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Sample records for students interpret experimental

  1. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  2. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  3. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; pECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; pECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (pECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  4. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  5. Feedforward: helping students interpret written feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Hurford, Donna; Read, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners... "(Assessment Reform Group, 2002, p.2): for the Higher Education tutor, written feedback forms an integral part of this. This short article reports on teaching methods to engage students in feedback and assessment of their written work.

  6. Teachers' Interpretations of Student Statements about Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Styers, Jodie L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes seven in-service teachers' interpretations of student statements about slope. The teachers interpreted sample student work, conjectured about student contributions, assessed the students' understanding, and positioned the students' statements in the mathematics curriculum. The teachers' responses provide insight into their…

  7. Experimental Polymer Mechanochemistry and its Interpretational Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulatov, Sergey; Boulatov, Roman

    2017-06-02

    Polymer mechanochemistry is an emerging field at the interface of chemistry, materials science, physics and engineering. It aims at understanding and exploiting unique reactivities of polymer chains confined to highly non-equilibrium stretched geometries by interactions with their surroundings. Macromolecular chains or their segments become stretched in bulk polymers under mechanical loads or when polymer solutions are sonicated or flow rapidly through abrupt contractions. An increasing amount of empirical data suggests that mechanochemical phenomena are widespread wherever polymers are used. In the past decade, empirical mechanochemistry has progressed enormously, from studying fragmentations of commodity polymers by simple backbone homolysis to demonstrations of self-strengthening and stress-reporting materials and mechanochemical cascades using purposefully designed monomers. This progress has not yet been matched by the development of conceptual frameworks within which to rationalize, systematize and generalize empirical mechanochemical observations. As a result, mechanistic and/or quantitative understanding of mechanochemical phenomena remains, with few exceptions, tentative. In this review we aim at systematizing reported macroscopic manifestations of polymer mechanochemistry, and critically assessing the interpretational framework that underlies their molecular rationalizations from a physical chemist's perspective. We propose a hierarchy of mechanochemical phenomena which may guide the development of multiscale models of mechanochemical reactivity to match the breadth and utility of the Eyring equation of chemical kinetics. We discuss the limitations of the approaches to quantifying and validating mechanochemical reactivity, with particular focus on sonicated polymer solutions, in order to identify outstanding questions that need to be solved for polymer mechanochemistry to become a rigorous, quantitative field. We conclude by proposing 7 problems whose

  8. Experimental software for modeling and interpreting educational data analysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Zorina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems, tasks and processes of educational data mining are considered in this article. The objective is to create a fundamentally new information system of the University using the results educational data analysis. One of the functions of such a system is knowledge extraction from accumulated in the operation process data. The creation of the national system of this type is an iterative and time-consuming process requiring the preliminary studies and incremental prototyping modules. The novelty of such systems is that there is a lack of those using this methodology of the development, for this purpose a number of experiments was carried out in order to collect data, choose appropriate methods for the study and to interpret them. As a result of the experiment, the authors were available sources available for analysis in the information environment of the home university. The data were taken from the semester performance, obtained from the information system of the training department of the Institute of IT MTU MIREA, the data obtained as a result of the independent work of students and data, using specially designed Google-forms. To automate the collection of information and analysis of educational data, an experimental software package was created. As a methodology for developing the experimental software complex, a decision was made using the methodologies of rational-empirical complexes (REX and single-experimentation program technologies (TPEI. The details of the program implementation of the complex are described in detail, conclusions are given about the availability of the data sources used, and conclusions are drawn about the prospects for further development.

  9. College Students' Interpretations of Financial Morality: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan; Lucey, Thomas; Inose, Taki; Yamane, Eiji; Green, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    This paper interprets comments associated with an open-response item on an online survey of college students in the United States, Japan, and Canada. The item inquired about their interpretations of financial morality. The paper describes student understandings of appropriate behaviors in relationship to financial practice. The authors claim that…

  10. Different Grade Students' Use and Interpretation of Literal Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Gunes, Gonul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare 7th, 8th, and 9th grades students' level of use and interpret the literal symbols. In addition, students' responses to questions that require use of different roles of literal symbol were examined to identify the errors. For this purpose, Chelsea Diagnostics Algebra test developed by The Concepts…

  11. ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON INTERPRETING THROUGH PEER-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismailia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of translation interpreting is translating spoken discourse orally. It needs some requirements like ability to speak clearly, clarity, fluency, eye contact, and self-confidence. It also needs linguistic proficiency, analytical skill, listening and recall, interpersonal skills, ethical behaviour, speaking skills, cultural knowledge, and subject knowledge. Evaluating students performance on interpreting can be done through peer assessment. Peer- assessment is one of alternative assessment to grade the peers in group or individuals by commenting on and judging other students work. To do this process there is a join work between listening and speaking, and two students. The first student as a speaker and the second student as an interpreter. Both of them should do the same quality on speak clearly as a speaker and as an interpreter should able to listen and translating the spoken discourse orally. Evaluation can use analytical grade that allows teacher to set clear criteria for correction like fluency, grammar, terminology, general content, and mechanics. Students and teacher can give comment on every criteria based on their own competency. During the process on making criteria, students and teacher can discuss and give reasonable suggestion to make the assessment suitable to the students competency. At the end, a rubric of assessment with the score from 0 to 100 and criteria and also the comment included in the paper of assessment.

  12. Vocational students' learning preferences: the interpretability of ipsative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J

    2000-02-01

    A number of researchers have argued that ipsative data are not suitable for statistical procedures designed for normative data. Others have argued that the interpretability of such analyses of ipsative data are little affected where the number of variables and the sample size are sufficiently large. The research reported here represents a factor analysis of the scores on the Canfield Learning Styles Inventory for 1,252 students in vocational education. The results of the factor analysis of these ipsative data were examined in a context of existing theory and research on vocational students and lend support to the argument that the factor analysis of ipsative data can provide sensibly interpretable results.

  13. Interpretation of PISCES -- A RF antenna system experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothweil, D.A.; Phelps, D.A.; Doerner, R.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes experimental data from rf coupling experiments using one to four coil antenna arrays that encircle a linear magnetized plasma column. Experimental results using single turn coil that produce symmetric (i.e. m = 0), dipole (m = 1), and radial rf magnetic fields for coupling to ion waves are compared. By operating without a Faraday shield, it was observed for the first time that the plasma resistive load seen by these different antenna types tends to increase with the number of turns to at least the second power. A four-turn m = 0 coil experienced a record 3--5 Ω loading, corresponding to over 90% power coupling to the plasma. A four-turn m = 1 coil experienced up to 1--1.5 Ω loading, also higher than previous observations. First time observations using a two coil array of m = 0 coil are also reported. As predicted, the loading decreases with increasing phase between coil from 0 degree to 180 degree. Experiments using four coil arrays were difficult to optimize and interpret primarily due to complexity of the manual tuning. To facilitate this optimization in the future, a proposed feedback control system that automatically matches load variations between 0.2 and 10 Ω is described

  14. Student Interpretations of Phylogenetic Trees in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Jonathan; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Jarad; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used visual representations in the biological sciences and the most important visual representations in evolutionary biology. Therefore, phylogenetic trees have also become an important component of biology education. We sought to characterize reasoning used by introductory biology students in interpreting taxa…

  15. Cyberbullying Victimization among College Students: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivituso, Jack

    2014-01-01

    This interpretive phenomenological analysis explored the lived experiences and the psychological impact of victimization from cyberbullying among college students. Two theories, Bandura's Theory of Triadic Reciprocal Determinism and the General Strain Theory, guided the primary research questions used for this exploration. Each of these…

  16. Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S; Nika, D L; Pokatilov, E P; Balandin, A A

    2009-01-01

    We review the results of our experimental investigation of heat conduction in suspended graphene and offer a theoretical interpretation of its extremely high thermal conductivity. The direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of graphene were performed using a non-contact optical technique and special calibration procedure with bulk graphite. The measured values were in the range of ∼3000-5300 W mK -1 near room temperature and depended on the lateral dimensions of graphene flakes. We explain the enhanced thermal conductivity of graphene as compared to that of bulk graphite basal planes by the two-dimensional nature of heat conduction in graphene over the whole range of phonon frequencies. Our calculations show that the intrinsic Umklapp-limited thermal conductivity of graphene grows with the increasing dimensions of graphene flakes and can exceed that of bulk graphite when the flake size is on the order of a few micrometers. The detailed theory, which includes the phonon-mode-dependent Gruneisen parameter and takes into account phonon scattering on graphene edges and point defects, gives numerical results that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for suspended graphene. Superior thermal properties of graphene are beneficial for all proposed graphene device applications.

  17. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Montmorillonite dissolution kinetics: Experimental and reactive transport modeling interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Yokoyama, Shingo; Cama, Jordi; Huertas, F. Javier

    2018-04-01

    The dissolution kinetics of K-montmorillonite was studied at 25 °C, acidic pH (2-4) and 0.01 M ionic strength by means of well-mixed flow-through experiments. The variations of Si, Al and Mg over time resulted in high releases of Si and Mg and Al deficit, which yielded long periods of incongruent dissolution before reaching stoichiometric steady state. This behavior was caused by simultaneous dissolution of nanoparticles and cation exchange between the interlayer K and released Ca, Mg and Al and H. Since Si was only involved in the dissolution reaction, it was used to calculate steady-state dissolution rates, RSi, over a wide solution saturation state (ΔGr ranged from -5 to -40 kcal mol-1). The effects of pH and the degree of undersaturation (ΔGr) on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate were determined using RSi. Employing dissolution rates farthest from equilibrium, the catalytic pH effect on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate was expressed as Rdiss = k·aH0.56±0.05 whereas using all dissolution rates, the ΔGr effect was expressed as a non-linear f(ΔGr) function Rdiss = k · [1 - exp(-3.8 × 10-4 · (|ΔGr|/RT)2.13)] The functionality of this expression is similar to the equations reported for dissolution of Na-montmorillonite at pH 3 and 50 °C (Metz, 2001) and Na-K-Ca-montmorillonite at pH 9 and 80 °C (Cama et al., 2000; Marty et al., 2011), which lends support to the use of a single f(ΔGr) term to calculate the rate over the pH range 0-14. Thus, we propose a rate law that also accounts for the effect of pOH and temperature by using the pOH-rate dependence and the apparent activation energy proposed by Rozalén et al. (2008) and Amram and Ganor (2005), respectively, and normalizing the dissolution rate constant with the edge surface area of the K-montmorillonite. 1D reactive transport simulations of the experimental data were performed using the Crunchflow code (Steefel et al., 2015) to quantitatively interpret the evolution of the released cations

  19. Prosody teaching matters in developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosody on developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at

  20. The effect of prosody teaching on developing word recognition skills for interpreter trainees. An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the explicit teaching of prosodic features on developing word recognition skills with interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were composed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA

  1. The effect of prosody teaching on developing word recognition skills for interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the explicit teaching of prosodic features on developing word recognition skills with interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were composed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA

  2. Why Students May not Learn to Interpret Scientific Inscriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2002-06-01

    Recent research in scientific laboratories shows that inscriptions - graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables, mathematical formulae, and so forth - are central to scientific practice. Research also shows that inscriptions are pervasive elements in science textbooks. This study examines inscriptions in texts usually available to students in high school and undergraduate science courses: course textbooks and journal articles. Four complementary analyses of the content of these resources are presented: (i) an enumeration of the types of inscriptions in those resources; (ii) a semiotic analyses of the content of representative inscriptions; (iii) an interpretation by graduates of a science program of an inscription common to all three resources; and (iv) a comparison of an inscription found in textbooks and lectures with its original presentation in a scientific journal. Differences exist in frequency of different types of inscriptions; these frequencies appear unrelated to interpretive competencies of the students for whom they are intended. We suggest alterations made in inscriptions as they are moved from professional journals to textbooks contributed to confounding their interpretation. Implications for both science education and the use of inscriptions in textbooks are discussed.

  3. Construct validity of the reporter-interpreter-manager-educator structure for assessing students' patient encounter skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Arendrup, Henrick; Lindhardt, Bjarne O.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study, done in Denmark, was to explore the construct validity of a Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME)-structured scoring format for assessing patient encounter skills. METHOD: The authors developed a RIME-structured scoring form and explored its construct validity...... in a two-step procedure. The first step (implemented in 2009) was a randomized, controlled, experimental study in which the performance of three groups (16 fourth-year medical students, 16 sixth-year medical students, and 16 interns) was assessed in two simulated patient encounters. The second step...... (carried out during 2009-2010) was an observational study of patient encounter skills where clinician examiners used the scoring form in end-of-clerkship oral examinations of three consecutive cohorts of a total of 547 fourth-year medical students. RESULTS: In the experimental study, RIME scores showed...

  4. WPS criterion proposition based on experimental data base interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuliot, S.; Izard, J.P.; Moinereau, D.; Marie, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives the background and the methodology developed to define a K J based criterion for brittle fracture of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) submitted to Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS), and taking into account Warm Pre Stressing effect (WPS). The first step of this methodology is the constitution of an experimental data base. This work was performed through bibliography and partnerships, and allows merging experimental results dealing with: -) Various ferritic steels; -) Various material states (as received, thermally aged, irradiated...); -) Various mode of fracture (cleavage, inter-granular, mixed mode); -) Various specimen geometry and size (CT, SENB, mock-ups); -) Various thermo-mechanical transients. Based on this experimental data base, a simple K J based limit is proposed and compared to experimental results. Parametric studies are performed in order to define the main parameters of the problem. Finally, a simple proposition based on a detailed analysis of tests results is performed. This proposition giving satisfactory results in every cases, it constitutes a good candidate for integration in French RSE-M code for in service assessment. (authors)

  5. Re-interpreting cultural values: Tajikistani students abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Sodatsayrova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the mobility of Tajikistani students and how they negotiate their place in an increasing globalised world, where national boundaries are becoming more navigable. It explores how structural and cultural factors intersect and influence young people’s choices as they re-shape their connections to their homeland, and re-negotiate cultural meanings in the new geographical and cultural contexts they find themselves in. This inquiry uses the concept of translocality which frames the negotiation of cultural meanings in a distant geographical and (host cultural space by acknowledging the place of the “local connection” within international mobility. It does this by examining students’ perceptions of two cultural concepts: nomus or “keeping the family name high in the community” and kase shudan or “being the shaper of one’s own destiny.” Drawing on Stephen and Storey’s conceptualisation of culture (and the local notions of agency the article explores how continuity and contestation are juxtaposed and brought to bear on the new meaning-making by the students, against the national and international agendas that define student mobility choices. Using qualitative methodology, the researchers engaged with Tajikistani research participants in England and Japan, and looked at what those decisions about mobility mean for the individual students, locating them in a translocal (as opposed to a transnational space. The article finds that contrary to the usual expectations of immigrants adhering more closely to cultural values (for fear of diluting them in a new setting, while the local cultures keep evolving, these students re-interpreted traditional values to take account of their new settings and their exposure to new cultures and spaces and sought to expand meanings rather than constrain them in traditional moulds.

  6. Organic signatures of fireplaces: Experimental references for archaeological interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Lejay , Mathieu; Alexis , Marie; Quénéa , Katell; Sellami , Farid; Bon , François

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The use of fire is a well-established human practice, at least from the Late Pleistocene. The variability in fuel type highlights complex practices regarding fire technology throughout this period. This contribution provides the organic signatures from fireplaces and is based on a set of experimental studies using different types of fuel, notably bone and/or wood. Soil layers affected by fire operation were compared with soils unaffected by heating and soils impregnate...

  7. Theoretical interpretation of experimental data from direct dark matter detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung-Lin, Shan

    2007-10-15

    I derive expressions that allow to reconstruct the normalized one-dimensional velocity distribution function of halo WIMPs and to determine its moments from the recoil energy spectrum as well as from experimental data directly. The reconstruction of the velocity distribution function is further extended to take into account the annual modulation of the event rate. All these expressions are independent of the as yet unknown WIMP density near the Earth as well as of the WIMP-nucleus cross section. The only information about the nature of halo WIMPs which one needs is the WIMP mass. I also present a method for the determination of the WIMP mass by combining two (or more) experiments with different detector materials. This method is not only independent of the model of Galactic halo but also of that of WIMPs. (orig.)

  8. Theoretical interpretation of experimental data from direct dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Chung-Lin

    2007-10-01

    I derive expressions that allow to reconstruct the normalized one-dimensional velocity distribution function of halo WIMPs and to determine its moments from the recoil energy spectrum as well as from experimental data directly. The reconstruction of the velocity distribution function is further extended to take into account the annual modulation of the event rate. All these expressions are independent of the as yet unknown WIMP density near the Earth as well as of the WIMP-nucleus cross section. The only information about the nature of halo WIMPs which one needs is the WIMP mass. I also present a method for the determination of the WIMP mass by combining two (or more) experiments with different detector materials. This method is not only independent of the model of Galactic halo but also of that of WIMPs. (orig.)

  9. The effect of prosody awareness training on the performance of consecutive interpretation by Farsi-English interpreter trainees : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of prosody awareness training on the performance of Farsi-English interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at the State University of

  10. The Effect of Teaching Interlanguage Pragmatics on Interpretation Ability of Iranian Translation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Mahmoudi Ravesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate whether Iranian translation students were successful in comprehending interlanguage pragmatic (ILP features. Moreover, it tried to figure out whether teaching interlanguage pragmatics proved helpful for the improvement of interpretation ability of Iranian translation students. To this end, 30 students of undergraduate translation studying at Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan Branch, were chosen to participate in the study. Then, they were divided into two groups of control and experimental. The Oxford Placement Test (OPT was used to measure the participants’ language proficiency. Then, a Discourse Completion Test was administered to measure the participants’ interlanguage pragmatics. Using the SPSS 20 software, the ANCOVA and t test were run for the data obtained from both the pre-test and the post-test. The results revealed that ILP features are lacking in the university context. Furthermore, it was shown that ILP features were effective for improving Iranian students’ interpretation ability. In this sense, university professors can pay attention to this finding and, where required, they can incorporate ILP features into their courses so as to make attempts to render a more effective learning and teaching environment.

  11. Interpreting Students' and Teachers' Discourse in Science Classes: An Underestimated Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, C. W. J. M.; Lijnse, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Deals with the problem of the proper interpretation of discourse between students and teachers in classrooms. Presents several interpretations of a concrete classroom protocol in terms of misconceptions. Draws on Davidson's principle of charity and distinguishes between belief and meaning to present an analysis that interprets the discourse…

  12. Undergraduate Student Construction and Interpretation of Graphs in Physics Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Godfrey, T. J.; Mayhew, Nicholas T.; Wiegert, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Lab activities are an important element of an undergraduate physics course. In these lab activities, students construct and interpret graphs in order to connect the procedures of the lab with an understanding of the related physics concepts. This study investigated undergraduate students' construction and interpretation of graphs with best-fit…

  13. Secondary Students' Interpretations of Photosynthesis and Plant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Esra; Oztas, Haydar

    2003-01-01

    Studies misconceptions held by grade 9 students (14-15-years old) in Turkey about photosynthesis and plant nutrition. Uses a questionnaire to test students' conceptions and reports conflicting and often incorrect ideas about photosynthesis, respiration, and energy flow in plants. Suggests that there are difficulties in changing students' prior…

  14. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and ...

  15. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and explain how the prior knowledge of students may account for many differences in the prevalence of approaches and success rates. Although calculus-based physics students make fewer mistakes than algebra-based physics students, they encounter similar difficulties that are often related to incorrectly dividing two coordinates. We verified that a qualitative understanding of kinematics is an important but not sufficient condition for students to determine a correct value for the speed. When comparing responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs with responses to isomorphic questions on linear water level versus time graphs, we observed that the context of a question influences the approach students use. Neither qualitative understanding nor an ability to find the slope of a context-free graph proved to be a reliable predictor for the approach students use when they determine the instantaneous speed.

  16. Experimental data at high PT and its interpretation: the role of theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belonoshko, A. B.; Rosengren, A.

    2011-07-01

    Experiments, relevant for planetary science, are performed often under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. This makes them technically difficult. The results are often difficult to interpret correctly, especially in the cases when experimental data are scarce and experimental trends difficult to establish. Theory, while normally is inferior in precision of delivered data, is superior in providing a big picture and details behind materials behavior. We consider the experiments performed for deuterium, Mo, and Fe. We demonstrate that when experimental data is verified by theory, significant insight can be gained. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. Visual Representations of DNA Replication: Middle Grades Students' Perceptions and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michelle D.; Carter, Glenda; Wiebe, Eric N.

    2005-01-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in the communication of science concepts for scientists and students alike. However, recent research suggests that novice students experience difficulty extracting relevant information from representations. This study examined students' interpretations of visual representations of DNA replication. Each…

  18. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

  19. Interpretations: A Student Journal of Historical Writings, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interpretations, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This booklet features a selection of student prepared essays, poetry, research papers, and reviews about various historical subjects and social studies-related areas. These collected works include: (1) "To the Mayan Ruins at Chichen-Itza, Mexico" (W. McClure); (2) "Corruption in Collegiate Athletics and How It Damages the Student Athlete's…

  20. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of "Experimental Metaphysics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of "experimental metaphysics" basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of "objective probability" in quantum mechanics. The terms "objective" and "subjective" are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the "events" on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of "Copenhagen interpretation" into "objective" and "subjective" varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  1. How we developed an effective e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Language barriers may lead to poorer healthcare services for patients who do not speak the same language as their care provider. Despite the benefits of professional interpreters, care providers tend to underuse professional interpretation. Evidence suggests that students who received training on

  2. Theoretical and experimental studies relevant to interpretation of auroral emissions. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keffer, C.E.

    1992-06-01

    The results obtained in the second year of a three year collaborative effort with MSFC are summarized. A succession of experimental studies was completed to determine the effects of the natural and induced space vehicle environment on the measurement of auroral images from space-based platforms. In addition, a global model which incorporates both auroral and dayglow emission sources is being developed to allow interpretation of measured auroral emissions. A description of work completed on these two tasks is presented

  3. An Alienation-Based Framework for Student Experience in Higher Education: New Interpretations of Past Observations in Student Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, Bradford; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article orients a recently proposed alienation-based framework for student learning theory (SLT) to the empirical basis of the approaches to learning perspective. The proposed framework makes new macro-level interpretations of an established micro-level theory, across three levels of interpretation: (1) a context-free psychological state…

  4. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of ``Experimental Metaphysics''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of “experimental metaphysics” basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of “objective probability” in quantum mechanics. The terms “objective” and “subjective” are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the “events” on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of “Copenhagen interpretation” into “objective” and “subjective” varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  5. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  6. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  7. In situ impulse test: an experimental and analytical evaluation of data interpretation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    Special experimental field testing and analytical studies were undertaken at Fort Lawton in Seattle, Washington, to study ''close-in'' wave propagation and evaluate data interpretation procedures for a new in situ impulse test. This test was developed to determine the shear wave velocity and dynamic modulus of soils underlying potential nuclear power plant sites. The test is different from conventional geophysical testing in that the velocity variation with strain is determined for each test. In general, strains between 10 -1 and 10 -3 percent are achieved. The experimental field work consisted of performing special tests in a large test sand fill to obtain detailed ''close-in'' data. Six recording transducers were placed at various points on the energy source, while approximately 37 different transducers were installed within the soil fill, all within 7 feet of the energy source. Velocity measurements were then taken simultaneously under controlled test conditions to study shear wave propagation phenomenology and help evaluate data interpretation procedures. Typical test data are presented along with detailed descriptions of the results

  8. Use of the dynamic stiffness method to interpret experimental data from a nonlinear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Brennan, M. J.; Gatti, G.

    2018-05-01

    The interpretation of experimental data from nonlinear structures is challenging, primarily because of dependency on types and levels of excitation, and coupling issues with test equipment. In this paper, the use of the dynamic stiffness method, which is commonly used in the analysis of linear systems, is used to interpret the data from a vibration test of a controllable compressed beam structure coupled to a test shaker. For a single mode of the system, this method facilitates the separation of mass, stiffness and damping effects, including nonlinear stiffness effects. It also allows the separation of the dynamics of the shaker from the structure under test. The approach needs to be used with care, and is only suitable if the nonlinear system has a response that is predominantly at the excitation frequency. For the structure under test, the raw experimental data revealed little about the underlying causes of the dynamic behaviour. However, the dynamic stiffness approach allowed the effects due to the nonlinear stiffness to be easily determined.

  9. Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Bolinder, Gunilla; Held, Claes; Johansson, Bo-Lennart; Fors, Uno; Ostergren, Jan

    2008-04-23

    Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institute have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 - very good) they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16) by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03). Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and interactivity.

  10. Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Bo-Lennart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institutet have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. Methods A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. Results 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 – very good they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16 by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03. Conclusion Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and

  11. Reading Sacred Texts in the Classroom: The Alignment between Students and Their Teacher's Interpretive Stances When Reading the Hebrew Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenfeld, Ziva R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the voices of students interpreting Hebrew Bible texts in one fourth-grade classroom. Through think-alouds on the Biblical text with each student, exit interviews, teacher interviews, and classroom observations, this study found that those students whose interpretive stances were more aligned with the teacher's were given…

  12. Medical students' cognitive load in volumetric image interpretation : Insights from human-computer interaction and eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, Bobby G.; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Kirschner, Femke C.; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; Van Der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical image interpretation is moving from using 2D- to volumetric images, thereby changing the cognitive and perceptual processes involved. This is expected to affect medical students' experienced cognitive load, while learning image interpretation skills. With two studies this explorative

  13. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-13

    Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 +/- 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 +/- 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 +/- 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 +/- 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  14. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale. PMID:19144134

  15. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoble Abhijeet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9 received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6 received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97. The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67. The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15 was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22 for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15 at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  16. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills Via a Performance Assessment: A case study in instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research project. Fifty-five students participated in a performance assessment interview at the beginning and end of a place-based investigation. Two forms of the assessment were created and counterbalanced within class at pre and post. In situ scoring was conducted such that responses were scored as correct versus incorrect during the assessment's administration. Criterion validity analysis demonstrated an age-level progression in student scores. Tests of discriminant validity showed that the instrument detected variability in interpretation skills across each of three graph types (line, bar, dot plot). Convergent validity was established by correlating in situ scores with those from the Graph Interpretation Scoring Rubric. Students' proficiency with interpreting different types of graphs matched expectations based on age and the standards-based progression of graphs across primary school grades. The assessment tasks were also effective at detecting pre-post gains in students' interpretation of line graphs and dot plots after the place-based project. The results of the case study are discussed in relation to the common challenges associated with performance assessment. Implications are presented in relation to the need for authentic and performance-based instructional and assessment tasks to respond to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards.

  17. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  18. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  19. 'Getting into the spirit': Alcohol-related interpretation bias in heavy-drinking students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse is characterized by patterns of selective information processing. The present study investigated whether heavy- compared with light-drinking students, show evidence of an alcohol-related interpretation bias to ambiguous, alcohol-related cues. Toward this aim, participants were asked

  20. Student Interpretations of Equations Related to the First Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Linda C.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2010-01-01

    Student interpretations of the equation for the first law of thermodynamics, [delta]U = q + w, an expression defining work done on or by a gas, w = -[image omitted]PdV, and an expression defining heat, q = [image omitted]C[subscript v]dT were investigated through a multiple-choice survey, a free-response written survey, and interviews. The…

  1. Interpretive versus noninterpretive content in top-selling radiology textbooks: what are we teaching medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emily M; Vella, Maya; Straus, Christopher M; Phelps, Andrew; Naeger, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are little data as to whether appropriate, cost effective, and safe ordering of imaging examinations are adequately taught in US medical school curricula. We sought to determine the proportion of noninterpretive content (such as appropriate ordering) versus interpretive content (such as reading a chest x-ray) in the top-selling medical student radiology textbooks. We performed an online search to identify a ranked list of the six top-selling general radiology textbooks for medical students. Each textbook was reviewed including content in the text, tables, images, figures, appendices, practice questions, question explanations, and glossaries. Individual pages of text and individual images were semiquantitatively scored on a six-level scale as to the percentage of material that was interpretive versus noninterpretive. The predominant imaging modality addressed in each was also recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. All six books had more interpretive content. On average, 1.4 pages of text focused on interpretation for every one page focused on noninterpretive content. Seventeen images/figures were dedicated to interpretive skills for every one focused on noninterpretive skills. In all books, the largest proportion of text and image content was dedicated to plain films (51.2%), with computed tomography (CT) a distant second (16%). The content on radiographs (3.1:1) and CT (1.6:1) was more interpretive than not. The current six top-selling medical student radiology textbooks contain a preponderance of material teaching image interpretation compared to material teaching noninterpretive skills, such as appropriate imaging examination selection, rational utilization, and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jantien; Bakker, Arthur; van Eerde, Dolly; Kuijpers, Maggie

    2016-09-01

    The importance of language in mathematics learning has been widely acknowledged. However, little is known about how to make this insight productive in the design and enactment of language-oriented mathematics education. In a design-based research project, we explored how language-oriented mathematics education can be designed and enacted. We drew on genre pedagogy to promote student proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. In the intervention, the teacher used scaffolding strategies to focus students' attention on the structure and linguistic features of the language involved in this particular domain. The research question addressed in this paper is how student proficiency in this language may be promoted. The study comprised nine lessons involving 22 students in grades 5 and 6 (aged 10-12); of these students, 19 had a migrant background. In light of the research aim, we first describe the rationale behind our design. Next, we illustrate how the design was enacted by means of a case study focusing on one student in the classroom practice of developing proficiency in the language required for interpreting line graphs. On the basis of pre- and posttest scores, we conclude that overall their proficiency has increased. Together, the results indicate that and how genre pedagogy may be used to help students become more proficient in the language required in a mathematical domain.

  3. Music and Deaf Culture: Images from the Media and Their Interpretation by Deaf and Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow; Loomis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was threefold: (a) to examine how the visual media have portrayed the subject of music and the deaf, (b) to verify the validity of these portrayals with members of the deaf community, and (c) to compare and contrast deaf and hearing audiences' impressions of these portrayals. An additional purpose of the research was to examine the results in light of possible misconceptions that may be construed by music therapists and music educators based upon the media's representation of the relationship between music and deaf culture. Since music therapists and music educators are the primary persons responsible for the music instruction of students in school programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students, it is particularly important that they receive accurate messages about the relationship of music to deaf culture. Fifty deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) undergraduate college students individually viewed motion picture and television excerpts related to music and the deaf. Subjects were instructed to take notes as needed regarding the content of each excerpt and their impressions. Students were then interviewed in their native language, English or American Sign Language, as to their interpretations and perceptions regarding these excerpts and their accuracy. Interviews of the deaf students were translated into English from American Sign Language by trained interpreters. Written transcriptions were then made of the interpreters' English translations of the interviews with deaf students and of the verbal interviews with hearing students. Interview transcripts from both groups were coded and analyzed for recurring themes and patterns using content analysis. Data analysis revealed cultural patterns for the two groups, impressions specific to individual subjects, and trends in communication style and content for the two groups. Implications for music therapists and music educators are given regarding the influence of the media, characteristics of deaf

  4. Metaphorical interpretations of the educator-student relationship: An innovation in nursing educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Chien, Wai Tong; Henderson, Saras

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that collecting and analysing metaphors is a useful strategy in seeking data that are difficult to collect via verbal interviews or that cannot be represented by statistics. This study explored nursing students' perceptions of the educator-student relationship using metaphorical interpretation. A qualitative study with a personal essay approach was adopted. A total of 124 students were recruited from a nursing school in Hong Kong. A personal essay form was distributed to the participants. They were asked to give a metaphor with explanations to describe the power dynamics in the educator-student relationship, within 200 words in English or Chinese. After some thought, the participants each gave their own metaphor individually, because the aim of this study was to collect their subjective experiences. The results were presented as follows: a) The overall description of the metaphors; b) The three groups of metaphors; c) The fives natures of metaphors; d) The most significant metaphors; and e) The four thematic meanings - (i) nurturing role; (ii) guiding role; (iii) insufficient connection; and (iv) promoting development. The implications for research methods and nurse education of collecting and analyzing metaphors were discussed. Discrepancies in metaphorical interpretations are to be expected, as interpretations are dependent on the researchers' socio-cultural background, personal experiences, professional training, languages spoken, and other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Students' views about the nature of experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The physics community explores and explains the physical world through a blend of theoretical and experimental studies. The future of physics as a discipline depends on training of students in both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the field. However, while student learning within lecture courses has been the subject of extensive research, lab courses remain relatively under-studied. In particular, there is little, if any, data available that address the effectiveness of physics lab courses at encouraging students to recognize the nature and importance of experimental physics within the discipline as a whole. To address this gap, we present the first large-scale, national study (Ninstitutions=75 and Nstudents=7167 ) of undergraduate physics lab courses through analysis of students' responses to a research-validated assessment designed to investigate students' beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. We find that students often enter and leave physics lab courses with ideas about experimental physics as practiced in their courses that are inconsistent with the views of practicing experimental physicists, and this trend holds at both the introductory and upper-division levels. Despite this inconsistency, we find that both introductory and upper-division students are able to accurately predict the expertlike response even in cases where their views about experimentation in their lab courses disagree. These finding have implications for the recruitment, retention, and adequate preparation of students in physics.

  6. Comparison of two teaching methods for cardiac arrhythmia interpretation among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaroussis, Dimitrios P; Kalafati, Maria; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Castrén, Maaret; Lott, Carsten; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the six-stage method (SSM) for instructing primary cardiac arrhythmias interpretation to students without basic electrocardiogram (ECG) knowledge with a descriptive teaching method in a single educational intervention. This is a randomized trial. Following a brief instructional session, undergraduate nursing students, assigned to group A (SSM) and group B (descriptive teaching method), undertook a written test in cardiac rhythm recognition, immediately after the educational intervention (initial exam). Participants were also examined with an unannounced retention test (final exam), one month after instruction. Altogether 134 students completed the study. Interpretation accuracy for each cardiac arrhythmia was assessed. Mean score at the initial exam was 8.71±1.285 for group A and 8.74±1.303 for group B. Mean score at the final exam was 8.25±1.46 for group A vs 7.84±1.44 for group B. Overall results showed that the SSM was equally effective with the descriptive teaching method. The study showed that in each group bradyarrhythmias were identified correctly by more students than tachyarrhythmias. No significant difference between the two teaching methods was seen for any specific cardiac arrhythmia. The SSM effectively develops staff competency for interpreting common cardiac arrhythmias in students without ECG knowledge. More research is needed to support this conclusion and the method's effectiveness must be evaluated if being implemented to trainee groups with preexisting basic ECG interpretation knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of an e-Learning Platform for Image Interpretation Education of Medical Staff and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Akio; Hayashi, Norio; Negishi, Tohru; Watanabe, Haruyuki

    2018-05-09

    Medical staff must be able to perform accurate initial interpretations of radiography to prevent diagnostic errors. Education in medical image interpretation is an ongoing need that is addressed by text-based and e-learning platforms. The effectiveness of these methods has been previously reported. Here, we describe the effectiveness of an e-learning platform used for medical image interpretation education. Ten third-year medical students without previous experience in chest radiography interpretation were provided with e-learning instructions. Accuracy of diagnosis using chest radiography was provided before and after e-learning education. We measured detection accuracy for two image groups: nodular shadow and ground-glass shadow. We also distributed the e-learning system to the two groups and analyzed the effectiveness of education for both types of image shadow. The mean correct answer rate after the 2-week e-learning period increased from 34.5 to 72.7%. Diagnosis of the ground glass shadow improved significantly more than that of the mass shadow. Education using the e-leaning platform is effective for interpretation of chest radiography results. E-learning is particularly effective for the interpretation of chest radiography images containing ground glass shadow.

  8. Effectiveness of student learning during experimental work in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Ana; Peklaj, Cirila; Ferk Savec, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research was to optimize the effectiveness of student learning based on experimental work in chemistry classes in Slovenian primary schools. To obtain evidence about how experimental work is implemented during regular chemistry classes, experimental work was videotaped during 19 units of chemistry lessons at 12 Slovenian primary schools from the pool of randomly selected schools. Altogether 332 eight-grade students were involved in the investigation, with an average...

  9. The dynamical integrity concept for interpreting/ predicting experimental behaviour: from macro- to nano-mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe; Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-06-28

    The dynamical integrity, a new concept proposed by J.M.T. Thompson, and developed by the authors, is used to interpret experimental results. After reviewing the main issues involved in this analysis, including the proposal of a new integrity measure able to capture in an easy way the safe part of basins, attention is dedicated to two experiments, a rotating pendulum and a micro-electro-mechanical system, where the theoretical predictions are not fulfilled. These mechanical systems, the former at the macro-scale and the latter at the micro-scale, permit a comparative analysis of different mechanical and dynamical behaviours. The fact that in both cases the dynamical integrity permits one to justify the difference between experimental and theoretical results, which is the main achievement of this paper, shows the effectiveness of this new approach and suggests its use in practical situations. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes the middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy (science); for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it take the matter which it gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay up in the memory whole, as it finds it, but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested. Therefore, from a closer and purer league between these two faculties, the experimental and the rational (such as has never been made), much may be hoped. (Francis Bacon 1561-1626) But are we sure of our observational facts? Scientific men are rather fond of saying pontifically that one ought to be quite sure of one's observational facts before embarking on theory. Fortunately those who give this advice do not practice what they preach. Observation and theory get

  10. Documenting and Interpreting Ways to Engage Students in `Thinking Like a Physicist'

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily; Manogue, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    The Paradigms in Physics Program at Oregon State University has adapted a variety of interactive pedagogies to engage students in `thinking like a physicist.' Video recordings of class sessions document what the students and instructor say and do. This paper discusses development of narrative interpretations of such videos. Examples are drawn from two detailed narratives of activities during which the main ideas emerged during the wrap-up discussions rather than during the tasks that the students had been doing in their small groups. The goal of these `compare and contrast' wrap-up discussions was to help the students envision connections among geometric and algebraic representations of the mathematics they would be using during the coming weeks of instruction in quantum mechanics. The purpose of the narratives is to provide examples of wrap-up discussions with commentary about ways in which the instructor was choosing to guide this process.

  11. Statistical Literacy: High School Students in Reading, Interpreting and Presenting Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiyusholeh, M.; Budayasa, K.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    One of the foundations for high school students in statistics is to be able to read data; presents data in the form of tables and diagrams and its interpretation. The purpose of this study is to describe high school students’ competencies in reading, interpreting and presenting data. Subjects were consisted of male and female students who had high levels of mathematical ability. Collecting data was done in form of task formulation which is analyzed by reducing, presenting and verifying data. Results showed that the students read the data based on explicit explanations on the diagram, such as explaining the points in the diagram as the relation between the x and y axis and determining the simple trend of a graph, including the maximum and minimum point. In interpreting and summarizing the data, both subjects pay attention to general data trends and use them to predict increases or decreases in data. The male estimates the value of the (n+1) of weight data by using the modus of the data, while the females estimate the weigth by using the average. The male tend to do not consider the characteristics of the data, while the female more carefully consider the characteristics of data.

  12. Laboratory-based Interpretation of Seismological Models: Dealing with Incomplete or Incompatible Experimental Data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, I.; Kennett, B. L.; Faul, U. H.

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with cooperative developments in seismology during the past 25 years, there have been phenomenal advances in mineral/rock physics making laboratory-based interpretation of seismological models increasingly useful. However, the assimilation of diverse experimental data into a physically sound framework for seismological application is not without its challenges as demonstrated by two examples. In the first example, that of equation-of-state and elasticity data, an appropriate, thermodynamically consistent framework involves finite-strain expansion of the Helmholz free energy incorporating the Debye approximation to the lattice vibrational energy, as advocated by Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni. Within this context, pressure, specific heat and entropy, thermal expansion, elastic constants and their adiabatic and isothermal pressure derivatives are all calculable without further approximation in an internally consistent manner. The opportunities and challenges of assimilating a wide range of sometimes marginally incompatible experimental data into a single model of this type will be demonstrated with reference to MgO, unquestionably the most thoroughly studied mantle mineral. A neighbourhood-algorithm inversion has identified a broadly satisfactory model, but uncertainties in key parameters associated particularly with pressure calibration remain sufficiently large as to preclude definitive conclusions concerning lower-mantle chemical composition and departures from adiabaticity. The second example is the much less complete dataset concerning seismic-wave dispersion and attenuation emerging from low-frequency forced-oscillation experiments. Significant progress has been made during the past decade towards an understanding of high-temperature, micro-strain viscoelastic relaxation in upper-mantle materials, especially as regards the roles of oscillation period, temperature, grain size and melt fraction. However, the influence of other potentially important

  13. Interpretation of the "Student Engagement" paradigm in Spain (a bibliometric review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Catalán Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact and the interpretation that has been made of the concept of «Student Engagement» in the Spanish university system. For this purpose, we have reviewed the contributions made in the last five years to the main international congresses on university teaching innovation held in Spain and the national-level publications on this topic that are registered in the Scopus and Web of Science databases. Through this review, we can determine not only the impact of Student Engagement among national and international teachers that participate in these forums, but also the interpretation they make of the concept. The review of the documents, and our own position as teachers, makes us reflect on a proposal that could guide future lines of research on the issue. In this regard, we consider that the management of the university, especially in the Spanish system, still does not take a holistic perspective of the university student's experience into account. In order to fully develop the three dimensions of action to improve Student Engagement, we need a multidisciplinary approach that would take into consideration the purest contributions from management, from university experiential marketing, and from the educational sciences with their knowledge of teaching methodologies.

  14. Experimental Alteration of Basalt to Support Interpretation of Remote Sensing and In Situ Meausrements from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    are a function of the original mineral assemblage in the parent rocks, the chemistry of fluids that interacted with the rocks, and physico-chemical conditions (pH, temperatures, and pressure) during the time of mineral formation. Understanding the alteration assemblages produced by a range of conditions is vital for the interpretation of phyllosilicate spectral signatures and to decipher the environment and evolution of early Mars, and especially for identifying habitable niches in which life could be initiated and sustained. No experimentally controlled and well characterized analog materials that simulate martian shock metamorphism and alteration conditions currently exist for calibrating either remote sensing or in situ measurements of Mars. A series of experiments was initiated to assess the effects of systematic changes in the physico-chemical conditions on Mars analog materials thereby providing samples to ground-truth Mars remote sensing observations from CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) and in situ measurements from Opportunity's Mössbauer and Curiosity's CHEMIN (Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction/XRay Fluorescence) instruments. Results of initial experimental runs as analysed by SEM-EDS (Secondary Electron Microscopy -Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis are reported here and lay the foundation for comparison with shocked and altered samples that will be characterized in the next phase of this work.

  15. Educational technology improves ECG interpretation of acute myocardial infarction among medical students and emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Ali; Tanski, Mary; Davis, Steven; Shokoohi, Hamid; Lucas, Raymond; Zaver, Fareen

    2015-01-01

    Asynchronous online training has become an increasingly popular educational format in the new era of technology-based professional development. We sought to evaluate the impact of an online asynchronous training module on the ability of medical students and emergency medicine (EM) residents to detect electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We developed an online ECG training and testing module on AMI, with emphasis on recognizing ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and early activation of cardiac catheterization resources. Study participants included senior medical students and EM residents at all post-graduate levels rotating in our emergency department (ED). Participants were given a baseline set of ECGs for interpretation. This was followed by a brief interactive online training module on normal ECGs as well as abnormal ECGs representing an acute MI. Participants then underwent a post-test with a set of ECGs in which they had to interpret and decide appropriate intervention including catheterization lab activation. 148 students and 35 EM residents participated in this training in the 2012-2013 academic year. Students and EM residents showed significant improvements in recognizing ECG abnormalities after taking the asynchronous online training module. The mean score on the testing module for students improved from 5.9 (95% CI [5.7-6.1]) to 7.3 (95% CI [7.1-7.5]), with a mean difference of 1.4 (95% CI [1.12-1.68]) (p<0.0001). The mean score for residents improved significantly from 6.5 (95% CI [6.2-6.9]) to 7.8 (95% CI [7.4-8.2]) (p<0.0001). An online interactive module of training improved the ability of medical students and EM residents to correctly recognize the ECG evidence of an acute MI.

  16. Student Development and Experimental-Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Robert

    The rapid pace at which societal changes have occurred in our culture has presented a tremendous challenge to higher education. A major attempt to meet this challenge has been the Tomorrow's Higher Education (THE) Project. The goal of the THE Project is to reconceptualize student affaris work in a way that will provide a measure of creative input…

  17. Can Facebook Make Students Remember? An Experimental Study from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally manipulated the way students submit their assignments and tested the number of new words that are learned in each condition. The results showed that students who submitted their assignments through Facebook learned as much as those who submitted their assignment in a traditional way. In the light of these findings, we can…

  18. A Student View of Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Frank; Marlowe, Robert Lloyd; Whitson, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    This is the story of how an enterprising high school student came to my lab one afternoon, asking if there were any way that he could gain "hands-on" lab experience by working with me. While I had some doubts about allowing him to work in an area with an expensive 150-mW focused laser beam, I eventually said yes. I was well aware that a…

  19. Interpreting Assessments of Student Learning in the Introductory Physics Classroom and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jason Edward

    Assessment is the primary means of feedback between students and instructors. However, to effectively use assessment, the ability to interpret collected information is essential. We present insights into three unique, important avenues of assessment in the physics classroom and laboratory. First, we examine students' performance on conceptual surveys. The goal of this research project is to better utilize the information collected by instructors when they administer the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to students as a pre-test and post-test of their conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. We find that ambiguities in the use of the normalized gain, g, may influence comparisons among individual classes. Therefore, we propose using stratagrams, graphical summaries of the fraction of students who exhibit "Newtonian thinking," as a clearer, more informative method of both assessing a single class and comparing performance among classes. Next, we examine students' expressions of confusion when they initially encounter new material. The goal of this research project is to better understand what such confusion actually conveys to instructors about students' performance and engagement. We investigate the relationship between students' self-assessment of their confusion over material and their performance, confidence in reasoning, pre-course self-efficacy and several other measurable characteristics of engagement. We find that students' expressions of confusion are negatively related to initial performance, confidence and self-efficacy, but positively related to final performance when all factors are considered together. Finally, we examine students' exhibition of scientific reasoning abilities in the instructional laboratory. The goal of this research project is to explore two inquiry-based curricula, each of which proposes a different degree of scaffolding. Students engage in sequences of these laboratory activities during one semester of an introductory physics

  20. Interpretation of the "Student Engagement" paradigm in Spain (a bibliometric review)

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Catalán Martínez; Gloria Aparicio de Castro

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact and the interpretation that has been made of the concept of «Student Engagement» in the Spanish university system. For this purpose, we have reviewed the contributions made in the last five years to the main international congresses on university teaching innovation held in Spain and the national-level publications on this topic that are registered in the Scopus and Web of Science databases. Through this review, we can determine not only the impact...

  1. Effect of explicit teaching of prosodic features on the development of listening comprehension by Farsi-English interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; Vincent, van Heuven J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosodic features on developing listening comprehension by interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at the State

  2. Exploring Text and Icon Graph Interpretation in Students with Dyslexia: An Eye-tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunjung; Wiseheart, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs. Axes and legends were labelled either with words (mixed-modality graphs) or icons (orthography-free graphs). Students also answered informationally equivalent questions presented in sentences (orthography-only condition). Response times were slower in the dyslexic group only for processing sentences. However, eye tracking data revealed group differences for processing mixed-modality graphs, whereas no group differences were found for the orthography-free graphs. When processing bar graphs, students with dyslexia differ from their able reading peers only when graphs contain orthographic features. Implications for processing informational text are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Does the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhance medical English communication skills of Japanese-speaking students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Hideki; Lefor, Alan K

    2018-04-19

    To determine if the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhances medical English communication skills of students in a Japanese medical university and to assess this method based on performance and student evaluations.  This is a three-phase study using a mixed-methods design, which starts with four language reproduction activities for 30 medical and 95 nursing students, followed by a quantitative analysis of perfect-match reproduction rates to assess changes over the duration of the study and qualitative error analysis of participants' language reproduction. The final stage included a scored course evaluation and free-form comments to evaluate this approach and to identify effective educational strategies to enhance medical English communication skills. Mean perfect-match reproduction rates of all participants over four reproduction activities differed statistically significantly (repeated measures ANOVA, pEnglish communication skills are enhanced using this approach. Participants expressed positive feedback regarding this instruction method. This approach may be effective to enhance the language skills of non-native English-speaking students seeking to practice medicine in English speaking countries.

  4. Effectiveness of Student Learning during Experimental Work in Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Ana; Peklaj, Cirila; Ferk Savec, Vesna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the research was to optimize the effectiveness of student learning based on experimental work in chemistry classes in Slovenian primary schools. To obtain evidence about how experimental work is implemented during regular chemistry classes, experimental work was videotaped during 19 units of chemistry lessons at 12 Slovenian primary schools from the pool of randomly selected schools. Altogether 332 eight-grade students were involved in the investigation, with an average age of 14.2 years. Students were videotaped during chemistry lessons, and their worksheets were collected afterward. The 12 chemistry teachers, who conducted lessons in these schools, were interviewed before the lessons; their teaching plans were also collected. The collected data was analyzed using qualitative methods. The results indicate that many teachers in Slovenian primary schools are not fully aware of the potential of experimental work integrated into chemistry lessons for the development of students' experimental competence. Further research of the value of different kinds of training to support teachers for the use of experimental work in chemistry teaching is needed.

  5. Frequency Dependence and Spatial Distribution of Seismic Attenuation in France: Experimental Results and Possible Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-12

    and possible interpretations. M. Campillo Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique Universite Joseph Fourier and Observatoire de Grenoble...IRIGM, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble, France J.L. Plantet Laboratoire de Detection Geophysique Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique BP 12, 91680 Bruyere-le

  6. Qualitative investigation of students' views about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines students' reasoning surrounding seemingly contradictory Likert-scale responses within five items in the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). We administered the E-CLASS with embedded open-ended prompts, which asked students to provide explanations after making a Likert-scale selection. The quantitative scores on those items showed that our sample of the 216 students enrolled in first year and beyond first year physics courses demonstrated the same trends as previous national data. A qualitative analysis of students' open-ended responses was used to examine common reasoning patterns related to particular Likert-scale responses. When explaining responses to items regarding the role of experiments in confirming known results and also contributing to the growth of scientific knowledge, a common reasoning pattern suggested that confirming known results in a classroom experiment can help with understanding concepts. Thus, physics experiments contribute to students' personal scientific knowledge growth, while also confirming widely known results. Many students agreed that having correct formatting and making well-reasoned conclusions are the main goal for communicating experimental results. Students who focused on sections and formatting emphasized how it enables clear and efficient communication. However, very few students discussed the link between well-reasoned conclusions and effective scientific communication. Lastly, many students argued it was possible to complete experiments without understanding equations and physics concepts. The most common justification was that they could simply follow instructions to finish the lab without understanding. The findings suggest several implications for teaching physics laboratory courses, for example, incorporating some lab activities with outcomes that are unknown to the students might have a significant impact on students' understanding of experiments as an

  7. The Essences of Culinary Arts Students' Lived Experience of General Education Online Learning: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keovilay, Sisavath

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological research study explored the lived experiences of culinary arts students learning general education online while enrolled in a face-to-face (f2f) culinary arts class. This research used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to analyze how culinary arts students, in a not-for-profit Florida University, made sense of…

  8. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelina, Anna; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-12-01

    National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  9. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  10. The experimental learning method for environmental education (Tamet in students from the National University of Central Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Haydeé Zárate Quiñones

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to apply the experimental method of learning for Sustainable Development in students of the Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Sciences of the National University of Central Peru. For its development we worked with a sample of 1062 students and a quasi-experimental design was used. Were employed different methods of mathematical theoretical, empirical and statistical level that allowed data collection, analysis and interpretation of results. A test of knowledge in Environmental Education for Sustainable Development to students, a questionnaire of perception and opinion, as well as a questionnaire of teacher training was applied. The experimental method used allowed the development of knowledge, habits and environmental values for sustainable development in students, contributing to the protection and conservation of the environment.

  11. Journaling: a quasi-experimental study of student nurses' reflective learning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakude, L P; Bruce, J C

    2003-08-01

    The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning. The study design enabled comparisons between two groups: one group of students assigned to do journaling (experimental group) and another group of students (control group) who did not journal. The students in the experimental group were given a period of eight weeks to journal their clinical experiences. At the end of this period, both groups were given an exercise, based on a clinical situation, to analyse reflectively and a comparison made on their performance. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data and Fisher's Exact Test was used to determine the significance of differences observed within and between groups. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better in exploring alternatives of action (p < 0.10) and formulating responses in similar future situations (p < 0.05) during the process of reflection. There was no significant difference between the groups' scores with regard to their ability to describe the clinical experience, to explore their related feelings, to evaluate the experience and to interpret/create meaning for themselves. Recommendations are made for continued student support and guidance during clinical education if reflection is considered to enhance reflective, thoughtful nursing practice.

  12. Experimentally generated footprints in sand: Analysis and consequences for the interpretation of fossil and forensic footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Août, Kristiaan; Meert, L; Van Gheluwe, B; De Clercq, D; Aerts, P

    2010-04-01

    Fossilized footprints contain information about the dynamics of gait, but their interpretation is difficult, as they are the combined result of foot anatomy, gait dynamics, and substrate properties. We explore how footprints are generated in modern humans. Sixteen healthy subjects walked on a solid surface and in a layer of fine-grained sand. In each condition, 3D kinematics of the leg and foot were analyzed for three trials at preferred speed, using an infrared camera system. Additionally, calibrated plantar pressures were recorded. After each trial in sand, the depth of the imprint was measured under specific sites. When walking in sand, subjects showed greater toe clearance during swing and a 7 degrees higher knee yield during stance. Maximal pressure was the most influential factor for footprint depth under the heel. For other foot zones, a combination of factors correlates with imprint depth, with pressure impulse (the pressure-time integral) gaining importance distally, at the metatarsal heads and the hallux. We conclude that footprint topology cannot be related to a single variable, but that different zones of the footprint reflect different aspects of the kinesiology of walking. Therefore, an integrated approach, combining anatomical, kinesiological, and substrate-mechanical insights, is necessary for a correct interpretation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The experiences of medical students with dyslexia: An interpretive phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sebastian C K; Anderson, John L

    2018-05-10

    This article explores the experiences of U.K. medical students with dyslexia, using an interpretive phenomenological approach. This project began with a review of the literature, highlighting a void of qualitative research. We then conducted a collaborative autoethnography. This paper forms the next stage in this series of research. We aimed to elicit meaning and understanding from the lived experiences of our participants. Eight U.K. junior doctors with dyslexia were interviewed over the telephone in an in-depth, unstructured manner. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed with the aid of a template analysis. Experiences of helplessness and hopelessness were common. These may be a result of a fear of stigmatization and personal feelings of inadequacy. They may also be fuelled by the incidents of bullying and belittling from other medical students that were reported. An important meta-theme was of fear and lack of understanding. A lack of pastoral support was also reported. Their experiences of medical school assessments are also reported. More may need to be done to educate teachers and clinical supervisors on dyslexia. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Studies of thermal-reactor benchmark-data interpretation: experimental corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.; Fiarman, S.

    1976-10-01

    Experimental values of integral parameters of the lattices studied in this report, i.e., the MIT(D 2 O) and TRX benchmark lattices have been re-examined and revised. The revisions correct several systematic errors that have been previously ignored or considered insignificant. These systematic errors are discussed in detail. The final corrected values are presented

  15. Critical experiments carried out with a homogeneous plutonium solution. Experimental results. Theoretical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouly, J.C.; Caizergues, R.; Deilgat, E.; Houelle, M.; Lecorche, P.

    1967-01-01

    This report groups together a series of experimental and theoretical studies on cylinders and plates of solution tried out at the Valduc Centre. a) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results obtained on critical heights of solutions. b) Study of the effect of nitrogen, introduced in the form of the ion NO 3- , on the reactivity of fissile media. c) Study of the effect of 240 94 Pu on the reactivity of these media. d) Study of the influence of the dimensions of the inner cavity of annular cylinders, as well as of the influence of the moderator which may be introduced. Simple results were obtained which were easy to apply. An extrapolation to other geometries is made. (authors) [fr

  16. Experimentation with psychoactive substances by public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliane de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of exposure to psychoactive substances in public students of basic education and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from March to September 2015, involving 1,009 students of the basic and high school education in 20 public schools in the municipality of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The data have been compiled using questionnaires previously applied in national studies of the Brazilian Center for Psychotropic Drugs. The variables have been dichotomized for later logistic regression using the Chi-square test to analyze associations between experimentation with psychoactive substances and other sociodemographic variables; odds ratio and confidence intervals have also been calculated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS We have identified that 69.6% of the students have experimented alcohol and 12.4% cigarettes. Age (≥ 15 years has shown a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p < 0.001 and cigarettes (p = 0.02, acting as risk factor in both cases (OR = 2.34 and 1, 78, respectively, but it acted as a protective factor for the use of inhalants (p = 0.03 and OR = 0.58 and weight loss medication (p = 0.006 and OR = 0.44. Religious practice had a significant association with experimentation with alcohol (p = 0.01, functioning as a protective factor (OR = 0.56. CONCLUSIONS We have concluded that the psychoactive substance most experienced by students was alcohol, followed by cigarettes, and chance for experimentation increases after the age of 15. Religious practice, in turn, acts as a protective factor for experimentation with alcohol.

  17. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse as a theoretical framework for educators studying student radiographers' interpretation of normality vs. abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Peter D.; Linehan, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To acknowledge the tacit rules underpinning academic practice of undergraduate radiographers in determining normality vs. abnormality when appraising skeletal images. Methodology: Twelve students were interviewed (individually) using in-depth semi-structured questions. Interviews were mediated through a PowerPoint presentation containing two digital X-ray images. Each image was based on a level of expertise; the elementary (Case 1) and the complicated (Case 2). The questions were based on regular ‘frames’ created from observing tutor–student contact in class, and then validated through a group interview. Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse was then utilised as a data analysis instrument to determine how third year diagnostic radiography students interpreted X-ray images, in relation to the ‘recognition’ and ‘realisation’ rules of the Educational Theoretical Framework. Conclusion: Bernstein's framework has made it possible to specify, in detail, how issues and difficulties are formed at the level of the acquirer during interpretation. The recognition rules enabled students to meaningfully recognise what trauma characteristics can be associated with the image and the demands of a detailed scrutiny so as to enact a competent interpretation. Realisation rules, made it possible for students to establish their own systematic approach and realise legitimate meanings of normality and abnormality. Whereas obvious or visible trauma generated realisation rules (represented via homogenous terminology), latent trauma authorised students to deviate from legitimate meanings. The latter rule, in this context, has directed attention to the student issue of visioning abnormality when images are normal

  18. Deeply inelastic transfer reactions induced by heavy ions in rare earth targets. II. Interpretation of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Bimbot, R.; Ngo, C.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental angular distributions and cross sections for a series of deeply inelastic transfer reactions induced by various projectiles in rare earth targets have been interpreted using a model which includes a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry and treats statistical fluctuations. As the transfer reactions considered correspond to an increase of the potential energy of the composite system their observation is mainly due to fluctuations. The calculation reproduces correctly the angular distributions, but the cross sections are underestimated. Several effects are discussed which may increase these cross sections and are neglected in the calculation

  19. Interpreting experimental data on egg production--applications of dynamic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, J; Lopez, S; Kebreab, E; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    This contribution focuses on applying mathematical models based on systems of ordinary first-order differential equations to synthesize and interpret data from egg production experiments. Models based on linear systems of differential equations are contrasted with those based on nonlinear systems. Regression equations arising from analytical solutions to linear compartmental schemes are considered as candidate functions for describing egg production curves, together with aspects of parameter estimation. Extant candidate functions are reviewed, a role for growth functions such as the Gompertz equation suggested, and a function based on a simple new model outlined. Structurally, the new model comprises a single pool with an inflow and an outflow. Compartmental simulation models based on nonlinear systems of differential equations, and thus requiring numerical solution, are next discussed, and aspects of parameter estimation considered. This type of model is illustrated in relation to development and evaluation of a dynamic model of calcium and phosphorus flows in layers. The model consists of 8 state variables representing calcium and phosphorus pools in the crop, stomachs, plasma, and bone. The flow equations are described by Michaelis-Menten or mass action forms. Experiments that measure Ca and P uptake in layers fed different calcium concentrations during shell-forming days are used to evaluate the model. In addition to providing a useful management tool, such a simulation model also provides a means to evaluate feeding strategies aimed at reducing excretion of potential pollutants in poultry manure to the environment.

  20. Using simulation to interpret experimental data in terms of protein conformational ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jane R

    2017-04-01

    In their biological environment, proteins are dynamic molecules, necessitating an ensemble structural description. Molecular dynamics simulations and solution-state experiments provide complimentary information in the form of atomically detailed coordinates and averaged or distributions of structural properties or related quantities. Recently, increases in the temporal and spatial scale of conformational sampling and comparison of the more diverse conformational ensembles thus generated have revealed the importance of sampling rare events. Excitingly, new methods based on maximum entropy and Bayesian inference are promising to provide a statistically sound mechanism for combining experimental data with molecular dynamics simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Halden corrosion cycling experiment IFA-560.2. Experimental results and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, W.; Boehner, G.; Eberle, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Halden experiment IFA-560.2 was an experiment in which the corrosion behaviour of PWR fuel rodlets was investigated simultaneously under different load and cooling conditions: Permanent convective cooling at 50% power, permanent nucleate boiling at 100% power and periodic cycling between these two states. The objective was to study possible influences on the corrosion mechanism which might generically be related to the cycling operation. The oxide layer increments after 90 operations days and 60 day/night cycles were evaluated using the Siemens/KWU corrosion model regarding the special thermal hydraulic conditions of the experimental loop. The analysis proves that the layer thickness increases could be described purely following the changes in temperature caused by the power changes. No extra effect due to the frequent changes between the different cooling conditions could be observed. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous burp phenomenon: analysis of experimental data and approach to theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Cases of spontaneous release of energy (''burp'') were observed numerously in solid methane, water ice and other hydrogeneous compounds irradiated in fast neutron fields with absorbed dose 2-10 MGy. Nature of this phenomenon is that accumulation of radicals and thermal instability of a sample under due concentration of radicals culminate to autocatalytic reaction of their recombination. The most odious feature of this phenomenon is that irradiation time, before a burp occurs, varies significantly even in identical irradiation condition. Respectively, amount of released energy varies as well. For example, in URAM-2 experiments with water ice, irradiation time before appearance of spontaneous burp varied from 5 hours to 11 hours for equal samples and up to 20 hours for the smallest sample. Another feature of the phenomenon is that regularities for occurrence of spontaneous release of energy (that is, dependence on temperature, size of sample, absorbed dose) can't be extracted explicitly from experimental data, if applying known relations for critical concentration of radicals, namely: Semenov's and Frank-Kamenetski's conditions of thermal instability of a sample, Jackson's relation for chain process of recombination of uniformly distributed radicals, critical condition based on accounting for acceleration of a process of recombination in the regions of micro-cracks, and, finally, critical condition for irregular distribution of radicals proposed by the author of this article. Not one of these theories predicts casual character of a burp on macro-scale basis. So that, notwithstanding fair amount of experimental data on spontaneous burps, it is still impossible to derive well-balanced theory of this phenomenon. One attempt to understand a reason for the strange behavior of spontaneous burping is a probabilistic, cluster model of spontaneous release of energy, developed in the chapter 4 of this paper. Spontaneous burps observed during URAM-2 project and in solid methane

  3. Writing Skills in Students of Education. (Case: University Pedagogical Experimental Libertador. Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Consolación Quintero Chacón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the partial results of a research conducted on the writing skills of students of the Education at the Pedagogical University Experimental Libertador in Venezuela. The overall objective of the research was to identify the characteristics of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic types of texts produced by students. The method used for the interpretation of the data was discourse analysis, which allowed communication processes addressing their structures to describe them textually. The difficulty table was adapted from Rudy Mostacero containing one hundred fifty seven (157 difficulties was reduced to twenty-four (24; distributed as follows: eleven (11 for syntax, eight (8 to semantics and five (5 to the Pragmatic. The results show a high percentage of features in the semantic and pragmatic dimension valued regular and bad. These results will help to design a comprehensive program that will act in favor of innovative proposals for improving the writing process in the training of professionals in Education career.

  4. Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of healthy eating. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina

    2014-11-01

    This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile Learning Based Worked Example in Electric Circuit (WEIEC) Application to Improve the High School Students' Electric Circuits Interpretation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadiannur, Mitra; Supahar

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the feasibility and effectivity of mobile learning based Worked Example in Electric Circuits (WEIEC) application in improving the high school students' electric circuits interpretation ability on Direct Current Circuits materials. The research method used was a combination of Four-D Models and ADDIE model. The…

  6. Teacher Effectiveness Examined as a System: Interpretive Structural Modeling and Facilitation Sessions with U.S. and Japanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Alexia

    2009-01-01

    This study challenges narrow definitions of teacher effectiveness and uses a systems approach to investigate teacher effectiveness as a multi-dimensional, holistic phenomenon. The methods of Nominal Group Technique and Interpretive Structural Modeling were used to assist U.S. and Japanese students separately construct influence structures during…

  7. Tracer movement in a single fissure in granitic rock - some experimental results and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.; Eriksen, T.; Taetinen, P.

    1980-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers tritiated water, and a large molecular weight lignosulphonate molecule and the sorbing tracers cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A 'dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption matrix diffusion and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption. (author)

  8. Tracer Movement in a Single Fissure in Granitic Rock: Some Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Eriksen, Tryggve; TäHtinen, PäIvi

    1982-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers, tritiated water, and a large-molecular-weight lignosulphonate molecule and for the sorbing tracers, cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A `dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption, matrix diffusion, and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption.

  9. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  10. Optimization technique applied to interpretation of experimental data and research of constitutive laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossette, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of identification technique applied to one dimensional numerical analysis of the split-Hopkinson pressure bar experiment is proven. A general 1-D elastic-plastic-viscoplastic computer program was written down so as to give an adequate solution for elastic-plastic-viscoplastic response of a pressure bar subjected to a general Heaviside step loading function in time which is applied over one end of the bar. Special emphasis is placed on the response of the specimen during the first microseconds where no equilibrium conditions can be stated. During this transient phase discontinuity conditions related to wave propagation are encountered and must be carefully taken into account. Having derived an adequate numerical model, then Pontryagin identification technique has been applied in such a way that the unknowns are physical parameters. The solutions depend mainly on the selection of a class of proper eigen objective functionals (cost functions) which may be combined so as to obtain a convenient numerical objective function. A number of significant questions arising in the choice of parameter adjustment algorithms are discussed. In particular, this technique leads to a two point boundary value problem which has been solved using an iterative gradient like technique usually referred to as a double operator gradient method. This method combines the classical Fletcher-Powell technique and a partial quadratic technique with an automatic parameter step size selection. This method is much more efficient than usual ones. Numerical experimentation with simulated data was performed to test the accuracy and stability of the identification algorithm and to determine the most adequate type and quantity of data for estimation purposes

  11. Methodological Approaches to Experimental Teaching of Mathematics to University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article imparts authors’ thoughtson a new teaching methodology for mathematical education in universities. The aim of the study is to substantiate the efficiency of the comprehensive usage of mathematical electronic courses, computer tests, original textbooks and methodologies when teaching mathematics to future agrarian engineers. The authors consider this implementation a unified educational process. Materials and Methods: the synthesis of international and domestic pedagogical experience of teaching students in university and the following methods of empirical research were used: pedagogical experiment, pedagogical measurementsand experimental teaching of mathematics. The authors applied the methodology of revealing interdisciplinary links on the continuum of mathematical problems using the key examples and exercises. Results: the online course “Mathematics” was designed and developed on the platform of Learning Management System Moodle. The article presents the results of test assignments assessing students’ intellectual abilities and analysis of solutions of various types of mathematical problems by students. The pedagogical experiment substantiated the integrated selection of textbooks, online course and online tests using the methodology of determination of the key examples and exercises. Discussion and Conclusions: the analysis of the experimental work suggested that the new methodology is able to have positive effect on the learning process. The learning programme determined the problem points for each student. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future educational practice.

  12. Numerical models: Detailing and simulation techniques aimed at comparison with experimental data, support to test result interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chiwen

    2001-01-01

    This part of the presentation discusses the modelling details required and the simulation techniques available for analyses, facilitating the comparison with the experimental data and providing support for interpretation of the test results. It is organised to cover the following topics: analysis inputs; basic modelling requirements for reactor coolant system; method applicable for reactor cooling system; consideration of damping values and integration time steps; typical analytic models used for analysis of reactor pressure vessel and internals; hydrodynamic mass and fluid damping for the internal analysis; impact elements for fuel analysis; and PEI theorem and its applications. The intention of these topics is to identify the key parameters associated with models of analysis and analytical methods. This should provide proper basis for useful comparison with the test results

  13. The use of hidden curriculum in the interpretation of climate change on infographics in higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner Colón Ortiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of environmental issues is evident deemed climate change to educate students. The main purpose of this study was to explore the interpretation of climate change on infographics in higher education students using the hidden curriculum. To achieve the purpose, a content analysis was performed to analyze the infographics that present students before (diagnostic and after (formative to use a hidden curriculum concepts of climate change in a course of General Biology. The study was conducted was a qualitative content analysis approach. The sample consisted of undergraduate students of an institution of higher education in Puerto Rico who took a course in General Biology.The results of the content analysis reflected that 81% of students had some misconceptions of climate change at the beginning of the course. Then offer the course General Biology and integrate concepts of climate change with a hidden curriculum, students downplayed their erroneous concepts to 9%. Therefore, we conclude that concepts should be integrated in climate change science courses for better environmental education. This explains why there is a need to educate students on climate change as recommended by the state and international agencies. So states to consider the potential of universities to develop environmental education and close collaboration between institutions of higher education as well as established the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

  14. Constructivist and Intersectional Interpretations of a Lesbian College Student's Multiple Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abes, Elisa S.

    2012-01-01

    Constructivism and intersectionality are used to explore one lesbian college student's multiple identities. These frameworks reveal how meaning-making contributes to power's influence on identity, while power shapes meaning-making. For this student, lesbian identity is a product of social class, dominant and subordinate norms, and interactions…

  15. Hand-I Coordination: Interpreting Student Writings and Drawings as Expressions of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaenen, Inda

    2013-01-01

    In schools where curricular constraints and testing pressures narrow the ways in which students can take up identities as writers, longterm enrichment programs offer opportunities for the meaningful design of compositions. This paper, which presents the work of four elementary student participants in a writing workshop, shows how qualitative…

  16. Instructional Reasoning about Interpretations of Student Thinking That Supports Responsive Teaching in Secondary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Elizabeth B.; Sherin, Miriam Gamoran

    2016-01-01

    Basing instruction on the substance of student thinking, or responsive teaching, is a critical strategy for supporting student learning. Previous research has documented responsive teaching by identifying observable teaching practices in a broad range of disciplines and classrooms. However, this research has not provided access to the teacher…

  17. The Value of Forensic Competition for Oral Interpretation Students. Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Bruce B.

    Student interest in individual events in intercollegiate forensics competition is on the rise in the United States. Not only does the individual events tournament format reward depth of analysis, it also rewards students' abilities to transfer their critical insights into appropriate physical and vocal cues. The individual events tournament…

  18. Interpreting Feedback: A Discourse Analysis of Teacher Feedback and Student Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. T.; Anguiano, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback has typically been studied as a means of improving academic performance. Few studies inquire into the processes by which feedback shapes student identity. The authors carry out a discourse analysis of written comments to explore how feedback is discursively constructed by both teachers and students. Analysis of written feedback,…

  19. Students' Interpretations of Mechanistic Language in Organic Chemistry before Learning Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Stoyanovich, Carlee; Flynn, Alison B.

    2017-01-01

    Research on mechanistic thinking in organic chemistry has shown that students attribute little meaning to the electron-pushing (i.e., curved arrow) formalism. At the University of Ottawa, a new curriculum has been developed in which students are taught the electron-pushing formalism prior to instruction on specific reactions--this formalism is…

  20. The Experience of Low-Income College Students at a Selective University: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paula Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Low-income students at selective institutions report feeling a sense of isolation, alienation, and marginalization. However, it is essential that the voices of low-income students that have successfully navigated the college experience be part of the conversation. Rather than approach the study from a deficit perspective, this Interpretative…

  1. A combination of traditional learning and e-learning can be more effective on radiological interpretation skills in medical students: a pre- and post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajegheh, Ali; Jahangiri, Alborz; Dolan-Evans, Elliot; Pakneshan, Sahar

    2016-02-03

    The ability to interpret an X-Ray is a vital skill for graduating medical students which guides clinicians towards accurate diagnosis and treatment of the patient. However, research has suggested that radiological interpretation skills are less than satisfactory in not only medical students, but also in residents and consultants. This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning for the development of X-ray interpretation skills in pre-clinical medical students. Competencies in clinical X-Ray interpretation were assessed by comparison of pre- and post-intervention scores and one year follow up assessment, where the e-learning course was the 'intervention'. Our results demonstrate improved knowledge and skills in X-ray interpretation in students. Assessment of the post training students showed significantly higher scores than the scores of control group of students undertaking the same assessment at the same time. The development of the Internet and advances in multimedia technologies has paved the way for computer-assisted education. As more rural clinical schools are established the electronic delivery of radiology teaching through websites will become a necessity. The use of e-learning to deliver radiology tuition to medical students represents an exciting alternative and is an effective method of developing competency in radiological interpretation for medical students.

  2. Interpreting Research on School Resources and Student Achievement: A Rejoinder to Hanushek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Rob; Hedges, Larry V.; Laine, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Supports the findings of a meta-analysis that demonstrates that student achievement is related to the availability of resources, disagreeing with criticisms of method and sample selection made by E. Hanushek (1996). (SLD)

  3. Why Everyday Experience? Interpreting Primary Students' Science Discourse from the Perspective of John Dewey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jiyeon; Song, Jinwoong

    2014-05-01

    The purposes of this study were, based on John Dewey's ideas on experience, to examine how primary students used their own everyday experience and were affected by own and others' experience in science discourse, and to illuminate the implications of experience in science education. To do these, science discourses by a group of six fourth-graders were observed, where they talked about their ideas related to thermal concepts. The data was collected through interviews and open-ended questions, analyzed based on Dewey's perspective, and depicted as the discourse map which was developed to illustrate students' transaction and changing process of students' ideas. The results of the analysis showed typical examples of Dewey's notions of experience, such as the principles of continuity and of transaction and of different types of experience, examples of `the expanded continuity and transaction', and science discourse as inquiry. It was also found that students' everyday experiences played several roles: as a rebuttal for changing their own ideas or others', backing for assurance of their own ideas in individual students' inner changes after discourse with others, and backing for other's ideas. Based on these observations, this study argues that everyday experience should be considered as a starting point for primary students' science learning because most of their experience comes from everyday, not school science, contexts. In addition, to evoke educative experience in science education, it is important for teachers to pay more attention to Dewey's notions of the principles of continuity and of transaction and to their educational implications.

  4. Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alberto Molina

    Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.

  5. Instruction-Based Clinical Eye-Tracking Study on the Visual Interpretation of Divergence: How Do Students Look at Vector Field Plots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Viiri, J.; Mozaffari, S.; Dengel, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2018-01-01

    Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux…

  6. Teaching Real Data Interpretation with Models (TRIM): Analysis of Student Dialogue in a Large-Enrollment Cell and Developmental Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagallo, Patricia; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    We present our design for a cell biology course to integrate content with scientific practices, specifically data interpretation and model-based reasoning. A 2-year research project within this course allowed us to understand how students interpret authentic biological data in this setting. Through analysis of written work, we measured the extent…

  7. Professor Gender, Age, and "Hotness" in Influencing College Students' Generation and Interpretation of Professor Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Boswell, Stefanie S.; McCaleb, Kayla; Robertson, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 230 undergraduate psychology students rated their expectations of a bogus professor (who was randomly designated a man or woman and "hot" versus "not hot") based on ratings and comments found on RateMyProfessors.com. Five professor qualities were derived using principal components analysis: dedication,…

  8. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  9. Interpreting the Images in a Picture Book: Students Make Connections to Themselves, Their Lives and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantei, Jessica; Kervin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Picture books are an important and accessible form of visual art for children because they offer, among other things, opportunities for making connections to personal experiences and to the values and beliefs of families and communities. This paper reports on the use of a picture book to promote Year 4 students' making of text-to-self connections,…

  10. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  11. Long-term development of how students interpret a model; Complementarity of contexts and mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pauline; Roorda, Gerrit; Stillman, Gloria Ann; Blum, Werner; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    When students engage in rich mathematical modelling tasks, they have to handle real-world contexts and mathematics in chorus. This is not easy. In this chapter, contexts and mathematics are perceived as complementary, which means they can be integrated. Based on four types of approaches to modelling

  12. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  13. Social Camouflage: Interpreting Male Student Veterans' Behavior for Residence Life Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Wade G.; Scott, David A.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    The term "camouflage" implies obscurity and concealment. Male student veterans who return from the military often employ a social camouflage; though some may reveal and discuss their military experience, their overriding objective is to blend in, have a "normal" college experience, and graduate. This creates challenges for housing professionals…

  14. Curricular initiatives that enhance student knowledge and perceptions of sexual and gender minority groups: a critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Tim; Abel, Gillian; Pitama, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    There is no accepted best practice for optimizing tertiary student knowledge, perceptions, and skills to care for sexual and gender diverse groups. The objective of this research was to synthesize the relevant literature regarding effective curricular initiatives designed to enhance tertiary level student knowledge, perceptions, and skills to care for sexual and gender diverse populations. A modified Critical Interpretive Synthesis using a systematic search strategy was conducted in 2015. This method was chosen to synthesize the relevant qualitative and quantitative literature as it allows for the depth and breadth of information to be captured and new constructs to be illuminated. Databases searched include AMED, CINAHL EBM Reviews, ERIC, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Nursing Database, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar. Thirty-one articles were included in this review. Curricular initiatives ranging from discrete to multimodal approaches have been implemented. Successful initiatives included discrete sessions with time for processing, and multi-modal strategies. Multi-modal approaches that encouraged awareness of one's lens and privilege in conjunction with facilitated communication seemed the most effective. The literature is limited to the evaluation of explicit curricula. The wider cultural competence literature offers further insight by highlighting the importance of broad and embedded forces including social influences, the institutional climate, and the implicit, or hidden, curriculum. A combined interpretation of the complementary cultural competence and sexual and gender diversity literature provides a novel understanding of the optimal content and context for the delivery of a successful curricular initiative.

  15. Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Student Mentoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sandner, Malte

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a natural-experiment which evaluates the effectiveness of a student mentoring program. The mentoring includes several compulsory, scheduled, faceto- face appointments between a mentor and a student in the first study year. All mentors are graduated and employed by the institution. For the evaluation, I use the fact that the mentoring is only offered to students in an economics and management program, whereas it is not offered to students in an industrial engi...

  16. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  17. Content and Community Redux: Instructor and Student Interpretations of Online Communication in a Graduate Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Dykes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiences of an instructor and teaching assistant who employed online communication strategies in a graduate seminar are examined in this paper. This paper expands on the findings reported in an earlier article on virtual learning communities founded on social constructivist pedagogy (Schwier & Balbar, 2002. We examine how the instructors constructed and refined structured discussions of content with synchronous and asynchronous communication at the graduate level. The instructors offer several observations and principles that are organized into categories that illustrate the source, message, channel and receiver in the communication system. The critical reflections of the instructors are compared with data from interviews with students about learning experienced in the online discussions (Dykes, 2003. Findings include the realization that instructors may fundamentally misinterpret or overlook important elements of communication, but that students are robust learners who can transcend the limitations of the medium and the instructor if given the authority in a social constructivist learning environment.

  18. Developing and Supporting Students' Autonomy to Plan, Perform, and Interpret Inquiry-Based Biochemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thanuci; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory sessions are designed to develop the experimental skills and the acquaintance with instruments that may contribute to a successful career in Biochemistry and associated fields. This study is a report on improving a traditional Biochemistry course by devising the laboratory sessions as an inquiry-based environment to develop the…

  19. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  20. SE83-9 'Chix in Space' student experimenter monitors STS-29 onboard activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger watches monitor in the JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Customer Support Room (CSR) during the STS-29 mission. Crewmembers are working with his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  1. Creating stories for learning about the neonatal care experience through the eyes of student nurses: An interpretive, narrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Storytelling is an increasingly well recognised and valued platform to learn about the human experience within healthcare. Little is known however about how stories can enhance understanding in neonatal care, a specialised field offering rich opportunities for learning. This study focuses on the creation of stories based on the experiences of student nurses to inform teaching and learning strategies in the neonatal field. The study aimed to create stories from the narratives of student nurses working within the neonatal field and identify what key themes for learning emerged in order to develop a storytelling resource to share experiences with their peers. An interpretive, constructivist approach was used to collect, analyse and create stories from student nurse's experiences, in line with narrative inquiry. Six pre-registration children's nursing students were selected by purposive sampling. Interviews were undertaken within six weeks following placement completion in an agreed location. Narratives were obtained by semi-structured interviews. Narrative analysis and core story creation was undertaken to construct stories and key learning themes emerged which provided the pedagogical basis for subsequent digital resource development. Key themes emerged relating to the insight and observances of student nurses and the neonatal journey they had experienced, including the nature of neonatal care, experiences of the neonate and parents, the environment and their own learning transition. Preliminary peer evaluation of the storytelling resource revealed storytelling as an interesting and novel approach to teaching & learning, learning from ones' peers, preparation for practice and a valuable insight into a new specialist area. The study has value to teaching and learning by enabling an appreciation of how narrative can be used to portray the experiences of learners. Findings also support an approach to analysing narrative to create stories for learning and inform

  2. An experimental examination of catastrophizing-related interpretation bias for ambiguous facial expressions of pain using an incidental learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eKHATIBI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with pain-related concerns are likely to interpret ambiguous pain-related information in a threatening manner. It is unknown whether this interpretation bias also occurs for ambiguous pain-related facial expressions. This study examined whether individuals who habitually attach a catastrophic meaning to pain are characterized by negative interpretation bias for ambiguous pain-related facial expressions. Sixty-four female undergraduates completed an incidental learning task during which pictures of faces were presented, each followed by a visual target at one of two locations. Participants indicated target location by pressing one of two response keys. During the learning phase, happy and painful facial expressions predicted target location. During two test phases, morphed facial expressions of pain and happiness were added, equally often followed by a target at either location. Faster responses following morphs to targets at the location predicted by painful expressions compared to targets at the location predicted by happy expressions were taken to reflect pain-related interpretation bias. During one test phase, faces were preceded by either a safe or threatening context cue. High, but not low, pain-catastrophizers responded faster following morphs to targets at the location predicted by painful expressions than to targets at the other location (when participants were aware of the contingency between expression type and target location. When context cues were presented, there was no indication of interpretation bias. Participants were also asked to directly classify the facial expressions that were presented during the incidental learning task. Participants classified morphs more often as happy than as painful, independent of their level of pain catastrophizing. This observation is discussed in terms of differences between indirect and direct measures of interpretation bias.

  3. Experimental modification of interpretation bias about animal fear in young children: effects on cognition, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation biases toward or away from threat about ambiguous situations involving Australian marsupials. Children rapidly learned to select outcomes of ambiguous situations, which were congruent with their assigned condition. Furthermore, following positive modification, children's threat biases about novel ambiguous situations significantly decreased, whereas threat biases significantly increased after negative modification. In response to a stress-evoking behavioral avoidance test, positive modification attenuated behavioral avoidance compared to negative modification. However, no significant effects of bias modification on anxiety vulnerability or physiological responses to this stress-evoking Behavioral Avoidance Task were observed.

  4. Interpretations of secondary schools students on masculinity: For a gender pedagogy in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta CEBALLOS FERNÁNDEZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present essay the opinions and the estimations of fourth grade of Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO male-students on masculinity are researched. An analysis is carried out on the understanding of male gender identity considering bordering elements such as femininity and sexuality. Three secondary schools from the Principado de Asturias have participated in the research, thus examining this topic in diverse scholar cultures. A discursive analysis is undertaken through the use of interviews and the development of discussion groups on the mentioned issues. The most outstanding findings show that teenagers see masculinity from a gender-normative point of view that contributes to perpetuate the gender scheme, consolidates the heterosexual condition of masculinity, and its place in front of femininity. These results reinforce our conviction for working for gender pedagogy in schools. We finish our essay by emphasizing some pedagogical proposals in that respect.

  5. Experimental Research on How Instructing Students to Use Lecture Capture (Podcasting) Technology Affects Student Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Students' use of new technology is prevalent. Many of them own mobile phones, laptop computers, and various entertainment devices. However, they are seldom taught how to maximize these technologies for academic purposes. This experimental study examined whether students who received instructions on how to use podcasts for academic purposes…

  6. Proposal of Michelson-Morley experiment via single photon interferometer: Interpretation of Michelson-Morley experimental results using de Broglie-Bohm picture

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    The Michelson-Morley experiment is considered via a single photon interferometer and we propose the interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experimental results using de Broglie-Bohm picture. We point out that the Michelson-Morley experiment revealed the interference of photons, however, it did not reveal the photons simultaneous arrival at the beam splitter. According to the de Broglie-Bohm picture, the quantum potential nonlocally determines the interference of photons. The interference of t...

  7. Open-ended versus guided laboratory activities:Impact on students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Improving students' understanding of the nature of experimental physics is often an explicit or implicit goal of undergraduate laboratory physics courses. However, lab activities in traditional lab courses are typically characterized by highly structured, guided labs that often do not require or encourage students to engage authentically in the process of experimental physics. Alternatively, open-ended laboratory activities can provide a more authentic learning environment by, for example, allowing students to exercise greater autonomy in what and how physical phenomena are investigated. Engaging in authentic practices may be a critical part of improving students' beliefs around the nature of experimental physics. Here, we investigate the impact of open-ended activities in undergraduate lab courses on students' epistemologies and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, as well as their confidence and affect, as measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a national data set of student responses to the E-CLASS, we find that the inclusion of some open-ended lab activities in a lab course correlates with more expertlike postinstruction responses relative to courses that include only traditional guided lab activities. This finding holds when examining postinstruction E-CLASS scores while controlling for the variance associated with preinstruction scores, course level, student major, and student gender.

  8. Students' Hands-on Experimental Work vs Lecture Demonstration in Teaching Elementary School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Ana; Ferk-Savec, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Science educators have suggested many benefits that accrue from engaging students in experimental activities, therefore, experimental work has a long and distinctive role in chemistry curriculum since. The presented empirical study focuses on the valuation of effectiveness of different forms of experimental work - students' hands-on experimental work vs teacher's lecture demonstration - from the viewpoint of the quality of content knowledge acquisition and knowledge retention in teaching primary school chemistry. 106 primary school students (age 14-15 years) participated in the study. The data was collected via pre- and post- test protocol and two delayed post tests. Additionally 16 students selected from the sample were interviewed. The results indicate that students' content knowledge gained through teacher's demonstration of experiment is better and better knowledge retention takes place in comparison to students' knowledge gained through students' hands-on experimental work. However, most of the inteviewed students stated that they prefered conducting of experiments by themselves in comparison to observation of teacher's demonstration.

  9. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  10. A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…

  11. Open-Ended versus Guided Laboratory Activities: Impact on Students' Beliefs about Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Improving students' understanding of the nature of experimental physics is often an explicit or implicit goal of undergraduate laboratory physics courses. However, lab activities in traditional lab courses are typically characterized by highly structured, guided labs that often do not require or encourage students to engage authentically in the…

  12. Effective Reading in a Foreign Language: An Experimental Reading Course in English for Overseas Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes experimental program at the Language Center of the University of Kent at Canterbury in which Belgian university students participated in a course designed to increase their English reading speed. Purpose of course was to decrease tendency to concentrate on every word. Results suggest the participating students made significant progress.…

  13. Experimental Study of Gender Effects on Language Use in College Students' Email to Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Daugherty, Timothy K.; Bartkoski, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have arisen regarding gender bias in electronic communication on college campuses. In an experiment designed to test language use in different gender contexts, participants were asked to compose an email to a professor whose gender had been experimentally manipulated. Female students, but not male students, displayed lower…

  14. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  15. Experimental, theoretical and numerical interpretation of thermodiffusion separation for a non-associating binary mixture in liquid/porous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Jawad, H.; Saghir, M.Z.; Giraudet, C.; Croccolo, F.; Bataller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in a hydrocarbon binary mixture has been investigated experimentally and numerically in a liquid-porous cavity. The solutal separation of the 50% toluene and 50% n-hexane binary mixture induced by a temperature difference at atmospheric pressure has been performed in a new thermodiffusion cell. A new optimized cell design is used in this study. The inner part of the cell is a cylindrical porous medium sandwiched between two liquid layers of the same binary hydrocarbon mixture. Experimental measurement and theoretical estimation of the molecular diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients showed a good agreement. In order to understand the different regimes occurring in the different parts of the cell, a full transient numerical simulation of the solutal separation of the binary mixture has been performed. Numerical results showed that the lighter species, which are of n-hexane migrated toward the hot surface, while the denser species, which is toluene migrated towards the cold surface. Also, it was found that a good agreement has been reached between experimental measurements and numerical calculations for the solutal separation between the hot and cold surface for different medium porosity. In addition, we used the numerical results to analyse convection and diffusion regions in the cell precisely. (authors)

  16. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  17. Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanenct Magnetization (AARM) and its Dependence on Experimental Parameters - Implications for Fabric Interpretation and Paleomagnetic Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Biedermann, A. R.; Bilardello, D.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fabrics often serve as proxies for mineral fabrics, and anisotropy of remanent magnetization in particular assesses the crystallographic and shape preferred orientation of ferromagnetic (sensu lato) minerals. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) is most commonly measured by imparting a set of directional anhysteretic remanences over the entire coercivity range of the sample, or up to the maximum field the (de)magnetizer can reach. However, if several ferromagnetic minerals or grain sizes coexist in a rock, they may be affected by different stress fields or stages of deformation. For example, if magnetite is present both as exsolution lamellae within silicates as well as interstitial grains between silicates, then these two populations may possess significantly different fabrics. In this study, we investigate how AARM in a rock changes when the remanence is imparted over different coercivity windows. For this, remanences are imposed over 0-20, 0-50, 0-100, 0-180, and 20-50, 50-100 and 100-180 mT. We will also investigate how the strength of the DC bias field affects AARM tensors. Preliminary results on rocks from a series of lithologies indicate that principal directions, degree and shape of the ARM anisotropy can vary dramatically across different coercivity windows. The degree of anisotropy can either decrease or increase as higher-coercivity grains are included. In particular, it should be noted that the coercivity fraction carrying the largest portion of the remanence does not necessarily dominate the AARM. Principal directions can be similar for all coercivity windows, but a number of samples show distinct orientations of the 0-20 mT AARM tensors vs the 50-100 or 100-180 mT tensors, with the 0-50, 0-100 and 0-180 mT AARMs being a combination of these two fabrics. Changes in AARM tensors will influence the interpretation of inferred flow or deformation patterns, as well as anisotropy corrections of paleomagnetic data. Therefore

  18. The Interpretation of "in Context" Verbal Probability Expressions Used in International Accounting Standards: A Comparison of English and Chinese Students Studying at English Speaking Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Safrul Izani Mohd; Gardner, John C.; Sulong, Zunaidah; McGowan, Carl B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the differences in the interpretation of ten "in context" verbal probability expressions used in accounting standards between native Chinese speaking and native English speaking accounting students in United Kingdom universities. The study assesses the degree of grouping factors consensus on the numerical…

  19. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  20. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students; Interpretacao de anomalias craniofaciais em TC. Analise comparativa por alunos de graduacao em Odontologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  1. Strong dependence of rain-induced lidar depolarization on the illumination angle: experimental evidence and geometrical-optics interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G; Bissonnette, L R

    2001-09-20

    Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 degrees /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular dependence on the elevation angle. That dependence appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-dependent ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid-solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.

  2. Monitoring undergraduate student needs and activities at Experimental Biology: APS pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Matyas, Marsha L

    2017-06-01

    Life science professional societies play important roles for undergraduates in their fields and increasingly offer membership, fellowships, and awards for undergraduate students. However, the overall impacts of society-student interactions have not been well studied. Here, we sought to develop and test a pilot survey of undergraduate students to determine how they got involved in research and in presenting at the Experimental Biology (EB) meeting, what they gained from the scientific and career development sessions at the meeting, and how the American Physiological Society (APS) can best support and engage undergraduate students. This survey was administered in 2014 and 2015 to undergraduate students who submitted physiology abstracts for and attended EB. More than 150 students responded (38% response rate). Respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate students majoring in life sciences in the United States. Most students (72%) became involved in research through a summer research program or college course. They attended a variety of EB sessions, including poster sessions and symposia, and found them useful. Undergraduate students interacted with established researchers at multiple venues. Students recommended that APS provide more research fellowships (25%) and keep in touch with students via both e-mail (46%) and social media (37%). Our results indicate that APS' EB undergraduate activities are valued by students and are effective in helping them have a positive scientific meeting experience. These results also guided the development of a more streamlined survey for use in future years. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. An experimental and bioinformatic tissue proteomics-strategy applied to human hepatocellular carcinoma focussing on functional data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, H.

    2010-01-01

    The main challenge of tissue proteomics arises from the intrinsic complexity of samples which impedes reliable data interpretation. Tissues are composed of different cell types and a specific extracellular matrix. Although tumors are supposed to arise from a single cell type (e.g. HCC from hepatocytes or liver stem cells), their composition is additionally influenced by e.g. the infiltration of immune cells, by changes in the abundance of cells constituting also non-tumorous tissues and by epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cells due to an increase of developmental plasticity and loss of differentiation state usually accompanying tumor progression as well as the extracellular matrix as crucial constituent of the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this work was to determine functional differences of non-tumorous liver and HCC tissue via proteomics methods (shotgun, mass spectrometry, 2D-PAGE). For data interpretation, the focus was laid on basic cell biological and metabolic alterations resulting in the loss or gain of functions rather than those occuring at the single gene (protein) level. Proteins were functionally clustered based on several databases (e.g. KEGG, PubMed) as well as biochemical and toxicological literature. Moreover, functional proteome alterations were correlated to physiologically, histologically, and cytologically observable alterations. In order to enable the comparison of immunohistochemically (from www.proteinatlas.org) and tissue proteomics-derived protein expression, a method for the elaboration of histologic data was introduced. In addition, proteome data were compared to those of 'Encyclopedia of Hepatocellular Carcinoma genes Online' (EHCO), a database compiling eight gene set collections including PubMed, SAGE, microarray, and proteomics data. HCC tissues generally exhibit reduced secretion performance and concomitantly enhanced cytoplasmic protein synthesis (see paper 'A novel technique to specifically analyze the secretome of cells

  4. An experimental study regarding diagnostic accuracy on image interpretation of the digital image film by using viewboxes of different luminance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shaojuan; Huang Ling; Liu Chuanya; Zhang Xiaojing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of image interpretation using viewboxes at different luminance with ALVIM statistical phantom (TRG). Methods: A digital film of TRG image was obtained by exposing the phantom of TRG with Kodak DR 3000 using proper parameter. Viewboxes with three different luminance were selected from those used in daily work. The film of TRG was evaluated with these viewboxes of three different luminance by three different radiologists with experience of five, eight and sixteen years respectively. A grade scale of 5 was used to evaluate each row of signal and noise. According to the results and formula, the probabilities of true-positive [P(S/s)], false-positive [P(S/n)] and true answer (P det ) were obtained. Results: The three kinds of luminance used in viewboxes were: (3489± 256), (2231±220), (816±168) cd/m 2 . When the average luminance of viewbox was 3489 cd/m 2 , P det of 0.6,0.7,0.8 mm in bone substitute was 0.558±0.009, 0.788±0.008, 0.813±0.006, P det of 0.9, 1.0, 1.2 mm in muscle substitute was 0.663±0.010, 0.750±0.008, 0.933±0.005; When the average luminance of viewbox was 2231 cd/m 2 , P det of 0.6,0.7,0.8 mm in bone substitute was 0.525±0.013, 0.713±0.013,0.775±0.016, P det of 0.9,1.0,1.2 mm in muscle substitute was 0.613±0.019, 0.650± 0.013,0.850±0.019; When the average luminance of viewbox was 816 cd/m 2 , Pact of 0.6,0.7,0.8 mm in bone substitute was 0.475±0.022,0.550±0.018,0.688±0.020, P det of 0.9, 1.0, 1.2 mm in muscle substitute was 0.550±0.025,0.575±0.021,0.725±0.016. Viewboxes of different luminance were compared to one another by paired t-test. The results of comparison all had significant statistical differences (t=5.057 and 4.681, P<0.05). Conclusions: The image displayed by viewboxes at different luminance had significant influence on image interpretation. The higher the luminace of viewbox, the richer the information displayed, and the higher the accuracy of diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Hardening of particle/oil/water suspensions due to capillary bridges: Experimental yield stress and theoretical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Georgiev, Mihail T; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Gurkov, Theodor D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2018-01-01

    Suspensions of colloid particles possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of a second liquid that preferentially wets the particles. The hardening is due to the formation of capillary bridges (pendular rings), which connect the particles. Here, we review works on the mechanical properties of such suspensions and related works on the capillary-bridge force, and present new rheological data for the weakly studied concentration range 30-55 vol% particles. The mechanical strength of the solidified capillary suspensions, characterized by the yield stress Y, is measured at the elastic limit for various volume fractions of the particles and the preferentially wetting liquid. A quantitative theoretical model is developed, which relates Y with the maximum of the capillary-bridge force, projected on the shear plane. A semi-empirical expression for the mean number of capillary bridges per particle is proposed. The model agrees very well with the experimental data and gives a quantitative description of the yield stress, which increases with the rise of interfacial tension and with the volume fractions of particles and capillary bridges, but decreases with the rise of particle radius and contact angle. The quantitative description of capillary force is based on the exact theory and numerical calculation of the capillary bridge profile at various bridge volumes and contact angles. An analytical formula for Y is also derived. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental strain at the elastic limit reveals that the fluidization of the capillary suspension takes place only in a deformation zone of thickness up to several hundred particle diameters, which is adjacent to the rheometer's mobile plate. The reported experimental results refer to water-continuous suspension with hydrophobic particles and oily capillary bridges. The comparison of data for bridges from soybean oil and hexadecane surprisingly indicate that the yield strength is

  6. The Interpretation Of Speech Code In A Communication Ethnographic Context For Outsider Students Of Graduate Communication Science Universitas Sumatera Utara In Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Eka Putra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the typical Medan speech code is something unique and distinctive which could create confusion for the outsider students because of the speech code similarities and differences in Medan. Therefore the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera needs to learn comprehend and aware in order to perform effective communication. The purpose of this research is to discover how the interpretation of speech code for the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan. This research uses qualitative method with the study of ethnography and acculturation communication. The subject of this research is the graduate students of communication science Universitas Sumatera Utara whose originated from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan. Data were collected through interviews observation and documentation. The conclusion of this research shows that speech code interpretation by students from outside of North Sumatera in adapting themselves in Medan leads to an acculturation process of assimilation and integration.

  7. Instruction-based clinical eye-tracking study on the visual interpretation of divergence: How do students look at vector field plots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Viiri, J.; Mozaffari, S.; Dengel, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2018-06-01

    Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux concept. We test the effectiveness of both strategies in an instruction-based eye-tracking study with N =41 physics majors. We found that students' performance improved when both strategies were introduced (74% correct) instead of only one strategy (64% correct), and students performed best when they were free to choose between the two strategies (88% correct). This finding supports the idea of introducing multiple representations of a physical concept to foster student understanding. Relevant eye-tracking measures demonstrate that both strategies imply different visual processing of the vector field plots, therefore reflecting conceptual differences between the strategies. Advanced analysis methods further reveal significant differences in eye movements between the best and worst performing students. For instance, the best students performed predominantly horizontal and vertical saccades, indicating correct interpretation of partial derivatives. They also focused on smaller regions when they balanced positive and negative flux. This mixed-method research leads to new insights into student visual processing of vector field representations, highlights the advantages and limitations of eye-tracking methodologies in this context, and discusses implications for teaching and for future research. The introduction of saccadic direction analysis expands traditional methods, and shows the potential to discover new insights into student understanding and learning difficulties.

  8. Medical students’ skills in image interpretation before and after training: A comparison between 3rd-year and 6th-year students from two different medical curricula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendra-Portero, Francisco; Torales-Chaparro, Oscar E.; Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess student's performance in the interpretation of images before and after training in radiology, by comparing two groups, 6th-year and 3rd-year students, from two different medical curricula. Students participated in an anonymous evaluation consisting of the interpretation of 12 radiological images accompanied with the salient history and clinical data by answering 60 open-ended questions about technique, anatomy, semiology, and clinics. The number of correct, incorrect and blank responses of each group was used to compare pre- and post-training results. Unpaired two-sample t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups. A significant increase in correct responses was found in both groups after training. The comparison between both groups did not show differences for incorrect answers of the whole test and correct answers about anatomy in the pre-training evaluation. The percentage of correct answers to the median question improved from 15.5% to 53.3% for 6th-year students and from 8.3% to 41.1% for 3rd-year students. The post-training evaluation showed a significant increase of correct answers of 6th-year students with respect to 3rd-year students (mean ± standard deviation 53.6 ± 31.3% and 38.7 ± 29.9% respectively), mainly due to differences in technical and clinical questions. This study provides objective and quantitative evidence of pre- and post-training student skills in image interpretation. The similarities found in the previous level of knowledge and skills of both groups emphasizes the suitable change of the first-time training in radiology, from the 6th to the 3rd year course in medical curricula.

  9. An Experimental Study Related to Planning Abilities of Gifted and Average Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gifted students differ from their average peers in psychological, social, emotional and cognitive development. One of these differences in the cognitive domain is related to executive functions. One of the most important executive functions is planning and organization ability. The aim of this study was to compare planning abilities of gifted students with those of their average peers and to test the effectiveness of a training program on planning abilities of gifted students and average students. First, students’ intelligence and planning abilities were measured and then assigned to either experimental or control group. The groups were matched by intelligence and planning ability (experimental: (13 gifted and 8 average; control: 14 gifted and 8 average. In total 182 students (79 gifted and 103 average participated in the study. Then, a training program was implemented in the experimental group to find out if it improved students’ planning ability. Results showed that boys had better planning abilities than girls did, and gifted students had better planning abilities than their average peers did. Significant results were obtained in favor of the experimental group in the posttest scores

  10. Approaches to enhance the teaching quality of experimental biochemistry for MBBS students in TSMU, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijuan; Yi, Shuying; Zhai, Jing; Wang, Zhaojin

    2017-07-08

    With the internationalization of medical education in China, the importance of international students' education in medical schools is also increasing. Except foreign students majoring in Chinese language, English Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBSS) students are the largest group of international students. Based on problems in the teaching process for experimental biochemistry, we designed teaching models adapted to the background of international students and strengthened teachers' teaching ability at Taishan Medical University. Several approaches were used in combination to promote teaching effects and increase the benefit of teaching to teachers. The primary data showed an increased passion for basic medical biochemistry and an improved theoretical background for MBSS students, which will be helpful for their later clinical medicine studies. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):360-364, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Visual Access in Interpreter-Mediated Learning Situations for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing High School Students Where an Artifact Is in Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Sigrid Slettebakk; Thomassen, Gøril

    2016-04-01

    This article highlights interpreter-mediated learning situations for deaf high school students where such mediated artifacts as technical machines, models, and computer graphics are used by the teacher to illustrate his or her teaching. In these situations, the teacher's situated gestures and utterances, and the artifacts will contribute independent pieces of information. However, the deaf student can only have his or her visual attention focused on one source at a time. The problem to be addressed is how the interpreter coordinates the mediation when it comes to deaf students' visual orientation. The presented discourse analysis is based on authentic video recordings from inclusive learning situations in Norway. The theoretical framework consists of concepts of role, footing, and face-work (Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London, UK: Penguin Books). The findings point out dialogical impediments to visual access in interpreter-mediated learning situations, and the article discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and educational interpreters. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. © 2014 A. P. Dasgupta et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Computational simulations of frictional losses in pipe networks confirmed in experimental apparatusses designed by honors students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas A.; Hynes, Eric; Kutz, April

    2015-11-01

    Lectures in introductory fluid mechanics at NIU are a combination of students with standard enrollment and students seeking honors credit for an enriching experience. Most honors students dread the additional homework problems or an extra paper assigned by the instructor. During the past three years, honors students of my class have instead collaborated to design wet-lab experiments for their peers to predict variable volume flow rates of open reservoirs driven by gravity. Rather than learn extra, the honors students learn the Bernoulli head-loss equation earlier to design appropriate systems for an experimental wet lab. Prior designs incorporated minor loss features such as sudden contraction or multiple unions and valves. The honors students from Spring 2015 expanded the repertoire of available options by developing large scale set-ups with multiple pipe networks that could be combined together to test the flexibility of the student team's computational programs. The engagement of bridging the theory with practice was appreciated by all of the students such that multiple teams were able to predict performance within 4% accuracy. The challenges, schedules, and cost estimates of incorporating the experimental lab into an introductory fluid mechanics course will be reported.

  14. Fostering students' experimentation skills - developmental time and offspring rates of flour beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Asshoff, R.; Roth, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Tribolium castanaeum is a widespread insect in temperate regions. Because of its short generation time and easy handling, it serves as a model organism for various scientific questions. However, T. castanaeum, or its larger-sized relative Tenebrio molitor, can also he used at a school or college level to foster students' experimentation skills. We present a set of inquiry tasks that build stepwise on one another, using T. castanaeum or T. molitor as the model. The students will learn not only...

  15. A summary of research-based assessment of students' beliefs about the nature of experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Within the undergraduate physics curriculum, students' primary exposure to experimental physics comes from laboratory courses. Thus, as experimentation is a core component of physics as a discipline, lab courses can be gateways in terms of both recruiting and retaining students within the physics major. Physics lab courses have a wide variety of explicit and/or implicit goals for lab courses, including helping students to develop expert-like beliefs about the nature and importance of experimental physics. To assess students' beliefs, attitudes, and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, there is currently one research-based assessment instrument available—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Since its development, the E-CLASS has been the subject of multiple research studies aimed at understanding and evaluating the effectiveness of various laboratory learning environments. This paper presents a description of the E-CLASS assessment and a summary of the research that has been done using E-CLASS data with a particular emphasis on the aspects of this work that are most relevant for instructors.

  16. Student experimenter and sponsor display SE83-9 'Chix in Space' incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger (left) explains components of an incubator for his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' to be carried onboard STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Mark S. Deusser, representing the sponsoring organization, holds up the incubator for inspection by STS-29 crewmembers who will monitor in-space operation of the experiment. Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer is partially visible in the lower right foreground. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  17. PNP2 calculus programme for interpretation of the experimental data by pulsed source neutrons methods. (Pt. 1). [Fortran IV for ICT 1900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratiloiu, C; Cristea, Gh

    1975-01-01

    PNP2 is a calculation programme destined to the interpretation of the experimental data by the pulsed source neutrons method on multiplyer environments into critic or subcritic state, populated with thermal neutrons. The programme is elaborate in the FORTRAN IV language of the ICT 1900 computer. The variation form in time of the thermal neutrons population for the multiplyer environments as a result of this whipping to the moments t=KT, with pockets of neutrons, appearing in the simplified theory of the pulsed source neutrons method. By this process are determinated the quantities Nsub(..cap alpha..), ..cap alpha.., Nsub(r) and B as well as empiric variants which affect these magnitudes. With these quantities is calculated the reactivity in relative units.

  18. Experimental Waterflow Determination of the Dynamic Hydraulic Transfer Function for the J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump. Part Two; Results and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Tom; Patel, Sandeep; Lee, Erik; Karon, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results describing the hydraulic dynamic pump transfer matrix (Yp) for a cavitating J-2X oxidizer turbopump inducer+impeller tested in subscale waterflow are presented. The transfer function is required for integrated vehicle pogo stability analysis as well as optimization of local inducer pumping stability. Dynamic transfer functions across widely varying pump hydrodynamic inlet conditions are extracted from measured data in conjunction with 1D-model based corrections. Derived Dynamic transfer functions are initially interpreted relative to traditional Pogo pump equations. Water-to-liquid oxygen scaling of measured cavitation characteristics are discussed. Comparison of key dynamic transfer matrix terms derived from waterflow testing are made with those implemented in preliminary Ares Upper Stage Pogo stability modeling. Alternate cavitating pump hydraulic dynamic equations are suggested which better reflect frequency dependencies of measured transfer matrices.

  19. Taming Human Genetic Variability: Transcriptomic Meta-Analysis Guides the Experimental Design and Interpretation of iPSC-Based Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Luc Germain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the promises and pitfalls of the cell reprogramming research platform rest on human genetic variation, making the measurement of its impact one of the most urgent issues in the field. Harnessing large transcriptomics datasets of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC, we investigate the implications of this variability for iPSC-based disease modeling. In particular, we show that the widespread use of more than one clone per individual in combination with current analytical practices is detrimental to the robustness of the findings. We then proceed to identify methods to address this challenge and leverage multiple clones per individual. Finally, we evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of different sample sizes and experimental designs, presenting computational tools for power analysis. These findings and tools reframe the nature of replicates used in disease modeling and provide important resources for the design, analysis, and interpretation of iPSC-based studies.

  20. Interprofessional teamwork among students in simulated codes: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbee, Deborah D; Paige, John; Barrier, Kendra; Kozmenko, Valeriy; Kozmenko, Lyubov; Zamjahn, John; Bonanno, Laura; Cefalu, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using crisis resource management (CRM) principles and high-fidelity human patient simulation (HFHPS) for interprofessional (IP) team training of students from undergraduate nursing, nurse anesthesia, medical, and respiratory therapy. IP education using simulation-based training has the potential to transform education by improving teamwork and communication and breaking down silos in education. This one-year study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate students' acquisition and retention of teamwork and communication skills. A convenience sample consisted of 52 students in the fall semester, with 40 students returning in the spring. Mean scores increased after training, and skills were retained fairly well. Any loss was regained with repeat training in the spring. The results suggest that using CRM and HFHPS is an effective pedagogy for teaching communication and teamwork skills to IP student teams.

  1. Visual Access in Interpreter-Mediated Learning Situations for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing High School Students Where an Artifact Is in Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Gøril

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights interpreter-mediated learning situations for deaf high school students where such mediated artifacts as technical machines, models, and computer graphics are used by the teacher to illustrate his or her teaching. In these situations, the teacher’s situated gestures and utterances, and the artifacts will contribute independent pieces of information. However, the deaf student can only have his or her visual attention focused on one source at a time. The problem to be addressed is how the interpreter coordinates the mediation when it comes to deaf students’ visual orientation. The presented discourse analysis is based on authentic video recordings from inclusive learning situations in Norway. The theoretical framework consists of concepts of role, footing, and face-work (Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. London, UK: Penguin Books). The findings point out dialogical impediments to visual access in interpreter-mediated learning situations, and the article discusses the roles and responsibilities of teachers and educational interpreters. PMID:26681267

  2. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not…

  3. Effects of Writing Instruction on Kindergarten Students' Writing Achievement: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D'On

    2015-01-01

    This full-year experimental study examined how methods of writing instruction contribute to kindergarten students' acquisition of foundational and compositional early writing skills. Multiple regression with cluster analysis was used to compare 3 writing instructional groups: an interactive writing group, a writing workshop group, and a…

  4. Structural and vibrational study of 2-MethoxyEthylAmmonium Nitrate (2-OMeEAN): Interpretation of experimental results with ab initio molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.; Gontrani, L.; Bovi, D.; Guidoni, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm −1 ), where the vibrational motions involve the NH 3 + group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm −1 where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν 3 ) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D 3h symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.

  5. Structural and vibrational study of 2-MethoxyEthylAmmonium Nitrate (2-OMeEAN): Interpretation of experimental results with ab initio molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campetella, M.; Caminiti, R.; Bencivenni, L.; Gontrani, L., E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Roma, “La Sapienza,” P. le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Bovi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma, “La Sapienza,” P. le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guidoni, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2016-07-14

    In this work we report an analysis of the bulk phase of 2-methoxyethylammonium nitrate based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The structural and dynamical features of the ionic liquid have been characterized and the computational findings have been compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction patterns, with infrared spectroscopy data, and with the results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The experimental infrared spectrum was interpreted with the support of calculated vibrational density of states as well as harmonic frequency calculations of selected gas phase clusters. Particular attention was addressed to the high frequency region of the cation (ω > 2000 cm{sup −1}), where the vibrational motions involve the NH{sub 3}+ group responsible for hydrogen bond formation, and to the frequency range 1200-1400 cm{sup −1} where the antisymmetric stretching mode (ν{sub 3}) of nitrate is found. Its multiple absorption lines in the liquid arise from the removal of the degeneracy present in the D{sub 3h} symmetry of the isolated ion. Our ab initio molecular dynamics leads to a rationalization of the frequency shifts and splittings, which are inextricably related to the structural modifications induced by a hydrogen bonding environment. The DFT calculations lead to an inhomogeneous environment.

  6. The Teaching of Enzymes: A Low Cost Experimental Approach with High School Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A PINHEIRO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of experimental methods with the traditional lecturing of Science themes is encouraged by several authors. The importance ofconducting experimental classes is undeniable, as practical activities motivate students to search for kno wledge. But this is not the reality in most publicschools in the inlands of Rio de Janeiro’s State, where several factors prevent teachers from using such didactic strategy.   The aim of this  work  was demonstrate  low -cost experimental activities, addressing the subject enzymes. The practice has been designed for being held in a common classroom. Lab glassware was replaced by alternative materials. Potato extract  (catalase source and commercial hydrogen peroxide were required. Concepts such as kinetic data  related to substrate concentration, time of reaction, pH andtemperature effects on enzymatic activity have been  explored with the students. Graphical representation of enzyme activity related to the above parameters has also been elaborated. The practice w as held in 10 schools distributed among 7 different cities. Questionnaires have been applied to the students before and after the practice and revealed that 86% of the students had never participated of a practical lesson and 49% were unaware of the functi on of enzymes. After practice, 68% of the students said that the enzymes catalyze biological reactions and 73% considered the practice important to their cognitive achievement. The evaluation of information obtained from students confirmed the lack of practical activities in public education, as well as the capacity that the practical activities have  to motivate the students in the knowledge formation process.

  7. Effects of constructivist teaching methods on bioethics education for nursing students: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon; Park, Sunghee; Yoo, So Yeon

    2014-05-01

    In order to help nurses advocate for the patient's human rights and ensure respect for life in clinical situations, it is of utmost importance to improve nursing students' capacity to make ethical decisions. This study compares the effects of two constructivist teaching strategies (action learning and cross-examination debate) on nursing students' recognition of bioethical issues, experience of bioethical issues, and attainment of ethical competence. This study used a quasi-experimental (two-group pretest-posttest) design. A nursing college in South Korea. A total of 93 Korean nursing students participated in the study (46 in the action learning group and 47 in the cross-examination debate group). Participants took a bioethics class employing one or the other of the strategies mentioned, 2h a week for 15 weeks. All participants responded twice to a set of questionnaires, at the beginning of the first session and at the end of the last session. After their bioethics education, the students' recognition of bioethical issues improved for both classes; however, the knowledge of students who had participated in action learning improved more than that of the students in the debate-based class. Students in both groups reported more experience of bioethics and exposure to better-quality instruction in bioethics after their classes than previously. Students in both groups also reported improved ethical competency after this education. Positive effects of action learning and cross-examination debate implemented as teaching strategies on nursing students' understanding of bioethical issues and their ethical competency were identified; these findings will be important in the essential task of teaching bioethics to nursing students in order to foster more ethical decision-making and other ethical behavior. © 2013.

  8. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  9. Using Typologies to Interpret Study Abroad Preferences of American Business Students: Applying a Tourism Framework to International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Peter W.; Marshall, Bryan; Poddar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe research that applies a tourist framework to study abroad attitudes and preferences. A total of 371 university business students in the Southern region of the United States completed a survey that included the International Tourist Role scale and study abroad attitudes and preferences. These students were grouped into one of 4…

  10. Understanding the Educational Lives of Community College Students: A Photovoice Project, a Bourdieusian Interpretation, and Habitus Dissonance Spark Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latz, Amanda O.

    2012-01-01

    Too little research exists that provides windows into the day-to-day lives of community college students. The purpose of this paper is to explicate one finding and concomitant grounded theory derived from a photovoice project aimed at understanding the educational lives of community college students. Participants saw the community college as a…

  11. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  12. Preservice Teacher and Interpreter American Sign Language Abilities: Self-Evaluations and Evaluations of Deaf Students' Narrative Renditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Scheetz, Nanci A.

    2015-01-01

    In deaf education, the sign language skills of teacher and interpreter candidates are infrequently assessed; when they are, formal measures are commonly used upon preparation program completion, as opposed to informal measures related to instructional tasks. Using an informal picture storybook task, the authors investigated the receptive and…

  13. The Accuracy of Student Self-Assessments of English-Chinese Bidirectional Interpretation: A Longitudinal Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Riazi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    The accuracy of self-assessment has long been examined empirically in higher education research, producing a substantial body of literature that casts light on numerous potential moderators. However, despite the growing popularity of self-assessment in interpreter training and education, very limited evidence-based research has been initiated to…

  14. Efficacy of empathy training in nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Martina; Baena-Baños, María; Romero-Sánchez, Jose Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Empathy is a competency to be learned by nurses and a therapeutic tool in the helping relationship that has repercussions on the health of both patients and professionals. To determine the efficacy of an experiential training for improving the empathy of nursing students in terms of capacity building, empathic performance and increased learning perception and retention of the material. A quasi-experimental study of a single group with pretest-posttest measurements of the educational intervention and follow-up at one month after the training. Faculty of Nursing, University of Cádiz, Spain. Forty-eight second-year undergraduate university nursing students. The educational intervention was conducted during a single semester, with 20h of training. The methodology of role-playing, behavior assay, and a flipped classroom was followed. Measurements of student performance were collected before and after the intervention. The Reynolds Empathy Scale was used to evaluate the student's perception of his/her performance; The Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure was used to evaluate the patient's perception of the student's behavior during the simulation; and three independent external observers assessed the student's behavior, guided by The Carkhuff Scale. Descriptive analysis and non-parametric contrast tests were performed to compare the scores before and after the training (Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon rank-sum). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used for the correlation between the measurements. The mean scores improved for all of the variables, with the differences being statistically significant. The students assessed their learning positively. The training was shown to be effective for improving the empathy of the university students in the study. The results are promising in terms of the students retaining the competencies adquired. Therefore, this type of experiential training is recommended for empathy training of future health professionals. Copyright

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Bone: State of the Art in Experimental Approaches-What Types of Experiments Do People Do and How Does One Interpret the Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacyann; Vashishth, Deepak

    2018-06-18

    The mechanical integrity of bone is determined by the direct measurement of bone mechanical properties. This article presents an overview of the current, most common, and new and upcoming experimental approaches for the mechanical characterization of bone. The key outcome variables of mechanical testing, as well as interpretations of the results in the context of bone structure and biology are also discussed. Quasi-static tests are the most commonly used for determining the resistance to structural failure by a single load at the organ (whole bone) level. The resistance to crack initiation or growth by fracture toughness testing and fatigue loading offers additional and more direct characterization of tissue material properties. Non-traditional indentation techniques and in situ testing are being increasingly used to probe the material properties of bone ultrastructure. Destructive ex vivo testing or clinical surrogate measures are considered to be the gold standard for estimating fracture risk. The type of mechanical test used for a particular investigation depends on the length scale of interest, where the outcome variables are influenced by the interrelationship between bone structure and composition. Advancement in the sensitivity of mechanical characterization techniques to detect changes in bone at the levels subjected to modifications by aging, disease, and/or pharmaceutical treatment is required. As such, a number of techniques are now available to aid our understanding of the factors that contribute to fracture risk.

  16. The effect of interprofessional team-based learning among nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arkers Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chan, Lap Ki; Chan, Namkiu; Ganotice, Fraide A; Ho, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    Although interprofessional education has received attention in recent years as a means of providing opportunities for health-care professionals to learn with, from and about other disciplines and enhance the quality of patient care, evidence of its effectiveness is limited. Interprofessional team-based learning was introduced to make it possible for students in different healthcare disciplines to interact with each other, and to prepare them to function effectively within a team in their future career. To examine the effects of interprofessional team-based learning for undergraduate nursing students in terms of knowledge level, readiness for interprofessional learning, attitude towards various aspects of team learning, and perceived collective efficacy. The study employed a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. An interprofessional education program was given to students from two universities in Hong Kong who were in different healthcare disciplines including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, biomedical science, and Chinese medicine programs. The program was based on four phases of student learning- individual readiness assessment test, ice breaking session, team readiness assessment test, and application exercise. Nursing students involved in the program were invited to complete anonymous questionnaires to evaluate their interprofessional team experience. A total of 40 nursing students (9 male, 31 female) participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was identified in their knowledge level (pteam learning, and perceived collective efficacy (pteam-based learning can enhance cross-disciplinary learning and outcomes resulting from team efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Journaling: A quasi-experimental study of student nurses’ reflective learning ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Fakude

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of journaling or journal writing in clinical education is one of the strategies used to develop critical thinking. Reflective journal writing, as it is commonly known, can nurture many qualities of a critical thinker and promote thoughtful nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design in this study, reflective journaling was introduced to a sample of first year Bridging Course student nurses at a Private Nursing Education Institution, to assess its effectiveness in reflective learning.

  18. Neutronics experimental validation of the Jules Horowitz reactor fuel by interpretation of the VALMONT experimental program-transposition of the uncertainties on the reactivity of JHR with JEF2.2 and JEFF3.1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, O.; Hudelot, J.P.; Doederlein, C.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Antony, M.; Santamarina, A.; Bernard, D.

    2012-01-01

    The new European material testing Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), currently under construction in Cadarache center (CEA France), will use LEU (20% enrichment in 235 U) fuels (U 3 Si 2 for the start up and UMoAl in the future) which are quite different from the industrial oxide fuel, for which an extensive neutronics experimental validation database has been established. The HORUS3D/N neutronics calculation scheme, used for the design and safety studies of the JHR, is being developed within the framework of a rigorous verification-numerical validation-experimental validation methodology. In this framework, the experimental VALMONT (Validation of Aluminium Molybdenum uranium fuel for Neutronics) program has been performed in the MINERVE facility of CEA Cadarache (France), in order to qualify the capability of HORUS3D/N to accurately calculate the reactivity of the JHR reactor. The MINERVE facility using the oscillation technique provides accurate measurements of reactivity effect of samples. The VALMONT program includes oscillations of samples of UAl ∞ /Al and UMo/Al with enrichments ranging from 0.2% to 20% and Uranium densities from 2.2 to 8 g/cm 3 . The geometry of the samples and the pitch of the experimental lattice ensure maximum representativeness with the neutron spectrum expected for JHR. By comparing the effect of the sample with the one of a known fuel specimen, the reactivity effect can be measured in absolute terms and be compared to computational results. Special attention was paid to the rigorous determination and reduction of the experimental uncertainties. The calculational analysis of the VALMONT results was performed with the French deterministic code APOLLO2. A comparison of the impact of the different calculation methods, data libraries and energy meshes that were tested is presented. The interpretation of the VALMONT experimental program allowed the experimental validation of JHR fuel UMoAl8 (with an enrichment of 19.75% 235 U) by the Minerve

  19. Curricular initiatives that enhance student knowledge and perceptions of sexual and gender minority groups: a critical interpretive synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Desrosiers

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The literature is limited to the evaluation of explicit curricula. The wider cultural competence literature offers further insight by highlighting the importance of broad and embedded forces including social influences, the institutional climate, and the implicit, or hidden, curriculum. A combined interpretation of the complementary cultural competence and sexual and gender diversity literature provides a novel understanding of the optimal content and context for the delivery of a successful curricular initiative.

  20. Interpretative commenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  1. Getting the picture: A mixed-methods inquiry into how visual representations are interpreted by students, incorporated within textbooks, and integrated into middle-school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor Raymond

    Modern-day middle school science textbooks are heavily populated with colorful images, technical diagrams, and other forms of visual representations. These representations are commonly perceived by educators to be useful aids to support student learning of unfamiliar scientific ideas. However, as the number of representations in science textbooks has seemingly increased in recent decades, concerns have been voiced that many current of these representations are actually undermining instructional goals; they may be introducing substantial conceptual and interpretive difficulties for students. To date, very little empirical work has been done to examine how the representations used in instructional materials have changed, and what influences these changes exert on student understanding. Furthermore, there has also been limited attention given to the extent to which current representational-use routines in science classrooms may mitigate or limit interpretive difficulties. This dissertation seeks to do three things: First, it examines the nature of the relationship between published representations and students' reasoning about the natural world. Second, it considers the ways in which representations are used in textbooks and how that has changed over a span of five decades. Third, this dissertation provides an in-depth look into how middle school science classrooms naturally use these visual representations and what kinds of support are being provided. With respect to the three goals of this dissertation, three pools of data were collected and analyzed for this study. First, interview data was collected in which 32 middle school students interpreted and reasoned with a set of more and less problematic published textbook representations. Quantitative analyses of the interview data suggest that, counter to what has been anticipated in the literature, there were no significant differences in the conceptualizations of students in the different groups. An accompanying

  2. Why not serve an educational buffet for students? Blended learning in optics experimental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Hu, Yao; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Kong, Lingqin; Hao, Qun; Huang, Yifan

    2017-08-01

    When talking about higher education, it's hard not to run into a discussion on what's really better for student learning: online learning or traditional learning? Of course, the key is to offer both, and potentially emphasize blended learning as the less polarizing option. Online courses are much more flexible and less expensive, but powerless while hands-on practical capacity is involved. Traditional experimental course can maintain a fluid and solid learning process but is less productive due to its scheduled time and simplex access. In this paper, a buffet-style knowledge service mode applied in a 12-week-long project-based experimental course Optoelectronic Instrument Experiments (OIE) is discussed. Our purpose is to find a blended learning mode in experimental education.

  3. Teaching Professionalism in Nursing: A Quantitative Survey of Beginning Student Nurse Perceptions of Professional Values Interpreted within a Leadership Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Jocelyn J.

    2016-01-01

    The researcher designed this quantitative dissertation research to explore the perceptions of beginning nursing students toward professionalism in nursing, specific to professional values within the context of curriculum delivery for a leadership and management course in one baccalaureate nursing program. In addition, the researcher reviewed the…

  4. Conceptual Metaphors as Interpretive Tools in Qualitative Research: A Re-Examination of College Students' Diversity Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Bruce; Gillespie, Diane

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor as a fruitful heuristic for qualitative analysis, the authors re-analyzed transcripts of college student discussions of problematic situations involving cultural diversity and interpersonal conflict. The authors show how they identified metaphorical linguistic expressions and…

  5. When Relationships Depicted Diagrammatically Conflict with Prior Knowledge: An Investigation of Students' Interpretations of Evolutionary Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Science is an important domain for investigating students' responses to information that contradicts their prior knowledge. In previous studies of this topic, this information was communicated verbally. The present research used diagrams, specifically trees (cladograms) depicting evolutionary relationships among taxa. Effects of college…

  6. Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction to Teach Graduate Students in Applied Behavior Analysis to Interpret Operant Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Leif; Schnell, Lauren; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus equivalence-based instruction (EBI) was used to teach four, 4-member classes representing functions of behavior to ten graduate students. The classes represented behavior maintained by attention (Class 1), escape (Class 2), access to tangibles (Class 3), and automatic reinforcement (Class 4). Stimuli within each class consisted of a…

  7. Progressive Transitions from Algorithmic to Conceptual Understanding in Student Ability To Solve Chemistry Problems: A Lakatosian Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objective of this study is to construct models based on strategies students use to solve chemistry problems and to show that these models form sequences of progressive transitions similar to what Lakatos (1970) in the history of science refers to as progressive 'problemshifts' that increase the explanatory' heuristic power of the models.…

  8. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  9. Understanding text as social practice: An exploration of the potential of systemic functional grammar to facilitate students' interpretation of media texts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Clarence-Fincham

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It has frequently been claimed that Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG is apowerful linguistic tool which facilitates analytical and interpretative skills and provides aflexible, yet structured set of analytical tools with which to interpret texts. With this claim asa backdrop, this article asks whether SFG is, in fact an appropriate analytical approach forunder-graduate students and whether it can facilitate their ability to analyse texts. Its contextis a second level course, Analysing Media Texts, offered at Natal University. Broadly framedby critical discourse analysis, it traces the development of a thirteen week module and,using student analyses for illustrative purposes, identifies pedagogical challenges anddifficulties that need to be confronted before any strong claims can be made. It is concludedthat, on the evidence of students' responses to texts analysed during this course, it is not yetpossible to make strong claims about the benefits of SFG. There is enough positiveevidence, however, to pursue the possibility that with innovative curriculum development andthe careful scaffolding and integration of concepts, SFG will be clearly shown to have anextremely important role to play.Daar is dikwels beweer dat Halliday se Sistemies-Funksionele Grammatika (SFG 'n kragtige linguistiese middel is wat analitiese en interpreterende vaardighede bevorder en 'n plooibare, dog gestruktureere stel analitiese gereedskap verskaf waarmee tekste gei"nterpreteer kan word. Met die bewering as agtergrond vra hierdie artikel of SFG inderdaad 'n toepas like analitiese benadering vir voorgraadse studente is en of dit hulle vermoe om tekste te ontleed, bevorder. Die konteks is 'n tweedejaarskursus, Analysing Media Texts, wat aan die Universiteit van Natal aangebied word. Breedweg omraam deur kritiese diskoersanalise, speur die artikel die ontwikkeling van 'n module van dertien weke na, met gebruik van studenteontledings ter illustrasie en identifiseer

  10. Beliefs in parapsychological events or experiences among college students in a course in experimental parapsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F

    1997-08-01

    16 undergraduate students completed Crawford and Christensen's 1995 12-item Extrasensory Perception Survey about attitudes toward extrasensory perception events or experiences before and after taking a 'special topics' course in experimental parapsychology. There were no significant differences in scale values (1-5) (within subjects) between beliefs before versus after the course. Combined (pre- and posttest) mean scale values showed that belief in life after death, belief in the existence of extrasensory perception, and belief in precognitive experiences in dreams ranked highest in endorsement while beliefs in out-of-the-body experiences, auras, or psychokinesis, ranked lowest.

  11. Improvement on a science curriculum including experimental demonstration of environmental radioactivity for secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsubara, Shizuo; Aiba, Yoshio; Eriguchi, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Saburo; Takeyama, Tetsuji.

    1988-01-01

    A science curriculum previously prepared for teaching environmental radioactivity was modified on the basis of the results of trial instructions in secondary schools. The main subject of the revised curriculum is an understanding of the natural radioactivity through the experimental demonstration about air-borne β and γ ray emitters. The other subjects included are the radioactive decay, the biological effects of radiation, the concept of risk-benefit balance (acceptable level) and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radiation. The work sheets and reference data prepared as learning materials are in two levels corresponding to the ability of students for this curriculum. (author)

  12. Penultimate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. iCFD: Interpreted Computational Fluid Dynamics - Degeneration of CFD to one-dimensional advection-dispersion models using statistical experimental design - The secondary clarifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonvarch, Estelle; Ramin, Elham; Kulahci, Murat; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-10-15

    The present study aims at using statistically designed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations as numerical experiments for the identification of one-dimensional (1-D) advection-dispersion models - computationally light tools, used e.g., as sub-models in systems analysis. The objective is to develop a new 1-D framework, referred to as interpreted CFD (iCFD) models, in which statistical meta-models are used to calculate the pseudo-dispersion coefficient (D) as a function of design and flow boundary conditions. The method - presented in a straightforward and transparent way - is illustrated using the example of a circular secondary settling tank (SST). First, the significant design and flow factors are screened out by applying the statistical method of two-level fractional factorial design of experiments. Second, based on the number of significant factors identified through the factor screening study and system understanding, 50 different sets of design and flow conditions are selected using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The boundary condition sets are imposed on a 2-D axi-symmetrical CFD simulation model of the SST. In the framework, to degenerate the 2-D model structure, CFD model outputs are approximated by the 1-D model through the calibration of three different model structures for D. Correlation equations for the D parameter then are identified as a function of the selected design and flow boundary conditions (meta-models), and their accuracy is evaluated against D values estimated in each numerical experiment. The evaluation and validation of the iCFD model structure is carried out using scenario simulation results obtained with parameters sampled from the corners of the LHS experimental region. For the studied SST, additional iCFD model development was carried out in terms of (i) assessing different density current sub-models; (ii) implementation of a combined flocculation, hindered, transient and compression settling velocity function; and (iii

  14. Digital Storytelling for Enhancing Student Academic Achievement, Critical Thinking, and Learning Motivation: A Year-Long Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…

  15. A Quasi-Experimental Study Investigating the Effect of Scent on Students' Memory of Multiplication Facts and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, Evelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted with two fifth grade classrooms to investigate the effect of scent on students' acquisition and retention of multiplication facts and math anxiety. Forty participants received daily instruction for nine weeks, using a strategy-rich multiplication program called Factivation. Students in the Double Smencil…

  16. Blended learning pedagogy designed for communication module among undergraduate nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Kowitlawakul, Yanika; Devi, M Kamala; Chen, Hui-Chen; Soong, Swee Kit Alan; Ang, Emily

    2018-02-01

    Effective communication is important for nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing students often feel unprepared to communicate effectively with patients and other healthcare workers within the clinical environment. Blended learning pedagogy-based communication skills training can provide an alternative to traditional methods of teaching to enhance students' satisfaction and self-efficacy levels in communicating with others. To examine the effectiveness of blended learning pedagogy in a redesigned communication module among nursing undergraduates in enhancing their satisfaction levels and attitudes towards learning communication module as well as self-efficacy in communication. A single group pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted. Data were collected from August 2016 to November 2016 from 124 nursing undergraduates from a leading nursing school. Blended learning pedagogy was adopted to redesign a communication module that offered a wide array of learning opportunities via face-to-face classroom and online sessions. Validated and reliable instruments were used to measure satisfaction levels with blended learning pedagogy, attitudes towards learning communication, and communication self-efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants had enhanced satisfaction levels with blended learning pedagogy, better attitudes in learning communication skills, and improved communication self-efficacies at posttest (week 13 of the semester) when compared with their pre-test scores (week one of the semester). Participants scored higher in the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, the Communication Skills Attitude Scale, and the communication skills subscale of the Nursing Students Self-Efficacy Scale. Blended learning pedagogy can be effectively used in facilitating communication modules and enhancing student outcomes among nursing undergraduates. The long-term effectiveness of using blended learning pedagogy in

  17. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  18. Elemental data on human hair sampled from Indian student population and their interpretation for studies in environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; Gangadharan, S.; Yegnasubramanian, S.

    1979-01-01

    The head hair samples from 260 students distributed over the country have been analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry through a combination of short and long irradiations. The elemental abundances for 21 elements (Na, Cl, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, La, Ce and Au) computed using a secondary standard, developed in this laboratory, as a comparator are presented and compared with some of the published data. The elemental concentration data have been analysed to look for statistically significant differences between groups based on sex, diet, geographical location, section of hair, etc., and the trace element features have been processed through pattern recognition approach using principal components analysis and minimal spanning tree. The vegetarians and non-vegetarians form clearly distinct groups, while the clusters for general population seem to be based on geographical location. (author)

  19. [An investigation on the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Chen, Feng-lei; Shi, Xiang-yu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Dan; Tan, Hong-zhuan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha. Stratified sampling method was adopted and 3600 undergraduate students from grade 1 to 3 in Changsha city were investigated through a self-administered questionnaire. All the experimental smokers during the last month were selected and divided into two groups based on the present smoking status. χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the differences of cigarette smoking among subpopulations and to explore the determinants. Among the 1550 experimental smokers of undergraduate students, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 30.8% (95%CI: 28.5 - 33.1). Students from the second-class (OR = 2.367) or the third-class universities (OR = 2.562) were more likely to adopt smoking behavior than those from top universities. Students majored in sports or arts (OR = 2.456) were significantly more inclined to smoke than the liberal arts students. Students whose father were cadres (OR = 1.602) were more likely to become smokers than those whose fathers were workers. Students being males (OR = 7.386), having high monthly expenses (OR = 1.139), with positive attitude to smoking benefits (OR = 1.140) were risk factors for smoking. Number of smoking members in the family (OR = 1.801) was significantly associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking. Knowledge on diseases caused by smoking (OR = 0.806) was protecting factor to smoking among the experimental smokers. Those experimental smokers among undergraduate students might become smokers and the determinants of cigarette smoking behavior would include: ranking of universities, students' major, gender, father's occupation, amount of pocket money, number of smoking members in the family, knowledge about smoking, the attitude to the benefit of smoking.

  20. Experimental instruction in photonics for high school students: approaches to managing problems faced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Zhengyang

    2017-08-01

    Student research projects are increasingly common at the K-12 level. However, students often face difficulties in the course of their school research projects such as setting realistic timelines and expectations, handling problems stemming from a lack of self-confidence, as well as being sufficiently disciplined for sustained communication and experimentation. In this work, we explore manifestations of these problems in the context of a photonics project, characterising the spectrum of the breakdown flash from Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes. We report on the process of planning and building the setup, data collection, analysis and troubleshooting, as well as the technical and human problems at each step. Approaches that were found to be helpful in managing the aforementioned problems are discussed, including an attention to detail during experimental work, as well as communicating in a forthcoming manner. Œe former allowed for clearer planning and the setting of quantifiable proximal goals; the latter helped in motivating discipline, and also helped in the understanding of research as an iterative learning process without a clear definition of success or failure.

  1. Performing Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  2. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  4. Developing skills versus reinforcing concepts in physics labs: Insight from a survey of students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-06-01

    Physics laboratory courses have been generally acknowledged as an important component of the undergraduate curriculum, particularly with respect to developing students' interest in, and understanding of, experimental physics. There are a number of possible learning goals for these courses including reinforcing physics concepts, developing laboratory skills, and promoting expertlike beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. However, there is little consensus among instructors and researchers interested in the laboratory learning environment as to the relative importance of these various learning goals. Here, we contribute data to this debate through the analysis of students' responses to the laboratory-focused assessment known as the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a large, national data set of students' responses, we compare students' E-CLASS performance in classes in which the instructor self-reported focusing on developing skills, reinforcing concepts, or both. As the classification of courses was based on instructor self-report, we also provide additional description of these courses with respect to how often students engage in particular activities in the lab. We find that courses that focus specifically on developing lab skills have more expertlike postinstruction E-CLASS responses than courses that focus either on reinforcing physics concepts or on both goals. Within first-year courses, this effect is larger for women. Moreover, these findings hold when controlling for the variance in postinstruction scores that is associated with preinstruction E-CLASS scores, student major, and student gender.

  5. Exploration of offering photoelectric experimental general elective courses for college students of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shen; Sun, Binchao

    2017-08-01

    The necessity of offering photoelectric experiment general elective courses, such as the experiments of modern optical and innovational photoelectric design for non optic-electric's science and engineering students were discussed based on the analysis of the status quo and problems in experimental general elective course in science and engineering colleges of our country. And the characters of photoelectric disciplines, the goal of science and engineering quality-oriented education and the reform of science education at home and abroad were also considered. The instructional objectives, contents and characteristics of the courses were investigated. The specific methods, the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) mode in the general courses has been proposed; the experiences and practical effects of offering these courses were concluded.

  6. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  7. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  8. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  9. Single photon simultaneous K-shell ionization and K-shell excitation. I. Theoretical model applied to the interpretation of experimental results on H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carniato, S.; Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Žitnik, M.; Bučar, K.; Nakano, M.; Hikosaka, Y.; Ito, K.

    2015-01-01

    We present in detail a theoretical model that provides absolute cross sections for simultaneous core-ionization core-excitation (K −2 V ) and compare its predictions with experimental results obtained on the water molecule after photoionization by synchrotron radiation. Two resonances of different symmetries are assigned in the main K −2 V peak and comparable contributions from monopolar (direct shake-up) and dipolar (conjugate shake-up) core-valence excitations are identified. The main peak is observed with a much greater width than the total experimental resolution. This broadening is the signature of nuclear dynamics

  10. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  11. Approaches to Enhance the Teaching Quality of Experimental Biochemistry for MBSS Students in TSMU, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijuan; Yi, Shuying; Zhai, Jing; Wang, Zhaojin

    2017-01-01

    With the internationalization of medical education in China, the importance of international students' education in medical schools is also increasing. Except foreign students majoring in Chinese language, English Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBSS) students are the largest group of international students. Based on problems in the…

  12. Influence of undergraduate nursing student teaching methods on learning standard precautions and transmission-based precautions: Experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes Ramirez, Maria Soledad

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was performed with undergraduate nursing students in order to determine, between two methodologies, which is the best for learning standard precautions and precautions based on disease transmission mechanisms. Students in the sample are stratified by performance, with the experimental group (49 students) being exposed to self-instruction and clinical simulation on the topic of standard precautions and special precautions according to disease transmission mechanisms. Conventional classes on the same topics were provided to the control group (49 students). The experimental group showed the best performance in the multiple-choice post-test of knowledge (p=0.002) and in the assessment of essay questions (p=0.043), as well as in the evaluation of a simulated scenario, in relation to the control group. This study demonstrates that it is possible to transfer some teaching subjects on the prevention of Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) to self-learning by means of virtual teaching strategies with good results. This allows greater efficiency in the allocation of teachers to clinical simulation or learning situations in the laboratory, where students can apply what they have learned in the self-instruction module. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: A Longitudinal Survey with Veterinary Students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…

  14. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  15. The effectiveness of an e-learning course on medication calculation in nursing students: a clustered quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker, Aurélie; Baldewijns, Katleen; Verhaeghe, Rik; Robays, Hugo; Buyle, Franky; Colman, Roos; Van Hecke, Ann

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning course compared with a face-to-face lecture on medication calculation. The current knowledge on medication calculation of nursing students and nurses is insufficient to provide safe care. A stratified-clustered quasi-experimental study. A random selection of nursing schools were allocated to the e-learning course (intervention group) (seven schools; 189 students) or face-to-face lecture (control group) (six schools, 222 students). Students in both groups completed a validated medication calculation test (maximum score: 16) prior to the course (T0), immediately after the course (T1) and 3 months later (T2). A linear mixed model was used for data analysis. Medication calculation skills improved significantly more by the face-to-face lecture than e-learning course. Students in both groups significantly improved in medication calculation skills immediately after the course (T1) and 3 months later. The results flattened at T2 with a significant decline in the intervention group between T1 and T2 and a non-significant decline in the control group. Based on a subgroup analysis, improvement in medication calculation skills at T2 could only be observed in vocational-level (sub degree) nursing students receiving a face-to-face course. Both medication calculation courses had a positive effect on medication calculation skills. Students receiving traditional face-to-face lecture improved significantly more than the students receiving the e-learning course. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard the International Space Station within the Student Space Flight Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team; Hagstrom, Danielle; Bartee, Christine; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2018-05-01

    The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that 1 of 15 planarians regenerated a Janus head, suggesting that microgravity exposure may not be without consequences. Given the limited number of studies and specimens, further microgravity experiments are necessary to evaluate the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration. Such studies, however, are generally difficult and expensive to conduct. We were fortunate to be sponsored by the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP) to investigate how microgravity affects regeneration of the planarian species Dugesia japonica on the ISS. While we were unable to successfully study planarian regeneration within the experimental constraints of our SSEP Mission, we systematically analyzed the cause for the failed experiment, leading us to propose a modified protocol. This work thus opens the door for future experiments on the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration on SSEP Missions as well as for more advanced experiments by professional researchers.

  18. Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard the International Space Station Within the Student Space Flight Experimental Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that 1 of 15 planarians regenerated a Janus head, suggesting that microgravity exposure may not be without consequences. Given the limited number of studies and specimens, further microgravity experiments are necessary to evaluate the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration. Such studies, however, are generally difficult and expensive to conduct. We were fortunate to be sponsored by the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP to investigate how microgravity affects regeneration of the planarian species Dugesia japonica on the ISS. While we were unable to successfully study planarian regeneration within the experimental constraints of our SSEP Mission, we systematically analyzed the cause for the failed experiment, leading us to propose a modified protocol. This work thus opens the door for future experiments on the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration on SSEP Missions as well as for more advanced experiments by professional researchers.

  19. Situated teaching improves empathy learning of the students in a BSN program: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwo-Chen; Yu, Chin-Ching; Hsieh, Pei-Ling; Li, Chin-Ching; Chao, Yann-Fen C

    2018-05-01

    Empathy is an important clinical skill for nursing students, but it is a characteristic difficult to teach and assess. To evaluate the effect of situated teaching on empathy learning among undergraduate nursing students. A cohort study with pre-post-test quasi-experimental design. The 2nd-year students were enrolled from two BSN programs. The teaching program was completed over 4 months on the basis of experiential learning theory which integrated the following four elements: classroom-based role play, self-reflection, situated learning and acting. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession-Student version was administered before and after the program. Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE) was administered at the end of program and a rubrics scale was used to measure empathy. A generalized estimation equation was used to identify the effect of subjective empathy, and an independent t-test was used for the objective assessment between two groups. A total of 103 students were enrolled. The results showed that subjective empathy increased significantly in experimental group. In the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, examiners and standard patients gave significantly higher empathy scores to the situated teaching group than the control group. The present study indicated that situated teaching can improve empathy learning of the nursing students. However different methods of assessment of empathy produce different results. We therefore recommend that multiple measurements from difference perspectives are preferable in the assessment of empathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching psychomotor skills to beginning nursing students using a web-enhanced approach: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Vincent L

    2007-01-01

    To begin to address the problem of psychomotor skills deficiencies observed in many new graduate nurses, a skills laboratory course was developed using a web-enhanced approach. In this quasi-experimental study, the control group attended weekly lectures, observed skill demonstrations by faculty, practiced skills, and were evaluated on skill performance. The experimental group learned course content using a web-enhanced approach. This allowed students to learn course material outside of class at times convenient for them, thus they had more time during class to perfect psychomotor skills. The experimental group performed better on the final cognitive examination. Students in the traditional sections were more satisfied with the course, however. It was concluded that a web-enhanced approach for teaching psychomotor skills can provide a valid alternative to traditional skills laboratory formats.

  1. Invisibility & Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHerzog

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invisibility is often thought to occur because of the low-level limitations of the visual system. For example, it is often assumed that backward masking renders a target invisible because the visual system is simply too slow to resolve the target and the mask separately. Here, we propose an alternative explanation in which invisibility is a goal rather than a limitation and occurs naturally when making sense out of the plethora of incoming information. For example, we present evidence that (invisibility of an element can strongly depend on how it groups with other elements. Changing grouping changes visibility. In addition, we will show that features often just appear to be invisible but are in fact visible in a way the experimenter is not aware of.

  2. The Enhancement of Consistency of Interpretation Skills on the Newton’s Laws Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Kurniawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual understanding is the most important thing that students should have rather than they had reaches achievement. The interpretation skill is one of conceptual understanding aspects. The aim of this paper is to know the consistency of students’ interpreting skills and all at once to get the levels of increasing of students’ interpretations skill. These variables learned by Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD common sense. The method of this research is pre-experimental research with one group pretest-posttest design. The sample has taken by cluster random sampling. The result had shown that 16 % of all student that are have perfect consistency of interpretation skill and there are increasing of interpretation skill on 84 % from unknown to be understand (this skill. This finding could be used by the future researcher to study in the other areas of conceptual understanding aspects

  3. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part II: Interpretation of the experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ducher, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gavillet, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); De Bremaecker, A. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel bundle and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 mm and 900 mm) of the test section previously reported are interpreted in the present paper. Solid state interactions between fuel and cladding have been compared with the characteristics of interaction identified in the previous separate-effect tests. Corium resulting from the interaction between fuel and cladding was formed. The uranium concentration in the corium is compared to analytical tests and a scenario for the corium formation is proposed. The analysis showed that, despite the rather low fuel burn up, the conditions of temperature and oxygen potential reached during the starvation phase are able to give an early very significant release fraction of caesium. A significant part (but not all) of the molybdenum was segregated at grain boundaries and trapped in metallic inclusions from which they were totally removed in the final part of the experiment. During the steam starvation phase, the conditions of oxygen potential were favourable for the formation of simple Ba and BaO chemical forms but the temperature was too low to provoke their volatility. This is one important difference with out-of-pile experiments such as VERCORS for which only a combination of high temperature and low oxygen potential induced a significant barium release. Finally another significant difference with analytical out-of-pile experiments comes from the formation of foamy zones due to the fission gas presence in FPT2-type experiments which give an additional possibility for the formation of stable fission product compounds.

  4. Pure study and experimental application of laser measurement for students in independent colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Liu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The cultivation of independent college students is the development of applied talents and the strength of students' innovative ability. This requires teachers to make better use of the resources of the school, to develop students' ability with greatest possible and to encourage students to learn independently and personality development. We can carry out multi-discipline curriculum design practice after the study of related disciplines in order to make students have a more in-depth understanding and learning of the professional courses. In this paper, we will research on curriculum design based on the combination of Laser Measurement Technology and Digital Image Processing.

  5. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  6. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  7. Interpretation of Self-Talk and Post-Lecture Affective States of Higher Education Students: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Emily J.; Markland, David; Hardy, James

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-determination theory posits that informational versus controlling interpretations of intra-personal events have positive and negative implications, respectively, for well-being. Self-talk represents an intra-personal event that could be interpreted as informational or controlling and may attenuate or exacerbate the negative…

  8. Nursing students' assessment of pain and decision of triage for different ethnic groups: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Pain management is a priority in nursing care but little is known about the factors that affect nursing students' assessment of pain expressed by patients of different ethnic backgrounds. This study examined undergraduate nursing students' assessment of pain and decision of triage when pain was expressed in different languages and their relation to students' empathy and social identity. Comparison between students with and without clinical experience was also carried out. This is a cross-sectional quantitative design. This study took place at a university in Hong Kong. 74 female undergraduate nursing students. Students listened to eight audio recordings in which an individual expressed pain in one of the two dialects of Chinese, either Cantonese or Putonghua. For each dialect, two recordings depicted mild pain and two depicted severe pain. After listening to each recording, students rated the pain level and indicated their decision of triage. Subsequently, students completed a questionnaire that measured their empathy and social identity and reported their demographics. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and t-tests. Severe pain described in Putonghua was rated as more intense than that described in Cantonese but it was not classified as more urgent. Students with clinical experience tended to perceive mild pain as less painful and less urgent than those without clinical experience. For mild pain described in Cantonese, students with clinical experience evaluated it as more urgent than those without such experience. The empathy level of students with and without clinical experience was comparable. Students with more empathy, especially those without clinical experience, reported heightened perceived intensity of severe pain described in Putonghua. Nurse educators should note that empathy, social identity, and clinical experience may alter students' pain assessment of patients from different ethnicities. Pain education needs to

  9. Experimental Effects of Student Evaluations Coupled with Collaborative Consultation on College Professors' Instructional Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, M.H.; in 't Veld, R.; Vorst, H.C.M.; van Driel, J.H.; Mellenbergh, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study concerned the effects of repeated students’ evaluations of teaching coupled with collaborative consultation on professors’ instructional skills. Twenty-five psychology professors from a Dutch university were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental

  10. X-points in the spectral emissivity of solid and liquid refractory transition metals measured by multichannel pyrometry. Discussion of the experimental method and physical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, C.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hyland, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral emissivities of some refractory Transition metals (Hf, Mo, Nb, Re, V, W and Zr) have been measured from about 2500 K up to temperatures above the melting point T m . The experimental method adopted is based on multiwavelength pyrometric measurements, where the determination of the spectral emissivity is implicitly related to the evaluation of temperature through the radiation emission law and an assumed relationship between the spectral emissivity ε and the wavelength λ. Heating was produced with a pulsed laser in times of the order of 100 ms. A specially constructed pyrometer was used which enabled measurements at six different wavelengths to be carried out at time intervals of the order of 0.1 ms. A model for the evaluation of temperature and spectral emissivities has been developed and its limitations due to statistical and systematic errors are discussed. Our experiments confirm the existence of a unique wavelength, λ-x for each metal to which different ε λ -isotherms converge for λ x and from which they diverge for λ>λ x and at which ε λ is independent of T, and thus equal, in particular, to its value at T m , indicate that λ x is preserved through T m and reveal that at T m these metals are effectively 'grey'. Detailed theoretical investigations reveal that the occurrence of the λ x points is intimately connected with the particular T and λ dependences of the interband contribution to the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function entailed by specific features of the electronic band-structure of the Transition metals concerned. Finally, in connection with the 'grey' phenomenon at T m , it should be stressed that this is not found in the case of the Noble metals, although, like Transition metals, they exhibit λ x points, despite their quite different band-structures. (author). 56 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Nursing students learning the pharmacology of diabetes mellitus with complexity-based computerized models: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovi, Ilana; Dagan, Efrat; Sader Mazbar, Ola; Nassar, Laila; Levy, Sharona T

    2018-02-01

    Pharmacology is a crucial component of medications administration in nursing, yet nursing students generally find it difficult and self-rate their pharmacology skills as low. To evaluate nursing students learning pharmacology with the Pharmacology Inter-Leaved Learning-Cells environment, a novel approach to modeling biochemical interactions using a multiscale, computer-based model with a complexity perspective based on a small set of entities and simple rules. This environment represents molecules, organelles and cells to enhance the understanding of cellular processes, and combines these cells at a higher scale to obtain whole-body interactions. Sophomore nursing students who learned the pharmacology of diabetes mellitus with the Pharmacology Inter-Leaved Learning-Cells environment (experimental group; n=94) or via a lecture-based curriculum (comparison group; n=54). A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was conducted. The Pharmacology-Diabetes-Mellitus questionnaire and the course's final exam were used to evaluate students' knowledge of the pharmacology of diabetes mellitus. Conceptual learning was significantly higher for the experimental than for the comparison group for the course final exam scores (unpaired t=-3.8, pLearning with complexity-based computerized models is highly effective and enhances the understanding of moving between micro and macro levels of the biochemical phenomena, this is then related to better understanding of medication actions. Moreover, the Pharmacology Inter-Leaved Learning-Cells approach provides a more general reasoning scheme for biochemical processes, which enhances pharmacology learning beyond the specific topic learned. The present study implies that deeper understanding of pharmacology will support nursing students' clinical decisions and empower their proficiency in medications administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimentation and correlates of electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarettes) among university students – A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    K.H. Awan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: E-cigarettes are becoming popular among youth as safe nicotine delivery systems. Many have expressed concern, however, that e-cigarettes may serve as a gateway to future smoking, given their low perceived risk, or that their use may prevent regular smokers from quitting by maintaining their nicotine addiction. The aim of this study was to assess experimentation with and correlates of e-cigarette use among university students. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was car...

  13. A University-Industry Collaborative Response to the Growing Global Demand for Student Talent: Using Interpretive Phenomenology to Discover Life-World Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauterin, Johanna Julia; Linnanen, Lassi; Michelsen, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The supply of student talent is now taking on an increasingly global dimension and this has extended the breadth of university-industry interaction. Set in the context of a rapidly growing international student market, knowledge transfer between academia and business through global student talent supply is an emerging practice. This paper…

  14. Relationship of Family Particulars with Mental Health in Tehran Girls\\' Students at Third Grade in the Field of Experimental Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Shoja'ei-Zadeh

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Personality development is a complicated phenomenon. Several external and internal factors such as hereditary background, congenital status, events afterbirth, individual differences, positive and negative promoting behaviors, and other cultural and social factors alone or in combination affect individual personality. Based on the theory of psychological analysis, experiences at childhood, especially interaction with parents have an undeniable effect on individual personality in adulthood. The subject of the present study is to investigate the relationship of family particulars with mental health in high school girls' students in Tehran at third grade in the field of experimental sciences. The present study is a case-study and its purpose is to study theories on dissatisfaction of students at disorganized families and its relationship with anxiety, depression, violence, and obsession. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 80 girl students studying at third grade in field of experimental sciences at Tehran high schools. Half of these students were selected as case group and half of them as control group. The subjects were selected with screening method and the SCL-90 test was used to study hypothesis. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant difference between case and control group. The quality of family relationship had a strong correlation with mental growth of child.   Conclusion: Based on obtained results, the atmosphere around the control group was happier than the case group. The members of the case group usually did not talk about their problems with father.

  15. Engaging College Science Students and Changing Academic Achievement with Technology: A Quasi-Experimental Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Adam C.; Jaffee, David; Miller, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Can modern, computer-based technology engage college students and improve their academic achievement in college? Although numerous examples detail technology's classroom uses, few studies empirically examine whether technologically oriented pedagogical changes factually lead to positive outcomes among college students. In this pilot study, we used…

  16. An Experimental Study of Career Development in Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Education Liberal Arts Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, John S.; Shelton, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    A study comparing cooperative and noncooperative education students across time on several variables related to career maturity, career choice, and major certainty showed that co-op students rate higher in career maturity, career planning and problem-solving abilities. (JOW)

  17. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Fraternity or Sorority Membership and College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Holmes, Joshua M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable debate about the effects of fraternities and sororities on college campuses, the extent to which these organizations promote or detract from student success is unclear. Therefore, we used propensity score analyses to examine the link between membership in a social fraternity or sorority and several student success outcomes.…

  18. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26% and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65% in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001. Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

  19. An Exploration of the Associations of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use and Message Interpretation Outcomes to Problem Drinking Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Bruce W

    2017-07-01

    College students' use of digital communication technology has led to a rapid expansion of digital alcohol marketing efforts. Two surveys (total usable n = 637) were conducted to explore college students' experiences with alcohol-related social media, their decision making related to alcohol use, and their problematic drinking behaviors. Study results indicated that students' use of alcohol-related social media predicted their problem drinking behaviors. In addition, students' wishful identification, perceived desirability, perceived similarity, and normative beliefs predicted their expectancies for drinking alcohol. Finally, students' expectancies for drinking alcohol predicted their problematic drinking behaviors.

  20. The educational effects of mobile learning on students of medical sciences: A systematic review in experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Fata, Ladan; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2018-04-01

    The demand for mobile learning in the medical science educational program is increasing. The present review study gathers evidence highlighted by the experimental studies on the educational effects of mobile learning for medical science students. The study was carried out as a systematic literature search published from 2007 to July 2017 in the databases PubMed/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters) , Educational Resources and Information Center (ERIC), EMBASE (Elsevier), Cochrane library, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. To examine quality of the articles, a tool validated by the BEME Review was employed. Totally, 21 papers entered the study. Three main themes emerged from the content of papers: (1) improvement in student clinical competency and confidence, (2) acquisition and enhancing of students' theoretical knowledge, and (3) students' positive attitudes to and perception of mobile learning. Level 2B of Kirkpatrick hierarchy had been examined by all the papers and seven of them had reported two or more outcome levels, but level 4 was not reported in the papers. Our review showed that the students of medical sciences had positive response and attitudes to mobile learning. Moreover, implementation of mobile learning in medical sciences program might lead to valuable educational benefits and improve clinical competence and confidence along with theoretical knowledge, attitudes, and perception of mobile learning. The results indicated that mobile learning strategy in medical education can positively affect learning in all three domains of Bloom's Taxonomy.

  1. An experimental study of a museum-based, science PD programme's impact on teachers and their students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron Price, C.; Chiu, A.

    2018-06-01

    We present results of an experimental study of an urban, museum-based science teacher PD programme. A total of 125 teachers and 1676 of their students in grades 4-8 were tested at the beginning and end of the school year in which the PD programme took place. Teachers and students were assessed on subject content knowledge and attitudes towards science, along with teacher classroom behaviour. Subject content questions were mostly taken from standardised state tests and literature, with an 'Explain:' prompt added to some items. Teachers in the treatment group showed a 7% gain in subject content knowledge over the control group. Students of teachers in the treatment group showed a 4% gain in subject content knowledge over the control group on multiple-choice items and an 11% gain on the constructed response items. There was no overall change in science attitudes of teachers or students over the control groups but we did find differences in teachers' reported self-efficacy and teaching anxiety levels, plus PD teachers reported doing more student-centered science teaching activities than the control group. All teachers came into the PD with high initial excitement, perhaps reflecting its context within an informal learning environment.

  2. The experimental teaching reform in biochemistry and molecular biology for undergraduate students in Peking University Health Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and participated in some original research work. There is a critical educational need to prepare these students for the increasing accessibility of research experience. The redesigned experimental curriculum of biochemistry and molecular biology was developed to fulfill such a requirement, which keeps two original biochemistry experiments (Gel filtration and Enzyme kinetics) and adds a new two-experiment component called "Analysis of anti-tumor drug induced apoptosis." The additional component, also known as the "project-oriented experiment" or the "comprehensive experiment," consists of Western blotting and a DNA laddering assay to assess the effects of etoposide (VP16) on the apoptosis signaling pathways. This reformed laboratory teaching system aims to enhance the participating students overall understanding of important biological research techniques and the instrumentation involved, and to foster a better understanding of the research process all within a classroom setting. Student feedback indicated that the updated curriculum helped them improve their operational and self-learning capability, and helped to increase their understanding of theoretical knowledge and actual research processes, which laid the groundwork for their future research work. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Interpretation of Wild 2 Dust Fine Structure: Comparison of Stardust Aluminium Foil Craters to the Three-Dimensional Shape of Experimental Impacts by Artificial Aggregate Particles and Meteorite Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearsley, A T; Burchell, M J; Price, M C; Graham, G A; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Cole, M J; Foster, N J; Teslich, N

    2009-12-10

    New experimental results show that Stardust crater morphology is consistent with interpretation of many larger Wild 2 dust grains being aggregates, albeit most of low porosity and therefore relatively high density. The majority of large Stardust grains (i.e. those carrying most of the cometary dust mass) probably had density of 2.4 g cm{sup -3} (similar to soda-lime glass used in earlier calibration experiments) or greater, and porosity of 25% or less, akin to consolidated carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and much lower than the 80% suggested for fractal dust aggregates. Although better size calibration is required for interpretation of the very smallest impacting grains, we suggest that aggregates could have dense components dominated by {micro}m-scale and smaller sub-grains. If porosity of the Wild 2 nucleus is high, with similar bulk density to other comets, much of the pore-space may be at a scale of tens of micrometers, between coarser, denser grains. Successful demonstration of aggregate projectile impacts in the laboratory now opens the possibility of experiments to further constrain the conditions for creation of bulbous (Type C) tracks in aerogel, which we have observed in recent shots. We are also using mixed mineral aggregates to document differential survival of pristine composition and crystalline structure in diverse fine-grained components of aggregate cometary dust analogues, impacted onto both foil and aerogel under Stardust encounter conditions.

  4. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  5. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  6. Consequences of insecurity in emergency telephone consultations: an experimental study in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J; Ahrens, R; Schaufelberger, M

    2014-01-01

    Handling emergency telephone consultations (ETCs) is a challenging and very important task for doctors. The aims of the study were to document insecurity in medical students during ETCs and to identify the reasons for that insecurity. We hypothesised that insecurity is associated with advising more urgent action (e.g. advice to call for an ambulance) in ETCs. We used ETCs with simulated patients (SPs), with each student randomly allocated two of four possible cases. After the training, 137 students reported on any insecurity that they had in the various ETC phases. We analysed the reasons for insecurity using descriptive statistics. The association between the students' advice that urgent action was needed and their insecurity was analysed with Spearman rank correlation. Overall, 95% of the students felt insecure in at least one phase of their ETC. History taking was the phase in which students felt most insecure (63.1%), followed by the phase of analysing the information given by the patient (44.9%). Perceived insecurity was associated with more urgent advice in one case scenario (abdominal pain; correlation r = 0.46; p ETC decision-making. ETC training in medical schools, with a focus on structured history taking and formulating discriminating questions, might help decrease insecurity in ETCs. Medical education should also teach management of insecurity.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPH INTERPRETATION ABILITY USING HYPERTEXT-ASSISTED KINEMATIC LEARNING AND FORMAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Manurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.

  8. A New Two-Step Approach for Hands-On Teaching of Gene Technology: Effects on Students' Activities During Experimentation in an Outreach Gene Technology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2011-08-01

    Emphasis on improving higher level biology education continues. A new two-step approach to the experimental phases within an outreach gene technology lab, derived from cognitive load theory, is presented. We compared our approach using a quasi-experimental design with the conventional one-step mode. The difference consisted of additional focused discussions combined with students writing down their ideas (step one) prior to starting any experimental procedure (step two). We monitored students' activities during the experimental phases by continuously videotaping 20 work groups within each approach ( N = 131). Subsequent classification of students' activities yielded 10 categories (with well-fitting intra- and inter-observer scores with respect to reliability). Based on the students' individual time budgets, we evaluated students' roles during experimentation from their prevalent activities (by independently using two cluster analysis methods). Independently of the approach, two common clusters emerged, which we labeled as `all-rounders' and as `passive students', and two clusters specific to each approach: `observers' as well as `high-experimenters' were identified only within the one-step approach whereas under the two-step conditions `managers' and `scribes' were identified. Potential changes in group-leadership style during experimentation are discussed, and conclusions for optimizing science teaching are drawn.

  9. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures.

  10. Perspectives in Quantum Physics: Epistemological, Ontological and Pedagogical--An Investigation into Student and Expert Perspectives on the Physical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, with Implications for Modern Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles Raymond

    2011-01-01

    A common learning goal for modern physics instructors is for students to recognize a difference between the experimental uncertainty of classical physics and the fundamental uncertainty of quantum mechanics. Our studies suggest this notoriously difficult task may be frustrated by the intuitively "realist" perspectives of introductory…

  11. "Sexual Violence Is Not Good for Our Country's Development". Students' Interpretations of Sexual Violence in a Secondary School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mat, Marielle L. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…

  12. Students' Performance When Aurally Identifying Musical Harmonic Intervals: Experimentation of a Teaching Innovation Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsatí, Imma; Miranda, Joaquim; Amador, Miquel; Godall, Pere

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the performance reached by students (N = 138) when aurally identifying musical harmonic intervals (from m2 to P8) after having experienced a teaching innovation proposal for the Music Conservatories of Catalonia (Spain) based on observational methodology. Its design took into account several issues, which had…

  13. Using Learning Analytics to Characterize Student Experimentation Strategies in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo; Goldstein, Molly Hathaway; Purzer, Senay; Magana, Alejandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering design is a complex process both for students to participate in and for instructors to assess. Informed designers use the key strategy of conducting experiments as they test ideas to inform next steps. Conversely, beginning designers experiment less, often with confounding variables. These behaviours are not easy to assess in…

  14. Understanding the Nernst Equation and Other Electrochemical Concepts: An Easy Experimental Approach for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J.; Solla-Gullon, Jose; Rodes, Antonio; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present laboratory experiment is to deepen the understanding of the Nernst equation and some other concepts that are essential in electrochemistry. In this practical laboratory session, students first learn that the equilibrium potential of an electrode is related to the difference between two equilibrium inner electric potentials…

  15. Buy It Now and Pay for It Later: An Experimental Study of Student Credit Card Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Hantula, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Credit card debt is of increasing concern among college students, but reasons for it are not well understood. In a simulated shopping experiment based on a hyperbolic discounted utility model, 21 participants could either save money for a new model of their favorite mobile phone brand and get it in the future or buy the product on credit and get…

  16. Critical Literacy Practices in EFL Reading Classroom--An Experimental Study towards Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    English as a world language is more than a way to exchange information but a means to solidify certain social hierarchy and represent certain social interests. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers should instruct critical awareness to empower students to transform social injustice and fulfill responsibilities as global citizens. This…

  17. The Impact of Complexity on the Expertise Reversal Effect: Experimental Evidence from Testing Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2016-01-01

    Element interactivity is a central concept of cognitive load theory that defines the complexity of a learning task. The reduction of task complexity through a temporary segmentation or isolation of interacting elements was investigated with 104 students randomly assigned to an interacting elements group, where participants were required to deal…

  18. Evaluating the Gifted Students' Understanding Related to Plasma State Using Plasma Experimental System and Two-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Saadet Deniz; Ayas, Bahadir; Aybek, Eren Can; Pat, Suat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the experimental system design related to plasma state on the gifted students' understanding on the subject of the plasma state. To test the research hypothesis, one group pretest-posttest research model was carried out with 18 eighth-grade (4 girls and 14 boys) gifted students in…

  19. THE META-METHOD: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A THREE-SIDED DIDACTICAL APPROACH TO REINFORCE METACOGNITION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst-Militaru, Rodica; Ghysels, Joris; Nijhof, Plonie

    To stimulate learning, both cognitive and metacognitive strategies are believed to be effective. This contribution reports on the experimental evaluation of an approach to develop metacognitive skills among students in secondary school. In the experiment 653 students of two schools and three age

  20. Developing Seventh Grade Students' Understanding of Complex Environmental Problems with Systems Tools and Representations: a Quasi-experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganca Kucuk, Zerrin; Saysel, Ali Kerem

    2017-03-01

    A systems-based classroom intervention on environmental education was designed for seventh grade students; the results were evaluated to see its impact on the development of systems thinking skills and standard science achievement and whether the systems approach is a more effective way to teach environmental issues that are dynamic and complex. A quasi-experimental methodology was used to compare performances of the participants in various dimensions, including systems thinking skills, competence in dynamic environmental problem solving and success in science achievement tests. The same pre-, post- and delayed tests were used with both the comparison and experimental groups in the same public middle school in Istanbul. Classroom activities designed for the comparison group (N = 20) followed the directives of the Science and Technology Curriculum, while the experimental group (N = 22) covered the same subject matter through activities benefiting from systems tools and representations such as behaviour over time graphs, causal loop diagrams, stock-flow structures and hands-on dynamic modelling. After a one-month systems-based instruction, the experimental group demonstrated significantly better systems thinking and dynamic environmental problem solving skills. Achievement in dynamic problem solving was found to be relatively stable over time. However, standard science achievement did not improve at all. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the results, the weaknesses of the curriculum and educational implications.

  1. Discussing the Need of Experimental Replication with 5th Grade Students Conducting a Mealworm Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshoff, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Scientific inquiry requires the replication of results in experimental studies. Recent studies draw a severe picture on the need of replication and the difficulties in replicating already published studies. As replicated confirmation of results is the basis of scientific and medical research, there may be a need to introduce the topic of…

  2. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... on the interpreter's interpersonal role and, in particular, on signs of the interpreter's visibility, i.e. active co-participation. At first sight, the interpreting assignment in question seems to be a short and simple routine task which would not require the interpreter to deviate from the traditional picture...

  3. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  4. Interpretation Analysis as a Competitive Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nading, Robert M.

    Interpretation analysis is a new and interesting event on the forensics horizon which appears to be attracting an ever larger number of supporters. This event, developed by Larry Lambert of Ball State University in 1989, requires a student to perform all three disciplines of forensic competition (interpretation, public speaking, and limited…

  5. Norms of Egality and the Gap between Attitudes and Behaviour amongst Polish Students: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Urszula Markowska-Przybyła; David M. Ramsey

    2017-01-01

    Social norms and ideals play an important role in determining the attitudes and behaviour of individuals. However, in many scenarios adhering to such norms or ideals leads to an individual incurring costs. In such a case, a gap may appear between the attitudes (intentions) and the behaviour of an individual. This article considers the gap between declared and observed readiness to punish an individual seen to act unfairly on the basis an experimental version of the Ultimatum Game. The authors...

  6. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  7. Student Perceptions of Auditor Responses to Evidence of Suspicious Activities: An Experimental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Murphy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed student perceptions of auditor responses to evidence that a client failed to respond appropriately to suspicious activities that could indicate money laundering. Subjects were presented with a series of randomized cases in which partner type (new vs. experienced, firm type (regional vs. international and audit fee materiality (not material, material to the local office only, material to the firm were manipulated asked to indicate their perceptions of the likelihood that an audit partner would discuss such evidence with the client, and the likelihood that the issue would be disclosed by the auditor. Both partner type and audit fee materiality was found to have significant effects on perceived likelihoods.

  8. Superficial tension: experimental model with simple materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintori Ferreira, María Alejandra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work appears a didactic offer based on an experimental activity using materials of very low cost, orientated to achieving that the student understand and interpret the phenomenon of superficial tension together with the importance of the modeling in sciences. It has as principal aim of education bring the student over to the mechanics of the static fluids and the intermolecular forces, combining scientific contents with questions near to the student what provides an additional motivation to the reflection of the scientific investigation.

  9. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  10. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Fergus G; Williams, Damien J; Goodall, Christine A; Murer, Jeffrey S; Donnelly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial. Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  11. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carrie...

  12. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  13. Experimentation and correlates of electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarettes) among university students - A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, K H

    2016-04-01

    E-cigarettes are becoming popular among youth as safe nicotine delivery systems. Many have expressed concern, however, that e-cigarettes may serve as a gateway to future smoking, given their low perceived risk, or that their use may prevent regular smokers from quitting by maintaining their nicotine addiction. The aim of this study was to assess experimentation with and correlates of e-cigarette use among university students. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 480 university students from four faculties at a university in Riyadh in August-October 2014. A modified version of the World Health Organization's Global Adult Tobacco Survey was used, and multinomial logistic regression was carried out to assess correlations with e-cigarette variables in the whole study sample and among smokers. Almost all students, including the majority of ex-smokers (96.3%) and smokers (94.4%), reported having heard about e-cigarettes. In addition, about one-quarter of the sample (54.2% of smokers, 24.7% of ex-smokers, 6% of never smokers) had experimented with e-cigarettes at least once during their lifetime. Curiosity and peer influence were reported as the main reasons for the use of e-cigarettes. Factors found to be correlated significantly with e-cigarette use were male gender, being a traditional cigarette smoker, having friends who have tried e-cigarettes, and having a strong belief that e-cigarettes could aid smoking cessation. E-cigarettes are popular among Saudi youth, especially among smokers and ex-smokers. Well-designed health education programs and regulatory interventions are required to address this issue.

  14. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Wilhelm Wundt's Theory of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Fahrenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wilhelm WUNDT was a pioneer in experimental and physiological psychology. However, his theory of interpretation (hermeneutics remains virtually neglected. According to WUNDT psychology belongs to the domain of the humanities (Geisteswissenschaften, and, throughout his books and research, he advocated two basic methodologies: experimentation (as the means of controlled self-observation and interpretative analysis of mental processes and products. He was an experimental psychologist and a profound expert in traditional hermeneutics. Today, he still may be acknowledged as the author of the monumental Völkerpsychologie, but not his advances in epistemology and methodology. His subsequent work, the Logik (1908/1921, contains about 120 pages on hermeneutics. In the present article a number of issues are addressed. Noteworthy was WUNDT's general intention to account for the logical constituents and the psychological process of understanding, and his reflections on quality control. In general, WUNDT demanded methodological pluralism and a complementary approach to the study of consciousness and neurophysiological processes. In the present paper WUNDT's approach is related to the continuing controversy on basic issues in methodology; e.g. experimental and statistical methods vs. qualitative (hermeneutic methods. Varied explanations are given for the one-sided or distorted reception of WUNDT's methodology. Presently, in Germany the basic program of study in psychology lacks thorough teaching and training in qualitative (hermeneutic methods. Appropriate courses are not included in the curricula, in contrast to the training in experimental design, observation methods, and statistics. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803291

  16. The Impact of Teacher Evaluation Reform on Student Learning: Success and Challenges in Replicating Experimental Findings with Non-Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jennie Y.; Sartain, Lauren; Sporte, Susan E.; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and urgent problems facing education policymakers is the provision of highly effective teachers in all of the nation's classrooms. Of all school-level factors related to student learning and achievement, the student's teacher is consistently the most important (Goldhaber 2002; Rockoff 2004; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain…

  17. The Effect of Learning Method and Confidence Level on the Ability of Interpreting Religious Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinayati Djojosuroto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of the learning method (expository and authentic and the level of confidence in the ability of religious poetry interpretation of the students of the third semester, majoring in the Indonesian Language and Literature Education of Universitas Negeri Manado. The method used is the quasi-experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial designs. The measurement of Y variable (ability to interpret the religious poetry uses the writing test and the level of confidence uses a questionnaire. Data analysis technique in this study is analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by two lanes and Tuckey test to look at the interaction of the group. Before the test, the hypothesis is that analysis requirements normality data test using Liliefors test and homogeneity test data using Bartlett test. The results show differences in the ability to explain the religious poetry among students who study with the expository method and the students who study with the authentic method. That is, overall, the expository method is better than the authentic method to improve the ability of the students. To improve the ability of the students to interpret the religious poetry, it is better to use the authentic method for the group that has a lower level of confidence. There is the influence of the interaction between learning method (expository and authentic and the level of confidence in the ability of religious poetry interpretation. Based on these results, it can be concluded that: First, lecturers can determine what materials and method that can be used to enhance the ability to interpret religious poetry when the level of confidence of the students has been known. Second, expository teaching methods and authentic teaching method for group of students with different level of confidence will give you different result on the ability of that group of students to interpret religious poetry as well. Third, the increase of the ability to interpret

  18. The role of moving images in the conference interpreting classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Septaviana Rakhmawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the study of the student interpreters’ performance in conference interpreting classes in an Indonesian university when multimodal texts were provided as part of the teaching methods. It aims to answer how multimodal texts can influence interpreting performance among students. A case study design was used to allow an in-depth analysis of the students’ interpreting performance as the phenomenon described (Yin, 2003 using triangulation of data analysis. Observation, interview, and seven transcription analysis from three students were carried out. Observation and interview result shows that the students used visual information such as lips movement, running text on video, moving images, and the speakers’ gestures in their interpreting processes. Moreover, the students said that the existing method of teaching interpreting using multimodal texts is really helpful for them in developing their interpreting skills. Furthermore, transcription analysis also confirms that the student with multimodal strategies (facing the speaker, the screen/the video performed better during interpreting process. However, a student who faces both did not seem to perform well. The indication is that he was unable to focus, being distracted and nervous. Thus, overall the student interpreters used visual information as part of multimodal communication, in addition to speech, working on the regular mode of listening and speaking during interpreting process, which suggest significant contribution of multimodal texts to better rendition in the target language.

  19. Effects of using mobile device-based academic electronic medical records for clinical practicum by undergraduate nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mona; Lee, HyeongSuk; Park, Joon Ho

    2018-02-01

    The academic electronic medical record (AEMR) system is applied with the expectation that nursing students will be able to attain competence in healthcare decision-making and nursing informatics competencies. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the advantage of applying mobile devices to clinical practicum. This study aimed to examine the effect of an experiment that introduced a mobile AEMR application for undergraduate nursing students in their practicum. A quasi-experimental design was used. The subjects were 75 third-year nursing students enrolled in clinical practicum and were divided into an experimental (practicum with AEMR) and a control (conventional practicum) group. Nursing informatics competencies, critical thinking disposition, and satisfaction with clinical practicum were measured before and after the clinical practicum for each group. The usability of the AEMR application was also examined for the experimental group after the experiment. After the experiment, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the informatics knowledge domain of nursing informatics competencies in the post-test. The difference in critical thinking between the experimental and control groups was not statistically significant. Regarding satisfaction with the clinical practicum, the experimental group exhibited a significantly higher level of satisfaction in "preparation of a diagnostic test or laboratory test and understanding of the results" and "nursing intervention and documentation" than the control group. Students who participated in the practicum using the AEMR application considered it useful. The AEMR application was an effective educational method for practicing the immediate documentation of students' observations and interventions and was available at the patients' bedsides. To improve critical thinking, it is necessary to apply a variety of approaches when solving clinical problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Aumaitre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New varieties of plants resistant to pests and/or tolerant to specific herbicides such as maize, soybean, cotton, sugarbeets, canola, have been recently developed by using genetic transformation (GT. These plants contain detectable specificactive recombinant DNA (rDNA and their derived protein. Since they have not been selected for a modification oftheir chemical composition, they can be considered as substantially equivalent to their parents or to commercial varietiesfor their content in nutrients and anti-nutritional factors. However, insect protected maize is less contaminated by mycotoxinsthan its parental counterpart conferring a higher degree of safety to animal feeds. The new feeds, grain and derivatives,and whole plants have been intensively tested in vivo up to 216 days for their safety and their nutritional equivalencefor monogastric farm animals (pig, poultry and ruminants (dairy cows, steers, lambs. The present article is basedon the interpretation and the summary of the scientific results published in original reviewed journals either as full papers(33 or as abstracts (33 available through September 2003. For the duration of the experiments adapted to the species,feed intake, weight gain, milk yield and nutritional equivalence expressed as feed conversion and/or digestibility of nutrientshave never been affected by feeding animals diets containing GT plants. In addition, in all the experimental animals,the body and carcass composition, the composition of milk and animal tissues, as well as the sensory properties of meatare not modified by the use of feeds derived from GT plants. Furthermore, the health of animals, their physiological characteristicsand the survival rate are also not affected.The presence of rDNA and derived proteins can be recognized and quantified in feeds in the case of glyphosate resistant soybeanand canola and in the case of insect protected maize. However, rDNA has never been recovered either in milk, or in

  1. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  2. Is It Live or Is It Internet? Experimental Estimates of the Effects of Online Instruction on Student Learning. NBER Working Paper No. 16089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David N.; Rush, Mark; Yin, Lu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first experimental evidence on the effects of live versus internet media of instruction. Students in a large introductory microeconomics course at a major research university were randomly assigned to live lectures versus watching these same lectures in an internet setting, where all other factors (e.g., instruction,…

  3. A Quasi-Experimental Study of Moral Reasoning of Undergraduate Business Students Using an Ethical Decision-Making Framework in a Basic Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William J.; Czyzewski, Alan B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify classroom interventions that can be used by core business course instructors (as opposed to trained business ethicists) to positively affect levels of moral reasoning in undergraduate business students. The quasi-experimental study conducted at a Midwestern university, focused on determining if the utilization…

  4. Comprehension and Motivation Levels in Conjunction with the Use of eBooks with Audio: A Quasi-Experimental Study of Post-Secondary Remedial Reading Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kimberly W.

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pretest, posttest nonequivalent control group study investigated the comprehension scores and motivation levels of post-secondary remedial reading students in a two-year technical college in Northwest Georgia using an eBook, an eBook with audio, and a print book. After reading a module on Purpose and Tone in the three book…

  5. Stereotypic information about drinkers and students' observed alcohol intake: an experimental study on prototype-behavior relations in males and females in a naturalistic drinking context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, H.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Larsen, H.; Kremer, K.A.; Kuntsche, E.; Gibbons, F.X.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that favorable drinker prototypes (i.e., perceptions about the typical drinker) are related to higher levels of alcohol consumption in adolescents and college students. So far, few studies have experimentally tested the causality of

  6. Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) on Student Achievement, Attitude, and Self-Concept in College General Chemistry in Randomized and Quasi Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated exam achievement and affective characteristics of students in general chemistry in a fully-randomized experimental design, contrasting Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) participation with a control group balanced for time-on-task and study activity. This study population included two independent first-semester courses with…

  7. Supporting 3rd-grade students model-based explanations about groundwater: a quasi-experimental study of a curricular intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Schwarz, Christina V.

    2017-07-01

    Scientific modelling is a key practice in which K-12 students should engage to begin developing robust conceptual understanding of natural systems, including water. However, little past research has explored primary students' learning about groundwater, engagement in scientific modelling, and/or the ways in which teachers conceptualise and cultivate model-based science learning environments. We are engaged in a multi-year project designed to support 3rd-grade students' formulation of model-based explanations (MBE) for hydrologic phenomenon, including groundwater, through curricular and instructional support. In this quasi-experimental comparative study of five 3rd-grade classrooms, we present findings from analysis of students' MBE generated as part of experiencing a baseline curricular intervention (Year 1) and a modelling-enhanced curricular intervention (Year 2). Findings show that students experiencing the latter version of the unit made significant gains in both conceptual understanding and reasoning about groundwater, but that these gains varied by classroom. Overall, student gains from Year 1 to Year 2 were attributed to changes in two of the five classrooms in which students were provided additional instructional supports and scaffolds to enhance their MBE for groundwater. Within these two classrooms, the teachers enacted the Year 2 curriculum in unique ways that reflected their deeper understanding about the practices of modelling. Their enactments played a critical role in supporting students' MBE about groundwater. Study findings contribute to research on scientific modelling in elementary science learning environments and have important implications for teachers and curriculum developers.

  8. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  9. An Artistic Approach to Fine Arts Interpretation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selan, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    Art criticism was introduced into art education to help students understand works of art. However, art interpretation methods differ according to the educational goals specified for various types of art students. The fine arts interpretation procedures established in education are usually purely theoretical and exclusively verbal, and are thus…

  10. Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi

    2017-06-01

    This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.

  11. The effect of an interprofessional simulation-based education program on perceptions and stereotypes of nursing and medical students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockeman, Kelly S; Appelbaum, Nital P; Dow, Alan W; Orr, Shelly; Huff, Tanya A; Hogan, Christopher J; Queen, Brenda A

    2017-11-01

    Interprofessional education is intended to train practitioners to collaboratively address challenges in healthcare delivery, and interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) provides realistic, contextual learning experiences in which roles, responsibilities, and professional identity can be learned, developed, and assessed. Reducing negative stereotypes within interprofessional relationships is a prime target for IPSE. We sought to understand whether perceptions of interprofessional education and provider stereotypes change among nursing and medical students after participating in IPSE. We also sought to determine whether changes differed based on the student's discipline. This was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study. The study took place at a large mid-Atlantic public university with a comprehensive health science campus. 147 senior Bachelors of Science in Nursing students and 163 fourth-year medical students participated. Students were grouped into interprofessional teams for a two-week period and participated in three two-hour simulations focused on collaboration around acutely ill patients. At the beginning of the first session, they completed a pretest survey with demographic items and measures of their perceptions of interprofessional clinical education, stereotypes about doctors, and stereotypes about nurses. They completed a posttest with the same measures after the third session. 251 students completed both the pretest and posttest surveys. On all three measures, students showed an overall increase in scores after the IPSE experience. In comparing the change by student discipline, medical students showed little change from pretest to posttest on stereotypes of doctors, while nursing students had a significant increase in positive perceptions about doctors. No differences were noted between disciplines on changes in stereotypes of nurses. This study demonstrated that a short series of IPSE experiences resulted in improved perceptions of

  12. The NASA eClips 4D Program: Impacts from the First Year Quasi-Experimental Study on Video Development and Viewing on Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, B.; Davis, H. B.; Harper-Neely, J.; Bowers, S.

    2017-12-01

    NASA eClips™ is a multi-media educational program providing educational resources relevant to the formal K-12 classroom. Science content for the NASA eClips™ 4D elements is drawn from all four divisions of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) as well as cross-divisional topics. The suite of elements fulfills the following SMD education objectives: Enable STEM education, Improve U.S. scientific literacy, Advance national education goals (CoSTEM), and Leverage efforts through partnerships. A component of eClips™ was the development of NASA Spotlite videos (student developed videos designed to increase student literacy and address misconceptions of other students) by digital media students. While developing the Sptolite videos, the students gained skills in teamwork, working in groups to accomplish a task, and how to convey specific concepts in a video. The teachers felt the video project was a good fit for their courses and enhanced what the students were already learning. Teachers also reported that the students learned knowledge and skills that would help them in future careers including how to gain a better understanding of a project and the importance of being knowledgeable about the topic. The student developed eClips videos were then used as part of interactive lessons to help other students learn about key science concepts. As part of our research, we established a quasi-experimental design where one group of students received the intervention including the Spotlite videos (intervention group) and one group did not receive the intervention (comparison group). An overall comparison of post scores between intervention group and comparison group students showed intervention groups had significantly higher scores in three of the four content areas - Ozone, Clouds, and Phase Change.

  13. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  14. Improvement of nursing students' critical thinking skills through problem-based learning in the People's Republic of China: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haobin; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Williams, Beverly A

    2008-03-01

    A quasi-experimental, two-group pretest-post-test design was conducted to examine the effect of problem-based learning on the critical thinking skills of 46 Year 2 undergraduate nursing students in the People's Republic of China. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test Form A, Chinese-Taiwanese version was used as both a pretest and as a post-test for a semester-long nursing course. There was no significant difference in critical thinking skills at pretest, whereas, significant differences in critical thinking skills existed between the problem-based learning and lecture groups at post-test. The problem-based learning students had a significantly greater improvement on the overall California Critical Thinking Skills Test, analysis, and induction subscale scores compared with the lecture students. Problem-based learning fostered nursing students' critical thinking skills.

  15. Effectiveness of interactive, online games in learning neuroscience and students' perception of the games as learning tools. A pre-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Marilyn E; Ford, Ruth; Webster, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Neurological concepts applicable to a doctorate in occupational therapy are often challenging to comprehend, and students are required to demonstrate critical reasoning skills beyond simply recalling the information. To achieve this, various learning and teaching strategies are used, including the use of technology in the classroom. The availability of technology in academic settings has allowed for diverse and active teaching approaches. This includes videos, web-based instruction, and interactive online games. In this quantitative pre-experimental analysis, the learning and retention of neuroscience concepts by 30 occupational therapy doctoral students, who participated in an interactive online learning experience, were assessed. The results suggest that student use of these tools may enhance their learning of neuroscience. Furthermore, the students felt that the sites were appropriate, beneficial to them, and easy to use. Thus, the use of online, interactive neuroscience games may be effective in reinforcing lecture materials. This needs to be further assessed in a larger sample size.

  16. The role of moving images in the conference interpreting classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Susi Septaviana Rakhmawati

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the study of the student interpreters’ performance in conference interpreting classes in an Indonesian university when multimodal texts were provided as part of the teaching methods. It aims to answer how multimodal texts can influence interpreting performance among students. A case study design was used to allow an in-depth analysis of the students’ interpreting performance as the phenomenon described (Yin, 2003) using triangulation of data analysis. Observation, interv...

  17. Unregulated Autonomy: Uncredentialed Educational Interpreters in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Although many rural Deaf and Hard of Hearing students attend public schools most of the day and use the services of educational interpreters to gain access to the school environment, little information exists on what interpreters are doing in rural school systems in the absence of credentialing requirements. The researcher used ethnographic interviews and field observations of three educational interpreters with no certification or professional assessment to explore how uncredentialed interpreters were enacting their role in a rural high school. The findings indicate that uncredentialed interpreters in rural settings perform four major functions during their school day: preparing the environment, staff, and materials; interpreting a variety of content; interacting with numerous stakeholders; and directly instructing Deaf and Hard of Hearing students. Generally, educational interpreters in rural districts operate with unregulated autonomy, a situation that warrants further research and a national standard for all educational interpreters.

  18. The Effectiveness of Peer Taught Group Sessions of Physiotherapy Students within the Clinical Setting: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Dee; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether learning from peers, learning from a clinical educator, or being the peer teacher during clinical group sessions was more effective at enhancing student learning outcomes for different health conditions. A secondary aim was to determine which method students found more satisfactory. Physiotherapy students at…

  19. Standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum to improve nursing students' performance during simulated resuscitation: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Jian; Hu, Fen; Yu, Si-Hong; Yang, Bing-Xiang; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Xiao-Ping

    2018-03-14

    Simulation-based curriculum has been demonstrated as crucial to nursing education in the development of students' critical thinking and complex clinical skills during a resuscitation simulation. Few studies have comprehensively examined the effectiveness of a standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum on the performance of students in a resuscitation simulation. To evaluate the impact of a standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum on nursing students' response time in a resuscitation simulation. Two-group, non-randomised quasi-experimental design. A simulation centre in a Chinese University School of Nursing. Third-year nursing students (N = 39) in the Emergency and Intensive Care course were divided into a control group (CG, n = 20) and an experimental group (EG, n = 19). The experimental group participated in a standardised high-technology, simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum. The standardised simulation-based curriculum for third-year nursing students consists of three modules: disaster response, emergency care, and intensive care, which include clinical priorities (e.g. triage), basic resuscitation skills, airway/breathing management, circulation management and team work with eighteen lecture hours, six skill-practice hours and twelve simulation hours. The control group took part in the traditional curriculum. This course included the same three modules with thirty-four lecture hours and two skill-practice hours (trauma). Perceived benefits included decreased median (interquartile ranges, IQR) seconds to start compressions [CG 32 (25-75) vs. EG 20 (18-38); p  0.05] and defibrillation [CG 222 (194-254) vs. EG 221 (214-248); p > 0.05] at the beginning of the course. A simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum was created and well received by third-year nursing students and associated with decreased response time in a

  20. Effects of an intensive clinical skills course on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence: A quasi-experimental post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyun

    2018-02-01

    To foster nursing professionals, nursing education requires the integration of knowledge and practice. Nursing students in their senior year experience considerable stress in performing the core nursing skills because, typically, they have limited opportunities to practice these skills in their clinical practicum. Therefore, nurse educators should revise the nursing curricula to focus on core nursing skills. To identify the effect of an intensive clinical skills course for senior nursing students on their self-confidence and clinical competence. A quasi-experimental post-test study. A university in South Korea during the 2015-2016 academic year. A convenience sample of 162 senior nursing students. The experimental group (n=79) underwent the intensive clinical skills course, whereas the control group (n=83) did not. During the course, students repeatedly practiced the 20 items that make up the core basic nursing skills using clinical scenarios. Participants' self-confidence in the core clinical nursing skills was measured using a 10-point scale, while their clinical competence with these skills was measured using the core clinical nursing skills checklist. Independent t-test and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. The mean scores in self-confidence and clinical competence were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. This intensive clinical skills courses had a positive effect on senior nursing students' self-confidence and clinical competence for the core clinical nursing skills. This study emphasizes the importance of reeducation using a clinical skills course during the transition from student to nursing professional. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  2. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  3. Schrodinger's mechanics interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David B

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been in dispute for nearly a century with no sign of a resolution. Using a careful examination of the relationship between the final form of classical particle mechanics (the Hamilton–Jacobi Equation) and Schrödinger's mechanics, this book presents a coherent way of addressing the problems and paradoxes that emerge through conventional interpretations.Schrödinger's Mechanics critiques the popular way of giving physical interpretation to the various terms in perturbation theory and other technologies and places an emphasis on development of the theory and not on an axiomatic approach. When this interpretation is made, the extension of Schrödinger's mechanics in relation to other areas, including spin, relativity and fields, is investigated and new conclusions are reached.

  4. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...... social theoretical accounts of the case. In disagreements between different normative interpretations, appeals are often made to the ‘context', so it is also considered what roles ‘context' might play in debates over normative interpretations...

  5. Principles of radiological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional radiographic procedures (plain film) are the most frequently utilized imaging modality in the evaluation of the skeletal system. This chapter outlines the essentials of skeletal imaging, anatomy, physiology, and interpretation

  6. An overview of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) and consider various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI). Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed. 12 refs.

  7. An Overview of the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    1988-02-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) is summarized and various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI) are considered. Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed.

  8. An overview of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TI) and consider various points concerning the TI and its relation to the Copenhagen interpretation (CI). Questions concerning mapping the TI onto the CI, of advanced waves as solutions to proper wave equations, of collapse and the QM formalism, and of the relation of quantum mechanical interpretations to experimental tests and results are discussed. 12 refs

  9. Increased mastery of student life through mastery courses at Sit Råd? - A glance at self-efficacy and growth mindset within a quasi-experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Heess, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to carry out a program evaluation with mastery courses of the student counseling service from SiT in Trondheim (SiT Råd). The main goal of the courses is to increase mastery of student life. In the wake of the operationalization of the main goal, Bandura`s (1997) concept of self-efficacy was used. Furthermore, Dweck`s (2006) theory of fixed and growth mindset represented the basis for the second concept investigated. A quasi-experimental design with an exp...

  10. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  11. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ideas y expectativas del estudiante de traducción respecto a la traducción literaria / Ideas and expectations of translation and interpreting students about literary translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia TODA CASTÁN

    2012-03-01

    , indudablemente, para mejorar en algunos aspectos de la enseñanza de la traducción literaria.   A number of papers dealing with the way in which translation is taught at Spanish Universities have been published in recent years. Those papers tried to find out the opinion of students about the education they received by using questionnaires. The same technique was used in papers aiming at following the professional trajectories of Translation and Interpreting graduates, as well as showing the situation of professional translators. The present paper intends to bring the focus to the teaching of Literary Translation at University. 119 Translation and Interpreting students of the Faculty of Translation and Documentation of the University of Salamanca, in Spain, filled a questionnaire aimed at finding out their ideas and expectations about the teaching of Literary Translation, as well as about the profession of literary translator. The results made it possible to get an approximation to the opinions of students on these matters. Some interesting aspects appeared during this research. The fact that both professors and students become aware of these aspects could help improve the teaching of Literary Translation.

  13. College Students in an Experimental Study Took Longer to Achieve Comprehension when Instant Messaging while Reading. A Review of: Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M., & Gendron, M. (2010). Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54, 927-931.

    OpenAIRE

    Megan von Isenburg

    2010-01-01

    Objective – To examine the effects of multitasking while doing school work. The experiment specifically measured total time spent reading a simulated textbook passage and tested comprehension in students who received instant messages before reading, while reading, or not at all.Design – Experimental design in which one group of students read an online text while receiving and responding to instant messages. Comparison groups either received instant messages (IMs) prior to reading the text pas...

  14. The experimentation of LC7E learning model on the linear program material in terms of interpersonal intelligence on Wonogiri vocational school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinah; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Husodo, B.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of learning model on student achievement in terms of interpersonal intelligence. The compared learning models are LC7E and Direct learning model. This type of research is a quasi-experimental with 2x3 factorial design. The population in this study is a Grade XI student of Wonogiri Vocational Schools. The sample selection had done by stratified cluster random sampling. Data collection technique used questionnaires, documentation and tests. The data analysis technique used two different unequal cell variance analysis which previously conducted prerequisite analysis for balance test, normality test and homogeneity test. he conclusions of this research are: 1) student learning achievement of mathematics given by LC7E learning model is better when compared with direct learning; 2) Mathematics learning achievement of students who have a high level of interpersonal intelligence is better than students with interpersonal intelligence in medium and low level. Students' mathematics learning achievement with interpersonal level of intelligence is better than those with low interpersonal intelligence on linear programming; 3) LC7E learning model resulted better on mathematics learning achievement compared with direct learning model for each category of students’ interpersonal intelligence level on linear program material.

  15. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  16. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  17. Developing Interpretive Power in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebery, Ann S.; Warren, Beth; Tucker-Raymond, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Early career teachers rarely receive sustained support for addressing issues of diversity and equity in their science teaching. This paper reports on design research to create a 30 hour professional development seminar focused on cultivating the interpretive power of early career teachers who teach science to students from historically…

  18. Negotiating legitimacy in American Sign Language interpreting education: Uneasy belonging in a community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Friedner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article ethnographically explores how American Sign Language-English interpreting students negotiate and foreground different kinds of relationships to claim legitimacy in relation to deaf people and the deaf community. As the field of interpreting is undergoing shifts from community interpreting to professionalization, interpreting students endeavor to legitimize their involvement in the field. Students create distinction between themselves and other students through relational work that involves positive and negative interpretation of kinship terms. In analyzing interpreting students' gate-keeping practices, this article explores the categories and definitions used by interpreting students and argues that there is category trouble that occurs. Identity and kinship categories are not nuanced or critically interrogated, resulting in deaf people and interpreters being represented in static ways.

  19. Effects of Palliative Care Training Program on Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Experiences Among Student Physiotherapists: A Preliminary Quasi-experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Senthil P; Jim, Anand; Sisodia, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic...

  20. Self-esteem and other-esteem in college students with borderline and avoidant personality disorder features: An experimental vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, David P.; Armitage, Chris J.; Drabble, Jennifer; Meyer, Björn

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study investigated self- and other-esteem responses to either fully supportive or less supportive interpersonal feedback in college students with avoidant and borderline personality disorder features (APD and BPD, respectively). Disturbances in self-esteem and in evaluations of others are central to definitions of both APD and BPD, but the extent to which such interpersonal appraisals are responsive to contextual features, such as evaluative feedback from others, is not yet cl...

  1. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  2. Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

    2012-10-01

    Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education.

  3. OFICINA DE INTERPRETAÇÃO AMBIENTAL COM ALUNOS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL NA “TRILHA DO JATOBÁ” EM ILHA SOLTEIRA, SP. ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION WORKSHOP WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE “JATOBÁ TRAIL”, ILHA SOLTEIRA, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Montibeller Santos

    2012-11-01

    located in the CCFS-CESP (Center for Conservation of Wildlife of Ilha Solteira-SP, Brazil as a tool for learning science content through interpretation of the landscape and its components. The activity goals were: 1. Evaluate the validity of the implementation of practical activities in the natural environment and 2. Check if this activity should be preceded by a lecture in order to be effective. The activity, which was divided into lecture and practice, was attended by 30 students in the 7th year of elementary school of a private school in Ilha Solteira, who integrated two groups of 15 people. One of the groups saw the lecture while the other made the trip up the trail and, after completing these activities, the groups were reversed. Three questionnaires were applied: 1st. To diagnose prior knowledge before beginning the activities; 2nd. After the lecture; 3rd. After the practical session (trail to check the performance of students. The results showed that the activity was satisfactory to all students, emphasizing that those who attended the lecture before the trip up the trail had better use of the journey.

  4. The Experimental Teaching Reform in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology for Undergraduate Students in Peking University Health Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and…

  5. The Impact of Scholarships for Asian American and Pacific Islander Community College Students: Findings from an Experimental Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Martin, Margary; Pazich, Loni Bordoloi; Alcantar, Cynthia M.; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Curammeng, Edward R.; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Chan, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on scholarship programs provides foundational knowledge on student enrollment patterns, different types of programs and their students, and outcomes for scholarship recipients in different sectors of higher education. Despite this growing body of research, however, looming questions remain about the measurable impact of scholarship…

  6. Algorithmic tools for interpreting vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Melina C; Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2009-07-01

    Today's complex world of nursing practice challenges nurse educators to develop teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills and foster quick problem solving in the novice nurse. Traditional pedagogies previously used in the classroom and clinical setting are no longer adequate to prepare nursing students for entry into practice. In addition, educators have expressed frustration when encouraging students to apply newly learned theoretical content to direct the care of assigned patients in the clinical setting. This article presents algorithms as an innovative teaching strategy to guide novice student nurses in the interpretation and decision making related to vital sign assessment in an acute care setting.

  7. Seventh Graders' Conceptions of Teachers: An Interpretive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergendoller, John R.; Packer, Martin J.

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes students' conceptions of teachers through the interpretive analysis of common expressions students use to describe teachers and classroom experiences. Four descriptive categories were the foci for student's characterizations of teachers: academic work, instructional facility, classroom experience, and personal characteristics. A…

  8. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  9. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  10. Influence of Training on First-Year Nursing Department Students' Attitudes on Death and Caring for Dying Patients: A Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Birgül

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students' attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.

  11. The experimentation of LC7E learning model on the linear program material in terms of interpersonal intelligence on Wonogiri Vocational School students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinah; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Husodo, B.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of learning model on student achievement in terms of interpersonal intelligence. The compared learning models are LC7E and Direct learning model. This type of research is a quasi-experimental with 2x3 factorial design. The population in this study is a Grade XI student of Wonogiri Vocational Schools. The sample selection had done by stratified cluster random sampling. Data collection technique used questionnaires, documentation and tests. The data analysis technique used two different unequal cell variance analysis which previously conducted prerequisite analysis for balance test, normality test and homogeneity test. he conclusions of this research are: 1) student learning achievement of mathematics given by LC7E learning model is better when compared with direct learning; 2) Mathematics learning achievement of students who have a high level of interpersonal intelligence is better than students with interpersonal intelligence in medium and low level. Students’ mathematics learning achievement with interpersonal level of intelligence is better than those with low interpersonal intelligence on linear programming; 3) LC7E learning model resulted better on mathematics learning achievement compared with direct learning model for each category of students’ interpersonal intelligence level on linear program material.

  12. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  13. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  14. Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

  15. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.; Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation is the final phase of an LCA where the results of the other phases are considered together and analysed in the light of the uncertainties of the applied data and the assumptions that have been made and documented throughout the study. This chapter teaches how to perform an inte...

  16. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  17. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  18. The effect of a career activity on the students' perception of the nursing profession and their career plan: A single-group experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Arzu Akman; Ilce, Arzu; Can Cicek, Saadet; Yuzden, Ganime Esra; Yigit, Ummuhan

    2016-04-01

    Students' conceptualizations of nursing and their reasons for choosing the profession motivate them and affect their education, work performance and career plans. Nursing educators should support them to plan their careers consciously during their education. The study aimed to investigate the effect of career-planning event for nursing students on their conceptualizations of the nursing profession and their career plans. The study was as single-group experimental study using a pre-test and post-test. The career-planning event was held in the conference hall of the university involved in the current study, and was open to the all students of the nursing school. The sample of the study consisted of 105 students who participated in the "Nursing Career Symposium" held on 27 March 2015. Methods At the event, the importance of career planning and the opportunities of the nursing profession was presented. The data were collected using a questionnaire consisted of two sections including descriptive characteristics and the opinions of the students regarding their career plans and Perception of Nursing Profession Scale. The students completed the first section of the questionnaire before the career event began and the second section of the questionnaire and scale both before and after the event. The participants had positive conceptualizations of the profession. Following a career event, the participants' opinions of professional qualities and professional status as measured through the Perception of Nursing Profession Scale showed a significant increase, and that the event had made an important contribution to their career plans. In the light of these results, it is possible to suggest that such events have an important place during education in that they introduce the nursing profession, and they develop the students' positive thoughts regarding the profession in terms of both course content and teaching methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pteam process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  1. An experimental study on the effects of a simulation game on students' clinical cognitive skills and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary E W; Alsma, Jelmer; Jansen, Els E H; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G; van Saase, Jan L C M; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2016-08-01

    Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a control group working on an e-module; a cases group, combining the e-module with low-fidelity text-based patient cases, and a game group, combining the e-module with a high-fidelity simulation game with the same cases. Participants completed questionnaires on cognitive load and motivation. After a 4-week study period, blinded assessors rated students' cognitive emergency care skills in two mannequin-based scenarios. In total 61 students participated and were assessed; 16 control group students, 20 cases students and 25 game students. Learning time was 2 h longer for the cases and game groups than for the control group. Acquired cognitive skills did not differ between groups. The game group experienced higher intrinsic and germane cognitive load than the cases group (p = 0.03 and 0.01) and felt more engaged (p study longer. The e-module appeared to be very effective, while the high-fidelity game, although engaging, probably distracted students and impeded learning. Medical educators designing motivating and effective skills training for novices should align case complexity and fidelity with students' proficiency level. The relation between case-fidelity, motivation and skills development is an important field for further study.

  2. Theoretical interpretations and experimental verifications of a radioelectric resonance method for measuring the electronic density and collision frequency in a discharge plasma in gases; Interpretations theoriques et verifications experimentales d'une methode de resonance radioelectrique pour la mesure de la densite d'une decharge dans les gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Trong, Khoi [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Theoretical discussions and experimental verifications of one radioelectric resonance method for measuring plasma electronic density and collision frequency. (author) [French] Discussions theoriques et verifications experimentales sur une methode de resonance radioelectrique pour la mesure de la densite electronique et de la frequence de collision d'un plasma d'une decharge dans le gaz. (auteur)

  3. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  4. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  5. PROBABLE FORECASTING IN THE COURSE OF INTERPRETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Translation practice has a heuristic nature and involves cognitive structures of consciousness of any interpreter. When preparing translators, special attention is paid to the development of their skill of probable forecasting.The aim of the present publication is to understand the process of anticipation from the position of the cognitive model of translation, development of exercises aimed at the development of prognostic abilities of students and interpreters when working with newspaper articles, containing metaphorical headlines.Methodology and research methods. The study is based on the competence approach to the training of students-translators, the complex of interrelated scientific methods, the main of which is the psycholinguistic experiment. With the use of quantitative data the features of the perception of newspaper texts on their metaphorical titles are characterized.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the conducted experiment to predict the content of newspaper articles with metaphorical headlines it is concluded that the main condition of predictability is the expectation. Probable forecasting as a professional competence of a future translator is formed in the process of training activities by integrating efforts of various departments of any language university. Specific exercises for the development of anticipation of students while studying the course of translation and interpretation are offered.Practical significance. The results of the study can be used by foreign language teachers of both language and non-language universities in teaching students of different specialties to translate foreign texts. 

  6. The Age of Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietz...

  7. Check the Lambert–Beer–Bouguer law: a simple trick to boost the confidence of students toward both exponential laws and the discrete approach to experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Capua, R; Offi, F; Fontana, F

    2014-01-01

    Exponential decay is a prototypical functional behaviour for many physical phenomena, and therefore it deserves great attention in physics courses at an academic level. The absorption of the electromagnetic radiation that propagates in a dissipative medium provides an example of the decay of light intensity, as stated by the law of Lambert–Beer–Bourguer. We devised a very simple experiment to check this law. The experimental setup, its realization, and the data analysis of the experiment are definitely simple. Our main goal was to create an experiment that is accessible to all students, including those in their first year of academic courses and those with poorly equipped laboratories. As illustrated in this paper, our proposal allowed us to develop a deep discussion about some general mathematical and numerical features of exponential decay. Furthermore, the special setup of the absorbing medium (sliced in finite thickness slabs) and the experimental outcomes allow students to understand the transition from the discrete to the continuum approach in experimental physics. (papers)

  8. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  9. MODELLING THE FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ READINESS TO PERFORMING AND INTERPRETIVE ACTIVITY DURING INSTRUMENTAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenj Bo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main fields of training future music teachers in Ukrainian system of higher education is instrumental music one, such as skills of performing and interpretive activities. The aim of the article is to design a model of the future music teachers’ readiness to performing and interpretive activities in musical and instrumental training. The process of modelling is based on several interrelated scientific approaches, including systemic, personality-centered, reflective, competence, active and creative ones. While designing a model of music future teachers’ readinesses to musical interpretive activities, its philosophical, informative, interactive, hedonistic, creative functions are taken into account. Important theoretical and methodological factors are thought to be principles of musical and pedagogical education: culture correspondence and reflection; unity of emotional and conscious, artistic and technical items in musical education; purposeful interrelations and art and pedagogical communication between teachers and students; intensification of music and creative activity. Above-mentioned pedagogical phenomenon is subdivided into four components: motivation-oriented, cognitive-evaluating, performance-independent, creative and productive. For each component relevant criteria and indicators are identified. The stages of future music teachers’ readiness to performing interpretative activity are highlighted: information searching one, which contributes to the implementation of complex diagnostic methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing; regulative and performing one, which is characterized by future music teachers’ immersion into music performing and interpretative activities; operational and reflective stage, which involves activation of mechanisms of future music teachers’ self-knowledge, self-realization, formation of skills of independent artistic and expressive various music genres and styles interpretation; projective and

  10. Voices From The Field: Developing Employability Skills for Archaeological Students Through the Experimentation and the Pedagogy of Problem Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaynor Wood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graduate employment statistics are receiving considerable attention in UK universities. This paper looks at how a wide range of employability attributes can be developed with students, through the innovative use of the Problem Based Learning (PBL approach. The case study discussed here involves a group of archaeology students from the University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN and their task of reconstructing and firing a small, early medieval clamp kiln. The employability skills and attributes that the students felt they had developed from this experience are discussed, with reference to Yorke’s USEM model of employability. Thanks are due to Get Your Wellies Outdoor Learning Centre, Preston, Lancashire for the use of their site, and to James Claydon, Bernard and Pat Fleming, Brian Joynes, Josh Pugh, Dan Scully, Mike Woods for their involvement in the experiment

  11. E-learning for students in their first year: a French experimentation at the medical school of Grenoble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Marie; Pagonis, Daniel; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Sele, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    A local study carried out in the Medical School of Grenoble shows that teaching in the first year in medicine studies satisfies neither the students, nor the teachers. The Faculty of Medicine of Grenoble decided to set up a reform in order to offer a high quality education. This reform leads to a complete reorganization of the curriculum and to the intensive use of new information and communication technologies of information, in particular, the use of multimedia documents. The communication and information technologies team of the Faculty of Medicine of Grenoble carried out an innovating and daring reform to start at the academic year 2006-2007. The new course is built on three activities: self learning on multi-media resources, meetings with teachers for questions-answers sessions and tutorials animated by older students. This article reports the first results for this successful project. In the academic year 2006-2007, are concerned 1290 students, 40 teachers and 8 disciplines.

  12. Development and experimental study of mental health app for University students: Improving the app through log analysis and questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    梶谷, 康介; 東島, 育美; 金子, 晃介; 松下, 智子; 福盛, 英明; 金, 大雄

    2018-01-01

    The survey by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare showed suicide to be the leading cause of death for Japanese in their 20s, and enacting mental health measures for young people such as university students is an urgent issue. As a mental health measure aimed at the youth, we have launched the project entitled “the empirical study on the improvement in mental health of university students using a smartphone app”. In this project, we first conducted a questionnaire survey about healthcar...

  13. The impact of simulation-based learning on students' English for Nursing Purposes (ENP) reading proficiency: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Yun Annie; Chan, Luke; Siren, Betty

    2013-06-01

    This is a report of a study which evaluated simulation-based learning as a teaching strategy for improving participants' ENP reading proficiency in the senior college program of students whose first language is Chinese, not English. Simulation-based learning is known to be one of most effective teaching strategies in the healthcare professional curricula, which brings a clinical setting into the classroom. However, developing English reading skills for English written nursing journals through simulation-based learning in the nursing curricula, is largely unknown. We used a quasi-experimental approach with nonequivalent control group design to collect the causal connections between intervention and outcomes. 101 students were enrolled in this study (response rate 92.6%) of these 48 students volunteered for the intervention group, and 53 students for the control group. The findings indicated that the intervention group had significantly higher mean scores in ENP reading proficiency with unknown words in the article (p=.004), vocabulary (pdesigned research and a universal method of outcome measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretations of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiskounsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    University students were surveyed to learn what they know about virtual realities. The two studies were administered with a half-year interval in which the students (N=90, specializing either in mathematics and science, or in social science and humanities) were asked to name particular examples of virtual realities. The second, but not the first study, was administered after the participants had the chance to see the movie "Avatar" (no investigation was held into whether they really saw it). While the students in both studies widely believed that activities such as social networking and online gaming represent virtual realities, some other examples provided by the students in the two studies differ: in the second study the participants expressed a better understanding of the items related to virtual realities. At the same time, not a single participant reported particular psychological states (either regular or altered) as examples of virtual realities. Profound popularization efforts need to be done to acquaint the public, including college students, with virtual realities and let the public adequately understand how such systems work.

  15. 14 December 2011 - Czech Republic Delegation to CERN Council and Finance Committees visiting ATLAS experimental area, LHC tunnel and ATLAS visitor centre with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, accompanied by Physicist R. Leitner and Swiss student A. Lister.

    CERN Multimedia

    Estelle Spirig

    2011-01-01

    14 December 2011 - Czech Republic Delegation to CERN Council and Finance Committees visiting ATLAS experimental area, LHC tunnel and ATLAS visitor centre with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, accompanied by Physicist R. Leitner and Swiss student A. Lister.

  16. College Students in an Experimental Study Took Longer to Achieve Comprehension when Instant Messaging while Reading. A Review of: Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M., & Gendron, M. (2010. Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54, 927-931.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan von Isenburg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the effects of multitasking while doing school work. The experiment specifically measured total time spent reading a simulated textbook passage and tested comprehension in students who received instant messages before reading, while reading, or not at all.Design – Experimental design in which one group of students read an online text while receiving and responding to instant messages. Comparison groups either received instant messages (IMs prior to reading the text passage or did not receive any IMs during the task.Setting – General psychology department at Central Connecticut State University, United States.Subjects – Eighty-nine college students enrolled in general psychology courses. The participants included 43 women and 46 men and were between 17 and 46 years old. Most students were full time students (91%, most were European / White (74% and in their first (46% or second (33% year of college. Participants’ academic majors represented all the schools in the university.Methods – Researchers created a simulated environment in which a passage from a psychology textbook was displayed on five consecutive screens. For the experimental group, an IM appeared on each of the five screens preceded by an alert sound. Messages were written to reflect the types of questions students might ask each other when they first meet, such as “What do you like to do in your spare time?”Subjects were randomized to three situations: receiving IMs before reading, receiving IMs during reading, or not receiving any IMs. Subjects were told that they would either receive IMs before reading, while reading, or not at all. Messages received during reading appeared one per screen after a specified time spent on each page (after 17, 15, 29, 20 and 26 seconds, respectively. Students could take as long as necessary to read the passage and to respond to IMs.After reading the passage, students were given a multiple choice test with 25

  17. Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    10. 10. Content. 25. Conveying interaction between lecturer and students. 5. 5. Managing equipment. Breath control and volume. 5. Intonation and voice quality. Use of coping techniques. Pronunciation and general clarity. Error correction. Fluency of interpreting product (hesitations, silences etc.) Interpreting competency. 15.

  18. How Chinese Semantics Capability Improves Interpretation in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chu-Yu; Ou, Yang-Kun; Kin, Ching-Lung

    2017-01-01

    A visual representation involves delivering messages through visually communicated images. The study assumed that semantic recognition can affect visual interpretation ability, and the result showed that students graduating from a general high school achieve satisfactory results in semantic recognition and image interpretation tasks than students…

  19. An Assessment of the Effects of Two Experimental Arrangements on the Classroom Behavior of Student Teachers as Measured By IOTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Donald Edward

    This study found no significant difference in classroom teaching performance between participants enrolled in the three semester on-site teacher preparation sequence and participants enrolled in a one semester on-campus and two semester on-site sequence. Subjects were 39 volunteer undergraduate students enrolled in the Department of Secondary…

  20. Promoting Student Inquiry Using "Zea Mays" (Corn) Cultivars for Hypothesis-Driven Experimentation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.

    2014-01-01

    The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…

  1. An Experimental Text in Transformational Geometry, Student Text; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 43a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics, Newton, MA.

    This is part of a student text which was written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for mathematics. The instructional materials were developed for teaching geometry in the secondary schools. This document is chapter six and titled Motions and…

  2. A DNA Fingerprinting Simulation Laboratory for Biology Students: Hands-on Experimentation To Solve a Mock Forensic Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Michael A.; Cosentino, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Presents an alternative approach to DNA fingerprinting. Demonstrates how undergraduate students can be involved in many aspects of this type of experiment and how DNA fingerprinting experiments can be incorporated into the laboratory curriculum of courses for majors and nonmajors. (NB)

  3. The Ability of the Coping Competence Questionnaire to Predict Resilience against Learned Helplessness among Undergraduate College Students: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Cindy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Coping Competence Questionnaire (CCQ), based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, was designed to assess a general stress resistance versus a propensity towards learned helplessness with a brief, 12-item self-report questionnaire. In this study the CCQ was administered to 247 undergraduate students, who were then paired, in groups…

  4. The Promise of Andragogy and Experimental Learning to Improve Teaching of Nutrition Concepts to Culinary Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsalam, N.; Condrasky, M.; Bridges, W.; Havice, P.

    2017-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of traditional lecture (C), face-to-face demonstration (DP), on-line lecture capture (OP), and the combination of the last two (OP+DP) to enhance culinary arts students' application skills related to sodium usage in food preparation. Objectives were to compare relative effectiveness of…

  5. An Experimental Analysis of Computer-Mediated Instruction and Student Attitudes in a Principles of Financial Accounting Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Anthony; D'Aquila, Jill M.

    2002-01-01

    Accounting students received either traditional instruction (n=46) or used computer-mediated communication and WebCT course management software. There were no significant differences in attitudes about the course. However, computer users were more positive about course delivery and course management tools. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  6. The Effect of Mastery Learning Model with Reflective Thinking Activities on Medical Students' Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…

  7. An Experimental Study on the Effects of a Simulation Game on Students' Clinical Cognitive Skills and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary E. W.; Alsma, Jelmer; Jansen, Els E. H.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Schuit, Stephanie C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a…

  8. Prior Self-Efficacy Interacts with Experiential Valence to Influence Self-Efficacy among Engineering Students: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Self-efficacy toward science learning has been shown to play a crucial role in determining students' motivation and achievements. Social cognitive theory proposes that positive and negative task outcomes affect mastery experiences from which self-efficacy develops. The current research examined whether prior level of self-efficacy would serve as a…

  9. An Experimental Assessment of Physical Educators' Expectations and Attitudes: The Importance of Student Weight and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie Lee; Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Background: At school, physical education (PE) teachers and coaches may be key supports for physical activity. Unfortunately, PE teachers may endorse negative stereotypes and attitudes toward overweight youth. These biases may influence the amount of instruction physical educators provide to students and their participation in PE or other physical…

  10. Campus Community Involvement in an Experimental Food Research Project Increases Students' Motivation and Improves Perceived Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…

  11. The efficacy of computerized alcohol intervention tailored to drinking motives among college students: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Chieco, Francesca; Andriolo, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Although motivational processes may influence the intervention effects and help prevention programmes identify students at great risk for alcohol-related problems, no computerized alcohol intervention has yet to be tailored to drinking motives. To describe the development and initial pilot testing of a computer-delivered intervention tailored to drinking motives, to prevent alcohol abuse and its adverse consequences among university students in general and among baseline hazardous drinkers specifically. 124 college students attending a public university in northeastern Italy participated in this study in October of 2012 (89.2% female- mean age = 21.64-34% baseline hazardous drinkers). Two classes (one undergraduate, one graduate) were assigned to one of two conditions: intervention and control group. Both groups received profile-specific feedback and then the intervention group received profile-specific online training for 4 weeks. This profile was based on their risk type (high-low) and drinking motives (enhancement-social-conformity-coping). Controlling for corresponding baseline alcohol measures, analyses showed a significant interaction between intervention condition and hazardous drinkers at baseline. For hazardous drinkers at baseline, the alcohol intervention results showed a significant decrease in frequency and quantity of alcohol use at follow-up, while no difference was observed between intervention conditions for non-hazardous drinkers at baseline. The results suggest that hazardous drinkers (college students) who completed the specific training and received personalized feedback seemed to do better on frequency and quantity of alcohol use than hazardous drinkers (college students) who received only personalized feedback. These results seem to provide support for a larger trial of the intervention and for more appropriate evaluations.

  12. Are there realistically interpretable local theories?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Espagnat, B.

    1989-01-01

    Although it rests on strongly established proofs, the statement that no realistically interpretable local theory is compatible with some experimentally testable predictions of quantum mechanics seems at first sight to be incompatible with a few general ideas and clear-cut statements occurring in recent theoretical work by Griffiths, Omnes, and Ballentine and Jarrett. It is shown here that in fact none of the developments due to these authors can be considered as a realistically interpretable local theory, so that there is no valid reason for suspecting that the existing proofs of the statement in question are all flawed

  13. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio...

  14. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...... in the 18th century. Very few Plotinus scholars have examined the interpretative development prior to Zeller. Schiavone (1952) and Bonetti (1971), for instance, have given little attention to Brucker’s introduction of the concept system of philosophy. The present analysis, then, has value...

  15. Internship: Interpreting Micropolitical Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Millwater, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Many university faculties of education across Australia employ a model of internship for final semester pre-service teacher education students to help them make a smooth transition into the teaching profession. While a growing body of research has explored pre-service teachers' experiences of their practicum, including the internship, which is the…

  16. Experimental studies of collisions of excited Li(4p) atoms with C2H4, C2H6, C3H8 and theoretical interpretation of the Li-C2H4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmineh, Natenael; Bililign, Solomon; Hagebaum-Reignier, Denis; Jeung, Gwang-Hi

    2009-01-01

    Collisions of excited Li(4p) states with C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 and C 3 H 8 are studied experimentally using far-wing scattering state spectroscopy techniques. High-level ab initio quantum mechanical studies of the Li-C 2 H 4 system are conducted to explain the results of the experiment for this system. The recent and present works indicate that knowledge of the internal structure of the perturber (C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 and C 3 H 8 ) is essential to fully understand the interaction between the metal and the hydrocarbon molecules. The ab initio calculation shows that the Li(4d) (with little probability under the experimental conditions) and the Li(4p) can be formed directly through the laser pumping. It also shows that the Li(4s) and Li(3d) states can be formed through an electronic diabatic coupling involving a radiationless process. However, the Li(3p), Li(3s) and Li(2p) states can only be formed through a secondary diabatic coupling which is a much less probable process than the primary one. The calculation limited to two C 2v sections of the potential energy surfaces (PESs) shows peculiar multi-state crossings that we have never seen in other lithium complexes we studied

  17. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  18. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  19. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  20. "They Think They Know What's Best for Me": An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experience of Inclusion and Support in High School for Vision-Impaired Students with Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Mhairi

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of social inclusion and access to the curriculum facing students with visual impairment in schools are well documented. The refreshed UK Vision Strategy (2013) seeks to improve education for students with vision impairment. In order to do this, it is important to understand how students with visual impairment experience education.…

  1. EXPERIMENTATION AND REGULAR USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS BY STUDENTS IN THE CITY OF BRAGANÇA, NORTHEASTERN PARÁ.

    OpenAIRE

    Clemenes Prata Araújo; Lizabete Almeida Castor; Valcirene Gomes Guimarães - Nunes; Adriana Marques de Oliveira - Miranda; Gláucia Caroline Silva - Oliveira; Aldemir Branco de Oliveira F ilho

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug useamongstudents inhighschools in the municipality of Bragança, Pará, northern Brazil. School-based cross-sectional study, a total of five public schools and 1632 students in the municipality ofBragança. The self-administered questionnaire was adapted from other epidemiological studies tothe appropriate population group, with rigorous procedure, guaranteeing anonymity andconfidentiality. The prevalence of illicit dr...

  2. An experimental study on effects of increased ventilation flow on students' perception of indoor environment in computer classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, D; Nordström, K

    2008-08-01

    The effects of ventilation in computer classrooms were studied with university students (n = 355) in a blinded study, 31% were women and 3.8% had asthma. Two classrooms had a higher air exchange (4.1-5.2 ac/h); two others had a lower air exchange (2.3-2.6 ac/h). After 1 week, ventilation conditions were shifted. The students reported environmental perceptions during the last hour. Room temperature, RH, CO2, PM10 and ultra-fine particles were measured simultaneously. Mean CO2 was 1185 ppm at lower and 922 ppm at higher air exchange. Mean temperature was 23.2 degrees C at lower and 22.1 degrees C at higher air exchange. After mutual adjustment (temperature, RH, CO2, air exchange), measured temperature was associated with a perception of higher temperature (P thermal comfort and air quality. Computer classrooms are crowded indoor environments with a high thermal load from both students and computer equipment. It is important to control room temperature either by air conditioning, sun shields, or sufficiently high ventilation flow. A high ventilation flow is also crucial to achieving good perceived air quality. Personal ventilation flow should be at least 10 l/s. Possible loss of learning ability due to poor indoor air quality in university buildings deserves more attention.

  3. EXPERIMENTATION AND REGULAR USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS BY STUDENTS IN THE CITY OF BRAGANÇA, NORTHEASTERN PARÁ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemenes Prata Araújo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug useamongstudents inhighschools in the municipality of Bragança, Pará, northern Brazil. School-based cross-sectional study, a total of five public schools and 1632 students in the municipality ofBragança. The self-administered questionnaire was adapted from other epidemiological studies tothe appropriate population group, with rigorous procedure, guaranteeing anonymity andconfidentiality. The prevalence of illicit drug use among students was 4.37%. Several risk factors tothe use of licit and illicit drugs were detected, of which include: the lack of parental involvement inschool life of students, family income above 3 minimum wages, parents, friends and family whouse illicit drugs and lack of incentive to not use illegal drugs. In summary, this study found thatregular use of illicit drugs is associated with social and economic factors, which should beconsidered in the development of measures to control and prevent the use of illicit drugs in the cityof Bragança.

  4. Experimental plasma research project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This is the latest in a series of Project Summary books going back to 1976 and is the first after a hiatus of several years. They are published to provide a short description of each project supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The Experimental Plasma Research Branch seeks to provide a broad range of experimental data, physics understanding, and new experimental techniques that contribute to operation, interpretation, and improvement of high temperature plasma as a source of fusion energy. In pursuit of these objectives, the branch supports research at universities, DOE laboratories, other federal laboratories and industry. About 70 percent of the funds expended are spent at universities and a significant function of this program is the training of students in fusion physics. The branch supports small- and medium-scale experimental studies directly related to specific critical plasma issues of the magnetic fusion program. Plasma physics experiments are conducted on transport of particles and energy within plasma and innovative approaches for operating, controlling, and heating plasma are evaluated for application to the larger confinement devices of the magnetic fusion program. New diagnostic approaches to measuring the properties of high temperature plasmas are developed to the point where they can be applied with confidence on the large-scale confinement experiments. Atomic data necessary for impurity control, interpretation of diagnostic data, development of heating devices, and analysis of cooling by impurity ion radiation are obtained. The project summaries are grouped into these three categories of plasma physics, diagnostic development and atomic physics

  5. Numerical and experimental simulation of accident processes using KMS large-scale test facility under the program of training university students for nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniskevich, Yu.N.

    2005-01-01

    The KMS large-scale test facility is being constructed at NITI site and designed to model accident processes in VVER reactor plants and provide experimental data for safety analysis of both existing and future NPPs. The KMS phase I is at the completion stage. This is a containment model of 2000 m3 volume intended for experimentally simulating heat and mass transfers of steam-gas mixtures and aerosols inside containment. The KMS phase II will incorporate a reactor model (1:27 scale) and be used for analysing a number of events including primary and secondary LOCA. The KMS program for background training of university students in the nuclear field will include preparation and conduction of experiments, analysis of experiment data. The KMS program for background training of university students in nuclear will include: participation in the development and application of experiment procedures, preparation and carrying out experiments; carrying out pretest and post-test calculations with different computer codes; on-the-job training as operators of experiment scenarios; training of specialists in measurement and information acquisition technologies. (author)

  6. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students: effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van de Goor, Ien A M; Rots-de Vries, Carin M C; Feron, Frans J M

    2016-10-21

    Students' health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students' medical absenteeism, compared to "medical absenteeism policy as usual". A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students) and a control group (445 students) was applied. Multilevel analysis was used to study differences in the development of the level of a student's medical absence over time (after 3 and 12 months). In the intervention group, the level of absenteeism decreased from 8.5 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 5.7 days after 3 months, and to 4.9 days after 12 months. The number of absence periods fell from 3.9 in 12 school weeks to 2.5 after 3 months, and to 2.2 after 12 months. In the control group, the absence days initially decreased from 9.9 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 8.4 days after 3 months, after which an increase to 8.9 days was measured. The number of absence periods initially decreased from 4.5 in 12 school weeks to 3.5, after which an increase to 3.7 was measured. The number of absence days per period remained about the same in both groups. The study provides first indications for the intervention to be effective for Dutch pre-vocational secondary students with increased medical absence rates. The intervention, which consists of personalised management of medical absenteeism by systematic identification of students with extensive medical absenteeism and consistent referral to youth health care physicians, appears to reduce the absence rates more effectively than "medical absenteeism policy as usual". The effectiveness of the intervention is shown primarily by a decrease in the number of periods reported sick.

  7. Data Interpretation: Using Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Gordon B.; Vowler, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data are analysed statistically to allow researchers to draw conclusions from a limited set of measurements. The hard fact is that researchers can never be certain that measurements from a sample will exactly reflect the properties of the entire group of possible candidates available to be studied (although using a sample is often the…

  8. Student Preferences and Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Classes Using Myers-Briggs Indicator: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seta Boghikian-Whitby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study investigated students’ cognitive personality type using the Myers-Briggs personality Type Indicator (MBTI in Internet-based Online and Face-to-Face (F2F modalities. A total of 1154 students enrolled in 28 Online and 32 F2F sections taught concurrently over a period of fourteen years. The study measured whether the sample is similar to the national average percentage frequency of all 16 different personality types; whether specific personality type students preferred a specific modality of instructions and if this preference changed over time; whether learning occurred in both class modalities; and whether specific personality type students learned more from a specific modality. Data was analyzed using regression, t-test, frequency, and Chi-Squared. The study concluded that data used in the study was similar to the national statistics; that no major differences in preference occurred over time; and that learning did occur in all modalities, with more statistically significant learning found in the Online modality versus F2F for Sensing, Thinking, and Perceiving types. Finally, Sensing and Thinking (ST and Sensing and Perceiving (SP group types learned significantly more in Online modality versus F2F.

  9. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  10. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  11. A first interpretation of the Mol 7C/l and Mol 7C/2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, J.; Carluec, B.; Fortunato, M.; Lemmet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of the two experiments MOL 7C/1 and MOL 7C/2 that has been performed at the CEA of Cadarache is presented here: one will find first a recall of the experimental conditions of the MOL experiments, then a short description of the codes that enable the interpretation and finally the results of this interpretation compared to the experimental results

  12. A biographical note on Max Friedrich (1856-1887), Wundt's first PhD student in experimental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Cezary W

    2004-01-01

    This article unveils some previously unknown facts about the short life of Max Friedrich (1856-1887), the author in 1881 of the first PhD dissertation on experimental psychology, written under the supervision of Wilhelm Wundt: "On the Duration of Apperception for Simple and Complex Visual Stimuli." The article describes Friedrich's family background and life, professional career as a teacher, and works in psychology and mathematics. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Raman Line Imaging of Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Carbon Dioxide Solutions at High Pressures: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study for Interpreting Intermolecular Interactions and Free-Volume Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore Carbone, Maria Giovanna; Musto, Pellegrino; Pannico, Marianna; Braeuer, Andreas; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Ernesto

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, a Raman line-imaging setup was employed to monitor in situ the CO2 sorption at elevated pressures (from 0.62 to 7.10 MPa) in molten PCL. The method allowed the quantitative measurement of gas concentration in both the time-resolved and the space-resolved modes. The combined experimental and theoretical approach allowed a molecular level characterization of the system. The dissolved CO2 was found to occupy a volume essentially coincident with its van der Waals volume and the estimated partial molar volume of the probe did not change with pressure. Lewis acid-Lewis base interactions with the PCL carbonyls was confirmed to be the main interaction mechanism. The geometry of the supramolecular complex and the preferential interaction site were controlled more by steric than electronic effects. On the basis of the indications emerging from Raman spectroscopy, an equation of state thermodynamic model for the PCL-CO2 system, based upon a compressible lattice fluid theory endowed with specific interactions, has been tailored to account for the interaction types detected spectroscopically. The predictions of the thermodynamic model in terms of molar volume of solution have been compared with available volumetric measurements while predictions for CO2 partial molar volume have been compared with the values estimated on the basis of Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sczyrba, Alexander; Hofmann, Peter; Belmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key to interpreting metagenome data, but a lack of consensus about benchmarking complicates performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchma...

  15. Sensitizing Undergraduates to Potential Inaccuracies in Projective Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Robert L.; Wachowiak, Dale G.

    This paper describes a methodology developed to provide undergraduate students with direct experience in the process of impressionistic test interpretation. In the experiential exercise, students were shown Thematic Apperception Test cards and then read the responses given by an anonymous client. A discussion of the process by which the students…

  16. Tights vs. Tattoos: Filmic Interpretations of "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests students will view film adaptations of Shakespeare plays more critically by carefully analyzing the same scene from several different film versions. Discusses relevant scenes from "Romeo and Juliet" for classroom interpretation. Suggests that by providing students the vocabulary to discuss the film, educators can encourage them…

  17. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  18. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W; Schmitz, V; Kroening, M [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  19. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  20. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  1. Effectiveness of an evidence-based practice (EBP) course on the EBP competence of undergraduate nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzafa-Martínez, María; López-Iborra, Lidón; Armero Barranco, David; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús

    2016-03-01

    International nursing institutions and experts recommend evidence-based practice (EBP) as a core component of the curriculum for nurses. However, the impact of EBP training on the competence of undergraduate nursing students remains unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP course on the EBP competence undergraduate nursing students'. Quasi-experimental study carried out in non-randomized intervention and control groups. The study was conducted in a Spanish public university in 2010. Out of 420 second- and third-year nursing students, 75 were enrolled in the EBP course, forming the intervention group, and 73 were not enrolled in this course were recruited as controls. The educational intervention was a 15-week course designed to teach EBP competence. The EBP Competence Questionnaire (EBP-COQ) was administered before and after the intervention. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to compare intervention and control group scores before and at two months after the 15-week intervention period. At 2months after the EBP course, mean EBP-COQ scores of the intervention group were significantly improved versus baseline in attitude (4.28 vs. 3.33), knowledge (3.92 vs. 2.82) and skills (4.01 vs. 2.75) dimensions, whereas little change was observed in control group scores over the same time period. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant effect of Time ×Group interaction on global competence and all three EBP-COQ dimensions. Undergraduate nursing students experience positive changes in EBP competence, knowledge, skills, and attitude as the result of a 15-week educational intervention on EBP. This EBP course may provide nursing school educators and policymakers with a useful model for integrating EBP teaching within the nursing curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of peer education intervention on HIV/AIDS related sexual behaviors of secondary school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2015-09-07

    Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post

  3. The interpretation of the iota meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors analyze the iota (1440) meson in a non-relativistic quark model. The authors review the experimental data, then attempt to incorporate it in the mass spectrum and radiative decays of the low-lying pseudoscalar and vector mesons. Correlating these results with production decay rates from J/psi and the radiative decays of iota, the authors conclude that the iota has to be interpreted as having a strong gluonium component

  4. Neutrons and antimony physical measurements and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    New experimental information for the elastic and inelastic scattering of ∼ 4--10 MeV neutrons from elemental antimony is presented. The differential measurements are made at ∼ 40 or more scattering angles and at incident neutron-energy intervals of ∼ 0.5 MeV. The present experimental results, those previously reported from this laboratory and as found in the literature are comprehensively interpreted using spherical optical-statistical and dispersive-optical models. Direct vibrational processes via core-excitation, isospin and shell effects are discussed. Antimony models for applications are proposed and compared with global, regional, and specific models reported in the literature

  5. Effect of price and information on the food choices of women university students in Saudi Arabia: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimic, Aida; Gage, Heather; Raats, Monique; Williams, Peter

    2018-04-01

    To explore the impact of price manipulation and healthy eating information on intended food choices. Health information was provided to a random half of subjects (vs. information on Saudi agriculture). Each subject chose from the same lunch menu, containing two healthy and two unhealthy entrees, deserts and beverages, on five occasions. Reference case prices were 5, 3 and 2 Saudi Arabian Reals (SARs). Prices of healthy and unhealthy items were manipulated up (taxed) and down (subsidized) by 1 SAR in four menu variations (random order); subjects were given a budget enabling full choice within any menu. The number of healthy food choices were compared with different price combinations, and between information groups. Linear regression modelling explored the effect of relative prices of healthy/unhealthy options and information on number of healthy choices controlling for dietary behaviours and hunger levels. University campus, Saudi Arabia, 2013. 99 women students. In the reference case, 49.5% of choices were for healthy items. When the price of healthy items was reduced, 58.5% of selections were healthy; 57.2% when the price of unhealthy items rose. In regression modelling, reducing the price of healthy items and increasing the price of unhealthy items increased the number of healthy choices by 5% and 6% respectively. Students reporting a less healthy usual diet selected significantly fewer healthy items. Providing healthy eating information was not a significant influence. Price manipulation offers potential for altering behaviours to combat rising youth obesity in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An experimental test of assessment reactivity within a web-based brief alcohol intervention study for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzino, Tera L; Rose, Gail L; Helzer, John E

    2016-01-01

    Web-based brief alcohol intervention (WBI) programs have efficacy in a wide range of college students and have been widely disseminated to universities to address heavy alcohol use. In the majority of efficacy studies, web-based research assessments were conducted before the intervention. Web-based research assessments may elicit reactivity, which could inflate estimates of WBI efficacy. The current study tested whether web-based research assessments conducted in combination with a WBI had additive effects on alcohol use outcomes, compared to a WBI only. Undergraduate students (n=856) from universities in the United States and Canada participated in this online study. Eligible individuals were randomized to complete 1) research assessments+WBI or 2) WBI-only. Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and protective behaviors were assessed at one-month follow up. Multiple regression using 20 multiply imputed datasets indicated that there were no significant differences at follow up in alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, or protective behaviors used when controlling for variables with theoretical and statistical relevance. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a significant decrease in peak estimated blood alcohol concentration in both groups, but no differential effects by randomized group. There were no significant moderating effects from gender, hazardous alcohol use, or motivation to change drinking. Web-based research assessments combined with a web-based alcohol intervention did not inflate estimates of intervention efficacy when measured within-subjects. Our findings suggest universities may be observing intervention effects similar to those cited in efficacy studies, although effectiveness trials are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Study of the Effect of Language (English and Spanish on Advertisement Effectiveness with Puerto Rican Hispanic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lebrón

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the population of Puerto Rico includes a large percent of residents with some knowledge of the English language (bilinguals, the vast majority communicates using Spanish, which is their native language. Not surprisingly, the majority of advertisements in Puerto Rican media use the Spanish language. The common sense assumption that Spanish advertising is significantly superior to English advertising when targeting Puerto Rican Hispanics living in Puerto Rico is tested experimentally in this study. The Social Value component of the Theory of Consumption Values was used to generate several Hypotheses that would favor the use of English language. The experiment used magazine-like printed illustrated advertisements to test the hypotheses, all of them dealing with relative effectiveness of Spanish versus English language advertisements. The results show that Spanish advertisements and English advertisements were about the same in terms of their persuasion effectiveness.

  8. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF DANCE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM ON THE MUSICALITY LEVEL OF 1st_YEAR STUDENTS OF FACULTY OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašin Badža

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibilities of contribution to experts and scientists in physical education in the field of studying music and musical culture. The aim of this research was to determine changes of musicality developed during experimental pro- gram of dance. The tendency was also to compare data obtained upon initial and final measurements on of musicality test, on a sample of 104 male students on the firsth year in Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad. For assesment of musical and rhytmical abilities Seashore test was applied. According to obtained results differences in musical-rhytmical dimensions between initial and final measurements we- re p at the significance level of p=.01 respectively

  10. A new experimental community pharmacy internship module for undergraduate pharmacy students in western Nepal: overview and reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Timsina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.

  11. A new experimental community pharmacy internship module for undergraduate pharmacy students in western Nepal: overview and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsina, Sangita; K C, Bhuvan; Adhikari, Dristi; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Kaundinnyayana, Atisammodavardhana

    2017-01-01

    Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university) at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.

  12. Invisibility and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael H; Hermens, Frouke; Oğmen, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Invisibility is often thought to occur because of the low-level limitations of the visual system. For example, it is often assumed that backward masking renders a target invisible because the visual system is simply too slow to resolve the target and the mask separately. Here, we propose an alternative explanation in which invisibility is a goal rather than a limitation and occurs naturally when making sense out of the plethora of incoming information. For example, we present evidence that (in)visibility of an element can strongly depend on how it groups with other elements. Changing grouping changes visibility. In addition, we will show that features often just appear to be invisible but are in fact visible in a way the experimenter is not aware of.

  13. Using narrative pedagogy: learning and practising interpretive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports a hermeneutic study undertaken to explicate students' experiences in educational courses in which teachers enact Narrative Pedagogy. International interest in developing and implementing discipline-specific pedagogies is becoming commonplace as teachers respond to the challenges of preparing students for contemporary practice. Lifeworld Pedagogy, developed in Scandinavia, and Narrative Pedagogy, developed in the United States of America, Canada and New Zealand, are two approaches developed from nursing research for nursing education that provide teachers with research-based alternatives to conventional pedagogy. Further research is needed, however, that addresses how new pedagogies are experienced in schools of nursing. Teachers and students from 22 schools of nursing in the United States of America were interviewed over a 4-year period between 2002 and 2005. Using interpretive phenomenology as the philosophical background and Heideggerian hermeneutics as the method, accounts from 52 participants were analysed by a research team. The theme Learning and Practising Interpretive Thinking reveals how reform is occurring in schools of nursing that use Narrative Pedagogy. It documents how Narrative Pedagogy helps students challenge their assumptions and think through and interpret situations they encounter from multiple perspectives. Findings suggest that by focusing teachers' and students' attention on thinking and interpreting as communal experiences, interpretive pedagogies such as Narrative Pedagogy engage teachers and students in pooling their wisdom, challenging their preconceptions, envisioning new possibilities for providing care and engaging with others to ensure patient-centred care and safety. By documenting students' experiences in courses in which Narrative Pedagogy is used, this study provides teachers with research-based evidence to guide their pedagogical decisions. It extends international efforts to develop discipline

  14. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  15. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  16. Automated, computer interpreted radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Nagle, C.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Wetzel, R.; Sawyer, N.; Ferry, D.; Hershberger, D.

    1984-01-01

    90,000 Radioimmunoassay results have been interpreted and transcribed automatically using software developed for use on a Hewlett Packard Model 1000 mini-computer system with conventional dot matrix printers. The computer program correlates the results of a combination of assays, interprets them and prints a report ready for physician review and signature within minutes of completion of the assay. The authors designed and wrote a computer program to query their patient data base for radioassay laboratory results and to produce a computer generated interpretation of these results using an algorithm that produces normal and abnormal interpretives. Their laboratory assays 50,000 patient samples each year using 28 different radioassays. Of these 85% have been interpreted using our computer program. Allowances are made for drug and patient history and individualized reports are generated with regard to the patients age and sex. Finalization of reports is still subject to change by the nuclear physician at the time of final review. Automated, computerized interpretations have realized cost savings through reduced personnel and personnel time and provided uniformity of the interpretations among the five physicians. Prior to computerization of interpretations, all radioassay results had to be dictated and reviewed for signing by one of the resident or staff physicians. Turn around times for reports prior to the automated computer program generally were two to three days. Whereas, the computerized interpret system allows reports to generally be issued the day assays are completed

  17. On the Interpretation of Top Partners Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii; Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Relatively light Top Partners are unmistakable signatures of reasonably Natural Composite Higgs models and as such they are worth searching for at the LHC. Their phenomenology is characterized by a certain amount of model-dependence, which makes the interpretation of Top Partner experimental searches not completely straightforward especially if one is willing to take also single production into account. We describe a model-independent strategy by which the interpretation is provided on the parameter space of a Simplified Model that captures the relevant features of all the explicit constructions. The Simplified Model limits are easy to interpret within explicit models, in a way that requires no recasting and no knowledge of the experimental details of the analyses. We illustrate the method by concrete examples, among which the searches for a charge 5/3 Partner in same-sign dileptons and the searches for a charge 2/3 singlet. In each case we perform a theory recasting of the available 8 TeV Run-1 results and a...

  18. Experimental studies of caesium iodide aerosol condensation: theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Horton, K.D.; Buckle, E.R.

    1990-07-01

    Caesium iodide is predicted to be a significant source of fission product aerosols during the course of a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor (PWR). The nucleation and growth of caesium iodide aerosols have been studied using a plume chamber and the results compared with theoretical values calculated using the approach developed by Buckle for aerosol nucleation. The morphology of the particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission optical microscopy (TOM), whilst the particle size distributions were determined from differential mobility (DMPS) and aerodynamic (APS) measurements. (author)

  19. Statistics and Data Interpretation for Social Work

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, James

    2011-01-01

    "Without question, this text will be the most authoritative source of information on statistics in the human services. From my point of view, it is a definitive work that combines a rigorous pedagogy with a down to earth (commonsense) exploration of the complex and difficult issues in data analysis (statistics) and interpretation. I welcome its publication.". -Praise for the First Edition. Written by a social worker for social work students, this is a nuts and bolts guide to statistics that presents complex calculations and concepts in clear, easy-to-understand language. It includes

  20. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  1. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  2. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...

  3. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

      This paper reports on an on-going investigation of conversational implicature in triadic speech events: Interpreter-mediated questionings in criminal proceedings in Danish district courts. The languages involved are Danish and English, and the mode of interpreting is the consecutive mode. The c...

  4. Interpreting peptide mass spectra by VEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Rune; Lundsgaard, M.; Welinder, Karen G.

    2003-01-01

    the calculated and the experimental mass spectrum of the called peptide. The program package includes four accessory programs. VEMStrans creates protein databases in FASTA format from EST or cDNA sequence files. VEMSdata creates a virtual peptide database from FASTA files. VEMSdist displays the distribution......Most existing Mass Spectra (MS) analysis programs are automatic and provide limited opportunity for editing during the interpretation. Furthermore, they rely entirely on publicly available databases for interpretation. VEMS (Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist) is a program for interactive analysis...... of peptide MS/MS spectra imported in text file format. Peaks are annotated, the monoisotopic peaks retained, and the b-and y-ion series identified in an interactive manner. The called peptide sequence is searched against a local protein database for sequence identity and peptide mass. The report compares...

  5. Do Interpreters Indeed Have Superior Working Memory in Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent communications between China and western countries in the field of economy,politics and culture,etc,Inter preting becomes more and more important to people in all walks of life.This paper aims to testify the author’s hypothesis "professional interpreters have similar short-term memory with unprofessional interpreters,but they have superior working memory." After the illustration of literatures concerning with consecutive interpreting,short-term memory and working memory,experiments are designed and analysis are described.

  6. Writing Compilers and Interpreters A Software Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Long-awaited revision to a unique guide that covers both compilers and interpreters Revised, updated, and now focusing on Java instead of C++, this long-awaited, latest edition of this popular book teaches programmers and software engineering students how to write compilers and interpreters using Java. You?ll write compilers and interpreters as case studies, generating general assembly code for a Java Virtual Machine that takes advantage of the Java Collections Framework to shorten and simplify the code. In addition, coverage includes Java Collections Framework, UML modeling, object-oriented p

  7. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2014-07-24

    A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical

  9. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a multinational medical-student-delivered smoking prevention programme for secondary schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-09-18

    To evaluate the multinational medical-student-delivered tobacco prevention programme for secondary schools for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among adolescents aged 11-15 years in Germany at half year follow-up. We used a prospective quasi-experimental study design with measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months postintervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 8 German secondary schools. The participants were split into intervention and control classes in the same schools and grades. A total of 1474 eligible participants of both genders at the age of 11-15 years were involved within the survey for baseline assessment of which 1200 completed the questionnaire at 6-month follow-up (=longitudinal sample). The schools participated voluntarily. The inclusion criteria were age (10-15 years), grade (6-8) and school type (regular secondary schools). Two 60 min school-based modules delivered by medical students. The primary end point was the difference from t1 to t2 of the smoking prevalence in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t2 in the intervention group (difference of differences approach). The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups were studied as secondary outcome measures. In the control group, the percentage of students who claimed to be smokers doubled from 4.2% (t1) to 8.1% (t2), whereas it remained almost the same in the intervention group (7.1% (t1) to 7.4% (t2); p=0.01). The likelihood of quitting smoking was almost six times higher in the intervention group (total of 67 smokers at t1; 27 (4.6%) and 7 (1.1%) in the control group; OR 5.63; 95% CI 2.01 to 15.79; p<0.01). However, no primary preventive effect was found. We report a significant secondary preventive (smoking cessation) effect at 6-month follow-up. Long-term evaluation is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The Effect of Pecha Kucha Presentations on Students' English Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the Pecha Kucha presentation format on English as foreign language learners' public speaking anxiety. The participants were 49 students in the English Translation and Interpretation Department of a state university in Turkey. A pre- and post-test experimental research design was used in…

  11. Alternate Theory Formation by Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. Keith

    Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

  12. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  13. Social construction of American sign language--English interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English interpreters, such as learners' age and education and the characteristics of good citizens within the Deaf community. According to the participants, younger students were adept at language acquisition, whereas older learners more readily understood the purpose of lessons. Children of deaf adults were seen as more culturally aware. The participants' beliefs echoed the theories of P. Freire (1970/1970) that educators consider the reality of each student and their praxis and were responsible for facilitating student self-awareness. Important characteristics in the social construction of students included independence, an appropriate attitude, an understanding of Deaf culture, ethical behavior, community involvement, and a willingness to pursue lifelong learning.

  14. Codetype-based interpretation of the MMPI-2 in an outpatient psychotherapy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In an evaluation of the codetype-based interpretation of the MMPI-2, 48 doctoral student psychotherapists rated their clients' (N = 120) standardized interpretations as more accurate when based on the profile's codetype, in comparison with ratings for interpretations based on alternate codetypes. Effect sizes ranged from nonsignificant to large, depending on the degree of proximity between the profile's codetype and the alternate codetype. There was weak evidence to suggest that well-defined profiles yielded more accurate interpretations than undefined profiles. It appears that codetype-based interpretation of the MMPI-2 is generally valid, but there might be little difference in the accuracy of interpretations based on nearby codetypes.

  15. Self-esteem and other-esteem in college students with borderline and avoidant personality disorder features: An experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David P; Armitage, Chris J; Drabble, Jennifer; Meyer, Björn

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study investigated self-esteem and other-esteem responses to either fully supportive or less supportive interpersonal feedback in college students with avoidant and borderline personality disorder features (APD and BPD respectively). Disturbances in self-esteem and in evaluations of others are central to definitions of both APD and BPD, but the extent to which such interpersonal appraisals are responsive to contextual features, such as evaluative feedback from others, is not yet clear. In theory, we would expect that individuals with pronounced PD features would show more inflexible and more negative self-evaluations and others- evaluations than those without PD features. In this study with 169 undergraduates, APD but not BPD features were associated with other-contingent state self-esteem and other-esteem. A significant interaction indicated that highly avoidant respondents felt particularly negatively about themselves and their close others in situations that conveyed subtle criticism but not in situations signalling unequivocal support. This suggests that their self-esteem and other-esteem, rather than being rigidly negative, are instead highly contingent upon interpersonal feedback. Such context contingency has implications for the trait-like description of diagnostic characteristics within current taxonomies and is in line with contemporary dynamic models of personality structure and process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as usual). A total of 28 high-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (aged 13-21 years) were assessed using self- and teacher-ratings at pre- and post-assessment and 2-month follow-up. All participants completed the skills training, and treatment satisfaction was high. Levels of stress, hyperactivity and emotional distress were reduced in the treatment group. The acceptance and commitment therapy group also reported increased prosocial behaviour. These changes were stable or further improved at the 2-month follow-up. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the benefits of acceptance and commitment therapy for autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... Secondly, it is an individual and independent interpretation of the Matthean .... specific social context is emphasised: certain events in the early church ...... Moses-theology, a Covenant-theology or any other exclusive theology.

  18. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  19. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  20. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  1. Tarague Interpretive Trail Mitigation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, David

    2001-01-01

    ...), International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (lARfI) has prepared a mitigation plan for development of an interpretive trail at Tarague Beach, located on the north coast of the island of Guam (Fig. 1...

  2. Begriffsverwirrung? Interpretation Analyse Bedeutung Applikation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayr, Jeremia Josef M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research on the reception of biblical texts confronts scientific exegesis with valid and challenging requests and demands. The hermeneutic question of the compatibility of interpretations resulting out of different contexts (e.g. scientific exegesis and ordinary readers‘ exegesis plays an important role. Taking these requests seriously by coherently restructuring fundamental and central aspects of the theory of scientific interpretation, the present article attempts to offer a stimulating approach for further investigation.

  3. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  4. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  5. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interpretation bias and social anxiety: does interpretation bias mediate the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Milne, Kirby; Dayman, Janet; Kemps, Eva

    2018-05-23

    Two studies aimed to examine whether high socially anxious individuals are more likely to negatively interpret ambiguous social scenarios and facial expressions compared to low socially anxious individuals. We also examined whether interpretation bias serves as a mediator of the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses, in particular current state anxiety, bodily sensations, and perceived probability and cost of negative evaluation pertaining to a speech task. Study 1 used ambiguous social scenarios and Study 2 used ambiguous facial expressions as stimuli to objectively assess interpretation bias. Undergraduate students with high and low social anxiety completed measures of state anxiety responses at three time points: baseline, after the interpretation bias task, and after the preparation for an impromptu speech. Results showed that high socially anxious individuals were more likely to endorse threat interpretations for ambiguous social scenarios and to interpret ambiguous faces as negative than low socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, negative interpretations mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and perceived probability of negative evaluation pertaining to the speech task in Study 1 but not Study 2. The present studies provide new insight into the role of interpretation bias in social anxiety.

  7. Can Ethics Be Taught? A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impact of Class Size on the Cognitive Moral Reasoning of Freshmen Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a business ethics course on the cognitive moral reasoning of freshmen business students. The sample consisted of 268 college students enrolled in a required business ethics course. The students took Rest's Defining Issues Test--Version 2 (DIT2) as a pre-test and then post-test (upon…

  8. The Crowd in Mind and Crowded Minds: An Experimental Investigation of Crowding Effects on Students' Views Regarding Tuition Fees in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jens H.; Jucks, Regina

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, just amounts of tuition fees are often a topic of heated debate among different groups such as students, university teachers, administrative staff, and policymakers. We investigated whether unpleasant situations that students often experience at university due to social crowding can affect students' views on the justified…

  9. Fission-track ages and their geological interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    In fission-track dating, experimental procedures such as etching and thermal pre-treatment may strongly affect the age values determined and their geological interpretation. This peculiarity is due to the common phenomenon of partial fading of fossil (spontaneous-) fission tracks during a sample's geological history. The proper geological interpretation of the age data must take into account the specific experimental conditions, the stability characteristics and size distribution of fission tracks in the sample, the ages of co-existing minerals, and the independent information about the thermal history of the geological region. (author)

  10. The impact of working memory on interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云安; 张国梅

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the roles of working memory in interpreting process. First of all, it gives a brief introduction to interpreting. Secondly, the paper exemplifies the role of working memory in interpreting. The result reveals that the working memory capacity of interpreters is not adsolutely proportional to the quality of interpreting in the real interpreting conditions. The performance of an interpreter with well-equipped working memory capacity will comprehensively influenced by various elements.

  11. Workplace Statistical Literacy for Teachers: Interpreting Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the…

  12. An Interpretation of Two Oromo Folklore Genres Integrated to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and interpret the meanings of two selected folklore genres namely: riddle and pastoral song portrayed in primary Oromo language student text books integrated to enhance the language skills, knowledge, attitude and cultural values of the children. Qualitative method was employed ...

  13. Effects of using the developing nurses' thinking model on nursing students' diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, Mary Gay

    2012-08-01

    This quasi-experimental study tested the effectiveness of an educational model, Developing Nurses' Thinking (DNT), on nursing students' clinical reasoning to achieve patient safety. Teaching nursing students to develop effective thinking habits that promote positive patient outcomes and patient safety is a challenging endeavor. Positive patient outcomes and safety are achieved when nurses accurately interpret data and subsequently implement appropriate plans of care. This study's pretest-posttest design determined whether use of the DNT model during 2 weeks of clinical postconferences improved nursing students' (N = 83) diagnostic accuracy. The DNT model helps students to integrate four constructs-patient safety, domain knowledge, critical thinking processes, and repeated practice-to guide their thinking when interpreting patient data and developing effective plans of care. The posttest scores of students from the intervention group showed statistically significant improvement in accuracy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Could Nursing Educational Courses Change the Attitudes of Students to Mental Disorders stigma? A Quasi- Experimental Study in Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kordlou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence mental disorders and its burden in the world is one of the most important challenges for health system and service delivery to people with mental disorders need enough and trained manpower. Stigma of mental disorders not only influence patients and their families but also is a barrier for delivering mental health services to the patients, hence beyond the knowledge and expertise, health care providers must have an appropriate attitude especially toward the stigma of mental disorder. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mental health related courses of nursing curriculum on the nursing student’s attitude about mental disorders in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with before and after design was used. All 197 nursing students who had one of the related courses of mental health, were studied for attitudes about mental disorder stigma before and after the semester. Farsi version of OMSHC questionnaire was used to measure nursing student’s attitude. One way ANOVAs, Pearson Correlation and Paired T-Test used for Data analysis. Results: Student’s attitude about mental health stigma didn’t improve after the course lessons. Mental health attitude score was different based on gender (P<0/035 and marital status (P<0.006. There was a weak negative correlation between age and attitude score (r=-0.22, P<0/003. Conclusion: The current educational course and lessons can’t improve the nursing student’s attitudes about the stigma of mental disorders. To get desired outcomes, changing lesson plans and the presentation styles must be considered.

  15. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  16. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  17. Interpretation and evaluation of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After digestion, the interpreter must interpreted and evaluate the image on film, usually many radiograph stuck in this step, if there is good density, so there are no problem. This is a final stage of radiography work and this work must be done by level two or three radiographer. This is a final stages before the radiographer give a result to their customer for further action. The good interpreter must know what kind of artifact, is this artifact are dangerous or not and others. In this chapter, the entire artifact that usually showed will be discussed briefly with the good illustration and picture to make the reader understand and know the type of artifact that exists.

  18. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  19. Image analysis enhancement and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary practical and mathematical background are provided for the analysis of an electron microscope image in order to extract the maximum amount of structural information. Instrumental methods of image enhancement are described, including the use of the energy-selecting electron microscope and the scanning transmission electron microscope. The problems of image interpretation are considered with particular reference to the limitations imposed by radiation damage and specimen thickness. A brief survey is given of the methods for producing a three-dimensional structure from a series of two-dimensional projections, although emphasis is really given on the analysis, processing and interpretation of the two-dimensional projection of a structure. (Auth.)

  20. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...

  1. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  2. Quantum theory needs no 'Interpretation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Christopher A.; Peres, Asher

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to stress the fact that Quantum Theory does not need an interpretation other than being an algorithm for computing probabilities associated with macroscopic phenomena and measurements. It does not ''describ'' reality, and the wave function is not objective entity, it only gives the evolution of our probabilities for the outcomes potential experiments. (AIP) (c)

  3. An Authentic Interpretation of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Antić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authentic interpretation of laws is a legal institute whereby a legislator gives the authentic meaning to a specific legal norm in case of its incorrect or diversified interpretation in practice. It has the same legal force as the law. Retroactivity and influence on pending cases are its inherent characteristics. Due to these characteristics and their relation to the principles of the rule of law, legal certainty and separation of powers, it is subjected to severe criticism not only by legal theory but also legal practice. The author analyses the institute of authentic interpretation from historical and comparative point of view and through the Croatian normative regulation, practice of the Croatian Parliament and academic debate, including opinions in favour as well as against it. On these grounds the author concludes that higher quality of law making procedure could make the authentic interpretation dispensable. On the other hand, should this institute be kept in the legal order it is essential to receive more effective constitutional control.

  4. Copenhagen interpretation versus Bohm's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objections raised against Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory are reexamined, and arguments are presented in favour of this theory. Bohm's QED is modified such as to include Dirac particles. It is pointed out that the electric field may be chosen as the 'actual' field instead of the magnetic field. Finally, the theory is reformulated in terms of an arbitrary actual field. (Author)

  5. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various nume...

  6. An interpretation of signature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Naoki; Tajima, Naoki

    1988-01-01

    An interpretation in terms of the cranking model is presented to explain why signature inversion occurs for positive γ of the axially asymmetric deformation parameter and emerges into specific orbitals. By introducing a continuous variable, the eigenvalue equation can be reduced to a one dimensional Schroedinger equation by means of which one can easily understand the cause of signature inversion. (author)

  7. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  8. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  9. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  11. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  12. Working with interpreters: an interactive Web-based learning module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Gany, Francesca; Senter, Lindsay

    2002-09-01

    Medical students are presented with unique challenges when they care for patients with limited English proficiency. Students must learn a complex set of skills needed to care for patients across cultural and language barriers and to understand the impact of their own attitudes and beliefs about caring for these patients. We developed and piloted a multimedia interactive Web-based module aimed at teaching students effective strategies for working with interpreters and diverse patient populations, and at raising their awareness of important legal, ethical, and cultural issues. First the learner completes a 37-multiple-choice-question (MCQ) pre-test that assesses attitudes, factual knowledge, and ability to analyze written clinical scenarios relevant to the module's content. Learners are then shown a series of professionally produced video vignettes, which reflect diverse patient populations, interpreters, and effectiveness of interpretation strategies (e.g., a Russian-speaking woman with chest pain whose daughter interprets, a medical student interpreting for a Chinese-speaking man using herbal medication, a Haitian woman told of an abnormal mammogram through a trained simultaneous interpreter). In each case, learners submit short answers to on-screen questions analyzing the effectiveness of the interpretation strategies demonstrated. Immediate feedback is given comparing student responses with those of experts. At any time during the module, the learners may view video commentary by legal, ethics, and cultural experts, or access a glossary and Web site links. Students conclude the module by again taking the MCQ test. A final screen compares their pre- and post-MCQ test responses and shows best answers, allowing them to assess their learning. The learners also complete a survey, providing personal cultural information and feedback on the module. All 160 first-year medical students completed the module and evaluated its effectiveness this year. On average, students

  13. ICADx: interpretable computer aided diagnosis of breast masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Lee, Hakmin; Kim, Hak Gu; Ro, Yong Man

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a novel computer aided diagnosis (CADx) framework is devised to investigate interpretability for classifying breast masses. Recently, a deep learning technology has been successfully applied to medical image analysis including CADx. Existing deep learning based CADx approaches, however, have a limitation in explaining the diagnostic decision. In real clinical practice, clinical decisions could be made with reasonable explanation. So current deep learning approaches in CADx are limited in real world deployment. In this paper, we investigate interpretability in CADx with the proposed interpretable CADx (ICADx) framework. The proposed framework is devised with a generative adversarial network, which consists of interpretable diagnosis network and synthetic lesion generative network to learn the relationship between malignancy and a standardized description (BI-RADS). The lesion generative network and the interpretable diagnosis network compete in an adversarial learning so that the two networks are improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated on public mammogram database. Experimental results showed that the proposed ICADx framework could provide the interpretability of mass as well as mass classification. It was mainly attributed to the fact that the proposed method was effectively trained to find the relationship between malignancy and interpretations via the adversarial learning. These results imply that the proposed ICADx framework could be a promising approach to develop the CADx system.

  14. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  15. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  16. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  17. Does a Math-Enhanced Curriculum and Instructional Approach Diminish Students' Attainment of Technical Skills? A Year-Long Experimental Study in Agricultural Power and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. Brent; Edwards, M. Craig; Leising, James G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test the posit that students who participated in a contextualized, mathematics-enhanced high school agricultural power and technology (APT) curriculum and aligned instructional approach would not differ significantly (p less than 0.05) in their technical competence from students who participated in the…

  18. Systems Analysis for Interpretation of Phosphoproteomics Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Global phosphoproteomics investigations yield overwhelming datasets with up to tens of thousands of quantified phosphosites. The main challenge after acquiring such large-scale data is to extract the biological meaning and relate this to the experimental question at hand. Systems level analysis...... provides the best means for extracting functional insights from such types of datasets, and this has primed a rapid development of bioinformatics tools and resources over the last decade. Many of these tools are specialized databases that can be mined for annotation and pathway enrichment, whereas others...... provide a platform to generate functional protein networks and explore the relations between proteins of interest. The use of these tools requires careful consideration with regard to the input data, and the interpretation demands a critical approach. This chapter provides a summary of the most...

  19. A theoretical interpretation of EPR and ENDOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M.O.M. de.

    1975-08-01

    To interpret the EPR and ENDOR results of the U 2 center in SrF 2 , two wavefunctions are proposed to describe the unpaired electron of the defect. Use is made of two different models in order to obtain the wavefunctions: the Heitler-London and that of molecular orbitals models. The Pauli repulsion (overlap of wavefunctions) is discussed as well as covalency mechanisms and their influence in the calculation of the hyperfine constants due to magnetic interaction of the unpaired electron and the magnetic nucleus of the cristal. A small amount of covalency between the ground state of the interstitial Hydrogen atom and the 2p shell of the F - ions of the first cristaline shell is introduced fenomenologically in the molecular orbitals model. Both methods are discussed by comparing the theoretical calculations of the hyperfine constants with the measured experimental values obtained with the EPR and ENDOR techniques. (Author) [pt

  20. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors