Hutchinson, Ian H
This concise, plain-language guide for senior undergraduates and graduate students aims to develop intuition, practical skills and an understanding of the framework of numerical methods for the physical sciences and engineering. It provides accessible self-contained explanations of mathematical principles, avoiding intimidating formal proofs. Worked examples and targeted exercises enable the student to master the realities of using numerical techniques for common needs such as solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, fitting experimental data, and simulation using particle and Monte Carlo methods. Topics are carefully selected and structured to build understanding, and illustrate key principles such as: accuracy, stability, order of convergence, iterative refinement, and computational effort estimation. Enrichment sections and in-depth footnotes form a springboard to more advanced material and provide additional background. Whether used for self-study, or as the basis of an accelerated introdu...
Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis
This paper investigates undergraduate students' information search practices. The subjects were 250 undergraduate students from two university departments in Greece, and a questionnaire was used to document their search practices. The results showed that the Web was the primary information system searched in order to find information for…
Covers the practical numerical method for the analysis and design of magnets Extensively covers the magnet design and computation aspects from theories to practical applications, emphasizing design methods of practical structures such as superconducting, electromagnetic and permanent magnet for use in various scientific instruments, industrial processing, biomedicine and special electrical equipments. The computations cover a wide range of numerical techniques and analytical derivation to efficiently provide solutions to complicated problems that are often encountered in practice, where simple analytical calculations are no longer adequate. Chapters include: Introduction of Magnet Technology, Magnetostatic Equation for the Magnet Structure, Finite Element Analysis for Magnetostatic Field, Integral Method for Magnetostatic Field, Numerical Method of Solenoid Coils Design, Series Analysis of Axially Symmetric Magnetic Field, Magnets with High Magnetic Field and High Homogeneity, Permanent Magnet and its App...
With the ever-increasing availability and accessibility of the Internet, students are able to access a multitude of resources in support of their studies. However, this has also led to an increase in their ability to cheat through plagiarising text and claiming it as their own. Increased pressures of balancing work and study have contributed to this rise. Not only confined to the student population, some academics are also guilty of engaging in this practice providing a less than favourable role model for their students. Of increasing concern is the links of this practice to professionalism or indeed in this case unprofessionalism. Both pre- and post-registration nursing students who plagiarise risk bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There are a number of methods that may be used to detect plagiarism but often the penalties are menial and inconsistently applied. Overall it is essential that academic institutions foster a culture of honesty and integrity amongst its academic community. A culture that clearly emphasises that plagiarism in any form is unacceptable.
Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.
The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)
Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria Birkvad; Bjørck, Sebastian
Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed....... The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned...
McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan
This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of age, status, experience and drug calculation ability to numerical ability of nursing students and Registered Nurses. Competent numerical and drug calculation skills are essential for nurses as mistakes can put patients' lives at risk. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 in one United Kingdom university. Validated numerical and drug calculation tests were given to 229 second year nursing students and 44 Registered Nurses attending a non-medical prescribing programme. The numeracy test was failed by 55% of students and 45% of Registered Nurses, while 92% of students and 89% of nurses failed the drug calculation test. Independent of status or experience, older participants (> or = 35 years) were statistically significantly more able to perform numerical calculations. There was no statistically significant difference between nursing students and Registered Nurses in their overall drug calculation ability, but nurses were statistically significantly more able than students to perform basic numerical calculations and calculations for solids, oral liquids and injections. Both nursing students and Registered Nurses were statistically significantly more able to perform calculations for solids, liquid oral and injections than calculations for drug percentages, drip and infusion rates. To prevent deskilling, Registered Nurses should continue to practise and refresh all the different types of drug calculations as often as possible with regular (self)-testing of their ability. Time should be set aside in curricula for nursing students to learn how to perform basic numerical and drug calculations. This learning should be reinforced through regular practice and assessment.
Mentoring medical students in general practices is becoming more common in Australia due to formalised scholarship programs and informal approaches by students. This paper defines mentoring in Australian general practice. Practical suggestions are made on how to structure a mentorship program in your practice. Mentoring differs from leadership and teaching. It is a long-term relationship between a student and an experienced general practitioner. Avoiding summative assessment in mentorship is important to its success. Mentoring is about forming a safe place to confidentially discuss personal and professional issues between a mentor and student. This is based on defining roles and mutual trust. At the same time, students crave formative feedback. Unfortunately, present feedback models are based on teaching principles that can blur the differences between assessor, teacher and mentor. Mentorship can provide students with orientation and learning experiences so that they are prepared for practice as an intern.
Stochastic Numerical Methods introduces at Master level the numerical methods that use probability or stochastic concepts to analyze random processes. The book aims at being rather general and is addressed at students of natural sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology, etc.) and Engineering, but also social sciences (Economy, Sociology, etc.) where some of the techniques have been used recently to numerically simulate different agent-based models. Examples included in the book range from phase-transitions and critical phenomena, including details of data analysis (extraction of critical exponents, finite-size effects, etc.), to population dynamics, interfacial growth, chemical reactions, etc. Program listings are integrated in the discussion of numerical algorithms to facilitate their understanding. From the contents: Review of Probability ConceptsMonte Carlo IntegrationGeneration of Uniform and Non-uniformRandom Numbers: Non-correlated ValuesDynamical MethodsApplications to Statistical MechanicsIn...
O. A. Guzman
Full Text Available This article describes the changes to the leisure activities of young people, which are influenced by technological, cultural and economic changes. New forms of leisure time spent and changes in the popularity of the old ones show changes in the system of values, new approaches to meet the social needs of the young generation. Nowadays within the framework of sociology of the free time, scientists describe the conditions and factors which transform everyday life; the role of social institutions in the scope of leisure and education which form the youth identity; modern leisure activities of different social groups; factors which effect on efficient use of free time by youth. The authors point out that there are a few numbers of conducted researches about the structure and content of the leisure of modern students and youth. Students are relatively numerous, promising, prestigious and the most educated social group of young people, which are the source of skilled workers and the middle class component of the society. The authors carried out the study with the benefits of describing the leisure activities of the students, youth as well as find the changes in those activities structure during the past 15 years. The concept of «leisure practice» is used describing the structure of the free time. «Leisure practice» meant voluntary forms of activities that shape and develop the person identity, promote persons self-expression, self-assertion and self-development through freely chosen actions. The most common «leisure practices» formed and transformed values, socially important needs of the individual and the code of conduct in society. The article presents the results of a sociological survey of students in Kharkiv. The survey revealed the most common types of activities which are those that involve mostly the use of the Internet. For example, they are the familiarity with various types of information, watching movies, surfing social network
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
as necessary and important, very little justification was given for their .... Chemistry laboratory activities refer to the practical activities which students ..... equations, formulae, definitions, terminology, physical properties, hazards or disposal.
Hastings, Matthew B.; Loring, Terry A.
Research highlights: → We classify topological insulators using C* algebras. → We present new K-theory invariants. → We develop efficient numerical algorithms based on this technique. → We observe unexpected quantum phase transitions using our algorithm. - Abstract: We apply ideas from C*-algebra to the study of disordered topological insulators. We extract certain almost commuting matrices from the free Fermi Hamiltonian, describing band projected coordinate matrices. By considering topological obstructions to approximating these matrices by exactly commuting matrices, we are able to compute invariants quantifying different topological phases. We generalize previous two dimensional results to higher dimensions; we give a general expression for the topological invariants for arbitrary dimension and several symmetry classes, including chiral symmetry classes, and we present a detailed K-theory treatment of this expression for time reversal invariant three dimensional systems. We can use these results to show non-existence of localized Wannier functions for these systems. We use this approach to calculate the index for time-reversal invariant systems with spin-orbit scattering in three dimensions, on sizes up to 12 3 , averaging over a large number of samples. The results show an interesting separation between the localization transition and the point at which the average index (which can be viewed as an 'order parameter' for the topological insulator) begins to fluctuate from sample to sample, implying the existence of an unsuspected quantum phase transition separating two different delocalized phases in this system. One of the particular advantages of the C*-algebraic technique that we present is that it is significantly faster in practice than other methods of computing the index, allowing the study of larger systems. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of numerical implementation of our method.
STUDENTS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIRECT ENTRY ... clinical decision making in nursing practice using a mixed research design. ... Quantitative analysis revealed significant (**p<0.001) chi square rejecting the null .... that many students during this exercise report .... face opportunity to give the consent letters. A.
Situated in the context of a first-year writing course at a Midwestern public university in the United States, this study examines Chinese international students' networking practices through the mediation of WeChat, a popular social networking application for smartphones. Based on interviews with 36 students and detailed accounts of one focal…
Teaching practice experiences of nursing student provide greater insight to develop effective classroom and clinical teaching ... expectations and benefits are significantly derived from teaching practice although contingent on the mode of entry into the ...... Participation in and Leadership of. Continual Improvement.
Gidman, Janice; McIntosh, Annette; Melling, Katherine; Smith, Debra
This paper reports on a funded research project exploring perceptions and experiences of pre-registration nursing students of support in practice in one Higher Education Institution in England. The study used a mixed method approach with samples of new students (within the first six months) and finishing students (within the last three months). Students reported that the most important areas they needed support with were clinical skills, placement situations, documentation and personal issues. The mentor qualities that were valued were personal attributes, being facilitative and being knowledgeable; newly qualified mentors and experienced students were seen as being the most supportive. Students saw their own responsibilities as learning and gaining skills, being professional and caring for patients. The finishing students also felt that accountability and teaching were part of their role. Reported challenges encompassed personal issues, including work-life balance and finances, dealing with elements such as patient death and uncertainties in new situations. The best aspects of practice emerged as being involved in patient care, feeling part of a team and experiencing positive support from mentors. The findings explicated the multi-faceted nature of student support in practice that need to be taken into account when putting support frameworks in place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karen Shirley LÓPEZ GIL
Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on digital reading. The main objective of the research was to analyze the reading on screens practices of university students and how their practices are guided by professors and institutions of higher education. The research design was mixed and the type of study was descriptive of cross-sectional. The data collection techniques were questionnaire, document analysis and discussion group. ibm spss v.22 was used for statistical treatment of data and Atlas.Ti 7.0 was used for content analysis of qualitative information. The study showed that students usually read on screens, although many of their reading practices have recreational purposes. Students have troubles to find reliable information on the Internet when they have academic pursuits and frequently consult secondary sources. When texts are on screens, students generally scan information and surf from one document to another along hyperlinks. The boundaries between academic and leisure activities are not well defined; multitasking appears frequently. Students indicate there is a little guidance received from their professors or university. These findings show that students are constantly faced with digital reading, but practices do not always allow them to achieve their academic purposes, so it is necessary to strengthen the support offered to them, mainly from the classroom language.
Lunk, Brandon Robert
their existing physics content knowledge, particularly their knowledge of analytic procedures. While this existing knowledge was often applied in inappropriate circumstances, the students were still able to display a considerable amount of understanding of the physics content and of analytic solution procedures. These observations could not be adequately accommodated by the existing literature of programming comprehension. In extending the resource framework to the task of computational modeling, I model students' practices in terms of three important elements. First, a knowledge base includes re- sources for understanding physics, math, and programming structures. Second, a mechanism for monitoring and control describes students' expectations as being directed towards numerical, analytic, qualitative or rote solution approaches and which can be influenced by the problem representation. Third, a set of solution approaches---many of which were identified in this study---describe what aspects of the knowledge base students use and how they use that knowledge to enact their expectations. This framework allows us as researchers to track student discussions and pinpoint the source of difficulties. This work opens up many avenues of potential research. First, this framework gives researchers a vocabulary for extending Resource Theory to other domains of instruction, such as modeling how physics students use graphs. Second, this framework can be used as the basis for modeling expert physicists' programming practices. Important instructional implications also follow from this research. Namely, as we broaden the use of computational modeling in the physics classroom, our instructional practices should focus on helping students understand the step-by-step nature of programming in contrast to the already salient analytic procedures.
Altaher, Yara; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.
This study investigates the restoration practices and the different types of environments sought out by college students during times of stress and also explores the potential for restorative experiences in built environments. In February 2015, 407 matriculated undergraduates at a large public research university voluntarily participated in this…
Chireshe, R.; Chireshe, E.
The study investigated the perceptions of student teachers towards teaching practice assessment. Participants N=180:90 males, 90 females were randomly drawn from three primary school teachers' colleges in Masvingo Educational Region of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A chi-square test was used to analyse the…
Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Mohd Noor, Nor Aini Binti
It is well established that a healthy lifestyle is of benefit in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and promotion of well-being. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine lifestyle practice and associated factors among university students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted over six months from November 2011 until May 2012 among the students from the Management and Science University. This study was approved by its ethical committee , the students being explained the objective and invited to participate. A consent form was signed by all study participants. Questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the five faculties through their lecturers in different faculty. For univariate analysis t-test and ANOVA test were performed. Multiple linear regression used for multivariate analysis using SPSS 13.0. A total number of 1100 students participated with a mean age of 22.1±2.21 (SD) years. The majority were 22 years or younger (56.3%), female (54%), Malay (61.5%), single (92.3%), with family monthly income ≥5000 Ringgit Malaysia (41.2%). Regarding lifestyle, about were 31.6% smokers, 75.6% never drank alcohol and 53.7% never exercised. Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, smoking status, exercise, residency, brushing teeth, fiber intake and avoid fatty food significantly influenced the practice of drinking alcohol among university students (p=0.006, p=0.042, pexercise, residency, brushing teeth and fiber intake significantly influenced the practice of sun protection (pexercise, taking non- prescribed medication, brushing the teeth, coffee consumption and fiber intake were significantly influenced the practice of fruits consumption (p=0.008, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, P<0.001; respectively). This study showed a poor practice of healthy lifestyle among university students
Osamu, Hazama; Zhihong, Guo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Centre for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)
In order for the numerical simulations to reflect 'real-world' phenomena and occurrences, incorporation of multidisciplinary and multi-physics simulations considering various physical models and factors are becoming essential. However, there still exist many obstacles which inhibit such numerical simulations. For example, it is still difficult in many instances to develop satisfactory software packages which allow for such coupled simulations and such simulations will require more computational resources. A precise multi-physics simulation today will require parallel processing which again makes it a complicated process. Under the international cooperative efforts between CCSE/JAERI and Fraunhofer SCAI, a German institute, a library called the MpCCI, or Mesh-based Parallel Code Coupling Interface, has been implemented together with a library called STAMPI to couple two existing codes to develop an 'integrated numerical simulation system' intended for meta-computing environments. (authors)
Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Al-Takroni, H.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
BACKGROUND: Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of
Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)
Numerical simulation of steam injection and in-situ combustion-based oil recovery processes is of great importance in project design. Development of such numerical simulators is an on-going process, with improvements made as the process description becomes more complete, and also as better methods are devised to resolve certain numerical difficulties. This paper addresses some of the latter, and based on the author`s experience gives useful guidelines for developing more efficient numerical simulators of steam injection and in-situ combustion. The paper takes up a series of questions related to simulating thermal processes. Included are: the elimination of constraint equations at the matrix level, phase change, steam injection rate, alternative treatments of heat loss, relative permeabilities and importance of hysteresis effects, improved solutions to the grid orientation problem and other simulation problems such as potential inversion, grid block size, time-step size control and induced fractures. The points discussed in the paper should be of use to both simulator developers and users alike, and will lead to a better understanding of simulation results
Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D
Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will
Ackleh, Azmy S; Kearfott, R Baker; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan
Mathematical Review and Computer Arithmetic Mathematical Review Computer Arithmetic Interval ComputationsNumerical Solution of Nonlinear Equations of One Variable Introduction Bisection Method The Fixed Point Method Newton's Method (Newton-Raphson Method) The Univariate Interval Newton MethodSecant Method and Müller's Method Aitken Acceleration and Steffensen's Method Roots of Polynomials Additional Notes and SummaryNumerical Linear Algebra Basic Results from Linear Algebra Normed Linear Spaces Direct Methods for Solving Linear SystemsIterative Methods for Solving Linear SystemsThe Singular Value DecompositionApproximation TheoryIntroduction Norms, Projections, Inner Product Spaces, and Orthogonalization in Function SpacesPolynomial ApproximationPiecewise Polynomial ApproximationTrigonometric ApproximationRational ApproximationWavelet BasesLeast Squares Approximation on a Finite Point SetEigenvalue-Eigenvector Computation Basic Results from Linear Algebra The Power Method The Inverse Power Method Deflation T...
In this study, enhancing student's participation in practical analytical ... The data were collected from I year chemistry undergraduate students of class size 56 of ... learning practical Chemistry were mainly due to problems in preparing a flow ...
Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John
In all 794 young people aged around 30 yrs completed three intelligence (Raven's Progressive matrices: GMA Numerical and GMA Verbal) and one personality inventory (16PF). They were all graduates and 173 were identified clearly as Arts graduates and 518 as Science students. There were various sex differences on all measures. All seven hypotheses…
Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.
Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina
This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…
Black, William R.; Simon, Marsha D.
Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide…
International Journal of Educational Research ... Cultural Practices and the HIV Epidemic in Swaziland: Student\\'s Perspectives and Challenges for School Counsellors ... Keywords: Cultural Practices, HIV Epidemic; Behaviour Change.
Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.
doctors in full-time governmental practice. However, since 2000, final year students spend one week of ... Background: Medical student attachments with family/general practitioners (GPs) in non-academic .... Giving the patient a free choice to.
Ahn, Yang-Heui; Choi, Jihea
Understanding the phenomenon of nursing student empowerment in clinical practice is important. Investigating the cognition of empowerment and identifying predictors are necessary to enhance nursing student empowerment in clinical practice. To identify empowerment predictors for Korean nursing students in clinical practice based on studies by Bradbury-Jones et al. and Spreitzer. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. This study was performed in three nursing colleges in Korea, all of which had similar baccalaureate nursing curricula. Three hundred seven junior or senior nursing students completed a survey designed to measure factors that were hypothesized to influence nursing student empowerment in clinical practice. Data were collected from November to December 2011. Study variables included self-esteem, clinical decision making, being valued as a learner, satisfaction regarding practice with a team member, perception on professor/instructor/clinical preceptor attitude, and total number of clinical practice fields. Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple regression analyses. All of the hypothesized study variables were significantly correlated to nursing student empowerment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that clinical decision making in nursing (t=7.59, pempowerment in clinical practice will be possible by using educational strategies to improve nursing student clinical decision making. Simultaneously, attitudes of nurse educators are also important to ensure that nursing students are treated as valued learners and to increase student self-esteem in clinical practice. Finally, diverse clinical practice field environments should be considered to enhance experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seng, Ernest Lim Kok
This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen
This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.
Anh Tran Thi Quynh
Full Text Available Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%, do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%. There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05 Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.
Background: Medical student attachments with family/general practitioners (GPs) in non-academic or private practice are a valued resource in the undergraduate teaching of Family Medicine. This study describes the experience and views of GPs in private practice with final-year medical student attachments from the ...
... practiced universal standard precaution items. Conclusion: The uptake rate of HBV vaccination and practice of standard precaution among the students are commendable. However, there is need for improvement considering the level of HBV infection in Nigeria. Key words: Medical and dental students, hepatitis B vaccine ...
Ward, L. Patrice
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…
Clynes, Mary P; Raftery, Sara E C
Clinical practice is an essential component of the nursing curriculum. In order for the student to benefit fully from the experience regular performance feedback is required. Feedback should provide the student with information on current practice and offer practical advice for improved performance. The importance of feedback is widely acknowledged however it appears that there is inconsistency in its provision to students. The benefits of feedback include increased student confidence, motivation and self-esteem as well as improved clinical practice. Benefits such as enhanced interpersonal skills and a sense of personal satisfaction also accrue to the supervisor. Barriers to the feedback process are identified as inadequate supervisor training and education, unfavourable ward learning environment and insufficient time spent with students. In addition to the appropriate preparation of the supervisor effective feedback includes an appreciation of the steps of the feedback process, an understanding of the student response to feedback and effective communication skills.
This paper explores the role of journal writing in enhancing student teachers' learning during school practice. It analyses data from 22 student teachers' journals and 23 questionnaires. The study focuses on the areas that student teachers reflected on most, the nature of their reflection and the extent to which previous ...
Foasberg, Nancy M.
This paper reports a diary-based qualitative study on college students' reading habits with regard to print and electronic media. Students used a form to record information about their reading practices for twelve days, including length of reading event, location, format used, and the purpose of reading. Students tended to use print for academic…
Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan
In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…
Guido, Florence M.; Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
Student affairs professionals benefit from understanding paradigms, worldviews, and ways of being among diverse faculty, staff, and students. It is challenging to understand core differences of paradigms, design student affairs practice and research in congruence with or across specific philosophies, and work effectively with individuals operating…
Henderson, Amanda; Cooke, Marie; Creedy, Debra K; Walker, Rachel
Effective clinical learning requires integration of nursing students into ward activities, staff engagement to address individual student learning needs, and innovative teaching approaches. Assessing characteristics of practice environments can provide useful insights for development. This study identified predominant features of clinical learning environments from nursing students' perspectives across studies using the same measure in different countries over the last decade. Six studies, from three different countries, using the Clinical Leaning Environment Inventory (CLEI) were reviewed. Studies explored consistent trends about learning environment. Students rated sense of task accomplishment high. Affiliation also rated highly though was influenced by models of care. Feedback measuring whether students' individual needs and views were accommodated consistently rated lower. Across different countries students report similar perceptions about learning environments. Clinical learning environments are most effective in promoting safe practice and are inclusive of student learners, but not readily open to innovation and challenges to routine practices. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milanović-Dobrota Biljana Z.; Radić-Šestić Marina N.
The current interest in introducing the dual education system into Serbian secondary education has drawn our attention to the question of students' self-perception in the process of practical teaching. The idea that underpins this paper is the supposition that students are affectively engaged with the work activities they perform. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli et al., 2002) has been used for assessing students' work engagement in practical teaching. A study was conducted...
Background. Dental students are seen as role-models for promoting good oral health behaviour, yet there is little published evidence in South Africa (SA) that describes student knowledge and attitudes towards their own oral healthcare. Objective. To investigate undergraduate dental therapy and oral hygiene students' ...
Romanelli, Frank; Piascik, Peggy; Cain, Jeff
Student engagement continues to be a point of emphasis in pharmacy education, yet there remains little data on tangible means to increase organic student engagement. This review attempts to better define student engagement, draws from educational theorists to emphasize the importance of student engagement, and provides the reader with practice philosophies that can be used across of variety of teaching settings to help develop an engaging learning environment. PMID:27899839
Practical work facilitates the process of acquisition of basic knowledge and practical skills that prepare students for occupation in Agriculture. The West African Examination Council's policy with respect to Science Subjects stipulates that practical work should form the basis of teaching their syllabus (WAEC Syllabus, ...
Špiranec, Sonja; Kos, Denis
Introduction: This paper provides a contribution to understandings of information literacy regarding context and transferability of information practices. Specifically, the paper analyses the subset of information practices in situations of student protests and addresses issues of transfer of information literacy practice from a highly formal…
Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.
The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented
Lehna, Carlee; Todd, Julie A; Keller, Rachel; Presley, Lynn; Jackson, Jessica; Davis, Stephanie; Hockman, Kristi; Phillips-Payne, Charles; Sauer, Sarah; Wessemeier, Sarah
The purpose of this project was to evaluate a standardized, interactive, home fire safety program for elementary school students. Senior baccalaureate nursing students in their pediatric clinical rotation taught burn prevention techniques using Hazard House, a model house filled with common household fire hazards (Hazard House, 2006, Ref. 1). Elementary school students were encouraged to identify the hazards and discuss ways in which the house could be made safer. Local firemen then briefly presented what to do if a fire occurred, how firemen may look during a rescue, and the importance of working smoke alarms in the home. A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention. The three groups of participants included 128 kindergarten students, 311 students in grades 1-2, and 61 students in grades 3-4. The tests and interventions were tailored appropriately for each age group. There was no difference in pre- and post-test scores for the students in kindergarten and grades 3-4 (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference for students in grades 1-2 (pimproving the understanding of fire safety for students in grades 1-2. Future studies may need to include a larger sample of students for the other grades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan
Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…
Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang
After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.
Professional development programs promoting inquiry-based teaching are challenged with providing teachers content knowledge and using pedagogical approaches that model standards based instruction. Inquiry practices are also important for undergraduate students. This paper focuses on the evaluation of an extensive professional development program for chemistry teachers that included chemistry content tests for students and the teachers and the impact of undergraduate research experiences on college students' attitudes towards chemistry. Baseline results for the students showed that there were no gender differences on the achievement test but white students scored significantly higher than non-white students. However, parent/adult involvement with chemistry homework and projects, was a significant negative predictor of 11th grade students' test chemistry achievement score. This paper will focus on students' achievement and attitude results for teachers who are mid-way through the program providing evidence that on-going, sustained professional development in content and pedagogy is critical for improving students' science achievement.
Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) is an international theoretical physics competition for bachelor and master students. The intention of PLANCKS is to increase international collaboration and stimulate the personal development of individual contestants. This is done by organizing a three-day-event which take place every year and is hosted by different countries. Besides the contest, social and scientific activities will be organised, including an opening symposium where leading physicists give lectures to inspire the participants.
Firmin, Michael W; Wantz, Richard A; Geib, Ellen F; Ray, Brigitte N
This article reports research findings from a survey of 261 students regarding their perceptions of psychiatrists. Overall, students view psychiatrists as competent and prestigious. At the same time, however, only approximately half of respondents reported having a "positive view" of these professionals and around one-third were neutral. College students view psychiatrists as effective for treating relatively severe mental health problems, although depression was not considered to be a psychiatrist's relative strong suit (only half viewed them as being effective). Some confusion between psychiatrists and psychologists seemed apparent. Although students did not consider the media a highly reliable source of information, media sources nonetheless appeared to play a dominant role in determining how college students framed psychiatry roles. We discuss the results in the context of the need for further education by the specialty of psychiatry and the importance of reversing what appears to be some negative stereotyping.
Lins, Liliane; Herbas, Suzana; Lisboa, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah; Menezes, Marta
Illegal practice of medicine by medical students is a worldwide problem. In Brazil, information about this issue is scarce. To describe the perception of illegal practice of medicine by medical students. A cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 130 medical students in the 6th to 12th semesters from a private faculty of medicine in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil, from September to October 2011. Students responded to a standardised questionnaire about the illegal practice of medicine by medical students. Knowing medical students who practised medical activities without supervision was reported by 86% of the respondents, and 93.8% had heard about someone who performed such practices. Medical specialties most often associated with illegal practice were general medicine (78.8%) and occupational health (55.9%). Illegal practice of medicine was more common in peripheral cities/towns (83.9%) than in the State capital, Salvador City (52.4%). Only 10.5% of illegal activities were reported to the authorities. Unsupervised medical practice was more often reported in the 8th-9th semester (56.8%) and 10th-11th semester (54.4%) of medical school. Illegal practice of medicine was commonly reported by the medical students questioned. The high frequency of reported illegal practice for financial reasons highlights the need for greater availability of paid internships for medical students. Educational institutions represent the social control responsible for supervising the activities of academics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Manski, Richard J.
One dental school implemented in its fourth-year curriculum an intensive simulation exercise to teach students the application of fundamental economic concepts such as capital costs, leasehold improvements, operating expenses, working capital, and financial risk in dental practice. (MSE)
Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of University Students On Cancer Prevention. ... that the risk for developing cancer can be significantly reduced through exercise, ... Health campaign about cancer prevention could improve the behaviour
Inclusive education for Deaf students: Literacy practices and South African Sign Language. ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... of inclusive education for Deaf students in a mainstream Further Education and Training (FET) classroom through the use of a South African Sign Language interpreter.
Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay
Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…
Students' Assessment Of Farm Practical Programme In Selected Universities Of Southwestern, Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Students reported that lack of planning, improper implementation of activities lined up for the programme, lack of fund to properly finance the programme and ...
Esbrandt, Philip; Hayes, Bruce
"Cure Student Underachievement" is the culmination of the authors' research, practice, and experience as principals, superintendents, graduate professors, and consultants in efforts to improve school performance and increase student achievement. Searching for the real causes of underperformance, the authors explored problem-solving strategies in…
Steven, Kathryn; Wenger, Etienne; Boshuizen, Els; Scherpbier, Albert; Dornan, Tim
Purpose To explore how undergraduate medical students learn from real patients in practice settings, the factors that affect their learning, and how clerkship learning might be enhanced. Method In 2009, 22 medical students in the three clerkship years of an undergraduate medical program in the
Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A
Medical schools may select students for their attitudes towards rural medical practice, yet the rural-urban disparity in availability of medical practitioners and services has not diminished in recent times despite government initiatives and increasing numbers being trained for a career in medicine. One medical school, with a focus on rural and remote medicine, aims to select students with positive perceptions for rural medical practice. A research project collected data on the perceptions of these medical students in the first week of their medical studies. Students completed a low stakes essay on the life and work of a rural doctor. Initially, this formed part of a literacy assessment to determine any students requiring remediation. All students were asked if they would consent to their essay being reviewed for a research project. Data was obtained from those students who consented and handed their essays in for review. The 103 student essays underwent thematic analysis and sentences were coded into three main themes of rural lifestyle, doctor role and rural practice. Second level themes were further elicited and results were quantified according to whether they were positive or negative. Positive themes included rural lifestyle, doctor role, views of doctor, impact on community, broader work and skills knowledge, and better relationships with community and patients. Negative themes included doctor's health, pressure on doctor, family problems, greater workload, privacy and confidentiality issues, cultural issues, isolation, limited resources and financial impacts. Quantitisation of this data was used to transform essay sentences into a numerical form which allowed statistical analysis and comparison of perceptions using Z tests. No significant differences on the number of positive and negative responses for rural lifestyle and rural practice were found. The rural doctor role had a significantly more positive than negative views. Significant differences were
Nielsen, Anne Maj; Laursen, Per Fibæk
The study explores how 22 student teachers in a Danish college of education experience and interpret their own becoming a teacher and the implied attitudes to pupils. The student teachers attending mainstream teacher education and a course in mindful awareness and relational competencies have...... – to a larger extend than the mainstream educated student teachers - learned a reflexive attitude to their state of being in teaching practice and to their relational interaction with children in class....
Gilkes, Lucy A; Liira, Helena; Emery, Jon
Medical students benefit from their contact with clinicians and patients in the clinical setting. However, little is known about whether patients and clinicians also benefit from medical students. We developed an audit and feedback intervention activity to be delivered by medical students to their general practice supervisors. We tested whether the repeated cycle of audit had an effect on the preventive care practices of general practitioners (GPs). The students performed an audit on topics of preventive medicine and gave feedback to their supervisors. Each supervisor in the study had more than one student performing the audit over the academic year. After repetitive cycles of audit and feedback, the recording of social history items by GPs improved. For example, recording alcohol history increased from 24% to 36%. This study shows that medical students can be effective auditors, and their repeated audits may improve their general practice supervisors' recording of some aspects of social history.
Lee, Gong Hee; Bang, Young Seok; Woo, Sweng Woong; Cheng, Ae Ju
In this study, the numerical analysis of a turbulent flow around both a staggered and an incline tube bundle was conducted using Annoys Cfx V. 13, a commercial CAD software. The flow was assumed to be steady, incompressible, and isothermal. According to the CAD Best Practice Guideline, the sensitivity study for grid size, accuracy of the discretization scheme for convection term, and turbulence model was conducted, and its result was compared with the experimental data to estimate the applicability of the CAD Best Practice Guideline. It was concluded that the CAD Best Practice Guideline did not always guarantee an improvement in the prediction performance of the commercial CAD software in the field of tube bundle flow
Guided reflection as a tool to deal with the theory– practice gap in critical care ... was used during semi-structured interviews during the data collection process. ... a description of incidents experienced, critical analysis of knowledge, critical ...
Background: Medical students are a population who are at great risk of having bad sleep practice and hygiene due to demanding clinical and academic activities. Poor sleep practices are a disturbing and destabilizing phenomenon. It affects many people and can affect the quality of work, performance and education of ...
Mayorga, Mary G.; Devries, Sabina R.; Wardle, Elizabeth Ann
Self-care behavior is recognized as an important component for the helping professional who practices in the field of counseling or who is training to become a helping professional. Occupational stress and burnout in the field of counseling is of great concern. This study examined the practice of self-care among master level counseling students to…
Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Olson Beal, Heather K.; Boudreaux, Nicole
This study examined seven Louisiana kindergarten immersion teachers' practices to evaluate students' oral target language production and compare the oral production elicited when different instructional practices were used over a single semester. Three rounds of three 20-minute observations in three different contexts--circle time, direct…
... interaction effects of student teachers' biographical variables (gender, age and grade placement) on practice-teaching related factors such as evaluation and an unsuccessful lesson. The findings are discussed and improvement on practice teaching suggested. (South African Journal of Education: 2003 23 (1): 18-22) ...
Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly; Quijano, Louise M.; Bubar, Roe
The study of ways that professional power is perceived in social work practice is limited. This exploratory qualitative study analyzes second-year MSW students' perceptions of professional power in social work practice. This inquiry is guided by social constructivism and symbolic interactionism perspectives. The authors used constant comparison…
practice exercise in Nigerian Colleges of Education. The study employed expofacto method. A total number of 600 students from three colleges of education drawn from Western, Eastern and Northern parts of Nigeria served as the sample for this study. An instrument titled “Attitudes Toward Teaching Practice Questionnaire ...
Nielsen, Annegrethe; Pedersen, Pernille Mølholt
taking place in clinical practice and try to align the educational efforts in school and clinical settings for the benefit of the students PERSPECTIVES It is known that students in medical education find that clinical learning experiences do not reinforce the communication skills they learn pre......-clinically (Rosenbaum et al. 2013) and our own experience teaching Danish midwifery students indicates the same problem in our program. Providing an opportunity for the clinical teachers to learn, discuss and practice communication issues with each other and with theoretical teachers can represent an important...
pedagogical, classroom management and staff relations factors. Capel ... Is there any relationship between anxiety and student teachers' personality factors? 3. ..... dimensions relate to specific work-related stress factors (Ngidi, 1998). In the same vein, ... Extraversion, Neuroticism and Coping as Variables in the Burnout ...
. To investigate the nature of student engagement in interprofessional interaction while on placement. Due to continuing emphasis on improving interprofessional collaboration, UK educational establishments are required to offer pre-qualifying health and social care students interprofessional education in order that they acquire relevant competencies. However, few formal interprofessional education initiatives occur in practice settings and little is known about pre-qualifying students' non-formal learning about interprofessional issues while on placement. From 2003-2005 an English Faculty of Health and Social Care conducted a qualitative study to explore opportunities for interprofessional learning and working available to students in practice placement settings. Case studies were conducted in a coronary care ward, a medical ward for older patients, a maternity unit, a paediatric unit, an integrated community learning disabilities team and a residential facility for adults with challenging behaviour. Gaining access was complex, due to variable student timetables and UK research governance requirements. Sites were therefore selected according to geographical area and timing of student placements. Details of interprofessional interaction (formal and informal) were observed and recorded. Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 practitioners and 15 students. Data were analysed thematically. Student experience varied considerably. Contributing factors included the influence of doctors and differing professional cultures; mentors' support for student engagement in interprofessional working; and individual students' confidence levels. Most sites were managed by nurses and some senior nurses were proactive in involving students interprofessionally. However, many students lacked systematic support for interprofessional engagement. Students lack parity of experience concerning interprofessional activity on placement. Where they do not have systematic
Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke
Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.
Bazarov, S. E.; Kholodilin, I. Yu; Nesterov, A. S.; Sokhina, A. V.
In this article the Augmented Reality application for teaching engineering students of electrical and technological specialties is introduced. In order to increase the motivation for learning and the independence of students, new practical guidelines on Augmented Reality were developed in the application to practical classes. During the application development, the authors used software such as Unity 3D and Vuforia. The Augmented Reality content consists of 3D-models, images and animations, which are superimposed on real objects, helping students to study specific tasks. A user who has a smartphone, a tablet PC, or Augmented Reality glasses can visualize on-screen virtual objects added to a real environment. Having analyzed the current situation in higher education: the learner’s interest in studying, their satisfaction with the educational process, and the impact of the Augmented Reality application on students, a questionnaire was developed and offered to students; the study involved 24 learners.
Teagle, Alexandra R; George, Maria; Gainsborough, Nicola; Haq, Inam; Okorie, Michael
The transition from medical student to junior doctor is a challenge; the UK General Medical Council has issued guidance emphasizing the importance of adequate preparation of medical students for clinical practice. This study aimed to determine whether a junior doctor-led simulation-based course is an effective way of preparing final year medical students for practice as a junior doctor.We piloted a new 'preparation for practice' course for final year medical students prior to beginning as Foundation Year 1 (first year of practice) doctors. The course ran over three days and consisted of four simulated stations: ward round, prescribing, handover, and lessons learnt. Quantitative and qualitative feedback was obtained.A total of 120 students attended (40 on each day) and feedback was collected from 95 of them. Using a scale of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest), feedback was positive, with 99% and 96% rating 4 or 5 for the overall quality of the program and the relevance of the program content, respectively. A score of 5 was awarded by 67% of students for the ward round station; 58% for the handover station; 71% for the prescribing station, and 35% for the lessons learnt station. Following the prescribing station, students reported increased confidence in their prescribing.Preparation for practice courses and simulation are an effective and enjoyable way of easing the transition from medical student to junior doctor. Together with 'on-the-job' shadowing time, such programs can be used to improve students' confidence, competence, and ultimately patient safety and quality of care.
Agüera, E I; Sánchez-Hermosín, P; Díz-Pérez, J; Tovar, P; Camacho, R; Escribano, B M
The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in Reproduction course) at University of Córdoba in Córdoba, Spain. The design of the project's application methodology consisted of establishing a way in which problems would be tackled in the practical classes. For this purpose, the different tasks were set up so that students could relate them to the concepts learned in the theory classes. On the first day of class, the project was presented to the students. Groups of two to three students worked in the laboratory and set up an outline of the protocol of the practical work that they had done. This outline was performed individually and sent to the lecturers through a learning management system (Moodle). The teachers gave feedback and assessed student submissions. Upon finishing the course, students completed a survey. The project-based learning method promotes practical self-learning on the part of students. This methodology demonstrated to us that it stimulates a critical and self-critical capacity in students, both individually and in groups, and that writing didactic practical material helped students to enhance their theory knowledge. The experiment was a success in view of the scores obtained upon finishing the subject. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.
Stevens, T.; Harris, G.; Liu, X.; Aguirre-Munoz, Z.
In this paper, we explore a novel approach for assessing the impact of a professional development programme on classroom practice of in-service middle school mathematics teachers. The particular focus of this study is the assessment of the impact on teachers' employment of strategies used in the classroom to foster the mathematical habits of…
Seval Doğruk Kaçar
Full Text Available Background and Design: Practical training of medical students, especially in specialties such as dermatology, is performed in outpatient clinics where mostly outpatients are encountered. The aim of this study was to compare patients’ perspectives on medical students in two university hospitals (X–Y situated in different regions of Turkey. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients, who visited outpatient clinics of X (group 1 and Y (group 2 university hospitals during practical training for fifth year medical students, were included in this study. A questionnaire composed of 16 items was filled by all patients. The first eight questions were about patients’ consent and preferences on the presence of medical students during their interview and the remaining eight questions inquired patients’ overall thoughts on medical students. Results: The patients in both groups were willing to be a part of the educational programme of medical students (39.8%, 53.5%, respectively. The patients were aware that they had the right to refuse the presence of medical students (61.0%, 62.3% and majority wanted to be informed on the presence of medical students during the interview (72.4%, 80.7%. While patients in group 1 evaluated being with medical students as pleasurable (43.1%, patients in group 2 did not agree (44.7%. In addition, both groups were not bothered to share personal information with medical students (50.4%, 44.7% and stated that they would recommend their friends and relatives to have a physical examination done by medical students (51.2%, 41.2%. Conclusion: The active role of medical students during dermatology training is positively viewed by patients in both western and eastern parts of our country. The patients’ request on being informed for the presence of medical students during clinical examination reveals the requirement of oral and written informed consent.
Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S; Al-Takroni, Habib; Roberts, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students' study strategies within a community of clinical practice. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years' assessment program. In the interviews, students' perceptions and interpretations of 'self-assessment practice' and 'supervisor-provided feedback' within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored. The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies. This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students' self-assessment is needed.
Milanović-Dobrota Biljana Z.
Full Text Available The current interest in introducing the dual education system into Serbian secondary education has drawn our attention to the question of students' self-perception in the process of practical teaching. The idea that underpins this paper is the supposition that students are affectively engaged with the work activities they perform. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES (Schaufeli et al., 2002 has been used for assessing students' work engagement in practical teaching. A study was conducted to examine the differences between high school students with mild intellectual disabilities and those with typical development with regard to aspects of work engagement defined as Energy, Commitment and Absorption. The sample was comprised of 248 students of vocational high schools in Serbia of both genders, of whom 111 with intellectual disabilities and 137 with typical development. The findings indicate that students with mild intellectual disabilities tend to rate their engagement in practical teaching more positively (t=7,457; p=0,001 than students with typical development. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the pedagogical implications of these findings and also outlines the limitations of the study, thus pointing the way for future research on this or related issues.
Tomlin, J L; Brodbelt, D C; May, S A
Lack of a clear perception of the realities of a career in veterinary medicine could adversely affect young graduates' satisfaction with the profession and their long-term commitment to it. Veterinary students' understanding of a career in practice were explored. Traditional-entry first-year and final-year students, as well as entry-level 'Gateway' (widening participation) students, were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their pre-university experiences and their understandings of a career in general practice. Broadly speaking, the undergraduate students taking part in the survey (the majority of whom were entry-level students) had a realistic view of average weekly working hours, out-of-hours duties and the development of their remuneration packages over the course of their careers. The main attractions of the profession were working with animals and the perception of a rewarding job. The main concerns were making mistakes and balancing work and home life. The vast majority of students wanted to pursue a career in general practice, and other career opportunities did not appear to be well understood, particularly by entry-level students.
Tang, Woung-Ru; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Fang, Chun-Kai; Fujimori, Maiko
Truth telling or transmitting bad news is a problem that all doctors must frequently face. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if medical students' opinions of truth telling differed from their observations of attending physicians' actual clinical practice. The subjects were 275 medical clerks/interns at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected on medical students' opinions of truth telling, their observations of physicians' clinical practice, students' level of satisfaction with truth telling practiced by attending physicians, and cancer patients' distress level when they were told the truth. Students' truth-telling awareness was significantly higher than the clinical truth-telling practice of attending physicians (pmedical students' opinions on truth telling and attending physicians' actual clinical practice. More research is needed to objectively assess physicians' truth telling in clinical practice and to study the factors affecting the method of truth telling used by attending physicians in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mathematics has an important effect on an individual's successfulness and satisfaction in the field of education and life. Numerical and spatial cognition are of crucial importance to successfully master mathematics. If this kind of cognition is poorly developed, it represents one of the most important obstacles to achieving success in the field of mathematics. Students with mild intellectual disabilities are in a worse position already at the starting point of the educational process, as the...
Zhu, X; Pan, H; Yang, Z; Cui, B; Zhang, D; Ba-Thein, W
Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a serious global health problem. We sought to investigate SMA behaviors and risk factors among Chinese university students, and further explore the association between SMA practices and adverse drug events (ADEs). Cross-sectional study. An online survey was conducted at Jiangsu University (JSU) in eastern China in July 2011 using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 2608 website visitors, 1086 participated in the survey (response rate: 41.6%), 426 respondents were excluded for not being a JSU student or repeat participation, 660 (2.2% of JSU students) were included in analysis, and 316 students (47.9%) had a lifetime history of SMA. Among self-treated students, 43.5% believed that antibiotic was suitable for viral infections, 65.9% had more than one SMA episode in the previous year, 73.5% self-medicated with at least two different antibiotics, 57.1% and 64.4% changed antibiotic dosage and antibiotics during the course, respectively. Female gender, older age, and prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA) were identified as independent risk factors of SMA. There was no difference between students with and without PKA regarding SMA frequency, use of polyantibiotics, and switching antibiotic dosage or antibiotics. ADEs happened to 13.3% of self-medicated students. Frequent change of dosage and simultaneous use of the same antibiotic with different names were independent risk practices associated with an ADE. Our findings substantiate high SMA prevalence among Chinese university students. Older age and PKA are independent SMA risk factors common to Chinese university students and female gender is exclusive SMA risk factor for JSU students. Poor SMA practices are associated with ADEs. Strict regulations on antibiotic sales and public education reinforced by further health care reform are recommended. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Morley, Dawn A
Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oonk, W.; Verloop, N.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.
This study concentrated on the theory–practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers’ use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with
Jane C. OBrien PhD, MS.MEdL, OTR/L
Full Text Available Medical educators must examine the ability of teaching methodologies to prepare students for clinical practice. Two types of assessment methods commonly used in medical education include the Short Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI. The use of these methods in occupational therapy (OT education is less understood. With the increasing number of students enrolled in programs, faculty face challenges to examine how clinical competence is established using data to determine teaching effectiveness. This study examines two educational methodologies used in OT curriculum: the long written case study (IPPI and short performance-based OSCE. The authors describe the effectiveness of each examination as it relates to student performance in clinical practice (as measured by the Fieldwork Performance Evaluation [FWPE]. The findings obtained from separate focus group sessions with faculty and students further provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of the educational methodologies.
Breinbauer K, Hayo; Fromm R, Germán; Fleck L, Daniela; Araya C, Luis
A 60/40 ratio has been estimated as a country's ideal proportion between general practitioners and specialists. In Chile this proportion was 36/ 64 in 2004, exactly the opposite of the ideal. Trends towards specialization or general practice among medical students have not been thoughtfully studied. To assess trends among medical students towards becoming general practitioners or specialists, exploring associated factors. Descriptive survey of 822 first to seventh year medical students at the University of Chile, School of Medicine. Desired activity to pursue (general practice or specialization) after graduation and general orientations within clinical practice were explored. Fifty three percent of students desired to enter a specialization program. Only 20% would work as a general practitioner (27% were still indecisive). Furthermore, a trend in early years of medical training towards an integral medicine is gradually reversed within later years. Seventh year students give significantly more importance to specialization than to integral medicine (p specialized medicine in the teaching environment. Most students prefer to enter a specialization program immediately after finishing medical school. Moreover, there is a social trend, at least within the teacher-attending environment, promoting not only the desire to specialize, but a pro-specialist culture.
Bartels, Josef; Mooney, Christopher John; Stone, Robert Thompson
Medical school evaluations typically rely on both language-based narrative descriptions and psychometrically converted numeric scores to convey performance to the grading committee. We evaluated inter-rater reliability and correlation of numeric versus narrative evaluations for students on their Neurology Clerkship. 50 Neurology Clerkship in-training evaluation reports completed by their residents and faculty members at the University of Rochester School of Medicine were dissected into narrative and numeric components. 5 Clerkship grading committee members retrospectively gave new narrative scores (NNS) while blinded to original numeric scores (ONS). We calculated intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and their associated confidence intervals for the ONS and the NNS. In addition, we calculated the correlation between ONS and NNS. The ICC was greater for the NNS (ICC = .88 (95% CI = .70-.94)) than the ONS (ICC = .62 (95% CI = .40-.77)) Pearson correlation coefficient showed that the ONS and NNS were highly correlated (r = .81). Narrative evaluations converted by a small group of experienced graders are at least as reliable as numeric scoring by individual evaluators. We could allow evaluators to focus their efforts on creating richer narrative of greater value to trainees.
Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy
Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students' learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students' attitudes influence their learning. Students' science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students' attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students' attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data.
Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone
At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.
This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate
Falk, G A
Reviews of the medical school curriculum in the UK and Ireland have recommended the introduction of student-selected components (SSCs). The Department of Surgery in The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) has introduced a 6-week surgical SSC, which aims to develop practical clinical skills, provide mentorship and prepare students for internship.
This study aimed to examine students' generic skills practices (communication, IT, numeracy, learning how to learn, problem solving, working with others, and subject-specific competencies) at National University of Indonesia (UI). Survey design with quantitative method was applied in this study. Questionnaires were distributed to 355 students at…
Killingsworth, Justin Lee
Federal legislation mandates that appropriate education be provided for all students in US public schools (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004; No Child Left Behind, 2001). The use of evidence-based instructional practices for special education, such as Direct Instruction and Strategy Instruction, is one example of mandated…
Objectives:To evaluate the influencing factors towards choice of the medical profession and attitude towards future medical practice. Subjects and methods: One hundred thirty four students of the Gondar College of Medical Sciences were included in the study. Data was collected by using self-administered questionnaires.
Francois, Jennifer R.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Subramanian, Anu
The preparation of students for professional practice in the field of early intervention has changed as a result of mandates through Part C, Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this survey research was to describe the knowledge and skill areas, specific to early intervention, included in pre-professional curricula…
1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom ... Results: Self-medication practice was highly prevalent among the medical students, with 87 % ... as part of self-care to improve the health care ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.
Students' Perception and Practice of Writing through Peer-led Learning (PLL) at Bahir Dar University. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... parties to get the maximum benefit from PLTL; that is, the 'one-to-five' group discussion ...
Leadership and management skills (77.6%), people skills (64.6%), communication and listening skills (46.4%) and personal style (42.2%) were seen as the most important non-clinical skills. Students indicated their career aspirations as follows: private practice owners (45.3%, n=81), public sector and military (15.1%, n=27), ...
Amua-Sekyi, Ekua Tekyiwa
Assessment in its various forms has always been a central part of educational practice. Evidence gleaned from the empirical literature suggests that assessment, especially high stakes external assessment has effect on how teachers teach and consequently, how students learn. Through focus group discussions, this paper draws upon the experiences of…
Silveira, Jason M.; Goff, Sarah C.
The purpose of this study was to measure music teachers' attitudes toward transgender individuals and toward school practices that support transgender students. Participants (N = 612) included men and women who teach a variety of music subjects in elementary, middle, and high schools, in urban, suburban, and rural areas. An online questionnaire…
Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew
Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…
Claiborne, Nancy; Fortune, Anne
Managed care has profound effects on health and mental health service delivery in the United States. This article describes the knowledge that students need for effective social work practice within a managed care environment and evaluates a course to deliver the content. (Contains 3 tables.)
Project and team-based pedagogies are increasingly augmenting lecture-style science classrooms. Occasionally, university professors will invite students to tangentially partcipate in their research. Since 2006, Dr. Russ Genet has led an astronomy research seminar for community college and high school students that allows participants to work closely with a melange of professional and advanced amatuer researchers. The vast majority of topics have centered on measuring the position angles and searations of double stars which can be readily published in the Journal of Double Star Observations. In the intervening years, a collaborative community of practice (Wenger, 1998) formed with the students as lead researchers on their projects with the guidance of experienced astronomers and educators. The students who join the research seminar are often well prepared for further STEM education in college and career. Today, the research seminar involves multile schools in multiple states with a volunteer educator acting as an assistant instructor at each location. These assistant instructors interface with remote observatories, ensure progress is made, and recruit students. The key deliverables from each student team include a published research paper and a public presentation online or in-person. Citing a published paper on scholarship and college applications gives students' educational carreers a boost. Recently the Journal of Double Star Observations published its first special issue of exlusively student-centered research.
This article examines challenges and learning outcomes for nursing students from a Central European university of applied sciences who completed 3 months of clinical practice in Norway. The clinical practice was supervised in English by Norwegian nurses and nursing teachers. English is not the primary language in any of the countries. Increases in global migration have contributed to the need for an international dimension in nursing education. Personal mobility is a crucial part of the European Union's goal of becoming a knowledge society. Clinically based experiences pose challenges that are additional to and often more complex than traditional course-based experiences. Students who come from a non-English-speaking country for clinical practice in Norway face challenges regarding language. Accepting incoming students is a way of achieving higher quality and more relevant education in nursing. The study shows that clinical practice in a foreign country gives added value compared with clinical practice at home. Greater self-confidence and understanding of core concepts in nursing is described by the participants. Language differences are not regarded as a problem but as a way of developing personal and professional competence. The ability to compare healthcare systems in the two counties is important in developing competencies in nursing. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.
Garcia, P P N S; Gottardello, A C A; Wajngarten, D; Presoto, C D; Campos, J A D B
The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the experiences of students enrolled in the last year of dentistry school with ergonomic practice. This is a qualitative, observational and cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample design. The sample comprised students enrolled in the last year of dentistry in Araraquara-UNESP (n = 29). The data were collected by means of open semi-structured and individual interviews, captured by a digital voice recorder. The students were interviewed in their own university at a time that was previously scheduled, and care was taken to provide a private and welcoming environment to carry out the interviews. A script containing questions related to practices in ergonomics was prepared at the university. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative-quantitative Collective Subject Discourse technique with the aid of Qualiquantisoft ® software program. It was found that more than half of the students (58.6%) believe that adopting an ergonomic posture is important to prevent future problems, pain and occupational diseases, and 62.1% of the students confirm having difficulties in adopting ergonomic postures due to the types of treatment required and the regions of the mouth being treated. The main reasons stated for the fact that their colleagues do not adopt ergonomic postures are lack of attention, practice and forgetfulness (44.8%) and difficulty in visualising the operatory field or the procedure performed (27.6%). It is possible to conclude that the students interviewed know ergonomic principles and their importance in occupational health. However, they found it difficult to put these principles into practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
García-Vázquez, Francisco A.; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín; Matás, Carmen; Coy, Pilar; Ruiz, Salvador
Over recent decades, education has increasingly focused on student-centered learning. Guided practices represent a new way of learning for undergraduate students of physiology, whereby the students turn into teacher-students and become more deeply involved in the subject by preparing and teaching a practical (laboratory) class to their peers. The…
José Gerardo Alvarado
Full Text Available Georg Simmel's assertion that strangeness organizes nearness and remoteness helps to understand how the social category of First Generation College Student (FGCS, first in the family to attend college is used at a public university in the United States southwest. Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA is applied to ethnographic data. Difference categories and devices morph into those of distance in an interaction where a recruitment convention substitutes for a handshake between a boy and some adults in the hallway of a student center. These changes imbricate with those found in the analysis of a student-persistence sequence of an educational marketing recruitment DVD. As evidence of glocal practice or the global impact of local contact gestures of student body diversification or massification policies directed at FGCSs (and others, they appear to coincide with distribution and recognition social justice projects that are inviting us to reach out across distances, short and long.
Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J
In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions.
Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Contin, Marcelo Vieira
This study investigated contraceptive practices and especially the use of emergency contraception by 487 young students at a public university in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was sent by e-mail and completed online in December 2007. Contraceptive methods and use of emergency contraception were investigated. Female and male students reported a high proportion of contraceptive use, mainly condoms and the pill. Half of the students had already used emergency contraception, often when already using some other highly effective method. Among female students, multiple regression analysis showed that current age, age at sexual initiation, not having used condoms in sexual relations, condom failure, and knowing someone that has used emergency contraception were associated with use of the latter. The option for emergency contraception proved to be more closely related to inconsistencies in the use of regular methods than to lack of their use, and can thus be considered a marker for discontinuity in regular contraception.
Gazibara, Tatjana; Radovanovic, Sanja; Maric, Gorica; Rancic, Biljana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and attitude of medical students towards cleaning their stethoscopes. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the first week of December 2013. The study included 771 students (397 in their fourth and 374 in their sixth year) from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to students before the start of compulsory lessons in classrooms. 317 of the 397 fourth-year students (79.8%) and 306 of the 374 sixth-year students (81.9%) cleaned their stethoscope. The stethoscope diaphragm was most commonly cleaned, while the flexible tubing was the least commonly cleaned area, mainly using ethyl alcohol-based agents. The strongest positive attitude was observed for the statement 'It is important that my stethoscope is clean' (4.3 out of 5.0). A positive correlation (Spearman's x03C1; = 0.105) was observed between a higher frequency of cleaning and the stronger positive notion that a stethoscope should be cleaned. A considerably high proportion of the students studied had ever cleaned their stethoscopes. Based on the students' responses, it would be useful to implement instructions on stethoscope hygiene in the regular practical curriculum with the aim of applying stethoscope disinfection in daily work. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Repossi, A; Araneda, J M; Bustos, L; Puente, C; Rojas, C
The aim of this work was to study the knowledge, opinions and sexual behaviour of a sample of 464 students from the Universidad Austral de Chile. Results show that 78% of male and 41% of female students have had a sexual intercourse and that 78% of males and 72% of females with an active sexual life use contraceptive methods. The principal reasons to avoid the use of these methods are the irregularity of sexual intercourse and the reduction in pleasure. Most students think that these methods are harmful for their health but they should be used. The use of contraceptive methods increase with the frequency of sexual relations and university experience, but first year students use them more frequently than second year students. Most students know several contraceptive methods, but their knowledge about mechanisms of action is inadequate or distorted. Likewise, more than 50% think that it is possible to prevent pregnancy after a sexual intercourse. It is concluded that most sexually active students use contraceptive methods, but inappropriately. Stereotypes, myths and lack of information are influencing their sexual and contraceptive practices, showing incoherence between their knowledge and behavior. A possible explanation could be a scarce influence of high school and religion on their sexual formation.
Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y
Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Yazan Aljohani,1 Mohammed Almutadares,1 Khalid Alfaifi,1 Mona El Madhoun,1 Maysoon H Albahiti,2 Nadia Al-Hazmi3 1Internship Program, Faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Department of Endodontics, King Abdulaziz University, 3Department of Oral Biology, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim: To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method: A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results: There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion: Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. Keywords: cross-contamination, infection control, dental students, uniforms
Gupta, Sanjay; Parekh, Utsav N; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D
Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life. In order to improve their efficiency in the field, we introduced few innovative teaching-learning methods and documented their perceptions. This pilot study was carried out with students who had completed their second professional year (5th semester) of medical curriculum. Students were exposed to few innovative teaching-learning and assessment approaches in addition to conventional methods during their Forensic Medicine term. These approaches were interactivity in large group lecturing, small group activities, student led objective tutorial, court visit in real scenario, practical records book, surprise tests, structured theory question papers, model answers, objective structured practical examinations and structured oral viva. Their perceptions were documented later through structured questionnaire. Students reported all methods as 'interesting' except 'surprise tests'. Court visits were rated highest for generating interest (98%). Clarity of concept was experienced through all methods (range of 71-95%). Interactive large group lectures reported highest (by 95%students) for clarifying concepts, although this is not a typical characteristic of large group teaching. Enhanced learning experience was reported in 75-92.5% for different methods. Student Led Objective Tutorials seemed to facilitate enhance learning most (92.5%). Innovations in teaching-learning are need of hour especially in subject like Forensic
Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan
Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a hand hygiene among health care workers. A hand hygiene survey was administered to nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ambaw, Fentie; Mossie, Andualem; Gobena, Teshome
Traditional views of sexual behaviors are frequently changing as the factors influencing them are changing. Therefore, assessing sexual practices that are not part of the tradition would be necessary. The objective of this study was to identify the types of sexual practices, their development pattern and how these development patterns expose students to sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 1986 (1612 males, 365 females, and with 9 subjects' gender not indicated) Jimma university students in August 2009 with their age ranging from 17-45 years (median = 20). Quantitative data was collected using a piloted, precoded questionnaire and qualitative data was collected from six focus group discussions. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were computed and qualitative findings were triangulated with quantitative findings. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Practice of penile to vaginal intercourse, masturbation, kissing, oral sex, and anal sex were reported by 567 (28.9%), 688 (36.7%), 840 (42.4%), 179 (9.2%) and 83 (4.3%) of the respondents, respectively. Respondents had two years (one year with and one year without condom) of sexual experience before marriage. Sixty percent of those who had sexual experience were exposed to sexually transmitted infections and 46.6% were exposed to both unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Forty seven percent of those who practiced oral sex and 29% of those who practiced anal sex did not consider their acts as sexual intercourse. University students are high risk groups that need more focused research and concerted health care. The term 'sexual intercourse' should be consciously defined for its future use in Ethiopia. Furthermore, Service providers and researchers should address all types of sexual practices.
Dewi, Widiaswati; Sawitri, Dian R.
Pro-environmental behavior is an individual action as a manifestation of one's responsibility to create a sustainable environment. University students as one of the agent of change can adopt pro-environmental behaviors concept, even through simple things to do on daily activities such as ride a bicycle or walk for short distance, reuse the shopping bags, separate waste, learn about environmental issues etc. Many studies have examined pro-environmental behavior from various approaches. However, the study about university students' pro-environmental behavior is lacking. The aim of this paper is to examine the undergraduate students' pro-environmental behaviors level. We surveyed 364 first year undergraduate students from a state university in Semarang. The survey included six aspects of pro-environmental behavior in daily practice which include energy conservation, mobility and transportation, waste avoidance, recycling, consumerism, and vicarious behaviors toward conservation. Findings of this study showed the level of pro-environmental behavior of first year undergraduate students is medium. Recommendations for undergraduate students and future researchers are discussed.
El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad
This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…
Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader
The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…
In'am, Akhsanul; Hajar, Siti
A good-quality teacher may determines a good-quality learning, thus good-quality students will be the results. In order to have a good-quality learning, a lot of strategies and methods can be adopted. The objective of this research is to improve students' ability in determining the rules of a numeric sequence and analysing the effectiveness of the…
Helminen, Kristiina; Johnson, Martin; Isoaho, Hannu; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu
To describe the phenomenon of final assessment of the clinical practice of nursing students and to examine whether there were differences in assessments by the students and their teachers and mentors. Final assessment of students in clinical practice during their education has great importance for ensuring that enough high-quality nursing students are trained, as assessment tasks affect what the nursing student learns during the clinical practice. This study used descriptive, cross-sectional design. The population of this study comprised nursing students (n = 276) and their teachers (n = 108) in five universities of applied sciences in Finland as well as mentors (n = 225) who came from five partner hospitals. A questionnaire developed for this study contained questions about background variables as well as structured questions scored on a four-point scale, which also allowed the respondents to provide additional comments. When comparing the results related to nursing teachers' presence in the final assessment situation, it was found that teachers and mentors evaluated this as being carried out more often than nursing students suggested. Nursing students noted that fair and consistent assessment is carried out more often than nursing teachers thought. Mentors and teachers said that honest and direct criteria-based final assessment was carried out more often than nursing students evaluated. Nursing students and mentors need support from educational institutions and from nursing teachers in order to ensure the completion of a relevant assessment process. The findings of this study highlight an awareness of final assessment process. It is desirable to have a common understanding, for example, of how the assessment should be managed and what the assessment criteria are, as this will ensure a good quality process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kelly, Ronald R; Berent, Gerald P
This research contrasted deaf and hearing students' interpretive knowledge of English sentences containing numeral quantifier phrases and indefinite noun phrases. A multiple-interpretation picture task methodology was used to assess 305 participants' judgments of the compatibility of sentence meanings with depicted discourse contexts. Participants' performance was assessed on the basis of hearing level (deaf, hearing) and grade level (middle school, high school, college). The deaf students were predicted to have differential access to specific sentence interpretations in accordance with the relative derivational complexity of the targeted sentence types. Hypotheses based on the pressures of derivational economy on acquisition were largely supported. The results also revealed that the deaf participants tended to overactivate pragmatic processes that yielded principled, though non-target, sentence interpretations. Collectively, the results not only contribute to the understanding of English acquisition under conditions of restricted access to spoken language input, they also suggest that pragmatic factors may play a broad role in influencing, and compromising, deaf students' reading comprehension and written expression.
Full Text Available This emerging initiative stemmed from an Office for Learning and Teaching Project (OLT project, Transforming Practice Programme 2016: Student Engagement: Students as Partners in Teaching and Learning. The initiative, trialed in semester two, 2016, involved the selection and training of two experienced students to be leaders of a Closed Facebook ‘students-only’ community which provided advice and triaged queries to appropriate channels. The evaluative processes comprised a participatory action research methodology. Two student leaders who facilitated the Closed Facebook and four academic staff of the project were the participants. The findings demonstrate that the Closed Facebook students-only site provided a safe space, outside the formal learning/classroom environment, where student participants were able to ask and share knowledge. The informal student-for-student learning community complemented the formal structure by facilitating the opportunity for students to become ‘experts’ as university students as they move-through their learning journey.
Bradshaw, Carmel; Barry, Maebh; Noonan, Maria; Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Atkinson, Sandra
An elective placement where students are facilitated to access different models of midwifery care was included in the 18 month Higher Diploma Midwifery programme in 2008 in a university in Ireland. All students since then have had the opportunity to experience this placement which is advocated by the regulatory board for Nursing and Midwifery in Ireland (NMBI). This paper details the integration of an elective placement referred to as an 'observation week' into the 18 month midwifery programme. It includes a description of the organisation of the observation week, a summary of services accessed by midwifery students, student evaluation of their experience and mechanisms for feedback of these experiences to our partners in clinical practice. The benefits and the challenges of the observation week are considered with reference to the published literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suliman, Muhammad Imran; Imran, Faiqa; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin; Rahim, Ikram Ur; Shafiq, Anser; Qayum, Iftikhar
Combining cognitive skills teaching related to the techniques leads to better understanding in a skill training course; but still there a substantial disagreement in curriculum on such combinations. This study aims to help guide the designers in making the outline of instructional plan for a Clinical Skills Module (CSM) for the undergraduates. Objectives were to assess performance of students on a clinical skill after training by two different models of (hands-on only or with cognitive skills) instructions and explore their perception on the employment of educational strategies through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) through a Sequential mixed method study design: (1) Quantitative (Pre- and post-assessments and comparing their results (2) Qualitative (Exploration of perspectives through constructivist approach using qualitative phenomenological design) The study was conducted during the month of September, 2015 at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. Students entering fourth year were randomized to two groups to participate in pre-post OSCE using global rating scale and their scores were compared. The examiners were kept blinded to the randomization of students undergoing two separate training methods. The test group (group A) was trained for both procedural as well as cognitive skills whereas the control group (Group-B) was trained only with hands-on practice. Later their perception about the addition of cognitive skills to improve of procedural skills was explored through focus group discussions. The recorded audio tapes of FGDs were transcribed and analysed thematically. Triangulation of themes and trends was achieved by relating the content analysis to the relevant frequency of quotes. Auditing of the data verification was done by all the authors separately.. A total of 42 students completed both pre- and post-tests. As a result, student performance in OSCE significantly increased from pre- to post-test (pdisadvantages of combining theory
Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung
This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.
To help understand the fuel oxidation process in practical combustion environments, laminar flame speeds and high temperature chemical kinetic models were studied for several practical fuels and "surrogate" fuels, such as propane, dimethyl ether (DME), and primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures, gasoline and n-decane. The PIV system developed for the present work is described. The general principles for PIV measurements are outlined and the specific considerations are also reported. Laminar flame speeds were determined for propane/air over a range of equivalence ratios at initial temperature of 298 K, 500 K and 650 K and atmospheric pressure. Several data sets for propane/air laminar flame speeds with N 2 dilution are also reported. These results are compared to the literature data collected at the same conditions. The propane flame speed is also numerically calculated with a detailed kinetic model and multi component diffusion, including Soret effects. This thesis also presents experimentally determined laminar flame speeds for primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures of n-heptane/iso-octane and real gasoline fuel at different initial temperature and at atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen dilution effects on the laminar flame speed are also studied for selected equivalence ratios at the same conditions. A minimization of detailed kinetic model for PRF mixtures on laminar flame speed conditions was performed and the measured flame speeds were compared with numerical predictions using this model. The measured laminar flame speeds of n-decane/air mixtures at 500 K and at atmospheric pressure with and without dilution were determined. The measured flame speeds are significantly different that those predicted using existing published kinetic models, including a model validated previously against high temperature data from flow reactor, jet-stirred reactor, shock tube ignition delay, and burner stabilized flame experiments. A significant update of this model is described which
Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles
Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…
Zhu, Xiaojing; Morooka, Shinichi; Oka, Yoshiaki
Highlights: • Standard grid spacer design causes decreased heat transfer in a tight rod bundle. • Heat transfer is greatly enhanced by flow-enhancing features. • Swirling flow adversely affects the heat transfer downstream of grid spacer. • Enhanced heat transfer by existing grid spacer is limited in a short region. • Improved grid spacer can effectively reduce MCST. - Abstract: The numerical investigation was carried out to reveal the practicability of reducing the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) within the inner sub-channel of a tight, hexagon rod bundle using commercial CFD code STAR CCM+ 6.04. The special heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics caused by four existing grid spacer designs were discussed in detail by analyzing the effects of grid strap length, different flow enhancing features and different Reynolds numbers. It was found that the local heat transfer within the grid strap is greatly enhanced due to the raised flow velocity. Both the standard grid spacer and the grid spacer with split-vanes cause decreased heat transfer in the downstream region. The friction drag is very influential in the tight rod bundle and can eliminate the positive effect of flow blockage on the heat transfer performance. The grid spacer with flow blockage discs induces relatively good heat transfer performance and higher pressure drop within sub-channels, indicating a tradeoff between the heat transfer augmentation and the pressure drop. The combination of multiple existing grid spacers can reduce the MCST to a certain level, but the corresponding disadvantages cannot be ignored. The improved grid spacer design was proposed based on the overall considerations of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics and has been proved more suitable to widely reduce MCST for SCWR than any other grid spacer designs involved in present study
Adams, Sharrika D.; Hazelwood, Sherry; Hayden, Bruce
Case management is a functional area in higher education and student affairs that emerged after the mass shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007. Although new to higher education, case management emerged from established social work practice. This article compares social work theory and case management standards with a new case management model for…
Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio
The training of health professionals requires the acquisition of clinical skills in a safe and efficient manner, which is facilitated by a simulated learning environment (SLE). It is also an efficient alternative when there are limitations for clinical practice in certain areas. This paper shows the work undertaken in a Chilean university in implementing paediatric practice using SLE. Over eight days, the care experience of a hospitalized infant was studied applying the nursing process. The participation of a paediatrician, resident physician, nursing technician, and simulated user was included in addition to the use of a simulation mannequin and equipment. Simulation of care was integral and covered interaction with the child and family and was developed in groups of six students by a teacher. The different phases of the simulation methodology were developed from a pedagogical point of view. The possibility of implementing paediatric clinical practice in an efficient and safe way was confirmed. The experience in SLE was highly valued by the students, allowing them to develop different skills and abilities required for paediatric nursing through simulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Molina-Salas, Yolanda; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús
Evidence-based practice (EBP) learning has become a key issue for nurses. An EPB subject was included in the 4(th) year in the new syllabus of the Nursing Degree at University of Murcia (UM). To know the competence level in EBP of undergraduate nursing students at UM and compare the results between all four years. Observational descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach. undergraduate nursing students from all four years at Nursing Degree at the Faculty of Social and Healthcare Science at UM in the year 2013-14. EBP evaluation of competence of the nursing students consisted of attitude, skills and knowledge on EBP. A validated questionnaire, the EBP-COQ, was used. The scale range is 1 point «lowest level» to 5 points «higher level».The SPSS 21.0 program has been used to carry out descriptive and bivariate analyses. 144 students were included, 76.4% was female, and the median age was 23 years, 84.7% attended more than 75% class hours. The mean differences in the questionnaire between first and fourth years were 0.58 points in attitude, 0.60 in skills, 1.6 in knowledge and 0.83 in global competence in EBP. Significant differences in mean scores between the fourth and the remaining years in the global competence in EBP were observed, as well as in the three dimensions (p <0.05). The undergraduate-nursing students studied here have acquired an appropriate competence level in EBP, with a gradual increase by year. The biggest increase was in the fourth year students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Student teams (right and left) behind protective walls maneuver their robots on the playing field during practice rounds of the 1999 Southeastern Regional robotic competition at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex . Thirty schools from around the country have converged at KSC for the event that pits gladiator robots against each other in an athletic-style competition. The robots have to retrieve pillow-like disks from the floor, as well as climb onto the platform (foreground) and raise the cache of pillows to a height of eight feet. KSC is hosting the event being sponsored by the nonprofit organization For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, known as FIRST. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.
Isna Nur Hikmah; Usep Kustiawan
The reseach’s purpose was to analyze the effect of picture numeric card media toward improvement of the summation computation ability for student with intellectual disability of grade IV in SDLB. Data collected was analyzed with experiment technique and single subject research A-B design. Research result showed that: after being analyzed between condition overlap persentase was 0%. Thus, it could be concluded that there was effect of pictorial numeric card media toward summation computation a...
There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)
Gale, Julia; Ooms, Ann; Sharples, Kath; Marks-Maran, Di
To prepare the registered nurse of tomorrow in the United Kingdom (UK) to care for patients in general practice (GP)-led services, today's student nurses need to have the opportunity to experience placements with practice nurses to enable them to make positive career choices to become practice nurses in the future. The role of the practice nurse is described in the article. As a pilot project, seventeen students undertook placements with practice nurses in one of seven GP practices selected b...
Full Text Available the article deals with organization of international practical training of students at the tourism university, provides a brief analysis of researchers on students’ practical training, makes the case for international practical training of students, gives classification of international practical training, shows advantages and disadvantages of students’ practical training abroad and the benefits of tourism university graduates as well who has experience in international practical training.
Isna Nur Hikmah
Full Text Available The reseach’s purpose was to analyze the effect of picture numeric card media toward improvement of the summation computation ability for student with intellectual disability of grade IV in SDLB. Data collected was analyzed with experiment technique and single subject research A-B design. Research result showed that: after being analyzed between condition overlap persentase was 0%. Thus, it could be concluded that there was effect of pictorial numeric card media toward summation computation ability of student with intellectual disability
Genet, R.; Armstrong, J.; Blanko, P.; Boyce, G. B. P.; Brewer, M.; Buchheim, R.; Calanog, J.; Castaneda, D.; Chamberlin, R.; Clark, R. K.; Collins, D.; Conti, D.; Cormier, S.; FItzgerald, M.; Estrada, C.; Estrada, R.; Freed, R.; Gomez, E.; Hardersen, P.; Harshaw, R.; Johnson, J.; Kafka, S.; Kenney, J.; Monanan, K.; Ridgely, J.; Rowe, D.; Silliman, M.; Stojimirovic, I.; Tock, K.; Walker, D.
(Abstract only) Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research - double star astrometry - was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program - supported in part by the National Science Foundation - is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science' specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.
Genet, Russell; Armstrong, James; Blanko, Philip; Boyce, Grady Boyce, Pat; Brewer, Mark; Buchheim, Robert; Calanog, Jae; Castaneda, Diana; Chamberlin, Rebecca; Clark, R. Kent; Collins, Dwight; Conti, Dennis Cormier, Sebastien; Fitzgerald, Michael; Estrada, Chris; Estrada, Reed; Freed, Rachel Gomez, Edward; Hardersen, Paul; Harshaw, Richard; Johnson, Jolyon Kafka, Stella; Kenney, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Ridgely, John; Rowe, David Silliman, Mark; Stojimirovic, Irena; Tock, Kalee; Walker, Douglas; Wallen, Vera
Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research-double star astrometry-was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program-supported in part by the National Science Foundation-is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science-specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.
Patterson, Freyr; Fleming, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathryn; Ninness, Nadine
Professional practice education is a core and essential component of occupational therapy training. With increasing numbers of education programmes and more students requiring professional practice placements, development of innovative models of professional practice education has emerged, but these require investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate student experiences and perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program model of professional practice education in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. A qualitative approach, guided by phenomenological theory was used. Participants were 15 students who had completed a professional practice placement in the Student-Led Groups Program. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. Three over-arching themes emerged from the data; balance of support and freedom, development of clinical skills and missed opportunities. Students described how the structure of the placement facilitated independent learning and autonomy that was balanced with support from clinicians and student peers. Students perceived that they had developed a breadth of clinical skills and also had missed some learning opportunities in this professional practice placement structure. Overall student perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program were positive, supporting the continued use of this model of professional practice education in this setting. The results highlight the value of structured and consistent approaches for supervision, including the use of formal approaches to peer supervision in the initial stages of learning. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Veylon, P; Rochoy, M; Gautier, S; Wallaert, B; Berkhout, C
Asthma is a potentially serious chronic respiratory disease impacting patients quality of life. Satisfactory control requires proper use of inhaled devices. This study assesses general medical residents and pharmacy students knowledge about proper use of inhaled asthma devices. We evaluated knowledge of 43 general practice students and 43 pharmacy students in Lille for three inhaler devices (metered-dose inhaler, Turbuhaler ® and Diskus ® ) during individual interviews. Students were assessed on 8 proper use criterias for each device. General practice and pharmacy students are unfamiliar with proper use of inhaler devices. However, pharmacy students get better average scores than general practice students for all devices included in this study: 6.3/8 respected criterias against 5/8 for metered-dose inhaler; 5.3/8 against 3.2/8 for Turbuhaler ® ; and 6/8 against 4.3/8 for Diskus ® . Pharmacy students more frequently perform a demonstration of proper use to patients when a device is first prescribed or when a prescription is renewed; general practice students more frequently ask patients themselves to perform a demonstration of proper use. Introducing trainings workshops for inhaler devices to pharmacy and general practice students appears appropriate in order to promote therapeutic patient education, to increase asthma control and better patients life quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Waller, Samara Susan
This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.
Mowatt, Lizette; Gordon, Carron; Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Jones, Thaon
To determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and ergonomic practices among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was done with a self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and nine students participated; 78% were females. The mean age was 21.6 years. Neck pain (75.1%), eye strain (67%), shoulder pain (65.5%) and eye burn (61.9%) were the most common CVS symptoms. Dry eyes (26.2%), double vision (28.9%) and blurred vision (51.6%) were the least commonly experienced symptoms. Eye burning (P = .001), eye strain (P = .041) and neck pain (P = .023) were significantly related to level of viewing. Moderate eye burning (55.1%) and double vision (56%) occurred in those who used handheld devices (P = .001 and .007, respectively). Moderate blurred vision was reported in 52% who looked down at the device compared with 14.8% who held it at an angle. Severe eye strain occurred in 63% of those who looked down at a device compared with 21% who kept the device at eye level. Shoulder pain was not related to pattern of use. Ocular symptoms and neck pain were less likely if the device was held just below eye level. There is a high prevalence of Symptoms of CVS amongst university students which could be reduced, in particular neck pain and eye strain and burning, with improved ergonomic practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bang, Megan Elisabeth
There is a great need to raise the levels of science achievement for those groups of children who have traditionally underperformed. Prior cognitive research with Native people suggests that problems with achievement for Native students may be more complicated then simple problems with knowing or not knowing content knowledge. This dissertation hypothesizes that Native Americans engage in practices and have funds of knowledge that facilitate sophisticated reasoning in the domain of science. However, the knowledge and patterns of reasoning are not elicited, acceptable, or recognized in classroom science, or perhaps are in conflict with classroom science. Furthermore the divergence is not simply in the details of what is known; there is discord at the level of epistemology, in the fundamental ways in which Native people conceptualize knowledge of the natural world. This work proposes a new framework, Micro-practice epistemology, for understanding epistemology. I propose that epistemology should be understood as implicitly and explicitly imbedded in the worldviews, values, beliefs and practices of our everyday lives. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods this work investigates the everyday practices related to nature, the epistemological stances and biological knowledge embedded in those practices in a 3X3 model (age cohort: child, adult, elder X community). The three communities involved in this work include: Chicago urban Indian community, Menominee reservation community, and a rural working poor white community. I find significant differences in all three areas across communities. Native communities tend to participate in practices in which some aspect of nature is fore-grounded while non-Native participants tended to participate in practices in which nature is the back-grounded. These findings are extended to explore the ways in which worldviews and values are connected to practice and knowledge about the natural world. I find significant differences in
Wight, Mary Caitlin S.
This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…
Schatt, Matthew D.
The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…
Underwood, Jean D M
While there is much support for co-operative learning among learning theorists, not all learners exhibit the same enthusiasm for groupwork. A number of factors such as sex, group size and ability mix, subject domain, task type and organization have been shown to influence the effectiveness of co-operative and collaborative learning. This study established learners' attitudes to various shared working scenarios. In this mixed design, 140 post-graduate teacher trainees were asked to imagine their responses to seven groupwork scenarios presented as a series of short vignettes. The vignettes varied on the degree of co-operation required; the sex of the prospective co-worker(s) including single and mixed-sex groups; type of assessment, including no assessment at all; and on academically acceptable and unacceptable 'shared' working practices. Anticipated attitudinal and behavioural responses of the students were assessed by questionnaire. On the whole, students were cautiously willing to be involved in groupwork. There were caveats, however. Factors such as the characteristics of the group members, the level and type of assessment procedures in operation, and individual differences, including sex and self-reported social deviance, also governed their responses. There was very limited agreement to be involved in socially undesirable collaborative group activities at a personal level or to condone such activities by others. Those students who showed a tendency towards mild anti-social behaviour were more willing to take direct punitive action against non-contributors than their peers. Female students were more willing to invoke the help of the tutor than their male counterparts, but only if the anti-social behaviour impacted on them personally.
Parker, Johanna E; Hudson, Ben; Wilkinson, Tim J
General practice is under-represented in student career choices. This study aimed to identify and explore factors that influence the attitudes of final year medical students to general practice as a career. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of focus groups of final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were used to interpret the data. General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in influencing medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career. Students identified their general practice placement during medical school training and personal contact with their own GP as principal factors. The media portrayal of general practice and the attitudes of friends and family were also influential. Students were positively influenced when they were made to feel part of the team, involved with consultations, allowed to carry out practical procedures under supervision, and witnessed what they perceived as good medical practice during clinical placements. Positive experiences often occurred later in training, when students felt more confident of their clinical abilities. While students reported occasional negative comments about general practice by some hospital doctors, these had a lesser role in influencing their perceptions of general practice compared with their own experiences, both as students and patients. GPs have a strong influence, positively and negatively, on the attitudes of medical students to general practice as a career. Effective influences include being made to feel welcome, involved, valued, and given legitimate roles during clinical placements.
Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…
Scott, Fraser J.
The "mathematics problem" is a well-known source of difficulty for students attempting numerical problem solving questions in the context of science education. This paper illuminates this problem from a biology education perspective by invoking Hogan's numeracy framework. In doing so, this study has revealed that the contextualisation of…
Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z
The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students.
Numerous studies on retention have highlighted the role of student engagement in influencing students' withdrawal decisions. This study seeks to address how academic libraries affect student retention by examining the perception of academic library deans or directors on the alignment between library services and resources with ten nationally…
Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye Morto; Alio, Abigail Ngozi
The study investigated daylight illumination in the school workshop as a determinant for effective students' task performance in workshop practice. 183 NCE Technical students in 300 Level which comprised of 73 and 112 students from Federal Colleges of Education (Technical), Asaba and Omoku, Nigeria respectively during the 2008/2009 academic…
Wawrzynski, Korine Steinke; Jessup-Anger, Jody E.
The Office Consultation Project is an innovative capstone project that partners graduate students in student affairs preparation programs with academic and student affairs practitioners. It provides an opportunity for students to apply research and scholarship to practical settings, while giving practitioners new insight into their units,…
While literature suggests that nurses report incidents or potentially unsafe care delivery, there is little evidence on student nurses' practice in this area. To explore the factors that influence student in reporting concerns about practice. A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured interviews with six student nurses. Student nurses said they do not always report potentially unsafe practice they have witnessed. Four main themes were identified: the student-mentor relationship in clinical placement; actual or potential support provided by both the practice area and university; students' own personal confidence and professional knowledge base; and fear of failing clinical placements. The nursing profession needs to take stock of current organisational culture and practice, and address issues around reporting in practice. Recommendations are made to improve mentorship, nurse training and for further research.
Marwa Al Flaiti
Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication among university students was very high. There is a need for intensive education and comprehensive awareness campaign to advocate for reduction in the prevalence of self-medication practices among students.
Ewertsson, Mona; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta; Allvin, Renée; Blomberg, Karin
Clinical practice is a pivotal part of nursing education. It provides students with the opportunity to put the knowledge and skills they have acquired from lectures into practice with real patients, under the guidance of registered nurses. Clinical experience is also essential for shaping the nursing students' identity as future professional nurses. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the ways in which students learn practical skills and apply knowledge within and across different contexts, i.e. how they apply clinical skills, learnt in the laboratory in university settings, in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how nursing students describe, and use, their prior experiences related to practical skills during their clinical practice. An ethnographic case study design was used. Fieldwork included participant observations (82 h), informal conversations, and interviews ( n = 7) that were conducted during nursing students' ( n = 17) clinical practice at an emergency department at a university hospital in Sweden. The overarching theme identified was "Learning about professional identities with respect to situated power". This encompasses tensions in students' learning when they are socialized into practical skills in the nursing profession. This overarching theme consists of three sub-themes: "Embodied knowledge", "Divergent ways of assessing and evaluating knowledge" and "Balancing approaches". Nursing students do not automatically possess the ability to transfer knowledge from one setting to another; rather, their development is shaped by their experiences and interactions with others when they meet real patients. The study revealed different ways in which students navigated tensions related to power differentials. Reflecting on actions is a prerequisite for developing and learning practical skills and professional identities. This highlights the importance of both educators' and the preceptors' roles for
Toro, Eleuterio F
High resolution upwind and centred methods are a mature generation of computational techniques applicable to a range of disciplines, Computational Fluid Dynamics being the most prominent. This book gives a practical presentation of this class of techniques.
Full Text Available This paper analyzed the lateral buckling of pipelines located in Western Africa with ABAQUS software. The application of sleepers in practice is explored to guide the pipeline buckling controlling design.
Referring to a relatively restricted field, namely the preparation of expertises in small-scale climatology and air hygiene, the paper wants to give insight into the methods of, and the problems associated with, the numerical modellings used. Frequently occurring tasks are described, the numerical models used are briefly outlined, and some of the problems are discussed which are encountered when using these models. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Aufsatz soll am Beispiel eines relativ eng umgrenzten Themenkreises, naemlich der gutachterlichen Taetigkeit im Bereich der kleinraeumigen Klimatologie und Lufthygiene, einen Einblick in die Methoden und Probleme der dabei eingesetzten numerischen Modellierung geben. Zunaechst werden haeufig auftretende Aufgabenstellungen dargestellt, dann die verwendeten numerischen Modelle kurz vorgestellt und schliesslich einige der Probleme angesprochen, die sich beim praktischen Einsatz dieser Modelle stellen. (orig./KW)
立石, 恵子; 立石, 修康; タテイシ, ケイコ; タテイシ, ノブヤス; Keiko, TATEISHI; Nobuyasu, TATEISHI
The purpose of this study is to investigate students' stress coping in the term of clinical practice. We ded questionnaire to 30 students after clinical practice. The result shows forty-six stress situations were observed. Most of the students felt the stress that the supervisor advied about general manners or behaviors. Such as communication with patients and clinical staffs, students personality, speaking volume. We categorized the stress coping strategies into two types. The result indicat...
Al Qaroot, Bashar S; Sobuh, Mohammad
Problem-based learning (where rather than feeding students the knowledge, they look for it themselves) has long been thought of as an ideal approach in teaching because it would encourage students to acquire knowledge from an undetermined medium of wrong and right answers. However, the effect of such approach in the learning experience of prosthetics and orthotics students has never been investigated. This study explores the implications of integrating problem-based learning into teaching on the students' learning experience via implementing a research-informed clinical practice module into the curriculum of last year prosthetics and orthotics undergraduate students at the University of Jordan (Amman, Jordan). Qualitative research pilot study. Grounded theory approach was used based on the data collected from interviewing a focus group of four students. Students have identified a number of arguments from their experience in the research-informed clinical practice where, generally speaking, students described research-informed clinical practice as a very good method of education. Integrating problem-based learning into teaching has many positive implications. In particular, students pointed out that their learning experience and clinical practice have much improved after the research-informed clinical practice. Findings from this investigation demonstrate that embedding problem-based learning into prosthetics and orthotics students' curriculum has the potential to enhance students' learning experience, particularly students' evidence-based practice. This may lead to graduates who are more knowledgeable and thus who can offer the optimal patient care (i.e. clinical practice). © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan
Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.
Pierce-Talsma, Stacey; Hiserote, R Mitchell; Lund, Gregg
Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is integral in osteopathic medical education. The timing of the loss of interest, leading to decreasing clinical use, is unclear. Osteopathic medical students' activities during laboratories or rotations are determined by laboratory or preceptor requirements and do not characterize students' interest in or how they value OMT. Students who practice OMT when they are not required to may demonstrate that they are interested in, perceive a positive value of, and have confidence in using OMT. To characterize preclinical students practicing OMT during their school break. First- and second-year students at the Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine-CA and the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine were surveyed about whether they practiced OMT during winter break, types of conditions addressed, OMT technique(s) used, their practice partners' response to OMT, and reasons for not practicing OMT, if applicable. Students were also asked if they would have practiced more OMT if they had setups similar to those of the practice environment at school. Of the 499 surveys sent, 407 (81.6%) were returned. Of 407 students, 269 (66.1%) reported that they practiced OMT during winter break, and they used a full range of OMT techniques. Students reported a total of 551 practice partners and 602 complaints. Overall, 429 of 497 practice partners (86.3%) reported they were much improved or improved, and 6 of 497 (1.2%) felt worse or much worse. The most common reasons for not practicing OMT were that no one had complaints (56.3%) and that there was no place to practice (37.3%). More than half of surveyed students showed an interest in practicing OMT when it was not required of them. These findings may imply the need for curriculum changes at osteopathic medical schools to ensure student competency with using OMT techniques that take less time and can be done in a variety of settings and with discussing OMT with practice
Leah M. Courtland
Full Text Available The Tephra2 numerical model for tephra fallout from explosive volcanic eruptions is specifically designed to enable students to probe ideas in model literacy, including code validation and verification, the role of simplifying assumptions, and the concepts of uncertainty and forecasting. This numerical model is implemented on the VHub.org website, a venture in cyberinfrastructure that brings together volcanological models and educational materials. The VHub.org resource provides students with the ability to explore and execute sophisticated numerical models like Tephra2. We present a strategy for using this model to introduce university students to key concepts in the use and evaluation of Tephra2 for probabilistic forecasting of volcanic hazards. Through this critical examination students are encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of the applicability and limitations of hazard models. Although the model and applications are intended for use in both introductory and advanced geoscience courses, they could easily be adapted to work in other disciplines, such as astronomy, physics, computational methods, data analysis, or computer science.
Roulston, Audrey; Cleak, Helen; Vreugdenhil, Anthea
Practice learning is integral to the curriculum for qualifying social work students. Accreditation standards require regular student supervision and exposure to specific learning activities. Most agencies offer high quality placements but organisational cutbacks may affect supervision and restrict the development of competence and professional identity. Undergraduate social work students in Northern Ireland universities (n = 396) were surveyed about the usefulness of the learning activities t...
Silverman, Morton W; Woodruff, Chris; Hardigan, Patrick C
There is an apparent increase in the number of private optometry practices that are closing due to a lack of interested buyers. We examined some of the factors that influence the market for optometry practices in a survey of practicing optometrists and third- and fourth-year optometry students. Optometrists in six states, and students at four schools and colleges of optometry, completed a mailed or faxed survey regarding attitudes toward optometric practice, including fair/reasonable compensation for a new optometrist, the value of optometric practices, and preferred mode of practice on graduation. Doctors and students differed significantly in the amount of money they reported as fair/reasonable compensation for a recently graduated optometrist joining a practice. Comparing students to doctors in specific categories of compensation, students chose a higher fair/reasonable compensation compared to doctors. Students were more likely than doctors to choose >$70,000 as fair/reasonable compensation, while doctors were more likely than students to choose $40,000 to $69,000. Doctors tended to overvalue their practices for the purpose of selling the practice when using percentage of gross income as a valuation method. Students' choices for mode of practice changed dramatically from their ideal when taking their current financial situation into consideration. Students were more likely to choose corporate practice as their preferred practice mode when considering their current financial situation than when not restricted. There are many factors that affect the value and marketability of an optometric practice. In order to sell a practice, the owner must consider the effects of the needs and desires of recently graduated optometrists.
Miksza, Peter; Prichard, Stephanie; Sorbo, Diana
The purpose of this study was to investigate intermediate musicians' self-regulated practice behaviors. Thirty sixth- through eighth-grade students were observed practicing band repertoire individually for 20 min. Practice sessions were coded according to practice frame frequency and duration, length of musical passage selected, most prominent…
Full Text Available Journalism has the potential––and arguably the mandate––to expand public understanding of societally important phenomena. However, some methods for more effectively educating the public have been persistently underutilized: in particular, embedding informative numerical rates and efficient scientific explanations in news reports. In the current era of disrupting and downsizing the news business, the challenges to using such methods have only increased. To address this problem, this article seeks to (a raise awareness about the psychological reasons that help explain why it is crucial to use such elements in news reports, and (b exhibit some methods for doing so that require modest effort. Building on a review of relevant psychological literatures, principles, and existing reporting methods, we describe findings from a series of cognitive-scientific studies that demonstrate how using key––and relatively minimal––scientific and numerical elements can enhance public learning from news reports. We conclude by also describing curricula and resources designed to help journalists and bloggers use these methods.
The article gives an account of an experiment in which sixty-eight high school students of age 16 - 19 developed spreadsheet applications that simulated fall and projectile motion in the air. The students applied the Euler method to solve the governing differential equations. The aim was to promote STEM to the students and motivate them to study…
Gale, Julia; Ooms, Ann; Sharples, Kath; Marks-Maran, Di
To prepare the registered nurse of tomorrow in the United Kingdom (UK) to care for patients in general practice (GP)-led services, today's student nurses need to have the opportunity to experience placements with practice nurses to enable them to make positive career choices to become practice nurses in the future. The role of the practice nurse is described in the article. As a pilot project, seventeen students undertook placements with practice nurses in one of seven GP practices selected by the London GP Deanery and the university as having fulfilled the criteria to support student nurses in placements. A mentorship preparation programme was provided to prepare practice nurses for mentoring these students. An evaluation study was undertaken of this pilot project. Findings showed that students were highly positive about the experience; the majority rated this placement as being as good as or better than previous placement experiences. The evaluation also explored the impact on student learning and the value that the placement had. There was a positive impact on students' knowledge and skills in certain clinical areas especially related to health promotion. Students also indicated that they would like to have additional placements with practice nurses and would consider a career as a practice nurse in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roseamelia, Carrie; Greenwald, James L; Bush, Tiffany; Pratte, Morgan; Wilcox, Jessica; Morley, Christopher P
Rural tracks (RTs) exist within medical schools across the United States. These programs often target those students from rural areas and those with primary care career interests, given that these factors are robust predictors of eventual rural practice. However, only 26% to 64% of graduates from RTs enter eventual rural practice. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory study of medical students enrolled in one school's RT, examining their interests in rural training, specialization, and eventual rural practice, via open coding of transcripts from focus groups and in-depth individual interviews, leading to identification of emerging themes. A total of 16 out of 54 eligible first- and second-year preclinical medical students participated in focus group sessions, and a total of seven out of 17 eligible third- and fourth-year medical students participated in individual interviews. Analyses revealed the recognition of a "Rural Identity," typical characteristics, and the importance of "Program Fit" and "Intentions for Practice" that trended toward family medicine specialization and rural practice. However, nuances within the comments reveal incomplete commitment to rural practice. In many cases, student preference for rural practice was driven largely by a disinterest in urban practice. Students with rural and primary care practice interests are often not perfectly committed to rural practice. However, RTs may provide a haven for such students within medical school.
Egry, E Y
This study sought to determine the beliefs of nursing students on human sexuality, their information sources, and persons influencing their opinion. A survey conducted December 1983 to January 1985 targeted female graduating students in Nursing and Obstetrics at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) School of Nursing; its findings were then compared to similar studies conducted among the general population. The findings show that the target population and general population opinions differ little, reflecting fear and prejudice about sexual practices. Also, the professional training of Brazil's nurses failed to include a fundamental understanding of human sexuality. The 42 respondents are characterized as follows: age 21 to 36 years; 95.2% single; 88% childless; 59.5% born in the city of Sao Paulo; 88% born in the state of Sao Paulo; 85.7% with long term residence in urban areas and state capitals; and 92.5% attended 4 years of nursing school at USP. Results showed: 47.6% favored premarital sex; 26.2% espoused premarital virginity for men and 19% for women; roughly 60% disapproved of extramarital relations for both sexes. 75% considered masturbation normal for both sexes; about 90% approved of contraceptive practices for men and women; 90.5% favored family planning; 26% were strictly against abortion; nearly 60% found prostitution unacceptable for both sexes; and homosexuality in both sexes was considered taboo by 42.8%, and acceptable by 14%. The vast majority favored sexual education at all levels. Regarding sources of sexual infomation: books, magazines and encyclopedias comprised 25%; male friends, 10%; girlfriends, 9.4%; boyfriends 8%; and, the University of Sao Paulo School of Nursing, a mere 6.5%. The persons who influenced their opinions were: first, boyfriend (23.7%) followed by mother, girlfriends and male friends; second, girlfriend (28.5%) followed by boyfriend and male friend; third, girlfriend, boyfriend, male friend, and teachers (7.1% each); fourth
Full Text Available Data presented in this paper are part of the activities of the PRACTeam project Practice of students in economics. Inter-regional partnership between universities and the labor market" project co-financed by European Social Fund Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013 -" Invest in people! "Contract no. POSDRU/90/2.1/S/64150. Identifying the needs of practice activity had as research tools: focus group and questionnaires. Research subjects were third-year students who have completed the practical work from all three partners: Oradea, Timisoara and Suceava. The results obtained in this research were the basis for discussions during the workshop PRACTeam between student representatives, tutors and practice coordinators. Based on the central elements and highlighted problems were developed materials for both tutors and students. The specific objectives of identifying needs for practical training were: to determine administrative and organizational elements deemed most appropriate for students in terms of practical training, identifying methods of communication between all stakeholders (students, coordinators and tutors of practice the most suitable in terms of training students, identifying the strengths and weaknesses in relation to the conduct of practical training Presentation integrates the results with emphasis on elements that can be improved, structured around the following areas: evaluation of the internship, access into the practice, conduct practical work (satisfaction with the relationship with the tutor, satisfaction with relationship with practice coordinator, student satisfaction with the activity, satisfaction with knowledge, skills acquired in satisfaction with the practice, satisfaction with communication with colleagues positive, negative aspects, students' views on improving practice activity.
Arundell, Fiona; Mannix, Judy; Sheehan, Athena; Peters, Kath
To describe midwifery students' practice experience and to explore facilitators and barriers to positive clinical learning experiences. Practice experience is a vital component of every midwifery course. Course dissatisfaction and attrition of midwifery students has been attributed to sub-optimal practice experiences. Events or actions experienced by midwifery students that trigger dissatisfaction and attrition need to be identified. A meta-synthesis was based on that developed by Noblit and Hare. Students perceive workplaces as poorly prepared for their arrival and subsequent support. Students' experience in the practice setting is influenced by the existing workplace culture. Workplace culture influences institutional functioning and individuals within the culture. Enculturation of students into the midwifery culture and subsequent learning is affected by the support received. The practice experience of midwifery students was profoundly influenced by workplace culture. Students tended to have polarized accounts of their experience that were predominantly negative. To provide an optimal environment for midwifery students; midwifery managers and individual midwives need to be aware of the facilitators and barriers to midwifery student development in the practice setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…
Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.
This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health…
Seifert, Tricia A.; Gillig, Benjamin; Hanson, Jana M.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Blaich, Charles F.
Using a multi-institutional sample of undergraduate students, this study found that the relationships between engaging in high impact/good practices and liberal arts outcomes differ based on students' precollege and background characteristics. Findings suggest that high impact/good practices are not a panacea and require a greater degree of…
Wiley, Caroline Rose Hummel
The majority of the research on grading practices thus far examines teachers' perceived grading practices through Likert-type surveys and vignettes regarding generic students. This study is unique because it proposes a more systematic method of qualitative inquiry to examine how teachers perceive grading on an individual student basis by asking…
Lucas, Matthew D.
As the number of students practicing Islam increases it is ever-more important for all educators including special education teachers to understand a variety of specific Islam-related factors for the purpose of improving the education of these students. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present some of the common religious practices found…
With persistent concerns about student engagement, interest and participation in mathematics, this research investigated the range of practices 31 Year 7 mathematics teachers reported using and how they perceived these practices influenced student engagement in mathematics. In-depth interviews revealed similarities in teachers' perceptions of…
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is highly infectious, but preventable diseases and dentists are at increased risk of exposure to saliva and blood of patients during their clinical practice, and so it is of utmost importance that they follow standard guidelines for infection control. Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding infection control measures among dental students of Government Dental College in Punjab. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered pretested questionnaire to dental students and responses were statistically analyzed. The analysis of variance was used to compare means of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores between four groups of study subjects and P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: Although the students have sufficient knowledge regarding hepatitis B, still there are gaps in putting their knowledge into practice. Third and final year students have significantly less mean knowledge and practice scores compared to interns and postgraduate students. The majority of students have a positive attitude and were willing to perform any procedure on hepatitis B-infected patients. Conclusions: Dental students have adequate knowledge and good attitude but still there are some misconceptions. There is poor implementation of standard infection control measures in their practice. Rigorous training programs on preventive practices and regular workshops must be organized on an annual basis in dental colleges. Moreover, hepatitis B vaccination must be made mandatory for students before they start their clinical practice.
Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong
This study aimed to understand the reflective practice of 23 Chinese student teachers in learning communities (LCs) during their practicum in a Confucian heritage culture. The reflective levels of the student teachers and the factors that mediated the effects of LCs on their reflective practice were explored using journals and post-journal…
Miller, Susan Peterson; Butler, Frances M.; Lee, Kit-hung
Presents a review of 54 studies on math practices for students with learning disabilities. Validated practices included strategy and self-regulation interventions. Students benefited from step-by-step processes that guided their thinking and performance when solving math problems. The use of manipulative devices and drawings also were effective.…
Natland, Sidsel; Weissinger, Erika; Graaf, Genevieve; Carnochan, Sarah
The literature on teaching research methods to social work students identifies many challenges, such as dealing with the tensions related to producing research relevant to practice, access to data to teach practice-based research, and limited student interest in learning research methods. This is an exploratory study of the learning experiences of…
Professional Development as a Catalyst for Change in the Community College Science Classroom: How Active Learning Pedagogy Impacts Teaching Practices as Well as Faculty and Student Perceptions of Learning
Harmon, Melissa Cameron
Active learning, an engaging, student-centered, evidence-based pedagogy, has been shown to improve student satisfaction, engagement, and achievement in college classrooms. There have been numerous calls to reform teaching practices, especially in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); however, the utilization of active learning is…
Bartlett, Maggie; Pritchard, Katie; Lewis, Leo; Hays, Richard B; Mckinley, Robert K
One approach to facilitating student interactions with patient pathways at Keele University School of Medicine, England, is the placement of medical students for 25% of their clinical placement time in general practices. The largest component is a 15-week 'student attachment' in primary care during the final year, which required the development of a new network of teaching practices in a rural district of England about 90 km (60 mi) from the main campus in North Staffordshire. The new accommodation and education hub was established in 2011-2012 to enable students to become immersed in those communities and learn about medical practice within a rural and remote context. Objectives were to evaluate the rural teaching from the perspectives of four groups: patients, general practice tutors, community hospital staff and students. Learning outcomes (as measured by objective structured clinical examinations) of students learning in rural practices in the final year were compared with those in other practices. Data were gathered from a variety of sources. Students' scores in cohort-wide clinical assessment were compared with those in other locations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with general practice tutors and community hospital staff. Serial focus groups explored the perceptions of the students, and questionnaires were used to gather the views of patients. Patients reported positive experiences of students in their consultations, with 97% expressing willingness to see students. The majority of patients considered that teaching in general practice was a good thing. They also expressed altruistic ideas about facilitating learning. The tutors were enthusiastic and perceived that teaching had positive impacts on their practices despite negative effects on their workload. The community hospital staff welcomed students and expressed altruistic ideas about helping them learn. There was no significant difference between the rurally placed students' objective
Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G
We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong
OBJECTIVES: This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. METHODS: Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergrad...
Cann, Alan J.
Laboratory practicals classes are an essential component of all science degrees, but are a pinch point because of rising student numbers, rising student expectations and falling student exposure to laboratory work prior to entering higher education. Augmentation of physical laboratory work with online interventions is not new, but as virtual…
Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa
Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…
Student-faculty partnerships position students as informants, participants, and change agents in collaboration with faculty members. Enacting one form of such collaboration, Bryn Mawr College's SaLT program pairs faculty members and undergraduate students in explorations of pedagogical practice. The program provides both context and case study for…
Purpose of this study is to determine to what extent practice skills of students, training in gastronomy education, meet the expectations of food and beverage industry. In the study, 197 students training internship in 27 different firms of total 1540 students training in gastronomy education at higher education level in Turkey were reached by…
Clark, Taylorann K.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Technology is becoming increasingly popular in higher education in the way students are asked to communicate and collaborate. The student teaching experience is an integral part of developing critical thinking skills in pre-service teachers. During this experience, it is important that student teachers practice the theory they have been taught in…
This study examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of secondary schools students with regard to waste management. Few studies have captured waste management problems in Nigerian educational institutions, particularly the views of students. Using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, 650 students were surveyed from six…
Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.
Practical courses in information security provide students with first-hand knowledge of technical security mechanisms and their weaknesses. However, teaching students only the technical side of information security leads to a generation of students that emphasize digital solutions, but ignore the
Ismail, Wail; Zailani, Muhammad Azhar; Awad, Zakaria Alcheikh Mahmoud; Hussin, Zaharah; Faisal, Mohd; Saad, Rahimi
Nowadays, more and more countries are paying attention to graduates' language skill and sending their students abroad to learn languages. As an Islamic country, Malaysia has sent many students to learn Arabic language and Islamic knowledge. This paper aims at examining the level of practice of Arabic language among Malaysian students in Jordanian…
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Albarracín, Ana L; Farfán, Fernando D; Coletti, Marcos A; Teruya, Pablo Y; Felice, Carmelo J
The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Biomedical Engineering career, we offer short and optional courses to complement studies for students as they initiate their Graduation Project. The objective of these theoretical and practical courses is to introduce students to the topics of their projects. The present work describes an experience in electrophysiology to teach undergraduate students how to extract cortical information using electrocorticographic techniques. Students actively participate in some parts of the experience and then process and analyze the data obtained with different signal processing tools. In postlaboratory evaluations, students described the course as an exceptional opportunity for students interested in following a postgraduate science program and fully appreciated their contents. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Powell, Gwynn M.; Duffy, Lauren N.; Stone, Garrett; Pinckney, Harrison P., IV.; Tucker, Teresa; Cathey, Jamie
This document highlights numerous ideas that faculty can implement to provide a triple gain, that is, a gain for students, professionals and faculty through collaborative work. We will explore traditional and innovative connections that can be made between recreation professionals, students, and faculty, within parks, recreation, and tourism…
Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos
Few studies analyze determinants and patterns of physical activity among college students, so it has not been possible to carry out effective interventions to promote this practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between some personal, social, and environmental determinants, practice of physical activity and future intention to practice in a sample of 639 university students (321 men and 318 women), mean age 21.43 years (+/- 2.78). Physical fitness self-perception, physical activity history, and coach's support to practice physical activity have a direct effect on the practice of physical activity and an indirect effect on future intention to practice, both in men and women. The practice of physical activity has also a direct effect on future intention to practice. Likewise, the participation in sport competitions predicts practice of physical activity and future intention in men, whereas being a member of a sports club predicts practice and future intention in women.
Murata, Kyoko; Sakuma, Mio; Seki, Susumu; Morimoto, Takeshi
It is essential for medical students to interact directly with patients. However, patients may be reluctant to be seen by medical students in settings in which they may also be seen by senior staff. To understand patients' attitudes toward practice by medical students and consider the factors involved in obtaining patients' cooperation, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. We randomly selected 2,400 adult participants from all over Japan. Trained research assistants inquired about participants' experiences and attitudes toward practice by medical students using a questionnaire. We compared differences in attitudes between participants who were accepting of practice by medical students and those who were not, as well as differences between participants who had experienced practice by a medical student versus those who had not. A total of 1,109 (46%) participants were included in the study. Eleven percent (117/1109) of the participants had experienced practice by a medical student. One fourth of participants were accepting of practice by medical students, and experienced participants were significantly more likely to be accepting of practice by medical students than inexperienced participants (45% vs. 24%, ppractice by medical students among accepting participants with previous experiences included "polite," "kind," and "hard-working." Fifty-nine percent (637/1088) of participants indicated that they would request a senior staff member's supervision when being seen by a medical student. The present nationwide survey suggests that education emphasizing bedside manner may be effective in promoting patients' cooperation of medical students. In addition, providing information to patients about medical students and efforts to increase supervision during clinical clerkship should be emphasized to foster the public's cooperation.
Hills, Caroline; Ryan, Susan; Smith, Derek R; Warren-Forward, Helen
Many occupational therapy students can be classified as 'Generation Y', a group whose characteristics are perceived as being confident, optimistic and 'techno-savvy'. This study aimed to explore practice educator perceptions of 'Generation Y' students. A questionnaire survey was sent to all practice educators affiliated with the university. The survey contained fixed choice questions on demographics and educators' knowledge of the term 'Generation Y', followed by open-ended questions on practice educator perceptions of occupational therapy 'Generation Y' students and the educational strategies used in practice education. Anonymous responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, attribute coding and content analysis. Most educators considered that there was, in fact, a 'Generation Y student', describing them as confident with technology, over confident in their skill level and easily bored. Practice educators raised concerns regarding students' casual communication, poor professional behaviour, shallow professional reasoning and difficulty when receiving negative feedback. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 'Generation Y' students are having both a negative and a positive impact on practice education in occupational therapy. For educators, management of the overconfident student and professional reasoning development should be addressed in university practice education workshops. For students, the need for clarification of placement expectations on professional behaviour and communication was indicated. Students may also require 'listening to feedback' skill development prior to practice education. Universities and practice educators should consider the development of technological resources for practice education, including simulation, to meet the needs of the, now recognised 'Generation Y' student. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Richard, Craig A H; Hastings, Justine F; Bryant, Jennifer E
To examine pharmacy students' ownership of, use of, and preference for using a mobile device in a practice setting. Eighty-one pharmacy students were recruited and completed a pretest that collected information about their demographics and mobile devices and also had them rank the iPhone, iPad mini, and iPad for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. Students used the 3 devices to perform pharmacy practice-related tasks and then completed a posttest to again rank the devices for preferred use in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly owned mobile device (59.3% of students), and the iPad mini was the least commonly owned (18.5%). About 70% of the students used their mobile devices at least once a week in a pharmacy practice setting. The iPhone was the most commonly used device in a practice setting (46.9% of students), and the iPod Touch was the least commonly used device (1.2%). The iPad mini was the most preferred device for use in a pharmacy practice setting prior to performing pharmacy practice-related tasks (49.4% of students), and was preferred by significantly more students after performing the tasks (70.4%). Pharmacy students commonly use their mobile devices in pharmacy practice settings and most selected the iPad mini as the preferred device for use in a practice setting even though it was the device owned by the fewest students.
Wanda, Dessie; Fowler, Cathrine; Wilson, Valerie
Reflective practice is now widely used as a critical learning tool in undergraduate and postgraduate nursing programs in most developed countries. However in developing countries, reflective practice is in its infancy. To introduce reflective practice to postgraduate students in an Indonesian nursing education institution. This paper presents the positive meanings of reflection and reflective practice experienced by the students and the way they used reflection within their practice. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the meaning of reflection or reflective practice using flashcards. A clinical reflective practice model taking into consideration Indonesian culture was developed and applied during students' clinical placement. A few weeks post clinical placement, 21 students participated in an evaluation session. The meaning of reflection or reflective practice was explored using flash cards containing images of people and environment with different situations and events. Students were asked to choose a card that represented their viewpoints about reflective practice and share it with the group. Data were digitally captured and analyzed using thematic analysis. Reflection provided a positive experience for the students. In their own words, they discussed their journey of using reflection during the clinical placement period. The use of reflection was identified as expanding their view of nursing practice, providing a safe place to explore their experiences and clarity when they encountered challenging situations during their clinical practice. Reflecting on practice experiences resulted in increased self-awareness, and enhanced their learning. The findings indicate that reflective practice can be implemented successfully in Indonesia and may have value for other Eastern countries that share similar cultural characteristics. The use of flash cards assisted the students describe through stories their experiences of participating in this
Rao, G Shanker
About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...
Lee, Jung In; Brunskill, Emma
When modeling student learning, tutors that use the Knowledge Tracing framework often assume that all students have the same set of model parameters. We find that when fitting parameters to individual students, there is significant variation among the individual's parameters. We examine if this variation is important in terms of instructional…
The percentage is used to show that the level of the performance and achievement of the students. The findings suggest that possible intervention to help the students score high academic achievement should focus on teachers' training, enabling students to work hard persevere to succeed, identifying effective study ...
Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2016
It has come to the Department of Education's (ED's) attention that many transgender students (i.e., students whose gender identity is different from the sex they were assigned at birth) report feeling unsafe and experiencing verbal and physical harassment or assault in school, and that these students may perform worse academically when they are…
Bebermeier, Sarah; Reiss, Katharina
This article outlines the execution of a workshop in which students were encouraged to actively review the course contents on descriptive statistics by creating exercises for their fellow students. In a first-year statistics course in psychology, 39 out of 155 students participated in the workshop. In a subsequent evaluation, the workshop was…
Thomas, Aliki; Han, Lu; Osler, Brittony P; Turnbull, Emily A; Douglas, Erin
Most health professions, including occupational therapy, have made the application of evidence-based practice a desired competency and professional responsibility. Despite the increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice for improving patient outcomes, there are numerous research-practice gaps in the health professions. In addition to efforts aimed at promoting evidence-based practice with clinicians, there is a strong impetus for university programs to design curricula that will support the development of the knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviours associated with evidence-based practice. Though occupational therapy curricula in North America are becoming increasingly focused on evidence-based practice, research on students' attitudes towards evidence-based practice, their perceptions regarding the integration and impact of this content within the curricula, and the impact of the curriculum on their readiness for evidence-based practice is scarce. The present study examined occupational therapy students' perceptions towards the teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice within a professional master's curriculum and their self-efficacy for evidence-based practice. The study used a mixed methods explanatory sequential design. The quantitative phase included a cross-sectional questionnaire exploring attitudes towards evidence-based practice, perceptions of the teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice and evidence-based practice self-efficacy for four cohorts of students enrolled in the program and a cohort of new graduates. The questionnaire was followed by a focus group of senior students aimed at further exploring the quantitative findings. All student cohorts held favourable attitudes towards evidence-based practice; there was no difference across cohorts. There were significant differences with regards to perceptions of the teaching and assessment of evidence-based practice within the curriculum; junior cohorts and students with previous
Poorterman, J H G; Dikkes, B T; Brand, H S
In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental students, amongst other non-qualified individuals, to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental students have part-time employment in dental practice and which professional tasks they carry out. We also asked the dental students their opinion about the IHCP Act. All the enrolled dental students at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA) in the Netherlands received a questionnaire by e-mail. Within 1 month, two reminders were sent. The response was 44% (427 students). Of the responding students, 71% had paid employment in addition to their study. Twenty-five per cent of all students worked in a dental practice, usually 8 h a week. Study year and age were positively related to working part-time in dental practice. Activities frequently performed were providing chair side assistance, giving oral hygiene instruction, fluoride applications, scaling and root planning. The self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was positively related to study year and working in a dental practice. Hardly any information about the requirements of the IHCP Act with regard to delegation of tasks was provided by the employer. Many Dutch dental students work in a dental practice, taking over a variety of tasks. Although the self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was relatively high, many dental students expressed the need for more detailed information about the legal aspects of their tasks.
Poorterman, J H G; Dikkes, B T; Brand, H S
Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have part-time job employment in dental practice and which professional tasks they carry out. We also asked the dental hygiene students their opinion of the IHCP Act. All the enrolled dental hygiene students (n = 341) at a School of Health in the Netherlands received a questionnaire by email. The response was 52% (176 students). Of the responding students, 75% had paid employment in addition to their study. A proportion of the students (35%) worked in a dental practice. The median number of hours worked per week was eight. Study year, age and prior education were positively related to working part-time in dental practice. Activities frequently performed were giving oral hygiene instruction, fluoride applications, scaling and root planning, providing chair side assistance and giving local anaesthesia. Although the self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was high, almost half of the students expressed the need for more detailed legal information. Many dental hygiene students work in a dental practice, taking over a number of tasks usually performed by the dentist. More information in the dental hygiene curriculum about the requirements of the IHCP Act seems desirable.
Cultural differences in educational practices can be regarded as one of the major causes of struggle and failure. If these practices take place in foreign language settings where the medium of communication is carried out solely in the foreign language, the severity of the struggle on the part of the students rises significantly. In this study, cultural differences in educational practices are examined through the experiences of a Korean graduate student who studies in a north-eastern America...
Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine
Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.
Kuiper, Els; de Pater-Sneep, Martie
Drill-and-practice mathematics software offers teachers a relatively simple way to use technology in the classroom. One of the reasons to use the software may be that it motivates children, working on the computer being more "fun" than doing regular school work. However, students' own perceptions of such software are seldom studied. This article reports on a study on the opinions of Grade 5 and 6 students regarding two mathematics drill-and-practice software packages. In total, 329 students from ten Dutch primary schools took part in the study. The results show that a majority of the students preferred to work in their exercise book, for various reasons. Especially the rigid structure of the software is mentioned as a negative aspect by students. The elaborate arguments students used illustrate the importance of taking their opinions into account already at the primary level. Students' perceptions also show that the idea of ICT as naturally motivating for students may need modification.
Full Text Available The study was made to determine violence experienced by nurse students in clinical settings. It was applied to the School of Health Nursing Student of a university during a week in June, 2010. There were 360 students, 53 of whom were senior, 60 of whom were thirdyear, 114 of whom were sophomore, 79 of whom were first-year and 102 of whom were prep-school students, at the school. Students in preparatory classes were not included in the scope of the study since they didn't take applied courses. 70,58% of the students were reached. It was determined that the students were often exposed to verbal abuse and sexism in clinical setting and the abuse was performed by their colleagues.
Full Text Available Purpose: To survey the level of BSE practice among female nursing students in Aceh, and the degree of self-efficacy in those who did practice it.Method: Seventy-six nursing students from the Public Nursing College, Syiah Kuala University in Aceh who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Stratified proportionate random sampling was used to determine the required number of first, second, and third year students. BSE self-efficacy of the students was measured by the BSE Self-Efficacy Questionnaire which was modified from an existing tool developed by Khatun (2010. In addition, the students’ doing BSE or not was measured by BSE Practice Questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics.Result: Only 39.5% of the students practiced BSE with more than half of the students saying they did not practice BSE (60.5%. The main factors that influenced the students’ performing BSE were not having a family history of breast cancer, single, and no history of breast illness. Among the thirty students who practiced BSE, most of them did not practice it routinely (70%, nor at the correct time (86.7%, and their confidence in performing BSE was at a moderate level overall, with a high level for BSE procedural efficacy and moderate level for barrier management efficacy.Conclusion: A majority of the Acehnese nursing students did not practice BSE, and those who did had only a moderate level of BSE self-efficacy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest emphasizing the need to teach nursing students about BSE in their undergraduate courses, with future follow-up research regarding the success of the educational program.Keywords: practice, self-efficacy, breast self-examination (BSE, nursing students
VonDras, Dean D.
This article discusses self-assessment of gerontology teaching practice. Through a process of self-reflection one may find insight into their teaching and, concomitantly, develop best-practices for enhancing student learning in gerontology. A self-assessment framework is presented, illuminating best-practices in the areas of the lecture-discussion…
Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.
The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…
Manning, Kim Elise
This Delphi study explored the instructional practices of community college faculty who were teaching blended or Web-assisted courses and how these practices influenced student persistence. The Delphi method provided qualitative data in the form of expert advice through consensus building on the instructional practices most likely to influence…
Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Laschinger, Heather K S
To examine the relationship between nursing students' exposure to various forms of incivility in acute care practice settings and their experience of burnout. Given that staff nurses and new nurse graduates are experiencing incivility and burnout in the workplace, it is plausible that nursing students share similar experiences in professional practice settings. A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess Year 4 nursing students' (n=126) perceptions of their experiences of incivility and burnout in the clinical learning environment. Students completed instruments to assess frequency of uncivil behaviors experienced during the past six months from nursing staff, clinical instructors, and other health professionals in the acute care practice setting and to measure student burnout. Reported incidences of incivility in the practice setting were related to burnout. Higher rates of incivility, particularly from staff nurses, were associated with higher levels of both components of burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism).
Walsh, Audrey; Taylor, Claudette; Brennick, Debbie
Background Young adult university students living on campus are at an increased risk of developing lifestyle habits that encourage unintentional weight gain. Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and contextual factors that influence campus dwelling university students' facility to practice healthy living guidelines that reduce their risk of unintentional weight gain. Lifestyle practices included nutrition, physical activity, and sleep. Methods For seven days, 48 campus dwelling students recorded their activities and reflected on how closely they were able to follow recommended healthy living guidelines. Recorded data were supplemented by follow-up focus groups. All data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Students described multiple factors and conditions that influenced their facility to practice healthy living guidelines for nutrition, activity, and sleep. Many students' lifestyle practices put them at an increased risk of unintentional weight gain. Conclusions The campus environment challenges student's facility to practice healthy living guidelines. Nurses can intervene to build individual student capacity and to advocate for environmental polices that increase students' facility to choose lifestyle practices that promote health, lessen their risk of unintentional weight gain, and reduce their risk of developing chronic illness.
Hegde, Shreelaxmi V; Rao, Swathi K; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Shetty, Sowmya
Medical students often experience significant stress during their undergraduate training. Evidence has shown short-term yoga to be effective in decreasing stress in students. This study aimed to assess knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of (KAP) yoga among medical students. A secondary objective was to analyze their dietary habits and physical activity. Participants consisted of 224 medical students aged 18-23 years in pre- and paraclinical groups. A closed-ended KAP questionnaire was used to collect data. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Results showed that paraclinical students (70.5%) favorably perceived the health benefits of yoga. Nearly three-fourths of study subjects had previously practiced yoga; greater numbers intended to practice yoga in the future. About 95.5% of the preclinical students who had done yoga had discontinued the practice. Perceived barriers to the practice of yoga were lack of time, insufficient facilities, lack of company, and lack of interest. Consideration of the undergraduates' lifestyle revealed that 50.4% of preclinical students did not exercise, and they routinely consumed more junk food with fewer servings of fresh fruits/salads. Preclinical students exhibited higher BMI and waist circumference compared to paraclinical students. Findings suggest that knowledge of and attitude regarding yoga were good among medical undergraduates.
Full Text Available This article is part of a larger study on teacher development. The main study investigated teacher development within primary school Mathematics teachers’ classrooms to determine if teaching practices could be enhanced through a didactisation-based programme. It sought to develop teachers within their own environments and classrooms. Design research (both designing the conditions for change and studying the results of those conditions enabled the researchers to design a programme that was congruent with teachers’ own needs and experiences. The programme ran for a period of a year with regular contact between the teachers and the researcher conducting the programme (the first author. The programme set out nine didactisation practices: active students, differentiation, mathematisation, vertically aligned lessons, accessing student thinking and ideas, probing student thinking and ideas, connecting student ideas, assessing students and reflecting on practice. One practice, student activity, is the focus of this article. It was found that by initiating discussion and cognitive conflict in teachers by using modelling problems, and further allowing teachers to observe pupils working in groups with modelling problems, teachers were starting to incorporate the didactisation practices within their own classrooms. This article documents specifically the fundamental role of student mathematical activity and the importance of improving student mathematical experiences, both for teacher development and for student mathematical learning. The study may be valuable in structuring and planning further effective teacher development programmes.
Décamps, Greg; Boujut, Emilie; Brisset, Camille
College students at university have to face several stress factors. Although sports practice has been considered as having beneficial effects upon stress and general health, few studies have documented its influence on this specific population. The aim of this comparative study was to determine whether the intensity of the college students' sports practice (categorized into three groups: rare, regular, or intensive) would influence their levels of stress and self-efficacy, their coping strategies, and their academic success/failure. Three self-completion questionnaires were administered to 1071 French freshmen during their compulsory medical visit at the preventive medicine service of the university. Results indicated that students with intensive sport practice reported lower scores of general stress, academic stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies, and higher scores of self-efficacy than those with rare practice. However, the proportion of successful students did not differ significantly between the three groups of sports practice.
Abdullah T. Eissa
Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.
Jahanpour, Faezeh; Azodi, Parviz; Azodi, Farzan; Khansir, Ali Akbar
Clinical training is an integral part of nursing education; however, some studies have shown that it is not always efficient. This study aimed to find out the factors that can impede nursing students' clinical learning. In this qualitative study, data were collected via reflective journal writing. Purposeful sampling was used, and 12 senior nursing students were recruited to the study. The data were analyzed using a content analysis method. Three main categories were derived, including inappropriate communication, ineffective role models, and theory-practice gaps. Students perceived that inappropriate communication between instructors, staff members, and students had the greatest impact on student learning. The competence of clinical instructors and staff is an important factor affecting students' training. The clinical learning environment does not always integrate theory and practice together. Nursing students did not experience effective clinical learning. Having expert instructors and supportive communication are important factors in creating a clinical learning environment.
Gagova, P; Boninska, N.; Jovchev, D.
Full text: Introduction: Training of X-ray technicians in Bulgaria takes place in the Medical Colleges to Medical Universities. It's purpose is providing professional training of students in the area of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Practical training is based on the scientific and theoretical knowledge and skills and is organized in pedagogic environment, adequate to regularities for a gradual formation of practical skills and habits. The practical training and pre-graduation internship are performed in 1895 from total of 3810 hours, which represents about fifty percent of all training of X-ray technicians. Students are in groups of 2-4 students. Practical training is organized, accomplished and monitored by the teacher training practice with the help of a mentor in the clinical base. Purpose: To present the tasks of practical training of students - X-ray technicians and the requirements for the personal characteristics and activity of mentors. Materials and methods: Documentary method has been used. Literature and normative documents related to the practical training of students in 'X-ray technician' of Medical Colleges have been studied. The job descriptions of senior clinical X-ray technicians have been examined carefully. Results: By analyzing literature sources, we have structured the tasks of practical training and pre-graduation internship of students - X-ray technicians, also we have described the requirements for personal qualities of mentors and systematize the activities they perform. Conclusion: Practical training plays an important role in adaptation of young X-ray technicians to the conditions of medical work, improving their skills and habits, and to the development of specific practical skills for being able to respond to emergency conditions and to solve complicated practical situations. The mentor is the supervisor and the controller of interns who helps this happen through his own example, qualities and attitudes towards
Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.
International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…
This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…
Nason, Kristen Kendrick
The problem addressed in this cross-sectional, quantitative study was a continual stagnation in student achievement in one U.S. state, which is critical to stakeholders responsible for increasing student advancement in college and the 21st century workforce. Specifically, the objective was to identify the relationship between principal-perceived…
Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high‑risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, ...
Hansen, Katharine; Oliphant, Gary C.; Oliphant, Becky J.; Hansen, Randall S.
Studies have shown the importance of employment interview preparation in boosting the confidence and performance of students and jobseekers when they interview. This article reviews several techniques for preparing students for mock job interviews and, hence, actual job interviews. For instructors who would like to enhance the learning value of…
Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia
Objective: This study sought to employ a mixed-methods approach to (a) qualitatively explore responsible drinking beliefs and behaviors among a sample of college students, and (b) quantitatively assess the prevalence of those behaviors. Participants: Convenience samples, drawn from currently enrolled students attending a large public university in…
Maria Assunta Busato
Full Text Available Introduction: Healthy eating has to be in accordance with food needs taking into account culture, race, gender, ethnicity, financial condition and aspects of quality, variety, balance and moderation.Objective: To know the perceptions about the environment and healthy food of undergraduate students as well as assessing their eating habits.Method: This is a prospective observational study conducted at a university in Santa Catarina involving undergraduate students from courses in Health Sciences. Of the 1816 students enrolled in 2014/1, 10% were randomly selected, of both genders, including students of all courses.Results: 175 students participated in the research, 81.14% (n = 142 were female. Their age ranged from 18 to 30 years old. More than half of students 58% (n = 101, have no income, however they receive financial help from their parents, and 61% (n = 106 of the students have their meals at home, and 58% (n = 101 prepare their own meal. 47% (n = 83 take on average 15-30 minutes to eat and 51% (n = 90 classified the environment where they have meals as peaceful, among family/friends. 89% (n = 156 consider lunchtime as the main meal consuming rice, beans, meat and salad. For dinner 62% (n = 108 prefer snacks and lighter meals and 5% (n = 10 do not dine. Conclusion: The understanding of the environment and healthy eating showed that students grant special importance for being in a clean and pleasant environment, which was highlighted as fundamental to a good nutrition.
Isernhagen, Jody C.; Bulkin, Nadia
This article examines the effects that high mobility can have on highly mobile students, non-mobile students, teachers, and schools, with particular focus on the effect of high mobility on academic achievement. A mixed-methods study with data collected from public schools in Nebraska during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 school years finds that…
Collaborative work is widely regarded as a valuable tool in the development of student-centred learning. Its importance can be viewed in two ways: First of all, when students are regularly exposed to collaborative work (i.e. pair work or group work) they are likely to develop or improve a range of communication and interpersonal skills. It is also…
Writing a literature review requires highly sophisticated academic literacies. Many postgraduate students find this genre a challenge. While there is a growing awareness of the need for explicit pedagogy to support students writing this genre, many pedagogical interventions fail to move beyond a focus on citations as a stylistic convention or as a…
knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV ... Most of the students surveyed 63.0% (58/92) considered vaccine is safe and .... blood, 70.7% (65/92) during delivery from the infected mothers .... The complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in >95% of infants, children.
Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich
The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…
Ulasewicz, Connie; Vouchilas, Gus
The purpose of this study was to gather information on the perceptions of sustainability in design held by family and consumer sciences (FCS) students majoring in interior design and apparel design/merchandising. Likert-scale responses were used to explore differences and similarities between students in the two majors. Overall, interior design…
This pedagogical paper describes and discusses a teaching activity of intercultural education for mobile students developed within the European IEREST project (http://ierest-project.eu/). The activity "24 h Erasmus Life" aims at making students reflect on four interrelated areas of their sojourn: the emotional impact of living abroad,…
Bailey, Tabitha L.; Brown, Abbie
Recommendations for planning and development of online student services based on a review of the literature on research conducted in a variety of college settings. Focus topics include the institutional website, help desks and information centers, student orientation, academic support, and library services.
In this article we aim to establish the ways in which these experiences influence the student teachers' perception of the teaching profession. Semi-structured interviews with all student teachers were used to collect the data while content analysis was used to identify themes and analyse the data. We established that, despite ...
Barnhill, Gena P.
With the increasing number of students with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) enrolling in college, it has become apparent that support services are greatly needed to assist these students in navigating college life, both academically and socially. Yet, there is a dearth of research describing the specific supports needed…
Remus, Kristin E; Honigberg, Michael; Tummalapalli, Sri Lekha; Cohen, Laura P; Fazio, Sara; Weinstein, Amy R
In the current transformative health care landscape, it is imperative that clinician educators inspire future clinicians to practice primary care in a dynamic environment. A focus on patient-centered, goal-oriented care for patients with chronic conditions is critical. In 2009, Harvard Medical School founded the Crimson Care Collaborative, a student-faculty collaborative practice (SFCP) network. With the aim of expanding clinical and educational opportunities for medical students and improving patient control of chronic disease (i.e., hypertension, obesity, and diabetes) in an innovative learning environment, in 2012, the authors developed a novel SFCP at their hospital-based academic primary care practice. In this SFCP, students learn to explore patient priorities, provide focused counseling and education, and assist patients with self-management goals during clinical visits. From 2012 to 2014, 250 student volunteers participated in the SFCP as clinicians, innovators, educators, and leaders, with between 80 and 95 medical students engaging each semester. Between January 2012 and March 2014, there were 476 urgent care or chronic disease management visits. Patients with chronic diseases were seen at least twice on average, and by 2014, chronic disease management visits accounted for approximately 74% of visits. Work is under way to create assessment tools to evaluate the practice's educa tional impact and student understanding of the current health care system, develop interdisciplinary care teams, expand efforts in registry management and broaden the patient recruitment scope, further emphasize patient engage ment and retention, and evaluate chronic disease management and patient satisfaction effectiveness.
Magid, Margret S; Shah, Darshana T; Cambor, Carolyn L; Conran, Richard M; Lin, Amy Y; Peerschke, Ellinor I B; Pessin, Melissa S; Harris, Ilene B
The practice of pathology is not generally addressed in the undergraduate medical school curriculum. It is desirable to develop practical pathology competencies in the fields of anatomic pathology and laboratory medicine for every graduating medical student to facilitate (1) instruction in effective utilization of these services for optimal patient care, (2) recognition of the role of pathologists and laboratory scientists as consultants, and (3) exposure to the field of pathology as a possible career choice. A national committee was formed, including experts in anatomic pathology and/or laboratory medicine and in medical education. Suggested practical pathology competencies were developed in 9 subspecialty domains based on literature review and committee deliberations. The competencies were distributed in the form of a survey in late 2012 through the first half of 2013 to the medical education community for feedback, which was subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. An approval rate of ≥80% constituted consensus for adoption of a competency, with additional inclusions/modifications considered following committee review of comments. The survey included 79 proposed competencies. There were 265 respondents, the majority being pathologists. Seventy-two percent (57 of 79) of the competencies were approved by ≥80% of respondents. Numerous comments (N = 503) provided a robust resource for qualitative analysis. Following committee review, 71 competencies (including 27 modified and 3 new competencies) were considered to be essential for undifferentiated graduating medical students. Guidelines for practical pathology competencies have been developed, with the hope that they will be implemented in undergraduate medical school curricula.
Davy, S; O'Keeffe, G W; Mahony, N; Phelan, N; Barry, D S
Anatomy educators are increasing their utilisation of radiology in anatomy education in line with growing requirements for undergraduate radiology competency and clinical need. We aimed to evaluate student perceptions of radiology and to outline the technical and academic considerations underlying the integration of radiology into musculoskeletal practical anatomy sessions. The formal integration of radiology into anatomy practical sessions took place over a 5-week period during the lower limb musculoskeletal component of the anatomy course taught to first-year medical students. During practical sessions, students were required to rotate between aligned audio-visual radiology presentations, osteology/anatomical models, and prosection/dissection learning stations. After completing the course, students were invited to complete a survey to establish their opinions on radiology as a mode of learning and their satisfaction with radiological integration in anatomical practical sessions. Most students were not familiar with radiology prior to attending our university. All our students agreed or strongly agreed that learning to read radiographs in anatomy is important and most agreed that radiology is a valid assessment tool. Sixty percent stated that radiology facilitated their understanding of anatomy. The majority believed that radiology was best suited to clinically relevant anatomy and X-rays were their preferred learning tool. The practical approach to integrating radiology into undergraduate musculoskeletal anatomy described here did not place strain on existing academic resources. Most students agreed that radiology should be increased in anatomy education and that learning to understand radiographs in anatomy was important for clinical practice.
The aim of this study is to review international scientific articles about pedagogical strategies to teach nursing students at bachelor degree evidence-based practice (EBP). A literature review including peer reviewed, original, empirical articles describing pedagogical interventions aimed at teaching bachelor's degree nursing students EBP in the period 2004-2014. Theories of discretion, knowledge transfer and cognitive maturity development are used as analytical perspectives. The main challenge teaching evidence based practice is that the students fail to see how research findings contribute to nursing practice. The pedagogical strategies described are student active learning methods to teach the students information literacy and research topics. Information literacy is mainly taught according to the stages of EBP. These stages focus on how to elaborate evidence from research findings for implementation into nursing practice. The articles reviewed mainly use qualitative, descriptive designs and formative evaluations of the pedagogical interventions. Although a considerable effort in teaching information literacy and research topics, nursing students still struggle to see the relevance evidence for nursing practice. Before being introduced to information literacy and research topics, students need insight into knowledge transfer and their own epistemic assumptions. Knowledge transfer related to clinical problems should be the learning situations prioritized when teaching EBP at bachelor level. Theoretical perspectives of cognitive maturity development, knowledge transfer and discretion in professional practice give alternative ways of designing pedagogical strategies for EBP. More research is needed to develop and test pedagogical strategies for EBP in light of these theories. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tee, Stephen; Cowen, Michelle
Good practice demands a clinical practice culture positively disposed to students with disabilities. Equality legislation seeks to protect those with a disability from either direct or indirect discrimination. The balance between providing "reasonable adjustments" for the student, whilst ensuring "Fitness to Practice", and ultimate employability, requires a close partnership between higher education and practice mentors. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a range of interactive resources, used in the preparation of mentors to help them address the specific learning needs of disabled students. The evaluation revealed the benefit of student 'stories' in helping mentors to understand the support needs of disabled students and ensure reasonable adjustments are implemented in compliance with disability legislation. The interactive resources have been helpful in promoting positive action towards disabled students' learning, empathic understanding of mental health issues and knowledge and skills acquisition in support of dyslexic students. Implementing reasonable adjustments in practice requires a close working partnership between HEI's and mentors who appreciate support in understanding the development and application of coping strategies to overcome disabilities. Effective preparation of mentors is essential to ensure that opportunities for disabled students to succeed are maximised. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Timothy G. Harrison
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study made on the impact of improved deployment of science technicians in the classroom could directly benefit students in practical science investigations. Science technicians are skilled individuals whose understanding of practical work is a valuable resource not being used of in support of students understanding of science. Aspects of practical work and technician support were scrutinised, through information attained from a post-16 student survey to improve understanding about this teaching tool, to establish if it was being used to its full potential within science lessons. Analysis was also made of students’ perceptions of school science. The main outcomes were that the majority of students enjoyed science practical work and felt that science could not be taught without it. Students studying science at pre-university level attained a greater understanding, through participating in relevant practical work, than students who had studied it at earlier, compulsory levels. Students reported that science technicians provide impact on student learning when contact time was the greatest.
Larson, Kristine E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Day-Vines, Norma L.
The discipline gap between White students and African American students has increased demand for teacher training in culturally responsive and behavior management practices. Extant research, however, is inconclusive about how culturally responsive teaching practices relate to student behavior or how to assess using such practices in the classroom.…
Ie, Kenya; Murata, Akiko; Tahara, Masao; Komiyama, Manabu; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Takemura, Yousuke C; Onishi, Hirotaka
Few studies have systematically explored factors affecting medical students' general practice career choice. We conducted a nationwide multicenter survey (Japan MEdical Career of Students: JMECS) to examine factors associated with students' general practice career aspirations in Japan, where it has been decided that general practice will be officially acknowledged as a new discipline. From April to December 2015, we distributed a 21-item questionnaire to final year medical students in 17 medical schools. The survey asked students about their top three career preferences from 19 specialty fields, their demographics and their career priorities. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the effect of each item. A total of 1264 responses were included in the analyses. The top three specialty choice were internal medicine: 833 (65.9%), general practice: 408 (32.3%), and pediatrics: 372 (29.4%). Among demographic factors, "plan to inherit other's practice" positively associated with choosing general practice, whereas "having physician parent" had negative correlation. After controlling for potential confounders, students who ranked the following items as highly important were more likely to choose general practice: "clinical diagnostic reasoning (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.94)", "community-oriented practice (aOR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57)", and" involvement in preventive medicine (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.38)". On the contrary, "acute care rather than chronic care", "mastering advanced procedures", and "depth rather than breadth of practice" were less likely to be associated with general practice aspiration. Our nationwide multicenter survey found several features associated with general practice career aspirations: clinical diagnostic reasoning; community-oriented practice; and preventive medicine. These results can be fundamental to future research and the development of recruitment strategies.
Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye
Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.
Gage, Nicholas A.; Scott, Terrance; Hirn, Regina; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.
Teachers' classroom management practices have a direct impact on their students' probability of success. Evidence-based classroom management practices include (a) active instruction and supervision of students (i.e., teaching), (b) opportunities for students to respond, and (c) feedback to students. In this study, we examined the degree to which…
This paper reports an interpretive study that sought students' views about the role that practical work plays in their school science lessons. Twenty-nine students aged between 13 and 16 years were selected from three secondary schools in England. Data were collected from initial lesson observations and in-depth interviews in order to explore students' views about practical work. The findings suggest that students have three main reasons why practical work is important in their school science lessons: for interest and activity, including social and personal features such as participation and autonomy; as an alternative to other forms of science teaching involving a pedagogy of transmission, and as a way of learning, including memorizing and recall. The findings are discussed in the context of a critical view of previous work on the role of practical work, work on attitudes to science and on the student voice. The paper concludes that practical work is seen to provide opportunities for students to engage with and influence their own learning but that learning with practical work remains a complex issue that needs further research and evaluation about its use, effectiveness and of the role of scientific inquiry as a component of practical activity.
Putra, Z. A. Z.; Sumarmin, R.; Violita, V.
The guides used for practicing animal physiology need to be revised and adapted to the lecture material. This is because in the subject of Animal Physiology. The guidance of animal physiology practitioners is still conventional with prescription model instructions and is so simple that it is necessary to develop a practical guide that can lead to the development of scientific work. One of which is through practice guided inquiry guided practicum guide. This study aims to describe the process development of the practical guidance and reveal the validity, practicality, and effectiveness Guidance Physiology Animals guided inquiry inferior to the subject of Animal Physiology for students Biology Department State University of Padang. This type of research is development research. This development research uses the Plomp model. Stages performed are problem identification and analysis stage, prototype development and prototyping stage, and assessment phase. Data analysis using descriptive analysis. The instrument of data collection using validation and practical questionnaires, competence and affective field of competence observation and psychomotor and cognitive domain competence test. The result of this research shows that guidance of Inquiry Guided Initiative Guided Physiology with 3.23 valid category, practicality by lecturer with value 3.30 practical category, student with value 3.37 practical criterion. Affective effectiveness test with 93,00% criterion is very effective, psychomotor aspect 89,50% with very effective criteria and cognitive domain with value of 67, pass criterion. The conclusion of this research is Guided Inquiry Student Guided Protoxial Guidance For Students stated valid, practical and effective.
Rodríguez-Feria, Pablo; Hernández-Flórez, Luis J; Rodríguez-Feria, Daniela
Objective To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students for health promotion, primary prevention and early detection of breast neoplasm and uterine cervical neoplasm, as well as to make recommendations for improving the Public Health curriculum at the Universidad de los Andes. Methodology This study utilized a survey of medical knowledge, attitudes and practices applied to fifth year Colombian medical students attending the Universidad de los Andes in the first semester of 2013. Results 64/76 students answered the surveys (response rate 84.2 % ): 62.5 % (40/64) and 37.5 % (24/64) response rates from students in their ninth and tenth semesters, respectively; and 64.1 % (41/64) and 35.9 % (23/64) response rates from female and male students, respectively. Knowledge: clinical breast exam (CBE), breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography were recommended by 95.3 % (61/64) of students, 96.9 % (62/64) of medical students and 90.7 % (58/64) of students, respectively. Attitude: the most effective tests to reduce mortality in women aged ≥ 50 years were the Papanicolaou test according to 90.6 % (58/64) of students and mammography according to 82.8 % (53/64) of students. Practice: 55.0 % (35/64) of students had received training in the guidelines and protocols for breast neoplasm and uterine cervical neoplasm screening. Discussion To promote early detection of cervical and breast cancer, knowledge, attitudes and practices must be improved to enhance clinical practices (e.g. Papanicolaou test) and medical student training guidelines or protocols for these two cancers. Overall, with induced demand and support from research communities and institutions seeking to make these improvements, we collaborate to decrease missed opportunities in medical research and Public Health.
Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.
Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K
Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve
Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T
Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.
Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.
This study was conducted to develop assertiveness training applying Dongsasub training for junior nursing students, and to verify effectiveness of the training on assertiveness behavior, self-esteem, clinical practice stress, and clinical competence. The study design was a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 63 nursing students in clinical training (31 students in the experimental group and 32 students in the control group). The assertiveness training applying Dongsasub training consisted of four sessions. Outcome variables included assertiveness behavior, self-esteem, clinical practice stress, and clinical competence. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test and independent samples t-test with SPSS/WIN 21.0. Scores of assertiveness behavior (t=-2.49, p=.015), self-esteem (t=-4.80, passertiveness training applying Dongsasub training can be used as a nursing intervention to lower clinical practice stress and improve the clinical competence of nursing students.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & RATIONALE Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognised illness or symptoms. Practice of self-medication, especially by medical students can cause wastage of resources, bacterial resistance, drug addiction and serious adverse drug reactions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of selfmedication among medical college students in Kerala. METHODS AND MATERIAL MBBS students of a private medical college were included in the study. The students filled a structured pretested questionnaire and descriptive statistics was applied to the data with SPSS version 20. RESULTS Out of 300, 264 (88% students had taken self-medication over the past 1 year. Past exposure with the same drug was the significant source of information for the drugs (49.2% and the drugs frequently self-medicated were analgesics 34.4% (91 and antipyretics 30.3% (80. More than half of the students, 66% (198 students had expressed positive and 34% (102 students had expressed negative attitude towards self-medication. Around 66% students declared that they were not aware of the dose, frequency and adverse effects of the drugs. CONCLUSION The pattern of self-medication practice from our study was similar to other studies done in various parts of India. Similar studies in future will provide adequate information to regulatory authorities to implement these results on strict drug dispensing and drug advertising policies. KEYWORDS Self-medication, Medical College Students, Kerala.
Zhou Pei Bai
Numerical methods for solving boundary value problems have developed rapidly. Knowledge of these methods is important both for engineers and scientists. There are many books published that deal with various approximate methods such as the finite element method, the boundary element method and so on. However, there is no textbook that includes all of these methods. This book is intended to fill this gap. The book is designed to be suitable for graduate students in engineering science, for senior undergraduate students as well as for scientists and engineers who are interested in electromagnetic fields. Objective Numerical calculation is the combination of mathematical methods and field theory. A great number of mathematical concepts, principles and techniques are discussed and many computational techniques are considered in dealing with practical problems. The purpose of this book is to provide students with a solid background in numerical analysis of the field problems. The book emphasizes the basic theories ...
Jessie Kristian M. Neria
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.
Heijltjes, Anita; Van Gog, Tamara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Paas, Fred
This experiment investigated the impact of different types of critical thinking instruction and dispositions on bias in economics students' (N=141) reasoning performance. The following conditions were compared: (A) implicit instruction; (B) implicit instruction with practice; (C) implicit
Full Text Available The paper describes the experience of organising professionally oriented practice for graduate students in the context of networking. The model of in-depth professionally oriented practice for students of the master’s programme in Psychology and Education was created and approved by the leading Russian pedagogical universities within the project “Developing and approving new modules of basic master’s programme of professional training in Psychology and Education on the basis of networking between educational organisations providing general and higher education programmes implying in-depth professionally oriented student practice”. The model of in-depth practice is constructed on the grounds of activity- and competency-based approaches. Practical training of graduate students focuses on the structure and content of work functions (actions defined in the professional standard for educational psychologists.
Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Yu, Byeong Min
The present study compared a spelling practice intervention using a tablet personal computer (PC) and picture cards with three students diagnosed with developmental disabilities. An alternating-treatments design with a non-concurrent multiple-baseline across participants was used. The aims of the present study were: (a) to determine if…
Garfield, Joan; Chance, Beth
This book summarizes the research and highlights the important concepts for teachers to emphasize, showing the interrelationships among concepts. It makes specific suggestions on building classroom activities, and assessing students' learning.
Galadanci & Mukhtar
Science World Journal Vol 12(No 2) 2017 ... Scores in Computer Applications Courses in Bayero University Kano. A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF STUDENTS ... Physics, Chemistry and Biology, where the course of study has a substantial ...
Richard A. Bernardi; Christopher R. Shepherd; Jillian L. Woodworth
In this study, we test the theory that female business majors are more sensitive than male business majors to the ethical issues in advertising promotions. We also examine whether or not business majors are as sensitive as liberal arts majors. Our sample is made up of 218 students from the Northeast area of the US. To measure ethical sensitivity in marketing situations, the participants responded to six scenarios developed from actual news data. The results indicate that female students and f...
Kasanda, C. D.; Mitonga, K. H.; Veii, K.; Zimba, R. F.
Many students at the University of Namibia have frequently complained about ineffective assessment practices used at the institution. On many occasions, these complaints have not been substantiated with evidence of any kind. The purpose of this study was to obtain some empirical evidence that would ascertain undergraduate students' perceptions of the University of Namibia's grading and assessment practices. Using a structured scaled questionnaire, data were obtained from a representative samp...
Huang, Jie; Liang, Pei; Shen, Wei-min; Ye, Youxiang
In practical course teaching based on project object method, the traditional evaluation methods include class attendance, assignments and exams fails to give incentives to undergraduate students to learn innovatively and autonomously. In this paper, the element such as creative innovation, teamwork, document and reporting were put into process evaluation methods, and a process evaluation model was set up. Educational practice shows that the evaluation model makes process evaluation of students' learning more comprehensive, accurate, and fairly.
Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Song, Ju-Eun; Kim, Sue
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the experience and perception of sexual harassment during the clinical practice of Korean nursing students. Methods: The descriptive study was conducted using a self-report questionnaire from December 2009 to January 2010. Participants were 542 nursing students recruited from 12 nursing colleges in Korea, who had finished 1,000 hours of clinical practice which is the minimum requirement for graduation. Data were analyzed by descriptive sta...
Grehaigne, J. F.; Wallian, Nathalie; Godbout, Paul
What are the specific and essential things that ought to be taught? On which precise base is a given progression proposed and, more specifically, are articulated the levels determined by teachers? This questioning fundamentally goes beyond the classical thoughts about the relationship between social practice and school practice. An authentic…
Rosch, David M; Imoukhuede, P I
The development of a leadership identity has become significant in bioengineering education as a result of an increasing emphasis on teamwork within the profession and corresponding shifts in accreditation criteria. Unsurprisingly, placing bioengineering students in teams to complete classroom-based projects has become a dominant pedagogical tool. However, recent research indicates that engineering students may not develop a leadership identity, much less increased leadership capacity, as a result of such efforts. Within this study, we assessed two similar sections of an introductory course in bioengineering; each placed students in teams, while one also included leadership training and leadership practice. Results suggest that students in the leadership intervention section developed a strong self-image of themselves as leaders compared to students in the control section. These data suggest that creating mechanisms for bioengineering students to be trained in leadership and to practice leadership behaviors within a classroom team may be keys for unlocking leadership development.
Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari
Background: In developed countries, it is challenging for teachers to select pedagogical practices that encourage students to enrol in science and technology courses in upper secondary school. Purpose: Aiming to understand the enrolment dynamics, this study analyses sample-based data from Finland's National Assessment in Science to determine whether pedagogical approaches influence student intention to enrol in upper secondary school physics courses. Sample: This study examined a clustered sample of 2949 Finnish students in the final year of comprehensive school (15-16 years old). Methods: Through explorative factor analysis, we extracted several variables that were expected to influence student intention to enrol in physics courses. We applied partial correlation to determine the underlying interdependencies of the variables. Results: The analysis revealed that the main predictor of enrolment in upper secondary school physics courses is whether students feel that physics is important. Although statistically significant, partial correlations between variables were rather small. However, the analysis of partial correlations revealed that pedagogical practices influence inquiry and attitudinal factors. Pedagogical practices that emphasise science experimentation and the social construction of knowledge had the strongest influence. Conclusions: The research implies that to increase student enrolment in physics courses, the way students interpret the subject's importance needs to be addressed, which can be done by the pedagogical practices of discussion, teacher demonstrations, and practical work.
Nalini J. Negi
Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.
Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is among the most effective ways to prevent diseases. In Indonesia, only a quarter of the entire population practice proper handwashing techniques. Of these, children are the most vulnerable group for contracting diseases. Nevertheless, they also are crucial agent for behavior transformation as they are keen and open to new ideas. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if training would have an improvement on a proper hand washing practices among elementary school students. Methods:An observational descriptive study design using random sampling was conducted from September to November 2013 in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia using primary data of one hundred elementary school students from four elementary schools. Questionnaires were given after informed consent. A demonstration on hand washing techniques and education on proper hand washing practices was then given. Two weeks later, the same questionnaire was given to measure the influence of the training. The collected data were presented using frequency tabulation. Results: Before the training on proper hand washing practices was conducted, only 86.9% students were practicing it properly. After the training was given, 90.7% of the students were doing it properly. For the hand washing technique, only 66.8% of students knew the correct steps before the intervention was given and 78.7% students did them correctly after the intervention. Conclusions:The training shows an overall improvement on the students’ hand washing practices. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1073
Joyce-McCoach, Joanne T; Parrish, Dominique R; Andersen, Patrea R; Wall, Natalie
Being reflective is well established as an important conduit of practice development, a desirable tertiary graduate quality and a core competency of health professional membership. By assisting students to be more effective in their ability to reflect, they are better able to formulate strategies to manage issues experienced within a professional context, which ultimately assists them to be better service providers. However, some students are challenged by the practice of reflection and these challenges are even more notable for international students. This paper presents a teaching initiative that focused specifically on enhancing the capacity of an international cohort of nursing students, to engage in reflective practice. The initiative centered on an evaluation of a reflective practice core subject, which was taught in a Master of Nursing programme delivered in Hong Kong. A learning-centered framework was used to evaluate the subject and identify innovative strategies that would better assist international students to develop reflective practices. The outcomes of curriculum and teaching analysis and proposed changes and innovations in teaching practice to support international students are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghasemi, Mahmood; Lotfollahzadeh, Hana; Kermani-Ranjbar, Tahereh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad
The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between music practice and level of stress in dental students. In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of music practice and 44 matched controls without music practice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression scores. The level of anxiety was higher in students who did not have music practice and this difference was significant (P0.05). But level of anxiety and depression was higher in students of universities with tuition fee compared to free public institutes (Pmusic practice can reduce anxiety and depression of dental students.
Full Text Available Objectives: The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between music practice and level of stress in dental students. Materials and Methods: In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of music practice and 44 matched controls without music practice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI and Beck depression inventory (BDI questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression scores.Results: The level of anxiety was higher in students who did not have music practice and this difference was significant (P<0.001. The same was observed for depression (P=0.027. Other factors including age, gender, and being far from family had no significant effect on depression and anxiety (P>0.05. But level of anxiety and depression was higher in students of universities with tuition fee compared to free public institutes (P<0.05.Conclusions: It may be concluded that music practice can reduce anxiety and depression of dental students.
Neufeld, Philip G.; Delcore, Henry D.
Aim/Purpose: The effective adoption of an ICT across every segment of the student population may occur where the design, implementation and supports recognize and adjust for variations in adoption practices across the student population and the situatedness of the promoted ICT adoption. The goal of this study was to demonstrate methods to…
D'Andrea, Frances Mary
Introduction: Students who read braille use assistive technology to engage in literacy tasks and to access the general curriculum. There is little research on the ways in which technology has changed the reading and writing practices and preferences of students who use braille, nor is there much research on how assistive technology is learned by…
American higher education is facing another major transition with escalating costs, an influx of diverse students, and an over all question about the return on investment for higher education. Within these complexities, this essay will consider the practical history and theoretical underpinning which inform the experience for students with complex…
Guerrero-Lillo, Lisette; Medrano-Díaz, Jorge; Pérez, Carmen; Chacón, Rodrigo; Silva-Urra, Juan; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J
Because information about travel medicine in Chile is lacking, a knowledge, attitudes, and practices evaluation in international travelers and medical students was done. The travelers and medical students did not know the travel medicine and sanitary conditions of their destinations, although they perceived travel-associated health risks, but <10% had any vaccination and 5% got sick during international trips.
Shatzer, Ryan H.; Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Brown, Bruce L.
The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools…
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings
Purpose: The purpose of this research article is to illustrate the value of including students' voices in educational leadership and research practices, to more fully understand what students are actually experiencing in transformative learning spaces, and to determine what we might learn from them in terms of how to improve both leadership…
Sneddon, P H; Reid, N; Slaughter, K A
The teaching of physics through practical experiments has long been an established practice. It forms a key component of teaching of that subject at both school and university levels. As such, students have strong views of this method of teaching. This paper reports on the view of undergraduate physics students in relation to their experiences of practical physics at school. 500 students across three Higher Education Institutions in the UK were surveyed to determine their perceptions, views and opinions in this area. This paper initially presents the overall views of the students, and then looks in more detail at the effect the different levels to which students took the subject at school affected those views. Specifically, students who took Advanced Higher versus Higher are compared, as well as those who took Advanced Higher versus A-level. Comparison was also made between the responses of female and male students. The general picture is very encouraging, with students broadly appreciating the practical side of physics.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the key demographic variables of gender, school level and goal orientation on students' self-assessment practices, including self-directed feedback seeking (SDFS) and self-reflection (SR). A total of 8843 Hong Kong students were surveyed, ranging from Primary 4 to Secondary 6. The results…
Barradell, S; Peseta, T; Barrie, S
Health science courses aim to prepare students for the demands of their chosen profession by learning ways appropriate to that profession and the contexts they will work and live in. Expectations of what students should learn become re-contextualised and translated into entry-level curriculum, with students operating as a connection between what is intended and enacted in curriculum, and required in the real world. Drawing on phenomenology, this paper explores how students understand practice-the collective, purposeful knowing, doing and being of a community-in entry-level physiotherapy programs. Ways of thinking and practising (WTP)-a framework attentive to the distinctive nature of a discipline, its values, philosophies and world-view (McCune and Hounsell in High Educ 49(3):255-289, 2005)-provides the conceptual lens. Six themes describing how students see the WTP of physiotherapy practice emerged from the analysis: discovery of new knowledge; problem solving client related contexts; adopting a systems based approach to the body; contributing to a positive therapeutic alliance; developing a sense of self and the profession; and the organisation of the workforce. The study produces knowledge about practice by focusing on physiotherapy students' experiences of disciplinary learning. Including students in educational research in this way is an approach that can help students realise their potential as part of a community of practice.
Guo, Xiaoyan; Gu, Mingyue
This article explores how a cohort of tertiary-level Uyghur students contested and negotiated their identities through multilingual practices in the receiving community. Drawing upon interview data from fieldwork, this study indicates that these students experienced essentialist understandings and negative views in the host society. Participants…
Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002
Cook, Sara Cothren; Rao, Kavita; Collins, Lauren
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have unique academic and behavioral needs that require the use of evidence-based practices. One way that teachers can support students with EBD is by individualizing interventions, such as self-monitoring, while maintaining a high level of fidelity. In this article, the authors describe how…
Hong, Huang-Yao; Chen, Fei-Ching; Chai, Ching Sing; Chan, Wen-Ching
This study investigated the effects of engaging students to collectively learn and work with knowledge in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment called Knowledge Forum on their views about knowledge building theory and practice. Participants were 24 teacher-education students who took a required course titled "Integrating Theory…
Avci Yücel, Ümmühan
This study aims to examine pedagogical formation students' perceptions about Web 2.0 tools and educational practices. A case study approach forms the methodological framework of this study. This study was conducted with 42 pedagogical formation students of an Instructional Technology and Material Design course during the 2014-2015 spring semester.…
Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey
Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…
Berselli, Marcia; Lulkin, Sergio A.
The article presents performance practices created with deaf students in the project "Theater and dance with deaf students," an outreach activity of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). The project took place in the Bilingual Deaf Municipal Elementary School Salomão Watnick in Porto Alegre, Brazil from 2013 to 2015. The…
Jorgensen, Mary; Havel, Alice; Fichten, Catherine; King, Laura; Marcil, Evelyne; Lussier, Alex; Budd, Jillian; Vitouchanskaia, Cristina
Our goal was to explore the technology related pedagogical practices of college professors deemed by their students to be excellent in using technology in their teaching. We explored the views of 114 community/junior college professors who were nominated by their students as excellent in using technology in their teaching using both questionnaires…
This article explores the practical implication of adopting critical pedagogy, and more specifically critical legal pedagogy, in the teaching of non-traditional students in higher education context. It is based on the teaching of criminal law at Birkbeck School of Law, addressing learning tasks which have been designed to enhance students'…
Ezeudu, F. O.; Chiaha, G. T. U.; Eze, J. U.
The study was designed to develop and factorially validate an instrument for measuring teaching practice skills of chemistry student-teachers in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Two research questions guided the study. The design of the study was instrumentation. All the chemistry student-teachers in the Department of Science Education, University…
Mena, Jasmine A.
Home-based parental involvement practices (i.e., educational encouragement, monitoring, and support) and their impact on students' academic persistence were investigated with a sample of 137, ninth-grade Latino students in a northeast high school. Structural Equation Modeling results indicate that the relationship between home-based parental…
Fukuzawa, Ryoko; Joho, Hideo; Maeshiro, Tetsuya
This paper reports the results of a survey that investigated the practice and experience of task management of university students. A total of 202 tasks identified by 24 university students were analyzed. The results suggest that participants had a reasonable sense of priority of tasks, that they tend to perceive a task as a big chunk, not a…
Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena
Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…
Wright, Pamela D.
This quantitative study employed a correlational research design to examine the extent to which overall teacher evaluation scores and instructional practice domain scores relate to student achievement scores in mathematics and English language arts among 3rd grade students. This research tested the theory of instruction by Jerome Bruner as it…
Vereijken, Mayke W. C.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; van Driel, Jan H.; Dekker, Friedo W.
Growing interest in student research projects in higher education has led to an emphasis on research supervision. We focus in this study on novice supervisors' approaches to research supervision as they explore their practices and experience difficulties supervising medical-students. Teacher noticing was used as a sensitising concept and relations…
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2013
Pacesetting high schools, middle grades schools and technology centers have changed classroom and other practices to prepare students to meet postsecondary requirements and rising workplace needs. The strategies include raising expectations, project-based learning, guidance and advisement, improving students' reading and writing skills,…
Sneddon, P. H.; Slaughter, K. A.; Reid, N.
The teaching of physics through practical experiments has long been an established practice. It forms a key component of teaching of that subject at both school and university levels. As such, students have strong views of this method of teaching. This paper reports on the view of undergraduate physics students in relation to their experiences of practical physics at school. 500 students across three Higher Education Institutions in the UK were surveyed to determine their perceptions, views and opinions in this area. This paper initially presents the overall views of the students, and then looks in more detail at the effect the different levels to which students took the subject at school affected those views. Specifically, students who took Advanced Higher versus Higher are compared, as well as those who took Advanced Higher versus A-level. Comparison was also made between the responses of female and male students. The general picture is very encouraging, with students broadly appreciating the practical side of physics.
This small-scale study focused on the experiences of student teachers towards teaching practice in an open and distance learning (ODL) institution in South Africa. The sample consisted of 65 fourth year students enrolled for Bachelor of Education, specializing in secondary school teaching. The mixed-method research design consisting of…
State standardized tests results indicated that between 2012 and 2016, fewer African American students at a rural, Title I elementary school met state standards in reading compared with other racial/ethnic groups of students. A gap in practice existed because the school and district had not conducted studies to understand teacher knowledge and…
Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel
With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.
Hubbard, KE; Brown, R; Deans, S; García, MP; Pruna, M-G; Mason, Matthew James
Undergraduate students are increasingly working with academic staff to evaluate and design teaching materials in Higher Education, thereby moving from being passive consumers of knowledge to genuine partners in their education. Here we describe a student partnership project run at the University of Cambridge, which aimed to improve undergraduate biology practical class teaching. Student interns were recruited to act as researchers, pedagogical consultants and producers of teaching resources. ...
The present study explored the direct influences of teacher classroom practices, including teacher support, conceptual teaching, and procedural teaching, on 9th grade students' mathematics achievement, and the indirect influences of these teacher variables on student mathematics achievement through students' mathematics self-efficacy and interest in mathematics courses. The base year data of High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 09) was used for this study. Structural equation modelin...
Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong
This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their "boyfriends" than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. METHODS: Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. RESULTS: Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%. Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their "boyfriends" than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%. There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use between the only-child students and students with siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children.
Héctor Horacio Murcia Cabra
Full Text Available As part of the second phase of the research project «Application of a creativity model to update the teaching of the administration in Colombian agricultural entrepreneurial systems» it was decided to re-enforce student planning and execution of the students of the Agricultural business Administration Faculty of La Salle University. Those finishing their studies were given special attention. The plan of action was initiated in the second semester of 2003. It was initially defined as a model of entrepreneurial strengthening based on a coherent methodology that included the most recent administration and management techniques. Later, the applicability of this model was tested in some organizations of the agricultural sector that had asked for support in their planning processes. Through an investigation-action process the methodology was redefined in order to arrive at a final model that could be used by faculty students and graduates. The results obtained were applied to the teaching of Entrepreneurial Laboratory of ninth semester students with the hope of improving administrative support to agricultural enterprises. Following this procedure more than 100 students and 200 agricultural producers have applied this procedure between June 2003 and July 2005. The methodology used and the results obtained are presented in this article.
Palo, S. E.; Li, X.; Woods, T. N.; Kohnert, R.
There is a long history of cooperation between students at the University of Colorado, Boulder and professional engineers and scientists at LASP, which has led to many successful space missions with direct student involvement. The recent student-led missions include the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE, 1998 - 2002), the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons (2006 - present), the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE), being a very successful NSF CubeSat that launched in September 2012, and the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat (launch will be in early 2015). Students are involved in all aspects of the design, and they experience the full scope of the mission process from concept, to fabrication and test, and mission operations. A significant part of the student involvement in the CubeSat projects is gained by using the CubeSat development as a focal point for an existing two-semester course sequence in CU's Aerospace Engineering Sciences (AES) Department: the Space Hardware Design section of Graduate Projects I & II (ASEN 5018 & ASEN 6028). The goal of these courses is to teach graduate students how to design and build systems using a requirement-based approach and fundamental systems engineering practices. The two-semester sequence takes teams of about 15 students from requirements definition and preliminary design through manufacturing, integration, and testing. In addition to the design process, students learn key professional skills such as working effectively in groups, finding solutions to open-ended problems, and actually building a system to their own set of specifications. The partnership between AES and LASP allows us to include engineering professionals in the mix, thus more effectively training science and engineering students for future roles in the civilian or commercial space industry. The mentoring process with LASP engineers helps to mitigate risk of the inexperience of the students and ensures consistent
Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Norman, G J; Calfas, K; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W; Fowler, J H; Marshall, S J; Gupta, A; Patrick, K
Unhealthy weight loss practices are common among female college students. It is unknown if these practices are also most common among women in the subset of overweight or obese college students or if these practices are related to depression. We examined the relationship between gender, depression, and unhealthy weight loss practices among overweight or obese college students. Students (body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m(2)) from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22 years, SD = 4; 70% women) were recruited from May 2011 to May 2012 for participation in a weight loss clinical trial (N = 404). Logistic regressions were performed with baseline data to assess the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported unhealthy weight loss practices and gender and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression short form. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported engaging in at least one unhealthy weight loss behavior (e.g., fasting, purging) over the last 30 days, with no differences by gender. Self-report of at least one unhealthy weight loss behavior was associated with report of symptoms of depression (e(B) = 1.14 [confidence interval, CI: 1.08-1.20]), adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions between gender and depression were not significant (e(B) = 1.04 [CI: 0.93-1.16]). Among an overweight or obese sample of college students, unhealthy weight loss practices were equally common in both genders, and students with depressive symptomatology were at greatest risk. Obesity interventions targeting overweight or obese college students should educate both men and women about the dangers of unhealthy weight loss practices. In addition, screening for depression can help identify students who would benefit from additional supportive and coping strategies and resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Janssen, F.J.J.M.; Westbroek, H.B.; Van Driel, J.H.
Many innovative teaching approaches lack classroom impact because teachers consider the proposals impractical. Making a teaching approach practical requires instrumentality (procedures), congruence (local fit), and affordable cost (limited time and resources).This paper concerns a study on the
Full Text Available Background. Fieldwork practice forms a vital part of occupational therapy (OT education and contributes significantly to competent practice and studentsâ€™ clinical reasoning. Studentsâ€™ learning is positively or negatively influenced by their fieldwork experience. Objective. To explore the views and experiences of final-year OT students, site-based clinicians and university-based academic supervisors to identify strategies that influenced studentsâ€™ learning during fieldwork practice. Methods. This descriptive qualitative study used a purposeful sampling technique. Data collection strategies included focus group discussions with clinical and academic supervisors and semistructured interviews with final-year students. Each set of data was analysed according to the research questions. The researcher analysed the data into themes, which were corroborated by a supervisor. Data source and analyst triangulation ensured trustworthiness of the study. Results. Two themes, i.e. difficulties experienced by students during fieldwork and supervision strategies that they found beneficial for learning, are described. Guidance and mentoring from experienced therapists helped students to link observations from assessments and intervention plans. Observations of treatment sessions, peer learning and practice in the skills laboratories were beneficial for learning, competence and confidence. Guided questions from supervisors to enhance reflexive practice and peer learning strengthened the studentsâ€™ confidence and ability to give feedback to their peers. The students also benefited from sessions that allowed them the freedom and space to work autonomously. Conclusion. This study provides insight into the difficulties that students experienced when engaging with fieldwork and offers some strategies that have been found to advance their learning.
Vinales, James Jude
The number of service users with communication difficulties is increasing. Training in the use of alternative communication and aids, such as Makaton, is valuable and should be made available. to nurses and other healthcare professionals, in particular to students in the first year of their nursing degree. Early introduction of Makaton could encourage staff to be proactive in their communication skills throughout their career and inspire other workers to learn the same techniques. The author discusses the evaluation and use of basic signing in Makaton following a session for children's nursing students at one UK university.
Lee, Byung Ryul; Kim, Hyun Gil; Yoon, Myeong Kwan; Lee, Gi Jong; Cha, Sang Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)
The clinical practices provide the students with a good opportunity to study the practical experiences in their field through the clinical training education in hospital. Now, in this study, comparing the perceptions of the clinic teachers with those of students at the clinical site. The study was conducted to the students attending universities located in Seoul and who finished the clinical practices in 2013. The questionnaires were distributed to the student and collected from them. The study were conducted to 275 questionnaires with frequency analysis, crosstabs, chi-square test and McNemar test. The major motivation was of the select radiography course was high employment rate(44.0%) and the satisfaction of radiography course was general(53.1%). 51.3% of the study answered 8 weeks current duration of clinical practices is proper. The 3-year course students answered that the period of clinical practices would be proper if it is performed in the winter vacation in their second year in college(47.3%). The 4-year course students answered that the first semester in their third years is proper for clinical practices(27.7%). The students answered that they felt the lack in their knowledge on the professional field(32.4%) during the clinical practices and some of the practical training is different from the education performed at school(68.4%). Most of answered that they were satisfied with the clinical practices and among them they recognized the importance of the clinical practices (3.94 ± 0.89). After the clinical practices, their desire for getting job as a radiography has changed from 84.1% to 82.9%. The reason why they want the job related to the radiation is because the job is stable (changed from 49.0% to 46.0% after the clinical practice) while the reason why they do not want be a radigrapher because that job is not proper for them (changed from 37.0% to 40.7% after the clinical practice) The effort should be made to enhance the position of radiation
Lee, Byung Ryul; Kim, Hyun Gil; Yoon, Myeong Kwan; Lee, Gi Jong; Cha, Sang Young; Lim, Cheong Hwan
The clinical practices provide the students with a good opportunity to study the practical experiences in their field through the clinical training education in hospital. Now, in this study, comparing the perceptions of the clinic teachers with those of students at the clinical site. The study was conducted to the students attending universities located in Seoul and who finished the clinical practices in 2013. The questionnaires were distributed to the student and collected from them. The study were conducted to 275 questionnaires with frequency analysis, crosstabs, chi-square test and McNemar test. The major motivation was of the select radiography course was high employment rate(44.0%) and the satisfaction of radiography course was general(53.1%). 51.3% of the study answered 8 weeks current duration of clinical practices is proper. The 3-year course students answered that the period of clinical practices would be proper if it is performed in the winter vacation in their second year in college(47.3%). The 4-year course students answered that the first semester in their third years is proper for clinical practices(27.7%). The students answered that they felt the lack in their knowledge on the professional field(32.4%) during the clinical practices and some of the practical training is different from the education performed at school(68.4%). Most of answered that they were satisfied with the clinical practices and among them they recognized the importance of the clinical practices (3.94 ± 0.89). After the clinical practices, their desire for getting job as a radiography has changed from 84.1% to 82.9%. The reason why they want the job related to the radiation is because the job is stable (changed from 49.0% to 46.0% after the clinical practice) while the reason why they do not want be a radigrapher because that job is not proper for them (changed from 37.0% to 40.7% after the clinical practice) The effort should be made to enhance the position of radiation
Botwe, Benard O; Arthur, Lawrence; Tenkorang, Michael K K; Anim-Sampong, Samuel
It is important that theory is synchronous with clinical practices that students engage in. Lack of congruence between theory and practice presents serious problems to students. This study was therefore conducted to determine if there was a theory-practice gap in chest radiography during clinical rotations, and any associated causes and effects on radiography students. A descriptive survey design was used to conduct this study from 2 February to 27 July 2014. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of open- and close-ended questions was used to purposively collect data from 26 radiography students in Ghana who had completed theory lessons in chest radiography and had either completed or were undertaking clinical rotations in chest radiography. Twenty-five (96%) respondents indicated the presence of theory-practice gap in chest radiography during clinical rotations, where differences between theory and clinical practice were observed. Lack of working materials 16 (62%), heavy workload 14 (54%), equipment breakdowns 14 (54%) and supervisory factors 11 (43%) were identified as the causes. Many students (81%) experienced diverse adverse effects such as confusion 10 (38%), poor performance during clinical examinations 6 (23%) and entire loss of interest in the professional training 1 (4%) of this dichotomy. Dichotomy between theory and practice found in chest radiography has diverse adverse effects on students. Regular feedback on the quality of clinical practice received by students should be encouraged to determine the existence of any gaps between theory and practice in order to promote effective clinical rotation programmes in radiography. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.
Tsegay, Samson Maekele; Zegergish, Mulgeta Zemuy; Ashraf, Muhammad Azeem
Using semi-structured interview and review of documents, this study analyzes the pedagogical practices and students' experiences in Eritrean Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The study indicated that pedagogical practices are affected by instructors' pedagogical skills and perceptions, and the teaching-learning environment. Moreover, the…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Learners' identity is considered a resource, but is also assumed to conflict with impartial history learning practices. This empirical study explores the relationship between learners' social identity and their historical practices and understanding. Sixty-four Jewish-Israeli 12th-grade students of Mizrahi and Ashkenazi ethnicities studied a…
Nah, Seungahn; Namkoong, Kang; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Record, Rachael A.
This study examined the effects of citizen journalism practices on social capital concerning nonprofit and voluntary organizations (i.e., satisfaction, trust, and engagement). Through a quasi-experimental design, the analyses revealed that students in the treatment group, in which participants engaged in citizen journalism practice, had greater…
Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda
Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…
González-Howard, María; McNeill, Katherine L.
Recent education reform efforts have included an increasing push for school science to better mirror authentic scientific endeavor, including a focus on science practices. However, despite expectations that all students engage in these language-rich practices, little prior research has focused on how such opportunities will be created for…
Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar
In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in "Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and…
Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred
Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation prompts during practice, on students'…
Sun-Kyoung Lee, PhD, RN
Conclusion: Education program is needed to prevent sexual harassment and enhance the gender sensitivity of nursing students, who are in the high-risk group of sexual harassment during clinical practice. This will in turn contribute to a safe educational environment for clinical practice.
LaRose, Patrick S., Sr.
The role of the registered nurse has evolved over the years as technology has changed and the practice of nursing has advanced. There are many factors that influence how a new nurse enters practice; however, confidence appears to play a large role in the way nursing students see themselves and how this self perception regulates transition to…
Colson, Myron Jamal
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…
Roberts, Ellen Adams
The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…
Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.
In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…
Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert
Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…
Llapa Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia; Almeida Marques, Daniel; Lopes Neto, David; López Montesinos, María José; Amado de Oliveira, Adriana Sousa
Objective.To assess the risk factors for stress in undergraduate students of nursing in clinical practice in a public university in the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with 116 students from the fifth to the ninth period. The bilingual KEZKAK questionnaire, validated for Portuguese, was used. Stress was considered to be present when the score was equal or superior to 2. Results. The students with stress in clinical practice were 18 to 22 years old (2.82 ...
Zhong, Hairong; Xu, Wei; Hu, Haojun; Duan, Chengfang
This article analyzes the features of fostering optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability based on the knowledge structure of optoelectronic disciplines, which not only reveals the common law of cultivating students' innovative practical ability, but also considers the characteristics of the major: (1) The basic theory is difficult, and the close combination of science and technology is obvious; (2)With the integration of optics, mechanics, electronics and computer, the system technology is comprehensive; (3) It has both leading-edge theory and practical applications, so the benefit of cultivating optoelectronic students is high ; (4) The equipment is precise and the practice is costly. Considering the concept and structural characteristics of innovative and practical ability, and adhering to the idea of running practice through the whole process, we put forward the construction of three-dimensional innovation and practice platform which consists of "Synthetically Teaching Laboratory + Innovation Practice Base + Scientific Research Laboratory + Major Practice Base + Joint Teaching and Training Base", and meanwhile build a whole-process progressive training mode to foster optoelectronic students' innovative practical ability, following the process of "basic experimental skills training - professional experimental skills training - system design - innovative practice - scientific research project training - expanded training - graduation project": (1) To create an in - class practical ability cultivation environment that has distinctive characteristics of the major, with the teaching laboratory as the basic platform; (2) To create an extra-curricular innovation practice activities cultivation environment that is closely linked to the practical application, with the innovation practice base as a platform for improvement; (3) To create an innovation practice training cultivation environment that leads the development of cutting-edge, with the scientific
Sinaga, Farlian Rizky; Ubaidillah, Kurniawan, Krishna Eka; Fadhil, Muhamad Ivan; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Idris, Muhamad Hafiz
In the Formula Society of Automotive Engineer (SAE), safety is a vigorous factor. One of the safety components in the Formula SAE car is the impact attenuator. The purpose of this study is to get the impact attenuator design with the best ability to absorb kinetic energy from several existing designs, through numerical approaches, for estimating conditions against dynamic impacts. Material of impact attenuator use combination of aluminum and Zirconium G350. The simulation was caried out by crashing the impact with the rigid wall, to find the deformation that occurs and the energies are absorbed. The impact attenuator design to be simulated should be optimized to meet some parameters in the SAE Formula. The result of impact attenuator simulation should be able to absorb energy of 7350 joules at move 7 m/s and deformation at bulkhead less than 25.4 mm.
This paper explores how Chinese minority students participate and defend citizenship rights on a university campus against the backdrop of ongoing social changes. Three rights are focused on: freedom of religion, freedom of association, and freedom to use an ethnic language. The data were collected at three universities. Research methods involved…
Parikh, Sejal B.
This article describes the Asian Indian population and how the myth of the model minority can influence students' access to support services. It is important for school counselors to understand how this minority group experience stressors related to academics, career decision making, and personal/social development. Effective interventions and…
A magazine writer and university instructor used interview samples, editors' comments, and other materials from his own article-then-in-progress for the "New York Times Magazine" in a university-level class in magazine writing. Students, who were creating their own in-depth magazine articles, could see the same principles and techniques…
Describes one teacher-author's classroom use of interview samples, editors' comments, and other materials from his own article-then-in-progress for the "New York Times Magazine." Describes how students, who were creating their own in-depth magazine articles, could see principles and techniques discussed in class applied on a professional level.…
Partington, Gary; Galloway, Ann
Hearing impairment due to conductive hearing loss can have a devastating effect on children's language development, and consequently educational outcomes, especially for Indigenous students, for whom there may be the additional issue of being educated in their second or third language. With appropriate interventions, however, Indigenous students…
This book provides an overview of approaches to academic literacy instruction and their underpinning theories and a synthesis of the debate on academic literacy. It aims to raise awareness of innovative literacy pedagogies and argues for the transformation of academic literacy instruction in all universities with diverse student populations.
Mosneaga, Ana; Agergaard, Jytte
Universities are increasingly urged to take new responsibilities as agents of internationalisation as the globalisation of higher education intensifies the competition for international students and leads to transformation of national and European policy landscapes. Drawing on the case study of two leading universities in Denmark, this paper…
Mosneaga, Ana; Agergaard, Jytte
Universities are increasingly urged to take new responsibilities as agents of internationalisation as the globalisation of higher education intensifies the competition for international students and leads to transformation of national and European policy landscapes. Drawing on the case study of two...
A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design was used. ... skills [F (1,526) = 16.62; P <0.05]; but there was no significant main effect on attitude. Physics teachers are advised to make genuine effort to encourage students in less ...
Timmermans, W.; Cilliers, J.; Garcia, A.; Koolen, A.; Woudstra, A.; Dijk, van T.
Two international and interdisciplinary high pressure student ateliers have been done and evaluated, one to explore possible future scenario’s for Strofylia (Greece) as requested by local and regional authorities and stakeholders, the other to put urban agriculture on the Lugo (Galicia, Spain)
Heras Tébar, A; García Sanchón, C; Hernández López, M C; Ballestín, N; Nebot, M
Determine the prevalence and characteristics of tobaccoism, as well as some attitudes and their knowledge about tobaccoism in nursing university students in Catalonia. A descriptive study with transversal section has been done. A self-filling anonymous questionnaire was designed following the guidelines of the European Regional Office of the W.H.O. We selected a sample of conglomerates of classrooms at random which was stratified according to levels in all the university schools in Catalonia. The field work was performed during the first term of the academic year 1994-1995 handing the questionnaires individually to the students and collecting them once filled. In the data analysis we used the ji squared test to Pearson with the Yates' correction and the lineal tendency test of Mantel-Haenszel. 904 students answered the questionnaire. The global prevalence of smokers is 38.7% (IC 95%: 35.8-41.6). There were no significant differences when considering levels or sex. The prevalence of tobaccoism in students over 24 years of age is 13% higher (p Catalonia has been observed for the nursing professionals in the year 2000.
Johnsen, Susan K.; Haensly, Patricia A.; Ryser, Gail R.; Ford, Randal F.
A study involving 1 urban site and 5 rural sites investigated the effectiveness of the Mustard Seed Project in training teachers to differentiate curricula for gifted students. The majority of the teachers (n=74) at each site made changes. Participants cited staff-development activities, leadership, mentoring, resources, and project support as…
This paper attempts to enact Rivers' (1971 and 1972) urgings to base ESL listening instruction on both psychological and linguistic findings and contends that advanced ESL students' listening needs call for improvement in processing spoken English discourse. Psychological data on memory span is cited to demonstrate that advanced ESL students…
The increase in the number of tertiary institutions in Ghana offering Communication Design calls for a review of activities in the premium Department of Communication Design in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Grounded in service qualitytheory, the study examined students' perceptions and ...
Yacapsin, M. S.
The purpose of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the expectations graduate students hold regarding the amount of and types of faith-related activities utilized in online coursework. Two groups of participants surveyed were enrolled at two different, faith-based institutions in Pennsylvania, United States; one a Catholic…
Dunn, Michelle E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.
As of the 2013-2014 school year, about 2.5 million school-age students attended charter schools nationwide. Because charter schools are publicly funded entities, they are required to adhere to all federal nondiscriminatory laws as well as the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. This legal brief provides an overview of charter schools,…
As to the multivariate analysis result; sex, previous residence, religious participation, pornographic viewing, currently alcohol intake, chewing khat and cigarette smoking were found to be determinant of AAU students' attitude on HIV prevention. Similarly, age, having pocket money, pornographic film show and currently khat ...
Le Nhu Ngoc Ha, H.; Janssen, J.J.H.M.; Wubbels, Theo
While the educational literature mentions several obstacles affecting the effectiveness of collaborative learning (CL), they have often been investigated through the perceptions of only one actor, either teachers or students. Therefore, some sources of obstacles that teachers and students encounter
Perry, Christina; Henderson, Amanda; Grealish, Laurie
To identify nurses' behaviours that promote student accountability for learning in clinical practice. Health care services are experiencing significant strain in meeting clinical education requirements of increasing numbers of nursing students enrolled in undergraduate nursing programs. Internationally, the transition to university based education for nurses has seen the emergence of issues for busy clinicians trying to manage increasing workloads with responsibility for student learning. An understanding of what types of supervisor behaviours promote student accountability for learning, may support clinicians to more effectively manage their dual roles of clinical care and student support. An integrative approach was adopted for this review. A search of the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Pubmed, Scopus and Embase was undertaken, limited to articles published between 2000 and March 2017. Whittemore and Knafls' (2005) framework for conducting integrative reviews was used to ensure a methodological and rigorous approach. Nine studies were considered. Behaviours emerged in relation to four themes including: belongingness associated with a genuine partnership; empowerment and increasing student self-efficacy; trust linked to increasing and staged independence; and balancing clinical and educational requirements. Behaviours of nurses significantly influence students' accountability for learning and accordingly, their ability to be adequately prepared for professional nursing practice. Understanding behaviours that impact on students' approach to clinical placement can guide nurses in their approach to facilitating student learning, in particular, behaviours that increase student responsibility and independence over the continuum of clinical education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suen, Wei Qi; Lim, Siriwan; Wang, Wenru; Kowitlawakul, Yanika
Nursing students have experienced stress because they need to focus on academic performance while being exposed to a clinical environment. The study aimed to identify the contributing factors of stress and the clinical environment expectations of undergraduate nursing students during their clinical practice at a university in Singapore. A cross-sectional descriptive study design using validated surveys was adopted. The Stressors in Nursing Students and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory questionnaires were used to collect the data in January 2014. A total of 285 nursing students participated in this study. The results showed that third year nursing students had higher stress levels than first year and second year students. Satisfaction in terms of fulfilment among nursing students during clinical practice was found to be the most influential factor in predicting stress. The study suggests that the nursing faculty needs to be more concerned about nursing students' stress level and provide more support to third year students. In addition, students' satisfaction should be considered when developing a clinical curriculum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Mikkonen, Johanna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja
The aim of the present study was to explore the factors associated with veterinary students' study success. All veterinary students who began their studies at the University of Helsinki in 2005 participated in this qualitative longitudinal study (N=52). The data consisted of assignments that the students completed at the beginning of their studies and again after three years of studying. The focus was on differences in motivation and study practices as well as possible changes in these over the three-year period. The students were divided into three groups according to their study success (grade point average and study progress). These groups were compared according to group-level differences in the categorized data. The most successful students already described themselves using more positive words than other students at the beginning of their veterinary studies. In addition, they seemed more adaptive in relation to the study's demands. However, there were drops in both the most and least successful students' motivation during their studies. The findings suggest that it is possible to predict forthcoming study problems by analyzing students' study practices and their own descriptions of themselves as learners. In addition, the results show that veterinary students' high motivation cannot be taken for granted. The comparative and longitudinal perspective of the present study can be useful in the development of curricula and in student support.
Gaia Salvador Claumann
Full Text Available The changes that occur with the beginning of university life may interfere with the practice of physical activities by students. The aim was to investigate the association between the practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities with sociodemographic factors and weight status in freshman students in the first semester of the first year of a public university in Florianopolis/SC. This study assessed198 students (86 men and 112 women. The practice of physical activities was collected with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – IPAQ, short version. Students of human and educational sciences reported higher amounts of moderate physical activity when compared to health and exact science counterparts (p< 0.05. It was verified that male students, from higher economic status, from the health sciences, and full-time students showed higher time of practice of vigorous physical activity (p< 0.05. Significant associations were also observed between study period and walking, and between gender, scientific field and vigorous physical activity. It was concluded that the variables associated with the practice of physical activity differ according to the type and intensity of physical activity.
Landstrom, Bjorn; Mattsson, Bengt; Nordin, Per; Rudebeck, Carl E
The aim of the study was to investigate medical students' views on general practice based on their experiences in training, and to find out whether there were certain views associated with the intention to become a GP. A questionnaire, based on our earlier studies about GP working behaviour, was handed out to medical students in terms 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 11 of undergraduate studies in Gothenburg, Sweden. The analysis comprised statistical descriptions and comparisons. The students regarded general practice positively. They found the work environment good, the GP's awareness of patients' living conditions necessary, and that GP work requires medical breadth. The status of the GP in the medical profession was not considered high. One-fourth of the students strongly agreed with the possibility of a future as a GP. This attitude was statistically associated with support to the statements that general practice offers a good work environment and should be a major component in undergraduate training. Students with a negative attitude to working as GPs were also negative to having a major component of general practice in undergraduate training. Medical students with a positive stated attitude towards becoming GPs support changes in undergraduate training to include more general practice. The risk of increasing a negative attitude should be considered when changes are discussed.
Errante, Margaret R; Gill, Gurjinder S; Rodriguez, Tobias E
The purpose of this study was to assess if a clinical group practice model has an impact on enhancing the interpersonal skills of predoctoral dental students, what factors may influence the development of these skills, and what, if any, are innovative and technological solutions that can potentially influence interpersonal skills in predoctoral dental students. This study surveyed the faculty responsible for teaching the dental students in a recently developed group practice model. Out of 18 eligible group practice leaders at one US dental school, 17 respondents (94.4%) completed the survey. In addition, this study asked the faculty to provide qualitative response and recommendations to improve interpersonal skills. Based on the feedback, a focus group was conducted to explore opportunities to further enhance the skills. The results of the study suggest that the group practice model has a positive and distinct impact on the development of overall interpersonal skills for students. Further research suggests that the greatest impacted areas of personal development are critical thinking skills and teamwork. However, as a way to make the model more effectual, most faculty suggested the need for additional time, for both students and faculty. To some extent, using technology and innovative teaching pedagogies could potentially address the challenge of limited time. Based on the results of the survey, one may conclude that with adequate design and conditions, the group practice model can have a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of its students.
Errante, Margaret R; Gill, Gurjinder S; Rodriguez, Tobias E
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess if a clinical group practice model has an impact on enhancing the interpersonal skills of predoctoral dental students, what factors may influence the development of these skills, and what, if any, are innovative and technological solutions that can potentially influence interpersonal skills in predoctoral dental students. Methods This study surveyed the faculty responsible for teaching the dental students in a recently developed group practice model. Out of 18 eligible group practice leaders at one US dental school, 17 respondents (94.4%) completed the survey. In addition, this study asked the faculty to provide qualitative response and recommendations to improve interpersonal skills. Based on the feedback, a focus group was conducted to explore opportunities to further enhance the skills. Results The results of the study suggest that the group practice model has a positive and distinct impact on the development of overall interpersonal skills for students. Further research suggests that the greatest impacted areas of personal development are critical thinking skills and teamwork. However, as a way to make the model more effectual, most faculty suggested the need for additional time, for both students and faculty. To some extent, using technology and innovative teaching pedagogies could potentially address the challenge of limited time. Conclusion Based on the results of the survey, one may conclude that with adequate design and conditions, the group practice model can have a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of its students. PMID:29720884
Francisco Gilberto Fernandes Pereira
Full Text Available Objective. To verify the presence of stress among undergraduate nursing students in different stages of hospital practice. Method. Descriptive, cross-sectional study addressing 86 nursing students in their 6th, 7th, and 9th semesters in 2011. An instrument developed by Costa and Polak for the Assessment of Stress Among Nursing Students was used. It is composed of six domains: performance of practical activities, professional communication, time management, environment, professional training, and theoretical activity. Results. Most participants were women (95% and the average age was 23 years old. A total of 84% of students passed the program's courses and 91% participated in extracurricular activities. Stressors are present during the entire program but intensify when students are introduced to care practice with an emphasis on the domain of professional training; related stress was high in all the semesters. The scores concerning the practical activity domain were higher only in the 6th semester. There were statistically significant levels at 0.01 and 0.10 in the difference in the averages in the domains of training and time management, respectively, between the semesters. As the students advance in the program, scores obtained in the domains presented by AEEE change. As stress can interfere in the performance and learning of nursing students, coping strategies should be devised to enable them to deal with stress during the program.
Self-assessment is a core skill that enables students to engage in self-regulated learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Self-assessment Practice Scale and to depict the characteristics of self-assessment practices of Hong Kong secondary students using this newly developed instrument. A total of 6,125 students from 10 Hong Kong secondary schools completed the survey. Both Rasch and factor analyses revealed a two-dimension scale structure (i.e., Self-directed Feedback Seeking and Self-reflection). The two subscales demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and suggestions for further improvement were proposed. The findings regarding self-assessment practices of secondary students indicated that, in general, students were quite used to engaging in self-reflection based on available feedback, but they were less disposed to taking the initiative to seek feedback on their own performance. Key demographic variables, e.g., gender and year level, played important roles in students' self-assessment practices. Girls had significantly higher self-assessment measures on both scales than did boys. Junior students had higher measures on both scales than did their senior counterparts. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.
George, David L; Johnson, Eric J; O'Neal, Katherine S; Smith, Michael J
To report student perceived adequacy regarding didactic content and practical experiences of vaccination clinic business operations. Didactic content, a case study, and practical experiences regarding vaccination clinic business operations were implemented in related lectures of a Pharmacy Business and Entrepreneurship (PBE) elective and the college of pharmacy sponsored vaccination clinics. An online survey was used to evaluate student perceived adequacy of didactic content and practical experiences of vaccination clinic business operations. Mean scaled agreement was compared between students in the PBE elective versus those not in the elective. Student confidence in performing business operations was also assessed. Students in the PBE had higher mean confidence than non-elective students regarding staff management (3.23 vs. 2.73, p = 0.04). Success of the interventions may be attributed to students in the PBE elective that reported a higher mean perceived adequacy of content and practical experiences and confidence in performing nearly all business operations. Still, further evaluation of interventions is being considered to assess effectiveness of learning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Purpose: to theoretically substantiate and test experimentally pedagogic conditions of positive motivation’s formation as the basis for students will and physical qualities’ perfection in physical culture practicing. Material: 244 first year students participated in experiment. At the beginning and at the end of experiment levels of manifestation of students’ will and physical qualities were assessed. Results: we have proved successfulness of will training if this process is naturally coincides with formation of positive motivation and perfection of motor fitness. It was found that motivation for physical culture practicing result from different demands: demand in motion, demand in fulfillment of student’s duties and demand in competition functioning. Conclusions: we have offered the following pedagogic conditions: application of game and competition methods: setting of appropriate for students tasks of training; usage of sufficient sport equipment and apparatuses; forcing of students for independent physical culture practicing through system of encouragement.
Khaled A. Hafez
Full Text Available The principal purpose of this paper is to present a novel two phases rational scenario applied in constructing an offshore monopod platform; in which the two phases are the all-ground horizontal construction phase and the post-construction phase. Concerning the all-ground construction phase, a brief investigation of its different stages, i.e., pre-fabrication, fabrication, pre-assembling, positioning, assembling, and surface finishing is introduced. The important practical aspects of such construction phase are investigated without going into the nitty-gritty of the details involved therein. Concerning the post-construction phase, a clear investigation of its sequential stages, i.e., lifting, moving and up-righting is introduced. A finite element model (FEM of the monopod platform is created to perform the structural analysis necessary to decide the suspension points/devices and the handling scenario during the various stages of the post-construction phase on a rational wise. Such structural analysis is performed within the framework of the three dimensional quasi-static modeling and analysis aiming at simulating the realistic handling condition, and hence introducing a reliable physical interpretation of the numerical results. For the whole effort to be demonstrated efficiently, the results obtained are analyzed, the conclusions are presented, and few related recommendations are suggested.
Domingues,Renan B.; Teixeira,Antônio Lúcio; Domingues,Simone A.
The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between migraine and physical practice among 480 medical students who were submitted to a questionnaire about headaches and physical practices. Migraine diagnosis was assessed by ID-Migraine and functional disability was evaluated with MIDAS. The type (aerobic or strength training), the weekly frequency and the intensity of physical practice and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. There was a reduction in functional disability of ...
Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary
Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...
Blair, Erik; Valdez Noel, Keisha
Many higher education institutions use student evaluation systems as a way of highlighting course and lecturer strengths and areas for improvement. Globally, the student voice has been increasing in volume, and capitalising on student feedback has been proposed as a means to benefit teacher professional development. This paper examines the student…
In this article I explore high school students' perspectives on working together in a mathematics class in which they spent a significant amount of time solving problems in small groups. The data included viewing session interviews with eight students in the class, where each student watched video clips of their own participation, explaining and…
Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R
Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.
Chacha Emmanuel Chacha
Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.
Wilkinson, Denise M; Smallidge, Dianne; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori
Health care education requires students to connect classroom learning with patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions of teaching tools, activities and teaching methods useful in closing the gap between theory and practice as students transition from classroom learning into the clinical phase of their training. This was an exploratory qualitative study design examining retrospective data from journal postings of a convenience sample of dental hygiene students (n=85). Open-ended questions related to patient care were given to junior and senior students to respond in a reflective journaling activity. A systematic approach was used to establish themes. Junior students predicted hands-on experiences (51%), critical thinking exercises (42%) and visual aids (27%) would be the most supportive in helping them connect theory to practice. Senior students identified critical thinking exercises (44%) and visual aids (44%) as the most beneficial in connecting classroom learning to patient care. Seniors also identified barriers preventing them from connecting theory to patient care. Barriers most often cited were not being able to see firsthand what is in the text (56%) and being unsure that what was seen during clinical practice was the same as what was taught (28%). Students recognized the benefits of critical thinking and problem solving skills after having experienced patient care and were most concerned with performance abilities prior to patient care experiences. This information will be useful in developing curricula to enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Unal, Sati; Hisar, Filiz; Görgülü, Ulkü
The aim of the study was to investigate students' verbal violence experiences, the effect of assertiveness on being subjected to violence, the behaviour of students after the violence and the experience of psychological distress during practical training. The study sample consisted of 274 students attending a school of nursing. A questionnaire form and the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) were used for data collection. Percentages, means and the independent samples t-test were used for the evaluation of data. During practical training, the students suffered verbal violence from teachers, department nurses and doctors. The students had higher mean scores of RAS for most types of violence committed by the teachers and being reprimanded by the nurses and 69.3% had not responded to the violence. Students with a high level of assertiveness are subjected to violence more frequently. Being subjected to verbal violence and feeling psychological distress during practical training are a major problem among nursing students. Students should be supported in terms of assertiveness and dealing with violence effectively.
Fernandez, Ritin S; Tran, Duong Thuy; Ramjan, Lucie; Ho, Carey; Gill, Betty
The aim of this study was to compare four teaching methods on the evidence-based practice knowledge and skills of postgraduate nursing students. Students enrolled in the Evidence-based Nursing (EBN) unit in Australia and Hong Kong in 2010 and 2011 received education via either the standard distance teaching method, computer laboratory teaching method, Evidence-based Practice-Digital Video Disc (EBP-DVD) teaching method or the didactic classroom teaching method. Evidence-based Practice (EBP) knowledge and skills were evaluated using student assignments that comprised validated instruments. One-way analysis of covariance was implemented to assess group differences on outcomes after controlling for the effects of age and grade point average (GPA). Data were obtained from 187 students. The crude mean score among students receiving the standard+DVD method of instruction was higher for developing a precise clinical question (8.1±0.8) and identifying the level of evidence (4.6±0.7) compared to those receiving other teaching methods. These differences were statistically significant after controlling for age and grade point average. Significant improvement in cognitive and technical EBP skills can be achieved for postgraduate nursing students by integrating a DVD as part of the EBP teaching resources. The EBP-DVD is an easy teaching method to improve student learning outcomes and ensure that external students receive equivalent and quality learning experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Löfmark, A; Wikblad, K
The aim of this study was to provide information on what the student nurses found facilitating and obstructing for their learning during clinical practice. Earlier studies of experiences of learning in clinical practice have shown that factors as the possibilities of variations of experiences, the culture of the workplace, and communication between the educational institution and health care facilities are of importance. Less is known about the opportunities which students are given in order to practise the skills that they will be expected to perform as new graduate nurses. The experiences of 47 degree student nurses from two colleges in Sweden were gathered in weekly diaries during their final period of clinical practice. A content analysis technique was used to analyse their diaries. The students emphasized responsibility and independence, opportunities to practise different tasks, and receiving feedback as facilitating factors. Other perceived promoting factors included perceptions of control of the situation and understanding of the 'total picture'. Examples of obstructing factors were the nurses as supervisors not relying on the students, supervision that lacked continuity and lack of opportunities to practise. Perception of their own insufficiency and low self-reliance were drawbacks for some students. Recommended proposals are presented to lecturers and supervising staff concerning organizational and educational changes, and changes of attitudes for elucidating the students' experiences of different facilitating and obstructing factors. Changes may contribute to making easier the students' transition into the nursing profession.
Full Text Available Students often receive their first college-level computer training in introductory information systems courses. Students and faculty frequently expect this training to develop a level of student computer competence that will support computer use in future courses. In this study, we applied measures of computer self-efficacy to students in a typical introductory IS course. The measures provided useful evidence that student perceptions of their ability to use computers effectively in the future significantly improved as a result of their training experience. The computer self-efficacy measures also provided enhanced insight into course-related factors of practical concern to IS educators. Study results also suggest computer self-efficacy measures may be a practical and informative means of assessing computer-training outcomes in the introductory IS course context
Hudak, Nicholas M; Melcher, Betsy; Strand de Oliveira, Justine
This study describes clinical preceptors' perceptions of interprofessional practice, the nature and variety of physician assistant (PA) students' interprofessional interactions during clinical training, and factors that facilitate or hinder interprofessional education (IPE) in clinical settings. This qualitative study involved interviews with preceptors that were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed through an iterative process to identify key conceptual themes. Fourteen preceptors from a variety of clinical settings participated. Four themes were identified: (1) preceptors define interprofessional practice differently; (2) students learn about teams by being a part of teams; (3) preceptors separate students to avoid diluting learning experiences; and (4) preceptors can facilitate IPE by introducing students to members of the team and role modeling team skills. The themes may inform PA educators' efforts to increase IPE in clinical settings through educational interventions with both preceptors and students.
Wu, Xi Vivien; Wang, Wenru; Pua, Lay Hoon; Heng, Doreen Gek Noi; Enskär, Karin
Assessment of clinical competence requires explicitly defined standards meeting the national standards of the nursing profession. This is a complex process because of the diverse nature of nursing practice. To explore the perceptions of final-year undergraduate nursing students regarding clinical assessment at transition to practice. An exploratory qualitative approach was adopted. Twenty-four students participated in three focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was conducted. Five themes emerged: the need for a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool, the need for a flexible style of reflection and specific feedback, the dynamic clinical learning environment, students' efforts in learning and assessment, and the unclear support system for preceptors. Workload, time, resource availability, adequate preparation of preceptors, and the provision of valid and reliable clinical assessment tools were deemed to influence the quality of students' clinical learning and assessment. Nursing leadership in hospitals and educational institutions has a joint responsibility in shaping the clinical learning environment and providing clinical assessments for the students.
N. van Dijk; B. Spek; M Wieringa-de Waard; C. Lucas
BACKGROUND: The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness
Spek, B.; Wieringa-de Waard, M.; Lucas, C.; van Dijk, N.
The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness actually to use
Quinn, Brenna L; Smolinski, Megan
School nurses are afforded minimal resources related to assessing pain in students with intellectual disability (ID) and have called for continuing education. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of an education program regarding best practices for assessing pain in students with ID. Educational sessions were presented to 248 school nurses. Pre-, post-, and follow-up surveys measured (1) difficulty school nurses face when assessing pain, (2) knowledge and use of pain assessment methods, and (3) intent to change and actual changes to professional practices. Participants experienced less difficulty assessing pain following the educational program. Almost all participants intended to change pain assessment practices, but large caseloads limited new practice adoption. Policy makers must consider population size and acuity when determining school nurse staffing. Trainings and other resources should be made available to school nurses in order to make pain assessments for students with ID more thorough and efficient.
Carey, Matthew C; Kent, Bridie; Latour, Jos M
The objective of this qualitative systematic review was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on experiences of peer assisted learning (PAL) among student nurses in clinical practice so as to understand the value of PAL for this population. Peer-assisted learning considers the benefits of peers working in collaboration and supporting each other in professional roles. This approach to facilitate learning is effective within universities, but there is limited exploration within the clinical practice environment. Within the UK, 50% of student nurses' learning is undertaken within clinical practice, providing a large portion of student allocation within these areas, but is unexplored in relation to PAL. Therefore, existing evidence examining PAL in clinical practice needs further exploration for a better understanding of its value to student nurses' learning. The systematic review considered studies that included male and female nursing students aged 18-50 years that explored undergraduate nursing students' experiences of PAL within the clinical practice environment. Studies that utilized designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered. Other text such as opinion papers and reports were to be considered if no qualitative studies could be located. The review excluded quantitative studies, as well as those addressing PAL outside the nursing profession and students within the nursing profession but not including undergraduate student nurses. This review considered studies that included aspects related to experiences of PAL in the clinical practice setting, as seen by undergraduate nursing students and the researcher. A three-step search strategy was undertaken to find both published and unpublished studies in English from 2003 to 2017 in various databases, and included searching of reference lists within articles selected for appraisal. Each of the included studies were assessed for
Change between Entry and Graduation in MSW Student Views on Social Work's Traditional Mission, Career Motivations, and Practice Preferences: Caucasian, Student of Color, and American Indian Group Comparisons
Limb, Gordon E.; Organista, Kurt C.
The current study builds on a previous study that examined change in student views on social work's traditional mission, career motivations, and practice preferences between entry into and graduation from master of social work programs. Results from 6,987 students at entry and 3,451 students at graduation showed that students at graduation…
Lisa J. Knecht-Sabres DHS, OTR/L
Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of a unique amalgam of adult learning methodologies near the end of the occupational therapy (OT students’ didactic education as a means to enhance readiness for clinical practice. Results of quantitative and qualitative data analysis indicated that the use of standardized patients, in combination with a sequential, semistructured, and progressively challenging series of client cases, in an OT adult practice (intervention course, improved the students’ self-perception of their level of comfort and skill on various foundational, yet essential, OT-related competencies.
Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen
Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangivelse og referencer i henhold til APA referencing system. Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt...
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan
In clinical settings, nursing staff often find themselves responsible for students who have varying time management skills. Nurses need to respond sensitively and appropriately, and to teach nursing students how to prioritize and better allocate time. This is important not only for developing students' clinical skills but also for shaping their perceptions about the quality of the placement and their willingness to consider it as a potential work specialty. In this column, some simple, practical strategies that nurses can use to assist students with improving their time management skills are identified. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
In this study, a mixed methods approach was used to gather descriptive exploratory information regarding the teaching of science to middle grades students with learning disabilities within a general education classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and their practices concerning providing equitable opportunities for students with learning disabilities in a general education science classroom. Equitable science teaching practices take into account each student's differences and uses those differences to inform instructional decisions and tailor teaching practices based on the student's individualized learning needs. Students with learning disabilities are similar to their non-disabled peers; however, they need some differentiation in instruction to perform to their highest potential achievement levels (Finson, Ormsbee, & Jensen, 2011). In the quantitative phase, the purpose of the study was to identify patterns in the beliefs of middle grades science teachers about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. In the qualitative phase, the purpose of the study was to present examples of instruction in the classrooms of science education reform-oriented middle grades science teachers. The quantitative phase of the study collected data from 274 sixth through eighth grade teachers in the State of Florida during the 2007--2008 school year using The Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities Inventory. Overall, the quantitative findings revealed that middle grades science teachers held positive beliefs about the inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education science classroom. The qualitative phase collected data from multiple sources (interviews, classroom observations, and artifacts) to develop two case studies of reform-oriented middle grades science teachers who were expected to provide equitable science teaching practices. Based on their responses to The
Hasan, Fariha; Khan, Mohammad O; Ali, Mukarram
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan. We approached 613 students that were available on the dates of this survey, keeping a medical to dental student ratio of 75:25. All students from first to final year comprised of the study population, and no internists or medical personnel were included. The questionnaire was divided into three sections, namely knowledge, attitudes and, practices. All questions were based on a multiple choice format. The data were entered and interpreted using the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York). Results The majority of the students were aware that the swine flu is a transmittable disease (n=485, 80.8%). Most students identified the signs and symptoms correctly; however, diarrhea (15.5%) and vomiting (32.2%) were the least correct answers (n=93, n=193 respectively). Most of the preventative measures were reported accurately by the participants. Despite this, only 15.5% students (n=93) reported the use of a facemask when suffering from fever, cough and a runny nose. Conclusion There is a dire need for the routine integration of the awareness and management programs in the medical and dental schools. There exists a gap between the policy and practice, and it is high time we bridge the divide. The students should also be vaccinated
Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This paper contributes with elements of an emerging learning design methodology. The paper takes as its starting point the theory of Students as Learning Designers, which was developed by Sørensen and Levinsen and based on more than a decade of research-and-development projects in Danish primary...... schools (first to 10th grade). The research focussed on information and communication technology (ICT) within the Scandinavian tradition of Problem Oriented Project Pedagogy (POPP), Problem Based Learning (PBL) and students’ production. In recent years, the projects that provide the grounding...... for the theory have focussed specifically on learning designs that constitute students as learning designers of digital productions (both multimodal and coded productions). This includes learning designs that contribute to students’ empowerment, involvement and autonomy within the teacher-designed frameworks...
Crowley, Jennifer; Ball, Lauren; Han, Dug Yeo; McGill, Anne-Thea; Arroll, Bruce; Leveritt, Michael; Wall, Clare
Improvements in individuals' nutrition behaviour can improve risk factors and outcomes associated with lifestyle-related chronic diseases. This study describes and compares New Zealand medical students, general practice registrars and general practitioners' (GPs') attitudes towards incorporating nutrition care into practice, and self-perceived skills in providing nutrition care. A total of 183 New Zealand medical students, 51 general practice registrars and 57 GPs completed a 60-item questionnaire investigating attitudes towards incorporating nutrition care into practice and self-perceived skills in providing nutrition care. Items were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. Factor analysis was conducted to group questionnaire items and a generalised linear model compared differences between medical students, general practice registrars and GPs. All groups indicated that incorporating nutrition care into practice is important. GPs displayed more positive attitudes than students towards incorporating nutrition in routine care (ppractice registrars were more positive than students towards performing nutrition recommendations (p=0.004), specified practices (p=0.037), and eliciting behaviour change (p=0.024). All groups displayed moderate confidence towards providing nutrition care. GPs were more confident than students in areas relating to wellness and disease (pmedical students, general practice registrars and GPs have positive attitudes and moderate confidence towards incorporating nutrition care into practice. It is possible that GPs' experience providing nutrition care contributes to greater confidence. Strategies to facilitate medical students developing confidence in providing nutrition care are warranted.
Scott, L Ridgway
Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...
Bottia, Martha Cecilia; Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth
Analyzing Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data, we examine how exposure to instructional practices influences math test scores at the end of kindergarten for children from different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, and for children with different levels of math skills at kindergarten entry. We also analyze…
Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Vigmo, Sylvi; Bowen, Rhonwen
The amount of time that people, especially young people, spend on communicative activities in social media is rapidly increasing. We are facing new arenas with great potential for learning in general and for language learning in particular, but their impact on learning is not yet acknowledged as such in educational practice (e.g., Conole, 2010;…
The main purpose of this study was to assess perceptions, practices and challenges of ... Stratified sampling followed by Simple random sampling (lottery method) technique ... The gathered information was analyzed using both quantitative and ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.
Graham, Karen J.; Gengarelly, Lara M.; Hopkins, Barbara A.; Lombard, Melissa A.
What is it really like to plunge into the world of science learning and teaching? Find out in this unique book. "Dive In!" grew out of a teacher-scientist project at the University of New Hampshire that promoted active learning and using science practices in the classroom. That experience yielded this book's reason for being: to provide…
Aronoff, Nell; Stellrecht, Elizabeth; Lyons, Amy G; Zafron, Michelle L; Glogowski, Maryruth; Grabowski, Jeremiah; Ohtake, Patricia J
The research assessed online learning modules designed to teach health professions students evidence-based practice (EBP) principles in an interprofessional context across two institutions. Students from nine health professions at two institutions were recruited to participate in this pilot project consisting of two online learning modules designed to prepare students for an in-person case-based interprofessional activity. Librarians and an instructional designer created two EBP modules. Students' competence in EBP was assessed before and after the modules as well as after the in-person activity. Students evaluated the online learning modules and their impact on the students' learning after the in-person session. A total of 39 students from 8 health professions programs participated in the project. Average quiz scores for online EBP module 1 and module 2 were 83% and 76%, respectively. Following completion of the learning modules, adapted Fresno test of competence in EBP scores increased ( p =0.001), indicating that the modules improved EBP skill competence. Student evaluations of the learning modules were positive. Students indicated that they acquired new information skills that contributed to their ability to develop a patient care plan and that they would use these information skills in their future clinical practice. Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
O'Grady, G; Fitzjohn, J
To determine the debt level that current Auckland medical students expect to graduate with, and evaluate this debt in the context of their career aspirations and intended place of practice. Simple check-box and fill-in-the-blank surveys were distributed to Auckland University medical students in Years 1 through to 5 during their second week of scheduled lectures in March 2000. Students were asked to provide demographic details, then complete sections on debt and career aspirations. 70% of Auckland medical students participated. Average expected debt was between $60000 to $70000. Predicted size of graduation debt was significantly related with plans to practice medicine overseas, and this trend was especially strong among females. In addition, Maori and Polynesian students bear a disproportionate level of the student debt burden compared to Pakeha and Asian groups. 77% of students indicated a preference for working in private or hospital specialty work. Student debt will have major effects on the composition of the New Zealand medical workforce over coming years. More attention must be paid to the national picture of medical student indebtedness if adequate workforce planning is to be possible.
Muhammad E. Hoque
Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038. Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.
Weeks, Benjamin K; Horan, Sean A
To examine a video-based learning activity for engaging physiotherapy students in preparation for practical examinations and determine student performance outcomes. Multi-method employing qualitative and quantitative data collection procedures. Tertiary education facility on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Physiotherapy students in their first year of a two-year graduate entry program. Questionnaire-based surveys and focus groups were used to examine student perceptions and satisfaction. Surveys were analysed based on the frequency of responses to closed questions made on a 5-pont Likert scale, while a thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts. t-Tests were used to compare student awarded marks and examiner awarded marks and evaluate student performance. Sixty-two physiotherapy students participated in the study. Mean response rate for questionnaires was 93% and eight students (13%) participated in the focus group. Participants found the video resources effective to support their learning (98% positive) and rating the video examples to be an effective learning activity (96% positive). Themes emergent from focus group responses were around improved understanding, reduced performance anxiety, and enjoyment. Students were, however, critical of the predictable nature of the example performances. Students in the current cohort supported by the video-based preparation activity exhibited greater practical examination marks than those from the previous year who were unsupported by the activity (mean 81.6 SD 8.7 vs. mean 78.1 SD 9.0, p=0.01). A video-based learning activity was effective for preparing physiotherapy students for practical examinations and conferred benefits of reduced anxiety and improved performance. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fowler, P.; Wilford, B.
The role of feedback to a learner's development has been well established. There is an absence of studies relating to student radiographers experience of gaining and applying formative feedback. This study investigated processes involved in gaining written formative feedback in the clinical practice setting as well as the impact feedback had on student radiographers learning. The data was collected from radiography students at two higher education institutions by electronic questionnaire comprising scaled and open questions. There was a response rate of 37% (n = 103/279). Scaled data was analysed using inferential statistics and the qualitative data helped explain the findings. The majority of students recognised radiographers were frequently busy; resulting in feedback that is generic and not always timely. There is strength of opinion 82.6% (n = 85/103) that student radiographers do not work with any one radiographer consistently enough to enable the provision of constructive and meaningful feedback. There appears to be difficulty in obtaining the comments but the evidence shows they are valued. The majority of students seek feedback that is specific and will clearly identify areas for development. They reflect on feedback as well as use self-criticism of their practice performance indicating the development of autonomous skills. The challenge of enabling consistent one to one working with radiographers, the need to maximise a learning culture within practice environments and ensuring full engagement by radiographers and students could be addressed by modification of the feedback system, a working group being formed from students, supervising radiographers and academic tutors. - Highlights: • Students value constructive criticism and on-going verbal feedback. • Written feedback is not always easy to obtain because of pressures on staff time. • Student radiographers are rarely able to work consistently with the same person. • Student and mentor
Miyoung Kim, RN, PhD, MBA, GNP
Conclusions: This study demonstrated the hierarchical relationship among belongingness, self-esteem, and self-directed learning based on the conceptual framework developed by Levett-Jones and Lathlean, thus proving the usefulness of this framework for application in the field. Therefore, this study found that there are needs of high self-esteem and belongingness in order to improve self-directed learning for APN students in clinical practice.
Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Gustavsson, Maria; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena
To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire.
Daalmans, M T; Vissia, M S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Lagro-Janssen, A L M
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002 (n = 258). The overall response was 65%. Both male and female students prefered working in a group practice environment rather than a solo practice, in which significant more males prefered ownership. Only 23% of the males and 7% of the females expected to work full time in the future. An important factor was leisure time, but for the female students 'taking care for children' was still decisive. The new job description 'oral physician' for the future dentist as advocated by Dutch health authorities was found less attractive than the present profession 'dentist'. Only a quarter of the females and half of the males is interested to serve as manager of a team of dental health professionals. It is concluded that male and female dental students differ in their plans and expectations with respect to their future career choices and practice pattern preferences. As the majority of the present dental students is female this will have a major impact on the dental profession.
Full Text Available With growing diversity in the population, higher education faces a new situation with increasing student diversity. In our paper, we will explore questions concerning the consequences student diversity has for higher-education institutions. Based on our experience from three different R&D projects, the differences in culture and academic literacy practices give culturally diverse students challenges that have often been ignored in academia. Some other studies also document that this group of students has a much higher risk of dropping out and underachieving than majority students (Andersen & Skaarer- Kreutz, 2007; Støren, 2009. In our paper, we are going to discuss the students’ challenges and discourse of remediation that is often associated with their challenges and suggest how higher-education institutions can adjust their practices to be more oriented to intercultural communication. Intercultural communication as a dialogic approach may create dynamics in academic tutoring and lead to mutual change/transformation instead of a one-way adaptation of existing academic literacy norms. We argue that all teachers should be aware of cultural differences in literacy practices in the education systems and strive to adjust their teaching practices to the diversity in the classroom. This approach, we believe, can contribute to a better learning environment for all students, independently of their backgrounds.
Agarwal, Pooja K; Finley, Jason R; Rose, Nathan S; Roediger, Henry L
We examined the effects of retrieval practice for students who varied in working memory capacity as a function of the lag between study of material and its initial test, whether or not feedback was given after the test, and the retention interval of the final test. We sought to determine whether a blend of these conditions exists that maximises benefits from retrieval practice for lower and higher working memory capacity students. College students learned general knowledge facts and then restudied the facts or were tested on them (with or without feedback) at lags of 0-9 intervening items. Final cued recall performance was better for tested items than for restudied items after both 10 minutes and 2 days, particularly for longer study-test lags. Furthermore, on the 2-day delayed test the benefits from retrieval practice with feedback were significantly greater for students with lower working memory capacity than for students with higher working memory capacity (r = -.42). Retrieval practice may be an especially effective learning strategy for lower ability students.
Renan B. Domingues
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between migraine and physical practice among 480 medical students who were submitted to a questionnaire about headaches and physical practices. Migraine diagnosis was assessed by ID-Migraine and functional disability was evaluated with MIDAS. The type (aerobic or strength training, the weekly frequency and the intensity of physical practice and body mass index (BMI were assessed. There was a reduction in functional disability of migraine in students reporting physical practice (no physical practice - MIDAS=8.81±1.40, physical practice - MIDAS=15.49±1.78; P=0.03. Frequency, intensity, and type of physical practices were not associated with functional impact of migraine. BMI did not correlate with migraine impact (normal weight - MIDAS=12.34±1.33, overweight or obese - MIDAS=17.45±3.86; P=0.33. These results were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Our data suggest that physical practice is inversely related with functional disability of migraine in university students regardless of BMI.
Ayán Pérez, Carlos; Molina, Antonio J; Varela Mato, Verónica; Cancela Carral, José María; Barrio Lera, Juan Pablo; Martín Sánchez, Vicente
To identify the prevalence and relationship between the practice of sports and smoking in university students enrolled on accredited qualifications related to health and/or education sciences. Cross-sectional study including 540 students (average age of 21.3±3.8 years; 68% women) of the University of Vigo registered in degree programs linked to health (Physical Therapy and Nursing), or education (Pre-School, Primary School and Physical Activity and Sport Sciences) who answered an "ad hoc" questionnaire relating sports practice and tobacco consumption. Women showed a lower habit on sports practice and a higher tobacco consumption, regardless of their academic degree. The average share of students who recognized practicing sports was significantly minor in those enrolled in health careers (37.7 vs. 57.5%). Regarding tobacco consumption, the students enrolled in health careers reported the lowest prevalence (16.7%). Among the students associated to education, this prevalence was found to be 25.9%. The bivariate analysis showed a trend towards a lower sport practice among the smokers. This association was significant only among the moderate consumers. The findings of this research show a low prevalence in sports practice among students enrolled in degrees associated to health, and a more relevant tobacco consumption among those enrolled in degrees associated to education. It seems necessary to develop strategies aimed at promoting healthy habits that should be taking into account the tobacco consumption reported by the student. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Smith, Tony; Sutton, Keith; Pit, Sabrina; Muyambi, Kuda; Terry, Daniel; Farthing, Annie; Courtney, Claire; Cross, Merylin
The aim of this study was to profile students undertaking placements at University Departments of Rural Health (UDRHs) and investigate factors affecting students' satisfaction and intention to enter rural practice. Cross-sectional survey comprising 21 core questions used by all UDRHs. Eleven UDRHs across Australia that support students' placements in regional, rural and remote locations. Medical, nursing and allied health students who participated in UDRH placements between July 2014 and November 2015 and completed the questionnaire. Key dependent variables were placement satisfaction and rural practice intention. Descriptive variables were age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) background, location of placement, healthcare discipline, year of study and type and length of placement. A total of 3328 students responded. The sample was predominantly female (79%), the mean age was 26.0 years and 1.8% identified as ATSI. Most placements (69%) were >2 but ≤12 weeks, 80% were in Modified Monash 3, 4 or 5 geographical locations. Public hospitals and community health made up 63% of placements. Students satisfied with their placement had 2.33 higher odds of rural practice intention. Those satisfied with Indigenous cultural training, workplace supervision, access to education resources and accommodation had higher odds of overall satisfaction and post-placement rural practice intention. The majority of students were highly satisfied with their placement and the support provided by rural clinicians and the UDRHs. UDRHs are well placed to provide health professional students with highly satisfactory placements that foster rural practice intention. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Md. Omar Reza Seam
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the perceptions and extent of practicing self-medication among undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted over a six month period (January to June 2016 among undergraduate pharmacy students in five reputable public universities of Bangladesh. It involved face-to-face interviews regarding self-medication of 250 respondents selected by simple random sampling. Results: Self-medication was reported by 88.0% of students. Antipyretics (58.40% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever and headaches. The major cause for self-medication was minor illness (59.60%, p = 0.73 while previous prescriptions were the main source of knowledge as well as the major factor (52.80%, p = 0.94 dominating the self-medication practice. The results also demonstrated 88.80% of students had previous knowledge on self-medication and 83.60% of students always checked the information on the label; mainly the expiry date before use (85.60%. A significant (p < 0.05 portion of the students (51% male and 43% female perceived it was an acceptable practice as they considered self-medication to be a segment of self-care. Furthermore, students demonstrated differences in their response level towards the adverse effect of drugs, the health hazard by a higher dose of drug, a physician’s help in case of side effects, taking medicine without proper knowledge, and stopping selling medicine without prescription. Conclusions: Self-medication was commonly used among pharmacy students primarily for minor illnesses using over-the-counter medications. Although it is an inevitable practice for them it should be considered an important public health problem as this practice may increase the misuse or irrational use of medicines.
Mary, Sidebotham; Julie, Jomeen; Jennifer, Gamble
The international world of higher education is changing with universities now offering students flexible delivery options that allow them to study away from campus and at a time convenient to them. Some students prefer on line learning while others prefer face to face contact offered through a traditional lecture and tutorial delivery modes. The response by many universities is to offer a blend of both. While online and blended mode of delivery may be suitable for some subjects there is little knowledge of the efficacy of blended learning models to teach evidence based practice and research (EBPR) to undergraduate midwifery students. EBPR is a challenging, threshold level subject upon which deeper knowledge and skills are built. This paper describes the design, delivery, and evaluation of an undergraduate EBPR course delivered in blended mode to first year midwifery students. Components of the blended learning innovation included: novel teaching strategies, engaging practical activities, role play, and e-learning strategies to maintain engagement. University-based course evaluation outcomes revealed very positive scores and the course was rated within the top ten percent of all courses offered within the Health Group at the host University. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graham, Crystal L; Phillips, Shannon M; Newman, Susan D; Atz, Teresa W
This integrative review synthesized baccalaureate minority nursing students' perceptions of their clinical experiences. The diversity of the nursing workforce does not mirror the United States population. Attrition rates of minority nursing students remain higher than rates for White students. Literature examining facilitators and barriers to minority student success predominantly focuses on academic factors, excluding those relevant to clinical education. An integrative review using literature from nursing and education. Three common perceived barriers were identified: discrimination from faculty, peers, nursing staff, and patients; bias in faculty grading practices; and isolation. Although little is known about the relationship between clinical failures and overall attrition, this review provides evidence that minority students encounter significant barriers in clinical education. To increase the diversity of the nursing workforce, faculty must address these issues and make modifications to ensure an equal opportunity at a quality education for all students.
Chan, Christine K L; So, Winnie K W; Fong, Daniel Y T
This study examined Hong Kong baccalaureate nursing students' stress and their coping strategies in clinical practice. Two hundred five nursing students completed a self-administrative survey including demographics, Perceived Stress Scale, and Coping Behavior Inventory. Results showed that students perceived a moderate level of stress (M = 2.10, SD =0.44). The most common stressor was lack of professional knowledge and skills. Among the four types of coping strategies (transference, stay optimistic, problem solving, and avoidance), transference was the most frequently used. Furthermore, senior students who perceived a higher level of stress from taking care of patients were more likely to choose problem-solving strategies. Senior students who had no religious belief and perceived a higher level of stress from teachers and nursing staff were more likely to use avoidance strategies. The results provided valuable information for clinical educators in identifying students' needs, facilitating their learning in the clinical setting, and developing effective interventions to reduce stress.
Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen
Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangive...... kildeangivelse og referencer i henhold til APA referencing system....
Helal, Randah; El-Khawaga, Ghada; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady
To assess the knowledge and attitude of medical students towards road safety and to determine their driving behavior and its relation to different related factors. This cross-sectional study involved 480 medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect student personal data, knowledge about road safety, attitude towards road safety, and driving practices. More than 40% of students experienced an injury in the previous year, mainly as a pedestrian (56%), and 15.2% practiced driving, although only 9.6% had a driving licence. Most of the students had correct road safety knowledge except for awareness that the safe time to read maps is when your vehicle is parked (44%), one should drive in the left lane (29.6%), and one should overtake from the right-hand lane only (25.8%). The majority of the students reported that road traffic injuries can be prevented (89.2%). The mean score of the driving practices of the students ranged from 0.66±1.04 to 2.44±6.28 and rural residents showed significantly higher score regarding errors and lapses. Good road safety knowledge and a favorable, low risk attitude, did not translate into improved road traffic behavior and this highlights the importance of stricter implementation of the existing rules and including road safety in medical education programs.
Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Al-Rashedy, Oliyan Shoqer; Alsaab, Rayan Saad; Alfayez, Abdulrahman Saad; Almarri, Nawaf Rashed
To determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of food hygiene among primary, intermediate and high school students and explore association, if any, with socio-demographic differences. The observational cross-sectional study was conducted at boy's schools in Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to May 2014. Data was collected using stratified random sampling technique from students aged 8-25 year. Two schools from each level (primary, intermediate and high school) were randomly selected and data was collected from the selected schools using simple random sampling method. A self-administered modified Sharif and Al-Malki questionnaire for knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene was used with Arabic translation. The mean age of 377 male students in the study was 14.53±2.647 years. Knowledge levels was less in primary school students compared to high school students (p=0.026). Attitude level was high in primary school students compared to intermediate school students (pstudents exhibited good practice levels, despite fair knowledge and attitude levels.
Allison, Elizabeth Rowland
This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify
Snijders, G.F.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Broeder, A. den
OBJECTIVES: To describe the results of a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)-guided pharmacological pain management strategy in symptomatic knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) in daily clinical practice. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, standardised conservative treatment was offered to patients
Full Text Available Introduction: Self-medication is an important aspect of self-care. It is a common practice in society and medical students are no exception. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of self-medication among students of a medical school in Western Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among basic science and clinical students after obtaining prior consent from those willing to participate. Respondents’ degree of agreement with a set of 25 statements was noted using Likert scale to assess their knowledge. The practice of self-medication was studied by asking about the use of selected groups of medicines during the past one-year period and noting the pattern of use. Results: Three hundred and thirty of the 356 students (92.6% participated in the study. Mean knowledge score was 93.2 (SD = 8.1. Self-medication was practiced by 83.3% (n = 275 of respondents. Knowledge about self-medication differed among respondents according to gender (p = 0.03 and nationality (p = 0.04 but not other variables. Practice of self-medication was associated with father’s profession (p = 0.03 and nationality of the respondents (p = 0.04. Conclusions: Students’ knowledge about self-medication was good and they commonly practiced self-medication. Pain-killers were the most commonly used drug.
Boratav, Hale Bolak; Çavdar, Alev
This article is based on a study of young people and sexuality in Turkey. The focus of this study included messages about sexuality, sexual beliefs, sexual experiences with a view to consent and resistance, religiosity, and certain interrelations therein. A total of 471 students (273 women, M age=20.5 years, and 198 men, M age=21 years) from four different universities in Turkey participated in a survey with measures of restrictive and permissive messages about sexuality received from various sources, beliefs about sexual roles of men and women in relationships, and questions about a range of sexual experiences, including coital and non-coital. The incidence and characteristics of ideal sexual partnership and incidence and dynamics of experiences involving "token resistance" and "consent to unwanted sex" were specifically investigated. The results provided a snapshot of the sexual lives of students in this country at the crossroads of secularism and traditional Muslim mores. Both commonalities and differences were found across gender. Both men and women received more restrictive than permissive messages. The most important message source was same-sex friends for men and parents for women. Men had more dating and sexual partners than women. The correlations of religiosity and messages with sexual experiences and attitudes were mostly in the expected direction. Women were more likely to have a token resistance incidence and both genders were equally unlikely to consent to unwanted sex. The results were discussed in relation to the cultural context and the relevant literature, and recommendations are offered for future research.
Zapko, Karen A; Ferranto, Mary Lou Gemma; Blasiman, Rachael; Shelestak, Debra
The National League for Nursing (NLN) has endorsed simulation as a necessary teaching approach to prepare students for the demanding role of professional nursing. Questions arise about the suitability of simulation experiences to educate students. Empirical support for the effect of simulation on patient outcomes is sparse. Most studies on simulation report only anecdotal results rather than data obtained using evaluative tools. The aim of this study was to examine student perception of best educational practices in simulation and to evaluate their satisfaction and self-confidence in simulation. This study was a descriptive study designed to explore students' perceptions of the simulation experience over a two-year period. Using the Jeffries framework, a Simulation Day was designed consisting of serial patient simulations using high and medium fidelity simulators and live patient actors. The setting for the study was a regional campus of a large Midwestern Research 2 university. The convenience sample consisted of 199 participants and included sophomore, junior, and senior nursing students enrolled in the baccalaureate nursing program. The Simulation Days consisted of serial patient simulations using high and medium fidelity simulators and live patient actors. Participants rotated through four scenarios that corresponded to their level in the nursing program. Data was collected in two consecutive years. Participants completed both the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Student Version) and the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale. Results provide strong support for using serial simulation as a learning tool. Students were satisfied with the experience, felt confident in their performance, and felt the simulations were based on sound educational practices and were important for learning. Serial simulations and having students experience simulations more than once in consecutive years is a valuable method of clinical instruction. When
Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Redford, Gloria J; Bohaty, Brenda S
In recognition of the importance for dental education programs to take a student-centered approach in which students are encouraged to take responsibility for their learning, a pediatric dentistry course redesign aimed at promoting greater active and self-directed learning was implemented at one U.S. dental school. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the students' self-reported study habits and active learning practices necessary for meaningful learning in the flipped/blended classroom. A convenience sample of two classes of second-year dental students in spring 2014 (SP14, n=106) and spring 2015 (SP15, n=106) was invited to participate in the study. Of the SP14 students, 84 participated, for a response rate of 79%; of the SP15 students, 94 participated, for a response rate of 87%. Students' self-reported responses to questions about study strategies with the prerecorded lecture materials and assigned reading materials were examined. Non-parametric analyses resulted in a cohort effect, so data are reported by class. In the SP15 class, 72% reported watching all/more than half of the prerecorded lectures versus 62% of the SP14 class, with a majority watching more than one lecture per week. In the SP15 cohort, 68% used active learning strategies when watching the lectures versus 58.3% of the SP14 cohort. The time of day preferred by the majority of both cohorts for interacting with course materials was 7-11 pm. Both SP14 and SP15 students reported being unlikely to read assigned materials prior to coming to class. Overall, the course redesign appeared to engage students in self-directed active learning. However, the degree to which active learning practices were taking place to achieve meaningful learning was questionable given students' self-reported study strategies. More work is needed to examine strategies for promoting study practices that will lead to meaningful learning.
Wareing, A.K.; Henderson, I.
Introduction: There is a paucity of evidence in diagnostic radiography evaluating a career path into industrial imaging despite several higher education institutes stating this route as a career option on graduation. The link between a career in industrial radiography and diagnostic routes is unknown although there are anecdotal examples of individuals transferring between the two. Successfully obtaining a first post job following graduation in diagnostic radiography can be challenging in the current financial climate. A partnership was formed with an energy sector company that offered non-destructive testing/non-destructive evaluation (NDT/NDE) employing industrial radiographic technicians. Method: As an initial pilot, 5 (n = 5) final year diagnostic radiography students visited an industrial radiography site and underwent theoretical and practical training. Following this placement they engaged in a focus group and the student perceptions/responses were explored and recorded. Results: Common themes were identified and categorised via a thematic analysis. These were; radiation safety, physics and technology, widening access, graduate attributes/transferable skill sets and working conditions. Conclusion: Student discussion focussed around the benefits of working conditions in healthcare, the value of technology, safety and physics education in alternative placements and the transferability of skills into other/industrial sectors (e.g. NDT/NDE). Contemporary practice placements are a useful pedagogical approach to develop complex conceptual theoretical constructs, such as radiation physics. An in depth evaluation between the two industries skill sets is postulated. Additionally, this could offer alternative/emerging roles to interested diagnostic radiographers potentially meeting the skill shortage in industrial radiography. - Highlights: • Research in this area is novel. No evidence could be found to evaluate the links. • Students had theoretical/practical
Full Text Available This article aims to determine the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on university student achievement. The article describes a model of a laboratory course that includes a virtual component. This virtual component is viewed as a tool of student pre-lab autonomous learning. It presents electronic resources designed for a virtual laboratory and outlines the methodology of e-resource application. To find out how virtual chemistry laboratory affects student scientific literacy, research skills and practices, a pedagogical experiment has been conducted. Student achievement was compared in two learning environments: traditional – in-class hands-on – learning (control group and blended learning – online learning combined with in-person learning (experimental group. The effectiveness of integrating an e-lab in the laboratory study was measured by comparing student lab reports of the two groups. For that purpose, a set of 10 criteria was developed. The experimental and control student groups were also compared in terms of test results and student portfolios. The study showed that the adopted approach blending both virtual and hands-on learning environments has the potential to enhance student research skills and practices in analytical chemistry studies.
Gonzalez, Kenneth P.
The Achieving the Dream (ATD) initiative works with more than 100 community colleges across the United States with the specific goal of increasing student success. Together, Achieving the Dream colleges graduate or transfer close to 250,000 students a year. With just a 5 percent increase in graduation rates, individuals can positively impact the…
Hostetter, Leonard R., Jr.
This teaching innovation is a brand-based student-led inquiry of marketing concepts and practices for an introductory marketing course. During the first week of class, teams of students (or individual students) each select a brand of interest to research and analyze throughout the course. The objective is for students to understand the practical…
Dary, Teri; Pickeral, Terry; Shumer, Rob; Williams, Anderson
This position paper on student engagement is organized in response to major questions on how student engagement aligns with dropout prevention. Through a set of questions and responses, the "Weaving Student Engagement Into the Core Practices of Schools" position paper on student engagement : (1) defines the term "student…
Education Trust, 2016
All across the country, leaders in colleges and universities are asking the same question: What can we do to improve student success, especially for the low-income students and students of color whose graduation rates often lag behind? This second practice guide: "Using Data to Improve Student Outcomes: Learning from Leading Colleges"…
Full Text Available Cultural differences in educational practices can be regarded as one of the major causes of struggle and failure. If these practices take place in foreign language settings where the medium of communication is carried out solely in the foreign language, the severity of the struggle on the part of the students rises significantly. In this study, cultural differences in educational practices are examined through the experiences of a Korean graduate student who studies in a north-eastern American university. The data is collected through in-depth face-to-face interviews which yielded to significant implications. Classroom activities, power relations, and expectations are presented through cultural lenses and how the differences in cultures affect the success of a foreign student are presented.
Young, Grace J; Cohen, Marya J; Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Jones, Meissa M; Reidy, Patricia A; Weinstein, Amy R
Although interprofessional relationships are ubiquitous in clinical practice, undergraduate medical students have limited opportunities to develop these relationships in the clinical setting. A few student-faculty collaborative practice networks (SFCPNs) have been working to address this issue, but limited data exist examining the nature and extent of these practices. A systematic survey at a Harvard-affiliated SFCPN is utilised to evaluate the quantity and quality of interprofessional interactions, isolate improvements, and identify challenges in undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE). Our data corroborate previous findings in which interprofessional clinical learning was shown to have positive effects on student development and align with all four domains of Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies, including interprofessional ethics and values, roles and responsibilities, interprofessional communication, and teams and teamwork. These results highlight the unique opportunity and growing necessity of integrating IPE in SFCPNs to endorse the development of collaborative and professional competencies in clinical modalities of patient care.
Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; McCall, Louise; Roller, Louis; Hewitt, Lesley; Molloy, Liz; Baird, Marilyn; Aldabah, Ligal
Practical hands-on learning opportunities are viewed as a vital component of the education of health science students, but there is a critical shortage of fieldwork placement experiences. It is therefore important that these clinical learning environments are well suited to students' perceptions and expectations. To investigate how undergraduate students enrolled in health-related education programs view their clinical learning environments and specifically to compare students' perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment to that of their 'preferred/ideal' clinical learning environment. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) was used to collect data from 548 undergraduate students (55% response rate) enrolled in all year levels of paramedics, midwifery, radiography and medical imaging, occupational therapy, pharmacy, nutrition and dietetics, physiotherapy and social work at Monash University via convenience sampling. Students were asked to rate their perception of the clinical learning environment at the completion of their placements using the CLEI. Satisfaction of the students enrolled in the health-related disciplines was closely linked with the five constructs measured by the CLEI: Personalization, Student Involvement, Task Orientation, Innovation, and Individualization. Significant differences were found between the student's perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment and their 'ideal' clinical learning environment. The study highlights the importance of a supportive clinical learning environment that places emphasis on effective two-way communication. A thorough understanding of students' perceptions of their clinical learning environments is essential. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their training and future practice of medicine, and to identify factors associated with the intent to practice in rural or urban settings, or to migrate abroad. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009 among 600 medical students (Year I to Internship program of the Faculty of Medicine at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. A pre-tested self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data summarization and presentation. Degree of association was measured by Chi Square test, with significance level set at p Results Only 20% of the students felt ‘excellent’ about studying medicine; followed by ‘very good’ (19%, ‘good’ (30%, ‘fair’ (21% and ‘bad’ (11%. About 35% of respondents responded they felt the standard of medical education was below their expectation. Only 30% of the students said they would like to initially practice medicine in rural settings in Ethiopia. However, students with rural backgrounds were more likely than those with urban backgrounds to say they intended to practice medicine in rural areas (adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.18-5.26. Similarly, students in clinical training program preferred to practice medicine in rural areas compared to pre-clinical students (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.12-2.99. About 53% of the students (57% males vs. 46% females, p = 0.017 indicated aspiration to emigrate following graduation, particularly to the
Kim, Sang Suk; Kim, Eun Joo; Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Geun Myun; Baek, Hee Chong
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential for enhancing nurses' quality of care. We identified Korean nursing students' practices, attitudes, and knowledge concerning EBP, as well as their critical thinking disposition (CTD). The EBP Questionnaire (EBPQ) was administered to a convenience sample of 266 nursing students recruited from four nursing schools in Seoul and its metropolitan area. Average EBPQ and CTD total scores were 4.69 ± 0.64 and 3.56 ± 0.32, respectively. Students who were ages ⩾23 years, male, and satisfied with their major demonstrated higher EBPQ and CTD scores. EBPQ scores were significantly correlated with CTD scores (r = .459, p students improve their CTD and information utilization skills, as well as integrate EBP in undergraduate programs to enhance nurses' EBP abilities. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):21-27.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
that simultaneously scaffold students’ subject-related inquiry, agency, reflection and learning. Research studies have documented that this approach constitutes arenas that support students’ deep learning and mastery of both transdisciplinary and subject matter, along with their acquisition of digital literacy and 21......This paper contributes with elements of an emerging learning design methodology. The paper takes as its starting point the theory of Students as Learning Designers, which was developed by Sørensen and Levinsen and based on more than a decade of research-and-development projects in Danish primary...... schools (first to 10th grade). The research focussed on information and communication technology (ICT) within the Scandinavian tradition of Problem Oriented Project Pedagogy (POPP), Problem Based Learning (PBL) and students’ production. In recent years, the projects that provide the grounding...
Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaetse, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa
Botswana's medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. This study explored the impact of rural training on students' attitudes towards rural practice. The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The thirty-six participants' age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirtythree desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas.Keyords: rural health, student perceptions.
Edwards, Sharon Lorraine
To describe and recommend a variety of data analysis methods when engaging in narrative research using story as an aid to nursing students' learning. Narrative research methodology is used in many nursing research studies. However, narrative research reports are generally unspecific regarding the analysis and interpretive process. This article examines the qualitative analytical approaches of Lieblich et al's ( 1998 ) narrative processes of holistic content and analysis of form, incorporated as overarching theories. To support these theories and to provide a more rounded analytical process, other authors' work is included. Approaching narrative analysis from different perspectives is recommended. For each cycle of analysis, it is important to conceptualise the analysis using descriptors drawn from the initial literature review and the initial text. Rigour and transparency are foremost, and tables are generated that reflect each stage of the analysis. The final stage of analysis is to clearly report, organise and present findings to reflect the richly varied and diverse potential of stories. Engaging in narrative research and then dealing with the large quantities of data to analyse can be daunting, difficult to manage and appear complex. It is also challenging and rewarding. With clear descriptors, examining the data using multiple lenses can serve to develop a greater level of insight into understanding nursing students' learning from their clinical experiences, presented as stories, when involved in the care of individuals. There are many approaches to narrative analysis in nursing research and it can be difficult to establish the main research approach best suited to the study. There is no single way to define narrative analysis and a combination of strategies can be applied.
Full Text Available Dental education aims to produce competent graduates with the ability to provide quality care to the patients and facilitate the smooth integration into professional practice. The objective of this study was to explore the overall preparedness of graduands for integrating into professional practice. The survey was tested for reliability and analysed the career paths, learning preferences, overall knowledge, and confidence amongst graduating dentists in integrating and managing a dental practice on graduation. Sixty-nine students (89.6% in age group of 20–50 years participated in the study. Students indicated a high level of confidence in their skills and ability to work in a team in a practice or collaboratively with other colleagues and specialists but expressed some reservation on their practice management skills (73.1%. Challenges in gaining employment and pressures to repay educational debts are amongst the reasons for graduands preferring a paid job immediately on graduation regardless of demographics. Students indicated that an increase in speciality training and clinical/outreach placements could enhance employability. This study explores the students’ perception of their confidences, knowledge, learning preferences, and practice management skills as a method of evaluating their preparedness to practice on graduation and provides a base line for curriculum structuring to prepare graduands to enter the competitive dental work force.
Kasanda, C D; Mitonga, K H; Veii, K; Zimba, R F
Many students at the University of Namibia have frequently complained about ineffective assessment practices used at the institution. On many occasions, these complaints have not been substantiated with evidence of any kind. The purpose of this study was to obtain some empirical evidence that would ascertain undergraduate students' perceptions of the University of Namibia's grading and assessment practices. Using a structured scaled questionnaire, data were obtained from a representative sample of the University's undergraduate students studying for Medical and Pharmacy degrees. The questionnaire items covered matters related to students' experiences of assessment practices, feedback on assessment tasks, reliability and validity of assessment tools used by lecturers, efficacy of processes of administering examinations, perceptions of irregular and unfair assessment practices, impact of assessment regimes on students' cost of studies, motivation, morale, rate of progression in studies and graduation, the degree of compliance with assessment ethics and on academic quality assurance. According to the data reported in this article, the majority of the respondents perceived that the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia applied assessment practices that yielded reliable and valid results. This was the case because most lecturers in the two schools used appropriate assessment tools and provided their students with prompt and informative feedback on the results of assignments, tests and examinations. In addition, most respondents reported that whereas examination procedures used in the two schools were efficient and effective, lecturers graded examination scripts fairly. These and other results are discussed in the article to communicate the message that the assessment procedures used in the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy at the University of Namibia would promote effective learning and understanding amongst students as they were of high quality.
Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Mazzone, Venera; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Castorina, Sergio
Historically, cadavers have been used for the study of anatomy. Nowadays, the territorial and legal limitations of this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods such as the use of practical exercise consisting of dissection and observation of animal organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of practical training on animal organs compared with the traditional method of anatomy teaching, based on the dissection of human cadavers. In this study, we seek to demonstrate the usefulness of practical exercise on animal organs. This practical training was held a week after the series of lectures, thus leaving time for the students to learn and understand the topics discussed. Immediately after the lecture, all of the students completed a preliminary test to assess the immediate effect of the lecture. Immediately before the practical exercise, both control and experimental groups completed a second test to assess the effectiveness of personal study. Immediately after practical training, a third test was completed by the experimental group and the control group (no practical activity on animal organs) to highlight the added value of hands-on practice in addition to the lecture. Data obtained from statistical analysis showed a panatomy learning between control and experimental groups. Thus, the results of this study emphasize the utility of practical training on animal organs in learning and understanding anatomy, considering the limitations of the use of cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Muthathi, Immaculate S; Thurling, Catherine H; Armstrong, Susan J
Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning. To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors) in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability. The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged. There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the clinical learning environment so as to support students' adaptation to clinical
Participatory practice of overseas Asian students has been much deliberated over these two decades. Recent studies on the international higher education have proposed new perspectives and analytical framework in looking at their classroom participation, which put the essentialising notion of culture and ongoing misunderstandings under attack. Among these alternative approaches, the proposal for a view on ―small culture‖ and ―academic transition‖ are useful in the exploration of student agency...
Hadley, Kristin M.; Dorward, Jim
Many elementary teachers have been found to have high levels of mathematics anxiety but the impact on student achievement was unknown. Elementary teachers (N = 692) completed the modified Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (Hopko, 2003) along with a questionnaire probing anxiety about teaching mathematics and current mathematics instructional practices. Student mathematics achievement data were collected for the classrooms taught by the teachers. A positive relationship was found betwee...
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
Background: There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. Objectives: To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. Material and Methods: The final year students o...
Groves, Curtis E.; Ilie, marcel; Shallhorn, Paul A.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the standard numerical tool used by Fluid Dynamists to estimate solutions to many problems in academia, government, and industry. CFD is known to have errors and uncertainties and there is no universally adopted method to estimate such quantities. This paper describes an approach to estimate CFD uncertainties strictly numerically using inputs and the Student-T distribution. The approach is compared to an exact analytical solution of fully developed, laminar flow between infinite, stationary plates. It is shown that treating all CFD input parameters as oscillatory uncertainty terms coupled with the Student-T distribution can encompass the exact solution.
Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Uemoto, Asuka; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Youichi; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kusunoki, Tomo; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori
In Japan, the maldistribution of physicians between urban and rural areas is increasing. It is important to know the practice location expectations of future physicians. The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2009-2013, students at a medical school in Japan completed a questionnaire containing 50 items with four-point Likert scales. The students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to state their intention to practice in a rural area. The study sample consisted of 368 students (88.2% response rate). Significant variables that were associated with a positively motivated intent for rural practice were 'presence of a role model' (odds ratio (OR), 5.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58-18.5), 'admission by school recommendation' (OR, 7.68; 95%CI, 2.14-27.6), 'growing up in a rural area' (OR, 6.16; 95%CI, 1.01-37.6), 'general medicine/family medicine as the first career choice' (OR, 5.88; 95%CI, 2.43-14.2), 'interest in the targeted population' (OR, 16.7; 95%CI, 3.97-69.9), 'memorable experience at a class or clinical rotation' (OR, 3.94; 95%CI, 3.73-416), and 'location of their medical school' (OR, 11.4; 95%CI, 2.79-46.2). The present study suggests that medical schools might recruit students with characteristics associated with intention for rural practice.
Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette; Playford, Denese E; Pougnault, Sue; Riley, Geoffrey J
Recruiting medical students from a rural background, together with offering them opportunities for prolonged immersion in rural clinical training environments, both lead to increased participation in the rural workforce after graduation. We have now assessed the extent to which medical students' intentions to practice rurally may also be predicted by either medical school selection criteria and/or student socio-demographic profiles. The study cohort included 538 secondary school-leaver entrants to The University of Western Australia Medical School from 2006 to 2011. On entry they completed a questionnaire indicating intention for either urban or rural practice following graduation. Selection factors (standardised interview score, percentile score from the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) and prior academic performance (Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank), together with socio-demographic factors (age, gender, decile for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and an index of rurality) were examined in relation to intended rural or urban destination of practice. In multivariate logistic regression, students from a rural background had a nearly 8-fold increase in the odds of intention to practice rurally after graduation compared to those from urban backgrounds (OR 7.84, 95% CI 4.10, 14.99, P practice rurally (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.69, 11.22, P medical school entry may have the unintended consequence of selecting fewer graduates interested in a rural practice destination. Increased efforts to recruit students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may be beneficial in terms of an ultimate intended rural practice destination.
O'Connell, Thomas F; Ham, Sandra A; Hart, Theodore G; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D
To explore students' intentions to practice in medically underserved areas. In January 2011, 960 third-year medical students from 24 MD-granting U.S. medical schools were invited to participate in a survey on their intention to practice in a medically underserved area. A follow-up survey was sent to participants in September 2011. Covariates included student demographics, medical school characteristics, environmental exposures, work experiences, sense of calling, and religious characteristics. Adjusted response rates were 564/919 (61.4%, first survey) and 474/564 (84.0%, follow-up survey). Among fourth-year medical students, an estimated 34.3% had an intention to practice among the underserved. In multivariate logistic regression modeling, predictors for intentions to practice among the underserved included growing up in an underserved setting (odds ratio [OR] range: 2.96-4.81), very strong sense of calling (OR range: 1.86-3.89), and high medical school social mission score (in fourth year: OR = 2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-4.21]). International experience was associated with favorable change of mind in the fourth year (OR = 2.86 [95% CI, 1.13-7.24]). High intrinsic religiosity was associated with intentions to practice primary care in underserved settings (in fourth year: OR = 2.29 [95% CI = 1.13-4.64]). Growing up in medically underserved settings, work experience in religiously affiliated organizations, very strong sense of calling, and high medical school social mission score were associated with intentions to practice in underserved areas. Lack of formative educational experiences may dissuade students from considering underserved practice.
Teresa Maria Monllau Jaques
Full Text Available This work has had as objective to analyze the skills acquired through internships in business companies by gender that have made the students of the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University Pompeu Fabra. The internship is a basic item in order to obtain a hard connection between the University and social-economic world where University and Enterprises develop their activity. In this study we want to know about two aspects. The first one, we want to know the profit that is obtained from the Student as a consequence of internship and mentoring. Also, we want to study about the importance of mentoring as a principal element that establish the relationship between the Student and the Company. Moreover, it has sought to analyze if certain factors such as the size of the company where the practices has been performed, the study rank level that was achieved or the fact of being a man or a woman, were among the determining factors at the time of acquiring the skills. The results presented here indicate that the size of the company that have been making the practices and the gender of the student are related to the acquisition of certain skills. There was not a statistically significant relationship related to the rank level have by the students in the practice. In the future we are going to study if the labor market Integration is easier if the Student has performed work placement.
Carolina Castañeda Vázquez
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about students´ physical activity from Faculty of Education of University of Seville, and its characteristics.The sample (N=409 is constituted for students from the different degrees of this Faculty (±4.8%; 95%CI. A specific questionnaire, built to that effect, was used to obtain dates. This instrument was validated by different experts on this area of studies, and statistic tests was done to check its reliability (Alpha Cronbach: .78 using SPSS V.15. The main results showed that 62.19% of students do physical activity regularly. Students prefer recreational activities or exercise aimed at being fit or watching health instead competitive games. Activities done by students inside University are very similar to activities done out of this. They also do exercise during all academic year, preferably along the all week or from Monday to Friday, and especially in the afternoon. This group usually practice with friends, classmates or workmates, but lonely too, and they prefer public areas and public or private sport facilities for their sport practice.Key Words: University students, physical activity practice, leisure time.
Sinclair, J; Papps, E; Marshall, B
Nursing students experience ethical problems in clinical practice in a different way from registered nurses. In order to develop ethical reasoning and competence in nursing students, nurse educators must recognise the unique issues students face. This research described the occurrence of ethical issues in clinical practice for 373 undergraduate nursing students who responded to a national questionnaire investigating the frequency of pre-determined ethical issues and the corresponding level of distress. Over two thirds of respondents experienced breaches of a patient's right to confidentiality, privacy, dignity or respect and 87% experienced unsafe working conditions. The most distressing issues were those that compromised patient safety, including unsafe healthcare practices, working conditions and suspected abuse or neglect. Themes that emerged from an open-ended question included lack of support and supervision, bullying and end of life issues. This research found the frequency at which ethical issues are experienced was highest in year three participants. However, the overall distress levels were lower for the majority of issues for those participants in the later part of their degree. Recommendations from this research include developing ethics education around the main concerns that students face in order to enhance students' understanding, resilience and ability to respond appropriately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hills, Caroline; Ryan, Susan; Smith, Derek R; Warren-Forward, Helen; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel
Technology is becoming increasingly integral to the practice of occupational therapists and part of the everyday lives of clients. 'Generation Y' are purported to be naturally technologically skilled as they have grown up in the digital age. The aim of this study was to explore one cohort of 'Generation Y' occupational therapy students' skills and confidence in the use of technologies relevant to contemporary practice. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from a cohort of 274 students enrolled in an Australian undergraduate occupational therapy programme. A total of 173 (63%) students returned the survey. Those born prior to 1982 were removed from the data. This left 155 (56%) 'Generation Y' participants. Not all participants reported to be skilled in everyday technologies although most reported to be skilled in word, Internet and mobile technologies. Many reported a lack of skills in Web 2.0 (collaboration and sharing) technologies, creating and using media and gaming, as well as a lack of confidence in technologies relevant to practice, including assistive technology, specialist devices, specialist software and gaming. Overall, the results suggested that this group of 'Generation Y' students were not universally skilled in all areas of technology relevant to practice but appear to be skilled in technologies they use regularly. Recommendations are therefore made with view to integrating social networking, gaming, media sharing and assistive technology into undergraduate programmes to ensure that graduates have the requisite skills and confidence required for current and future practice. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Finnerty, Gina; Pope, Rosemary
The essence of non-formal learning in midwifery practice has not been previously explored. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the language of a sample of student midwives' descriptions of their practice learning in a range of clinical settings. The students submitted audio-diaries as part of a national study (Pope, R., Graham. L., Finnerty. G., Magnusson, C. 2003. An investigation of the preparation and assessment for midwifery practice within a range of settings. Project Report. University of Surrey). Participants detailed their learning activities and support obtained whilst working with their named mentors for approximately 10 days or shifts. The rich audio-diary data have been analysed using Discourse Analysis. A typology of non-formal learning (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136) has been used to provide a framework for the analysis. Non-formal learning is defined as any learning which does not take place within a formally organised learning programme (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136). Findings indicate that fear and ambiguity hindered students' learning. Recommendations include the protection of time by mentors within the clinical curriculum to guide and supervise students in both formal and non-formal elements of midwifery practice. This paper will explore the implications of the findings for practice-based education.
Full Text Available Materials article analyzes the opportunities and benefits of using cloud services G Suite (Google Apps during the practical training of students. In the course of the study, an e-environment based on G Suit for Education was developed and its use for effective organization of information technology practice training. A model of e-learning environment for organizing group project work in Google Classroom-based training has been built. The design methodology is grounded as one of the most effective for the organization of educational practice in information technologies. The stages of realization of the project task during the educational practice, as well as the tools, the achieved competence, features of the activity of teachers and students at each stage are researched. Examples of tasks, resources and services that were used to achieve project results are given.The implementation of individual project implementation phases in the Google Classroom-based electronic environment has been demonstrated, in particular, project planning, adding new services in the electronic environment, collaborative work with documents, portfolio elements, student reflection. The results of the survey of students on the organization of educational practice using the method of projects and the e-environment based on the use of cloud services G Suite (Google Apps are analyzed.
Full Text Available College of the Atlantic students past and present play leadership roles in the international climate justice youth movement. Student interest in climate change politics at the global level, particularly within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, has inspired the development of a range of courses at COA in global environmental diplomacy. The courses provide a climate justice framework for understanding the geopolitics and political economy of the negotiations, serve to link students with key actors in the climate justice movement, and ultimately to contribute to their own development as climate justice leaders.
Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth
, in a principled way, to select subject-matter content for a course for nursing students on theory of science and research methodology. At the same time, the practical organisation of the project was motivated by a practice-developing research perspective. The purpose of the presentation is to illustrate how...... the idea of practice-developing research was realised in this concrete project. A short introduction is first given to explain the practical situation that motivated the need and interest to select subject matter for teaching. Then, the main part of the presentation explains the considerations involved...... developed. On the basis of this presentation, it should be possible to get a concrete image of one form for practice-developing research. The presentation concludes with a discussion that problematises the sense in which general knowledge about development of nursing school teaching practice has been...
Tilahun, Dejene; Assefa, Tsion; Belachew, Tefera
Background Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion is one of the major worldwide health problems, which has many negative consequences on the health and well-being of women. Information about women's knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives plays a major role in the reduction of unwanted pregnancy; however, there are no studies about this issue in the study area. This study assessed Adama University female students' knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency cont...
Olena Glazunova; Olena Kuzminska; Tetyana Voloshyna; Taisia Sayapina; Valentyna Korolchuk
Materials article analyzes the opportunities and benefits of using cloud services G Suite (Google Apps) during the practical training of students. In the course of the study, an e-environment based on G Suit for Education was developed and its use for effective organization of information technology practice training. A model of e-learning environment for organizing group project work in Google Classroom-based training has been built. The design methodology is grounded as one of the most effe...
Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Puteri, Indira; Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Rika, Baiq
This study examined student mathematical engagement through the intended and enacted lessons taught by two teachers in two different middle schools in Indonesia. The intended lesson was developed using the ELPSA learning design to promote mathematical engagement. Based on the premise that students will react to the mathematical tasks in the forms of words and actions, the analysis focused on identifying the types of mathematical engagement promoted through the intended lesson and performed by students during the lesson. Using modified Watson's analytical tool (2007), students' engagement was captured from what the participants' did or said mathematically. We found that teachers' enacted practices had an influence on student mathematical engagement. The teacher who demonstrated content in explicit ways tended to limit the richness of the engagement; whereas the teacher who presented activities in an open-ended manner fostered engagement.
Full Text Available In 2012, staff in Student Support Services at The University of Sydney piloted an early intervention program to increase first year student engagement and retention. Founded in best-practice, evidence-based research, the Track and Connect program was developed in response to a study into first year undergraduate student attrition by the University’s Planning and Information Office, in consultation with Counselling and Psychological Services. Track and Connect provides tailored advice and support to students identified as at risk of withdrawal from a key first-year subject by demographic markers and on-time data. Trained senior peers contact these students and provide information, encouragement and service referrals at key decision points throughout the semester. This report outlines the program’s development, implementation and early outcomes, and identifies areas for refinement and expansion.
Choudhary, Anjali; Gupta, Vineeta
Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.
del Carmen Gomez, María
The current paper draws on data generated through group interviews with students who were involved in a larger ethnographic research project performed in three science classrooms. The purpose of the study from which this data was generated, was to understand science teachers' assessment practices in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. During group interviews students were asked about their conceptions of what were the assessment priority of teachers, why the students were silent during lecturing and their experiences regarding peer- and self-assessments. The research design and analysis of the findings derives from what students told us about their assessments and learning sciences experiences. Students related that besides the results of the written test, they do not know what else teachers assessed and used to determine their grades. It was also found that students did not participate in the discussion on science because of peer-pressure and a fear of disappointing their peers. Student silence is also linked with student conceptions of science learning and student experiences with methodologies of teaching and learning sciences.
Hohman, Melinda; Pierce, Paloma; Barnett, Elizabeth
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based communication method to assist clients in resolving their ambivalence regarding change. With a school emphasis on evidence-based practice and learning outcomes, a social work department implemented a semester-long course on MI. The purpose of this study was to determine baseline skills and…
Shannon, C Ken; Jackson, Jodie
The validity of medical student projection of, and predictors for, rural practice and the association of a measure of service orientation, projected practice accessibility to the indigent, were investigated. West Virginia (WV) medical student online pre- and postrural rotation questionnaire data were collected during the time period 2001-2009. Of the 1,517 respondent students, submissions by 1,271 met the time interval criterion for inclusion in analyses. Subsequent WV licensing data were available for 461 in 2013. These 2 databases were used to assess for validity of projection of rural practice, for predictors of rural practice, and for student projected accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. There were statistically significant associations between both pre- and postrotation projections of rural practice and subsequent rural practice. The most significant independent predictors of rural practice were student rural background, reported primary care intent, prediction of rural practice and projection of greater accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. For scoring of practice access, there were trends for higher scoring by rural students and rural practitioners, with greater pre-post increases for those with urban hometowns. This study demonstrates the utility of medical student questionnaires for projections of numbers of future rural physicians. It suggests that students with a rural background, rural practice intent, or greater service orientation are more likely to enter rural practice. It also suggests that students, particularly those with urban hometowns, are influenced by rural rotation experiences in forecasting greater practice accessibility and in entering rural practice. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A
The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Full Text Available Marufa Sultana,1 Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Abdur Razzaque Sarker,1 Sarder Mahmud Hossain,21Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Centre for Equity and Health System (CEHS, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 2Department of Public Health, Northern University Bangladesh, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8 years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD score of the participants’ hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79, while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01. However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01. Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education
Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis (CD is a significant problem among nurses. Although there are reports about the prevalence of CD from different parts of the world, data about its frequency in Turkey and about allergic contact sensitization among nurses is insufficient. Objective: To define the frequency and patterns of allergic contact sensitization and related symptoms in practicing and student nurses. Methods: There were 123 nurses in our hospital practicing in the in-patient clinics. All were invited to participate in the study. 69 working-in nurses and 79 student nurses participated in the study. The main reason for refusal of nurses was that they were usually having a shower daily after a hard working day and they had to postpone having a bath for 3 days if they had a patch test on their back. A ready-to-use patch test system (TRUE test® with 29 standardized test substances was applied to all of the participants. History about symptoms of CD and allergic diseases was investigated by questionnaire. Results: While 34.8% (24/69 of practicing nurses had symptoms of CD, 19% (15/79 of student nurses reported the symptoms (p=0.039. The most prevalent positive reaction was to nickel sulfate followed by thimerosal. There was no difference for positive reaction rates between practicing and student nurses. Nurses who had symptoms of CD were older than those without symptoms (p=0.003. The participants with symptoms of CD were more frequently from practicing nurses (p=0.047. Conclusion: CD is more frequent in practicing nurses than student nurses; allergic contact sensitization is not. This may be attributed to the length of occupation that is also correlated well with the length of exposure to the occupational irritants.
Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary
Develop and test a tool designed for use by pre-registration midwifery students to self-appraise their critical thinking in practice. A descriptive cohort design was used. All students (n=164) enrolled in a three-year Bachelor of Midwifery program in Queensland, Australia. The staged model for tool development involved item generation, mapping draft items to critical thinking concepts and expert review to test content validity, pilot testing of the tool to a convenience sample of students, and psychometric testing. Students (n=126, 76.8% response rate) provided demographic details, completed the new tool, and five questions from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) via an online platform or paper version. A high content validity index score of 0.97 was achieved through expert review. Construct validity via factor analysis revealed four factors: seeks information, reflects on practice, facilitates shared decision making, and evaluates practice. The mean total score for the tool was 124.98 (SD=12.58). Total and subscale scores correlated significantly. The scale achieved good internal reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92. Concurrent validity with the MSLQ subscale was 0.35 (pcritical thinking in practice. Critical thinking skills are vital for safe and effective midwifery practice. Students' assessment of their critical thinking development throughout their pre-registration programme makes these skills explicit, and could guide teaching innovation to address identified deficits. The availability of a reliable and valid tool assists research into the development of critical thinking in education and practice. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings
Franco, Alejandro A; Bessler, Wolfgang G
This book reviews the use of innovative physical multiscale modeling methods to deeply understand the electrochemical mechanisms and numerically simulate the structure and properties of electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion.
Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.
As the role of 2YC (two-year colleges/community colleges) changes in the academic pipeline of higher education new practices and ideas to engage and retain students in the geosciences at the 2YC level need to be explored. 2YC typically have a student body composed of non-traditional students ranging from second career students, single parents, students with disabilities, seniors, and minorities. Currently, 2YCs serve 44% of all undergraduate students and 45% of all of all first time freshmen in the US. These statistics show the potential community colleges hold to encourage entering students to the STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) fields as a possible career choice. But the reality is the number of STEM degrees awarded at community colleges has not followed the same trends in student enrollment. Over the past four years El Paso Community College (EPCC) in conjunction with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has implemented several initiatives in our effort to increase the number of Geological Science majors at EPCC and to ensure a successful transition to UTEP. These efforts are aimed to decrease attrition rates of science majors by; articulating degree plans between institutions, introduce field-based research projects to allow hands on experience for students, develop a working relationship between students and university faculty, diversify geology courses offered at EPCC, and strengthening the educational-bridge between the geological science departments of EPCC and UTEP through the aid of federally funded programs. The success of the these efforts have been seen by; the increase in geology majors in our A.S. degree program, the number of degrees conferred at EPCC, the successful transition of students to UTEP, and graduation of students from UTEP with advanced degrees.
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve
We used population-based, longitudinal data to investigate the relation between mathematics instructional practices used by 1st grade teachers in the U.S. and the mathematics achievement of their students. Factor analysis identified four types of instructional activities (i.e., teacher-directed, student-centered, manipulatives/calculators, movement/music) and eight types of specific skills taught (e.g., adding two-digit numbers). First-grade students were then classified into five groups on the basis of their fall and/or spring of kindergarten mathematics achievement—three groups with mathematics difficulties (MD) and two without MD. Regression analysis indicated that a higher percentage of MD students in 1st grade classrooms was associated with greater use by teachers of manipulatives/calculators and movement/music to teach mathematics. Yet follow-up analysis for each of the MD and non-MD groups indicated that only teacher-directed instruction was significantly associated with the achievement of students with MD (covariate-adjusted ESs = .05–.07). The largest predicted effect for a specific instructional practice was for routine practice and drill. In contrast, for both groups of non-MD students, teacher-directed and student-centered instruction had approximately equal, statistically significant positive predicted effects (covariate-adjusted ESs = .03–.04). First-grade teachers in the U.S. may need to increase their use of teacher-directed instruction if they are to raise the mathematics achievement of students with MD. PMID:26180268
Jou, Min; Wang, Jingying
This study investigated a Ubiquitous Sensor System (USS) that we developed to assess student thought process during practical lessons on a real-time basis and to provide students with a reflective learning environment. Behavioral curves and data obtained by the USS would help students understand where they had made mistakes during practical…
Sandholzer, Maximilian; Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Winter, Alfred
In medical education and practice, smartphone apps are increasingly becoming popular. In general practice, apps could play an important future role in supporting medical education and practice. To explore medical students' perceptions regarding the potential of a general practice app for training and subsequent work as a physician. Cross-sectional survey among Leipzig fourth-year medical students who were provided with an app prototype for a mandatory general practice course. Response rate was 99.3% (n = 305/307); 59.0% were female and mean age was 24.5 years. Students certified that the app had a higher potential than textbooks in both education (57.4% vs. 18.0%) and practice (47.1% vs. 22.8%). Students' most desired possible app extensions when anticipating its use for subsequent work as a physician were looking up information for diagnostics, therapy and prediction (85.1%), access to electronic patient files (48.1%), communication and networking (44.3%), organization of medical training (42.9%) and online monitoring of patients (38.1%). Students experienced with medical smartphone apps were more interested in app extensions. Consideration to use the app to support the opening of their own practice was significantly associated with higher interest in accessing electronic patient files, networking with colleagues and telemedicine. Fourth year medical students from Leipzig see a high potential in smartphone apps for education and practice and are interested in further using the technology after undergraduate education.
Solum, Eva Merethe; Maluwa, Veronica Mary; Tveit, Bodil; Severinsson, Elisabeth
Nurses and student nurses in Malawi often encounter challenges in taking a moral course of action. Several studies have demonstrated a need for increased awareness of ethical issues in the nursing education. To explore the challenges experienced by nurse teachers in Malawi in their efforts to enhance students' moral competence in clinical practice. A qualitative hermeneutic approach was employed to interpret the teachers' experiences. Individual interviews (N = 8) and a focus group interview with teachers (N = 9) from different nursing colleges were conducted. Ethical approval was granted and all participants signed their informed consent. Two overall themes emerged: (1) authoritarian learning climate, with three subthemes: (a) fear of making critical comments about clinical practice, (b) fear of disclosing mistakes and lack of knowledge and (c) lack of a culture of critical discussion and reflection that promotes moral competence; and (2) discrepancy between expectations on learning outcome from nursing college and the learning opportunities in practice comprising three subthemes: (a) gap between the theory taught in class and learning opportunities in clinical practice, (b) lack of good role models and (c) lack of resources. Our findings indicated that showing respect was a central objective when the students were assessed in practice. A number of previous studies have enlightened the need for critical reflection in nursing education. Few studies have linked this to challenges experienced by teachers for development of moral competence in practice. This is one of the first such studies done in an African setting. There is a clear relationship between the two themes. A less authoritarian learning climate may enhance critical reflection and discussion between students, teachers and nurses. This can narrow the gap between the theory taught in college and what is demonstrated in clinical practice. Moral competence must be enhanced in order to ensure patients' rights
Spek, B; Wieringa-de Waard, M; Lucas, C; van Dijk, N
The importance and value of the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the decision-making process is recognized by speech-language therapists (SLTs) worldwide and as a result curricula for speech-language therapy students incorporated EBP principles. However, the willingness actually to use EBP principles in their future profession not only depends on EBP knowledge and skills, but also on self-efficacy and task value students perceive towards EBP. To investigate the relation between EBP knowledge and skills, and EBP self-efficacy and task value in different year groups of Dutch SLT students. Students from three year groups filled in a tool that measured EBP knowledge and skills: the Dutch Modified Fresno (DMF). EBP self-efficacy and task value were assessed by using a 20-item questionnaire. Both tools were validated for this population. Mean scores for the three year groups were calculated and tested for group differences using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post-hoc Games-Howell procedure. With a multiple linear regression technique it was assessed whether EBP self-efficacy and task value predict learning achievement scores on the DMF. Other possible predictors included in the model were: level of prior education, standard of English, having had mathematics in prior education and the SLT study year. A total of 149 students filled in both measurement tools. Mean scores on EBP knowledge and skills were significantly different for the three year groups, with students who were further along their studies scoring higher on the DMF. Mean scores on the EBP self-efficacy and task value questionnaire were the same for the three year groups: all students valued EBP positive but self-efficacy was low in all groups. Of the possible predictors, only the year in which students study and EBP self-efficacy were significant predictors for learning achievements in EBP. Despite a significant increase in EBP knowledge and skills over the years as assessed by
Schroen, Anneke T; Brownstein, Michelle R; Sheldon, George F
Medical students and residents often make specialty and practice choices with limited exposure to aspects of professional and personal life in general surgery. The purpose of this study was to portray practice composition, career choices, professional experiences, job satisfaction, and personal life characteristics specific to practicing general surgeons in the United States. A 131-question survey was mailed to all female members (n = 1,076) and a random 2:1 sample of male members (n = 2,152) of the American College of Surgeons in three mailings between September 1998 and March 1999. Respondents who were not actively practicing general surgery in the United States and both trainees and surgeons who did not fit the definition of private or academic practice were excluded. Detailed questions regarding practice attributes, surgical training, professional choices, harassment, malpractice, career satisfaction, and personal life characteristics were included. Separate five-point Likert scales were designed to measure influences on career choices and satisfaction with professional and personal matters. Univariate analyses were used to analyze responses by surgeon age, gender, and practice type. A response rate of 57% resulted in 1,532 eligible responses. Significant differences between private and academic practice were noted in case composition, practice structure, and income potential; no major differences were seen in malpractice experience. Propensity for marriage and parenthood differed significantly between men and women surgeons. Overall career satisfaction was very high regardless of practice type. Some differences by surgeon gender in perceptions of equal career advancement opportunities and of professional isolation were noted. This study offers a comprehensive view of general surgery to enable more informed decisions among medical students and residents regarding specialty choice or practice opportunities.
Goodyear, Victoria A
It has been argued, extensively and internationally, that sustained school-based continuous professional development (CPD) has the potential to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional one-off CPD programs. Yet, the evidence base on more effective or less effective forms of CPD is contradictory. The mechanisms by which sustained support should be offered are unclear, and the impacts on teachers' and students' learning are complex and difficult to track. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a sustained school-based, tailored, and supported CPD program on teachers' practices and students' learning. Data are reported from 6 case studies of individual teachers engaged in a yearlong CPD program focused on cooperative learning. The CPD program involved participatory action research and frequent interaction/support from a boundary spanner (researcher/facilitator). Data were gathered from 29 video-recorded lessons, 108 interviews, and 35 field journal entries. (a) Individualized (external) support, (b) departmental (internal) support, and (c) sustained support impacted teachers' practices of cooperative learning. The teachers adapted their practices of cooperative learning in response to their students' learning needs. Teachers began to develop a level of pedagogical fluency, and in doing so, teachers advanced students' learning. Because this study demonstrates impact, it contributes to international literature on effective CPD. The key contribution is the detailed evidence about how and why CPD supported 6 individual teachers to learn-differently-and the complexity of the learning support required to engage in ongoing curriculum development to positively impact student learning.
Reid, Katherine; Alberti, Hugh
The ageing population and push to community care has significantly increased the workload of General Practitioners (GPs) in the UK and internationally. In an attempt to tackle this, NHS England has promised 5000 more GPs by 2020/21; however, recruitment is in crisis with GP training posts remaining unfilled. Little research has been carried out to assess the fundamental questions of what medical students' perceptions of General Practice are and what shapes their perceptions at medical school. We aimed to explore medical students' conceptualisations of being a GP and specifically the role of the medical school in shaping their perceptions. Two focus groups of year one and year four medical students were undertaken using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Our study has revealed that medical students perceive General Practice to lack prestige and challenge. These perceptions come, at least in part, from a process of socialisation within medical school, whereby medical students internalise and adopt their role models' perceptions and values, and the values portrayed by the hidden curriculum in their medical school culture. Perceived external pressures to pursue a career in General Practice can have a negative influence and medical schools should be made aware of this.