, and (3) whether incoming student characteristics affect the development of attitude and cognitive abilities. Two hundred and fifty (126 male and 124 female) ninth grade students were enrolled in a specially designed literacy course which met for 3 hours and 20 minutes each week for 39 weeks. Students were pretested for logical, spatial, verbal, and mathematical ability, as well as for attitude toward self and science, and psychological type. The course was successful in teaching skills. In addition, there were significant increases in spatial, verbal, and quantitative ability. Increases in cognitive ability were predicted by logical ability, measurement skills, and academic self-concept. Attitudes declined as a result of participation in the course. Self concept and mastery were related to cognitive variables and motivation, mastery, and control were related to psychological type.
Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila
Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16?years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8???0.5?years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point avera...
Suhaiza Ismail; Nurkamariah Kasim
This study aims to examine the factors affecting the examination performance of non-accounting students in completing an accounting course, that is, Management Accounting. A questionnaire survey was administered to a total of 147 non-accounting students who enrolled in a Management Accounting course for a semester. The factors considered are gender, prior academic performance, year of study and learning approaches adopted which include deep, surface and strategic approaches. Using multiple re...
Mancuso, Vincent J.
Students' scientific investigations have been identified in national standards and related reform documents as a critical component of students' learning experiences in school, yet it is not easy to implement them in science classrooms. Could science demonstrations help science teachers put this recommendation into practice? While demonstrations are a common practice in the science classroom and research has documented some positive effects in terms of student motivation and engagement from their use, the literature also shows that, as traditionally presented, science demonstrations do not always achieve their intended outcomes. This, in turn, suggested the value of investigating what design elements of demonstrations could be used to promote specific instructional goals. Employing action research as a methodology, the proposed study was developed to explore how science demonstrations can be designed so as to most effectively promote student engagement in scientific investigations. More specifically, I was interested in examining the effects of using a discrepant event as part of the demonstration, as a way to create cognitive conflict and, thus, increase interest and engagement. I also investigated the relative merit of the well-researched POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) design versus employing demonstrations that appear to the student to be unplanned (what I will refer to as NOE, or a Naturally Occurring Experience). This study was informed by Constructivism, Situated Cognition and Conceptual Change as theoretical frameworks. The project included the design, implementation and study of an intervention consisting of three instructional units designed to support students' learning of the concepts of density, molecular arrangement of gas particles, and cohesion, respectively. In each of these units, lasting a total of two 80-minute class periods, students were asked to design and conduct an investigation to gain a better understanding of the concept under study. In
The article discusses the process of written scientific speech training should include two components: teaching understanding and evaluating texts that make the scientific speech in all its substantive and problematic species and learning the rules of creating texts in the chosen specialty. The idea about functional languages develops in the theory vernaculars among which numerous languages of science take essentially important place; studying of these languages represents the theory and prac...
Helldén, Gustav F.; Solomon, Joan
In this paper we will examine the persistence of misconceptions. We used data from a longitudinal study of personal ideas in 24 students' thinking about ecological processes. The results show students often speaking about personal experiences dating from an early age, to which they had also referred in similar interviews conducted years before. These data are compared with results from a different study of middle school physics students' thinking about energy and steam engines. After the new learning had been successfull completed and assessed, old ideas returned. These findings are used to set up a theoretical basis for understanding the longitudinal results. Findings from memory studies are shown to explicate the long-term effects of the passage of time and prompts for the recall of scientific concepts.
Full Text Available Popular culture abounds with ill-conceived notions about Earth’s processes. Movies, books, music, television and even video games frequently misrepresent fundamental scientific principles, warping viewers’ perceptions of the world around them. First year geoscience students are not immune to pop culture’s portrayal of earth science and the misconceptions they bring to Geology 101 cloud their ability to differentiate between fact and fiction. Working within an action research context, a semester-long assessment was designed with the intent to highlight and subsequently challenge students’ misconceptions using examples of “bad geoscience” from pop culture. Students were required to practice and refine generic skills within this context. This project succeeded in engaging students, but requires refinement to become more effective in enhancing their geoscience literacy.
Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne
Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based programme was developed that trains secondary school students (grades 11-13) in decision-making strategies. The main research question is: does training students to use these strategies foster decision-making competence? In addition, the influence of meta-decision aids was examined. Students conducted a task analysis to select an appropriate strategy prior to the decision-making process. Hence, the second research question is: does combining decision-making training with a task analysis enhance decision-making competence at a higher rate? To answer these questions, 386 students were tested in a pre-post-follow-up control-group design that included two training groups (decision-making strategies/decision-making strategies combined with a task analysis) and a control group (decision-making with additional ecological information instead of strategic training). An open-ended questionnaire was used to assess decision-making competence in situations related to sustainable development. The decision-making training led to a significant improvement in the post-test and the follow-up, which was administered three months after the training. Long-term effects on the quality of the students' decisions were evident for both training groups. Gains in competence when reflecting upon the decision-making processes of others were found, to a lesser extent, in the training group that received the additional meta-decision training. In conclusion, training in decision-making strategies is a promising approach to deal with socio-scientific issues related to sustainable development.
Solli, Anne; Hillman, Thomas; Mäkitalo, Åsa
In this article, we argue that students' unfolding discourse on socio-scientific issues (SSI) can be fruitfully analyzed by using dialogical theories of language and communication (Bakhtin 1986; Linell 2009). While research in science education often reports on how individual reasoning changes when bringing SSI into the classroom, we argue for the relevance of analyzing how the individual is "in dialogue" with present as well as remote interlocutors and contexts on the internet. We suggest that the analytical approach is particularly sensitized to illuminate how students' handle multiple perspectives. A dialogical perspective takes as its premise that SSI are part of society, where politicians, interest groups, and scientists engage in debates and offer perspectives that are often in conflict. Rather than assuming that the individual student is the primary unit for analysis, a dialogical approach is premised on an analysis that incorporates several perspectives and voices—a multivocality that also resides with the individual. Arguing for the relevance of this analytical approach to studies of SSI in the classroom, we analyze a group of students in upper secondary school as they discuss hydraulic fracturing after having worked with online data. The results illuminate how students discursively manage multivocality and multimodality inherent in the following SSI online. We describe a set of discursive means that the students use to handle the many perspectives involved when communicating about the issue. In addition, we describe and articulate what kind of communicative competences that are involved and, hence, could be cultivated through education, when engaging in public debates.
Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William
To review the state of research on the association between sleep among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating sleep, school performance, and cognitive and achievement tests. Tables with brief descriptions of each study's research methods and outcomes are included. Research reveals a high…
This article reviews research from published studies on the association between nutrition among school-aged children and their performance in school and on tests of cognitive functioning. Each reviewed article is accompanied by a brief description of its research methodology and outcomes. Articles are separated into 4 categories: food insufficiency, iron deficiency and supplementation, deficiency and supplementation of micronutrients, and the importance of breakfast. Research shows that children with iron deficiencies sufficient to cause anemia are at a disadvantage academically. Their cognitive performance seems to improve with iron therapy. A similar association and improvement with therapy is not found with either zinc or iodine deficiency, according to the reviewed articles. There is no evidence that population-wide vitamin and mineral supplementation will lead to improved academic performance. Food insufficiency is a serious problem affecting children's ability to learn, but its relevance to US populations needs to be better understood. Research indicates that school breakfast programs seem to improve attendance rates and decrease tardiness. Among severely undernourished populations, school breakfast programs seem to improve academic performance and cognitive functioning.
Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek
Examines the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance in 200 Division I athletes. Studies the noncognitive variables of athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables. Finds all four noncognitive…
Walsh, E.; McGowan, V. C.
The Next Generation Science Standards promote a vision in which learners engage in authentic knowledge in practice to tackle personally consequential science problems in the classroom. However, there is not yet a clear understanding amongst researchers and educators of what authentic practice looks like in a classroom and how this can be accomplished. This study explores these questions by examining interactions between scientists and students on a social media platform during two pilot enactments of a project-based curriculum focusing on the ecological impacts of climate change. During this unit, scientists provided feedback to students on infographics, visual representations of scientific information meant to communicate to an audience about climate change. We conceptualize the feedback and student work as boundary objects co-created by students and scientists moving between the school and scientific contexts, and analyze the structure and content of the scientists' feedback. We find that when giving feedback on a particular practice (e.g. argumentation), scientists would provide avenues, critiques and questions that incorporated many other practices (e.g. data analysis, visual communication); thus, scientists encouraged students to participate systemically in practices instead of isolating one particular practice. In addition, scientists drew attention to particular habits of mind that are valued in the scientific community and noted when students' work aligned with scientific values. In this way, scientists positioned students as capable of participating "scientifically." While traditionally, incorporating scientific inquiry in a classroom has emphasized student experimentation and data generation, in this work, we found that engaging with scientists around established scientific texts and data sets provided students with a platform for developing expertise in other important scientific practices during argment construction.
Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen
The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the
Widinda Normalia Arlianty
Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze interest in student learning of physical chemistry experiment on Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was quantitative. The samples of this research were 2nd-semester student academic year 2015. The data learning interest of students were collected by questionnaire and documentation of seven title experimental. Learning interest consisted of three indicators, concluded feeling good, attention and activity in the learning process. The results of this research showed that score mean of feeling good indicator was 25,9; score mean of attention indicator 17,8, and score mean of activity indicator 8,41. Score Mean students for the questionnaire interest in student learning was 51,83 and this data was categorized as “good”.
Angela S. Anderson
Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.
Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi
Full Text Available Background:Sleep plays a very important role in a human health. Poor sleep quality remains as a frequent feature of student life. Quantity and quality of sleep in addition to average sleep time are strongly linked with students’ learning abilities and academic performance. Subjects and method:The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to assess sleep quality among medical college students – University of Babylon using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. This study was done during April 2016. Results:Mean age of students was (20.63 ± 0.65. Majority was female. According to PSQI(60.4% of students were poor sleeper. Significant association between quality of sleep and academic performance was found in our study, (72.9% of those fail in one or more subjects have poor sleep quality. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was regarded as an important problem among medical college students. Majority of students (60.4% was poor sleepers. Our study shows significant relation between sleep quality and academic performance among students of Babylon University –College of Medicine.
Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry
Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981
Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex
Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.
Jeliana Veronika Sirait
Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate whether the developed scientific inquiry-based teaching materials can improve the students’ response, the students’ activity and the students’ achievement. This study is development which based on Borg & Gall product development. Samples were selected randomly by raffling 4 classes into one class, applied teaching materials based scientific inquiry. The instruments which are used in this study consisted of three namely quetionnaires used for validation of teaching material by the expert of the material and the expert of design, the evaluation of physics teacher and students’ response toward teaching materials and observation sheet of students’ activity used in learning process and also test for students’ achievement in the form of multiple choice consisted of 10 quetions provided for end of the learning. The results of this study showed that the developed scientific inquiry-based teaching materials can improve the students’ response, the students’ activity and the students’ achievement in every session.
Web-based technology has revolutionized the way education is delivered. Although the advantages of online learning appeal to large numbers of students, some concerns arise. One major concern in online science education is the value that participation in labs has on student performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between lab completion and student academic success as measured by test grades, scientific self-confidence, scientific skills, and concept mastery. A random sample of 114 volunteer undergraduate students, from an online Environmental Science program at the American Public University System, was tested. The study followed a quantitative, non-experimental research design. Paired sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison between pre-lab and post-lab test grades, two scientific skills quizzes, and two scientific self-confidence surveys administered at the beginning and at the end of the course. The results of the paired sample t-tests revealed statistically significant improvements on all post-lab test scores: Air Pollution lab, t(112) = 6.759, p virtual reality platforms and digital animations. Future research is encouraged to investigate possible correlations between socio-demographic attributes and academic success of students enrolled in online science programs in reference to lab completion.
Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry
The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.
Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were used to ascertain the students' scientific epistemic beliefs, information commitments, and cognitive load experience. Structural equation modeling was then used to analyze the moderating effect of cognitive load, with the results revealing its significant moderating effect. The relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and the advanced evaluative standards used by the students were significantly stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. Moreover, considering the searching strategies that the students used, the relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and advanced searching strategies were also stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. However, for the high cognitive load students, only one of the sophisticated scientific epistemic belief dimensions was found to positively associate with advanced evaluative standard dimensions.
Dr. Dexter R. Buted
Full Text Available The study generally intended to reckon the previous and present condition of senior tourism students with regards on their foreign language class. Specifically, it described the profile of the professors teaching foreign language; determined the senior tourism student’s performances on their foreign language class; assessed the teaching strategies used by the professors; tested the significant relationship between the performances of the students to the teaching strategies used; and lastly, proposed an action plan to help tourism students in the study of foreign language. The researchers used the descriptive method of research, with one hundred seventy-eight (178 respondents composed of all senior tourism students who are enrolled in foreign language class. The result of the study revealed that the professors who are teaching foreign language are 61 years old and above, masters degree holder, 10 years and above, with a unit of 21 and can speak Spanish. Also, the students are able to speak and comprehend Mandarin, French and Spanish. The teaching techniques used by the professors in teaching the language was giving and evaluating student’s performance more often. Moreover, the performances of the students in foreign language are affected by the teaching strategies used by the professors. And a proposed plan was formulated to improve foreign language subject of the study
Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I
Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.
using appraisal analysis to show how students talking about their images of science yield different ways of knowing and dispositions in science. Thirdly, by tracing the inclination and obligation of doing science, I illustrate how subjectivity versus materiality/objectivity in science impact how students perceive science. Fourth, student images of science, ways of identifying with science and having agency in science are analyzed using a thematic analysis to identify patterns and emerging themes. Next, I assess students' developing understanding of scientific inquiry using HLM to determine whether the Agency units versus the Inquiry units predicted students' learning outcomes based on the inquiry assessment. Finally, I discuss the implications of these analyses. This study accounts for how youth develop practice-linked identities in science entails the fleeting identity performances and language choices made for and by youth in the science classroom. Central to this notion of identity is agency where positionality as well as material and symbolic, interactional and situational resources constrain or enable identity development. In a learning context, these choices and values inherent in language use are relational to learner agency outside of language, but ensouled in performative curating where solidarity, intention, creativity, emotion, accountability, anticipation, cognition, and rewards enable the capacity to transform the self, others, and communities. This dissertation demonstrates how design features embedded in curriculum related to personal relevance and the societal context for science affords teachers to engage youth in agentic science learning in the classroom in ways that become more meaningful and supportive of science identification than traditional inquiry approaches to teaching science.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.
Robertson, William; Lesser, Lawrence M.
Edutainment has recently been a major growing area of education, showing great promise to motivate students with relevant activities. The authors are among innovators who have developed cutting-edge fusions of popular culture and STEM concepts to engage and to motivate middle school students, using vehicles such as music/song and skateboarding.…
Dori, Y. J.; Zohar, A.; Fischer-Shachor, D.; Kohan-Mass, J.; Carmi, M.
This paper describes an Israeli national-level research examining the extent to which admissions of elementary school students to the gifted programmes based on standardised tests are gender-fair. In the research, the gifted students consisted of 275 boys, 128 girls, and additional 80 girls who were admitted to the gifted programme through…
Burgess, Stephen R.; Stermer, Steven Paul; Burgess, Melinda C. R.
The relations between media consumption, especially TV viewing, and school performance have been extensively examined. However, even though video game playing may have replaced TV viewing as the most frequent form of media usage, relatively little research has examined its relations to school performance, especially in older students. We surveyed…
Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Becheru, Alexandru; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
This study investigates the degree to which textual complexity indices applied on students’ online contributions, corroborated with a longitudinal analysis performed on their weekly posts, predict academic performance. The source of student writing consists of blog and microblog posts, created in
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette
The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…
Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti
High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…
Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit
In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…
Stern, Judith R S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hofmann, Stefan G
Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrolled in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research.
Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun
The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…
Axelson, Rick D; Solow, Catherine M; Ferguson, Kristi J; Cohen, Michael B
For medical schools, the increasing presence of women makes it especially important that potential sources of gender bias be identified and removed from student evaluation methods. Our study looked for patterns of gender bias in adjective data used to inform our Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPEs). Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to model the latent structure of the adjectives attributed to students (n = 657) and to test for systematic scoring errors by gender. Gender bias was evident in two areas: (a) women were more likely than comparable men to be described as ''compassionate,'' ''sensitive,'' and ''enthusiastic'' and (b) men were more likely than comparable women to be seen as ''quick learners.'' The gender gap in ''quick learner'' attribution grows with increasing student proficiency; men's rate of increase is over twice that of women's. Technical and nontechnical approaches for ameliorating the impact of gender bias on student recommendations are suggested.
Sorensen, A. E.; Dauer, J. M.; Corral, L.; Fontaine, J. J.
A core component of public scientific literacy, and thereby informed decision-making, is the ability of individuals to reason about complex systems. In response to students having difficulty learning about complex systems, educational research suggests that conceptual representations, or mental models, may help orient student thinking. Mental models provide a framework to support students in organizing and developing ideas. The PMC-2E model is a productive tool in teaching ideas of modeling complex systems in the classroom because the conceptual representation framework allows for self-directed learning where students can externalize systems thinking. Beyond mental models, recent work emphasizes the importance of facilitating integration of authentic science into the formal classroom. To align these ideas, a university class was developed around the theme of carnivore ecology, founded on PMC-2E framework and authentic scientific data collection. Students were asked to develop a protocol, collect, and analyze data around a scientific question in partnership with a scientist, and then use data to inform their own learning about the system through the mental model process. We identified two beneficial outcomes (1) scientific data is collected to address real scientific questions at a larger scale and (2) positive outcomes for student learning and views of science. After participating in the class, students report enjoying class structure, increased support for public understanding of science, and shifts in nature of science and interest in pursuing science metrics on post-assessments. Further work is ongoing investigating the linkages between engaging in authentic scientific practices that inform student mental models, and how it might promote students' systems-thinking skills, implications for student views of nature of science, and development of student epistemic practices.
Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.
Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.
Krasny, Marianne E.; Trautmann, Nancy; Carlsen, William; Cunningham, Christine
This book contains the teacher's guide of the Environmental Inquiry curriculum series developed at Cornell University. It is designed to teach learning skills for investigating the behaviors of non-native and native species and demonstrate how to apply scientific knowledge to solve real-life problems. This book focuses on strange intruders…
Liu, Shiang-Yao; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study aims to test the nature of the assumption that there are relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and reasoning processes in socioscientific decision making. A mixed methodology that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection and analysis was adopted not only to verify the assumption…
Emerson Wagner Mainardes
Full Text Available The objective of this research project is to evaluate the performance of Portuguese state universities in accordance with the expectations and satisfactions of their students and through recourse to the DEA methodology and thus representing one of the very few studies analysing university performance based upon student perceptions. According to an output oriented Variable Returns to Scale model, handling the responses returned by 1,669 students, the results demonstrate that faculties generally attain a good relationship between student expectations and their levels of satisfaction. We furthermore conclude that university scale does not guarantee efficiency. Hence, irrespective of size, universities are able to ensure the satisfaction of their students. Finally, the results show that satisfying only certain expectations related to specific aspects does not prove sufficient to guaranteeing overall student satisfaction. The analysis also correspondingly finds that while some decision making units prove efficient in satisfying expectations on specific aspects, they fail to attain such efficiency in the overall perspective of students.
Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E
The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hackney, Michele G
Unsuccessful attempts at licensure adversely affect graduates, prelicensure nursing education programs, health care agencies, and ultimately, patient safety. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the relationship between nursing students' intrinsic motivation and performance on the licensure examination. Nursing students responded to 12 questions related to reasons for learning as indicators of motivation type. Results indicated no statistically significant correlations between variables.
Using country panel data of student achievement from PISA, 2003-2012 combined with national-level teacher salary data from the OECD; this study investigates if relatively short term -5-years - changes in the level and structure of statutory teacher salaries affect student performance in the European countries. Our results show that there are marked differences between subjects and by the experience of teachers. Higher statutory teacher salaries and larger growth of teacher salaries at the fir...
Bradbury, Katharine L.; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.
Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...
Jarchow, Meghann E.; Formisano, Paul; Nordyke, Shane; Sayre, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the student learning outcomes (SLOs) for a sustainability major, evaluate faculty incorporation of the SLOs into the courses in the sustainability major curriculum and measure student performance on the SLOs from entry into the major to the senior capstone course. Design/methodology/approach:…