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Sample records for students find difficult

  1. Why Teachers Find It Difficult to Include Students with EBD in Mainstream Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    In Sweden, teachers in mainstream schools show frustration and insecurity about how to organise education for inclusion and diversity. This article contributes to the understanding of how they articulate their view of the advantages and disadvantages of including students with EBD in mainstream classes. To study teachers' understanding, an…

  2. Students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior secondary schools in ... that students in Senior Secondary School Two (SSII) have difficulties in learning, the ... However, teaching strategies, students' attitude, inadequate learning ...

  3. Medical Students' Personal Determinants of Overcoming Strategies in Difficult Situations

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    Veretelnikova Yu.Ya.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.

  4. Why Do Disadvantaged Filipino Children Find Word Problems in English Difficult?

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    Bautista, Debbie; Mulligan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Young Filipino students are expected to solve mathematical word problems in English, a language that many encounter only in schools. Using individual interviews of 17 Filipino children, we investigated why word problems in English are difficult and the extent to which the language interferes with performance. Results indicate that children could…

  5. Which Aspects of the English Language Do Distance Learners Find Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, George Boon Sai; Lin, Agnes Liau Wei; Belaja, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a research carried out on distance learners at the School of Distance Education (SDE), University Sains Malaysia (USM). The study was explorative in nature with the purpose identifying the aspects of the English language which distance learners found difficult to learn. A quantitative survey questionnaire design…

  6. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Green, Alan; Hanna, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in middle level schools face overwhelming demands and challenges in their classrooms. They are expected to know content and pedagogy, develop engaging lessons that meet the needs of diverse learners, and use a variety of instructional strategies that will boost student achievement while they simultaneously develop positive relationships…

  7. The stories they tell: How third year medical students portray patients, family members, physicians, and themselves in difficult encounters.

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    Shapiro, Johanna; Rakhra, Pavandeep; Wong, Adrianne

    2016-10-01

    Physicians have long had patients whom they have labeled "difficult", but little is known about how medical students perceive difficult encounters with patients. In this study, we analyzed 134 third year medical students' reflective essays written over an 18-month period about difficult student-patient encounters. We used a qualitative computerized software program, Atlas.ti to analyze students' observations and reflections. Main findings include that students described patients who were angry and upset; noncompliant with treatment plans; discussed "nonmedical" problems; fearful, worried, withdrawn, or "disinterested" in their health. Students often described themselves as anxious, uncertain, confused, and frustrated. Nevertheless, they saw themselves behaving in empathic and patient-centered ways while also taking refuge in "standard" behaviors not necessarily appropriate to the circumstances. Students rarely mentioned receiving guidance from attendings regarding how to manage these challenging interactions. These third-year medical students recognized the importance of behaving empathically in difficult situations and often did so. However, they often felt overwhelmed and frustrated, resorting to more reductive behaviors that did not match the needs of the patient. Students need more guidance from attending physicians in order to approach difficult interactions with specific problem-solving skills while maintaining an empathic, patient-centered context.

  8. Defining difficult laryngoscopy findings by using multiple parameters: A machine learning approach

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    Moustafa Abdelaziz Moustafa

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: “Alex Difficult Laryngoscopy Software” (ADLS is a machine learning program for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy. New cases can be entered to the training set thus improving the accuracy of the software.

  9. Martin Award Paper: Development of Interactive Virtual Laboratories to Help Students Learn Difficult Concepts in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Alec S.; Reid, Daniel R.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, we explore the use of threshold concept theory as a design basis for development of Interactive Virtual Laboratories in thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is a difficult subject for chemical and biological engineering students to master. One reason for the difficulty is the diverse and challenging set of threshold concepts that they…

  10. Visual relations children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies.

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    Stevenson, Claire E; Alberto, Rosa A; van den Boom, Max A; de Boeck, Paul A L

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the entities and relations present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some features, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of visual relations across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N = 1422, M = 7.0 years, SD = 21 months, range 4.5-12.5 years) were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The visual relations the children had to induce and apply concerned the features: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children's ability to correctly process each type of relation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all visual relations were processed more accurately. The "what" visual relations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the "where" relations orientation and position were most difficult. However, the "where" visual relations became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition vs. position and motion encoding in the ventral ("what") and dorsal ("where") pathways respectively.

  11. Categories children find easy and difficult to process in figural analogies

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    Claire E Stevenson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analogical reasoning, the ability to learn about novel phenomena by relating it to structurally similar knowledge, develops with great variability in children. Furthermore, the development of analogical reasoning coincides with greater working memory efficiency and increasing knowledge of the objects and rules present in analogy problems. In figural matrices, a classical form of analogical reasoning assessment, some categories, such as color, appear easier for children to encode and infer than others, such as orientation. Yet, few studies have structurally examined differences in the difficulty of rule-types across different age-groups. This cross-sectional study of figural analogical reasoning examined which underlying rules in figural analogies were easier or more difficult for children to correctly process. School children (N=1422, M=7.0 years, SD=21 months, range 4.5-12.5 years were assessed in analogical reasoning using classical figural matrices and memory measures. The transformations the children had to induce and apply concerned the categories: animal, color, orientation, position, quantity and size. The role of age and memory span on the children’s ability to correctly process each type of transformation was examined using explanatory item response theory models. The results showed that with increasing age and/or greater memory span all transformations were processed more accurately. The what transformations animal, color, quantity and size were easiest, whereas the where transformations orientation and position were most difficult. However, animal, orientation and position became relatively easier with age and increased memory efficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the development of visual processing in object recognition versus position and motion encoding, the ventral (what and dorsal (where pathways respectively.

  12. MR imaging findings in granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis: a difficult preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, A.; Arias, M.; Brasa, J. [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica (MEDTEC), Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Paramo, C. [Servicio de Endocrinologia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Conde, C. [Servicio de Neurocirugia, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez, R. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Xeral-Cies, Vigo (Spain)

    2000-12-01

    Granular cell tumor is a rare neoplasm arising within the neurohypophysis. We describe the MR imaging findings in two symptomatic patients. In one patient with history of panhypopituitarism, MR images showed a large sellar and suprasellar mass. The other patient presented with acute loss of vision in her left eye, and MR images showed a suprasellar mass with compression of the optic chiasm. (orig.)

  13. MR imaging findings in granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis: a difficult preoperative diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, A.; Arias, M.; Brasa, J.; Paramo, C.; Conde, C.; Fernandez, R.

    2000-01-01

    Granular cell tumor is a rare neoplasm arising within the neurohypophysis. We describe the MR imaging findings in two symptomatic patients. In one patient with history of panhypopituitarism, MR images showed a large sellar and suprasellar mass. The other patient presented with acute loss of vision in her left eye, and MR images showed a suprasellar mass with compression of the optic chiasm. (orig.)

  14. Hard To Find and Difficult To Manage: The Effects of Child Care on the Workplace.

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    Emlen, Arthur C.; Koren, Paul E.

    This study, which focused on effects of child care on the workplace, addressed several questions: (1) What kinds of child care arrangements do employed parents make, and why do they make them? (2) Are these parents having difficulty finding child care? (3) Does their ability to manage child care affect their absenteeism and stress? (4) What roles…

  15. [What is not searched, it is difficult to find: Chagas' disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Luis; Mosca, Walter

    2016-05-01

    A conservative estimation indicates that more than 400 000 Latin American immigrants are living in Italy. Several studies have shown that among these, the prevalence of Chagas disease is between 3.9% and 17%, so it is not unlikely to find a patient with this disease during a cardiology visit. How many patients from Latin America are diagnosed with heart failure in Italy and no one has ever thought about a possible Chagas disease? This brief review describes the situation of the disease in Italy, its characteristics, the etiology of this disease and its treatment. The latter aspect will be discussed considering the recent published results of the BENEFIT study, where it was found that treatment with benznidazole in patients with Chagas' cardiomyopathy is able to reduce significantly the detection of parasites in the blood, but it is not able to prevent clinical deterioration during 5 years of follow-up. The possible implications of these results will be discussed.

  16. Navigating diversity with nursing students through difficult dialogues: A qualitative study

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    Deirdre E. van Jaarsveldt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Difficult Dialogues project is an international initiative that promotes the development of the art and skill of civil discourse as an essential outcome of higher education. At the University of the Free State, South Africa, the project is implemented by the Centre for Teaching and Learning. When intergroup conflict started disrupting the academic performance of first year nursing students, the School of Nursing consulted with the centre to facilitate a Difficult Dialogues session. This article describes the engineering of a session programme to facilitate learning about navigating diversity and responding to conflict in a constructive way. The rich data of a qualitative inquiry conducted via the Critical Incident Questionnaire are triangulated with literature and other feedback provided to describe to what extent the session contributed towards student learning. A number of participants indicated that they had learnt to respect diversity and had realised that they could co-operate as a team in spite of individual differences. As additional evidence, the students listed specific skills that could aid them in navigating diversity and conflict in future. Considering that the School strives to establish inclusion during the orientation of students, this case raises questions about the sufficiency of such endeavours. In conclusion it is asked to what extent nurse educators should be expected to implement strategies to address issues of diversity in the classroom on a continuous basis.

  17. Discussion of Extinction-Based Behavioral Sleep Interventions for Young Children and Reasons Why Parents May Find Them Difficult.

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    Etherton, Hayley; Blunden, Sarah; Hauck, Yvonne

    2016-11-15

    The majority of behavioral sleep interventions for young children involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child's cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties with this, contributing to attrition, non-compliance, and treatment avoidance. Yet why these methods are difficult to implement has rarely been addressed in the literature. This paper discusses seven potential reasons why parents may find extinction sleep interventions difficult: enduring crying, practical considerations, fear of repercussions, misinformation, incongruence with personal beliefs, different cultural practices, and parent wellness. These reasons are discussed in relation to the current literature. Practicing health professionals and sleep researchers could benefit from an awareness of these issues when suggesting extinction interventions and offering alternatives which may be more appropriate for family circumstances and facilitate parental informed choice. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  18. Owning My Thoughts Was Difficult: Encouraging Students to Read and Write Critically in a Tertiary Qualitative Research Methods Course

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    Wiles, Janine L.; Allen, Ruth E. S.; Butler, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the nascent literature on teaching research methods and what students learn from courses and assessment. Postgraduate students are often confronted with large amounts of reading, and the content of material can be intimidating. Convincing them also to engage critically with readings is even more difficult. We report on a…

  19. Label free fragment screening using surface plasmon resonance as a tool for fragment finding - analyzing parkin, a difficult CNS target.

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    Karin Regnström

    Full Text Available Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR is rarely used as a primary High-throughput Screening (HTS tool in fragment-based approaches. With SPR instruments becoming increasingly high-throughput it is now possible to use SPR as a primary tool for fragment finding. SPR becomes, therefore, a valuable tool in the screening of difficult targets such as the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin. As a prerequisite for the screen, a large number of SPR tests were performed to characterize and validate the active form of Parkin. A set of compounds was designed and used to define optimal SPR assay conditions for this fragment screen. Using these conditions, more than 5000 pre-selected fragments from our in-house library were screened for binding to Parkin. Additionally, all fragments were simultaneously screened for binding to two off target proteins to exclude promiscuous binding compounds. A low hit rate was observed that is in line with hit rates usually obtained by other HTS screening assays. All hits were further tested in dose responses on the target protein by SPR for confirmation before channeling the hits into Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and other hit-confirmation assays.

  20. Archbishop Porter Girls' Senior High School Students' Perception of Difficult Concepts in Senior High School Further Mathematics Curriculum in Ghana

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    Senyefia Bosson-Amedenu

    2017-01-01

    Further Mathematics is frequently perceived as a subject set aside for some exceptional individuals. It often induces feelings of worry; nervousness and panic among students. This study employed the survey research design aimed at investigating difficult concepts in senior secondary school further mathematics curriculum as perceived by students in Archbishop Porter Girls’ Senior High School in Ghana. The study was guided by two research questions and the sample for the study was 100, all of w...

  1. Why do young adults with Type 1 diabetes find it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace?

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    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronan

    2014-03-01

    This article explores how and why workplace environments impact diabetes management for adults people with Type 1 diabetes, 23-30 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 35 young adults, 29 women and 6 men. The majority of these interviewees worked in sectors such as banking, technology and administration. Young adults found it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace for two main reasons: work-related time pressures and the non-routine nature of interviewees' work and working environment. Young adults also found it difficult to get the time to exercise both inside and outside of work. Young adults with Type 1 diabetes need to be provided with the tools and technologies that they need to manage diabetes in modern flexible workplaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why do young adults with Type 1 diabetes find it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace?

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronán

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how and why workplace environments impact diabetes management for adults people with Type 1 diabetes, 23-30 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 35 young adults, 29 women and 6 men. The majority of these interviewees worked in sectors such as banking, technology and administration. Young adults found it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace for two main reasons: work-related time pressures and the non-routine nature of interviewees' work and working envir...

  3. "Home Away from Home"? How International Students Handle Difficult and Negative Experiences in American Higher Education

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    Yan, Lu; Pei, Shaohua

    2018-01-01

    International students attending American universities often receive confusing messages: on one hand, for their contribution to the U.S. economy and fostering of domestic students' multicultural awareness; on the other, they are often targets of hostility and bias on and off campus. This qualitative phenomenological study examined 12 international…

  4. Relation between Students' Involvement and Teacher Management Strategies in French "Difficult" Classrooms

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    Vors, Olivier; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 2010, French secondary schools with a high proportion of students in academic difficulty benefit from a compensatory education policy called "Ecoles Colleges et Lycees pour l'Ambition, l'Innovation et la Reussite" (ECLAIR). These students tend to behave poorly and frequently disengage from learning tasks, and thus one…

  5. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education: Creating Additional Peer-Guided Learning Opportunities in Difficult Compulsory Courses for First-Year Students

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    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) can be an efficient way of improving student success in difficult courses. Here, a study is made on SI attached to difficult first-year engineering courses. The results show that both the percentage of students passing a difficult first-year engineering course, and scores on the course exams are considerably higher…

  6. What Makes Difficult History Difficult?

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    Gross, Magdalena H.; Terra, Luke

    2018-01-01

    All modern nation-states have periods of difficult history that teachers fail to address or address inadequately. The authors present a framework for defining difficult histories and understanding what makes them difficult. These events 1) are central to a nation's history, 2) contradict accepted histories or values, 3) connect with present…

  7. Spelling Pronunciations Help College Students Remember How to Spell Difficult Words

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    Ocal, Turkan; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that children benefit from a spelling pronunciation strategy in remembering the spellings of words. The current study determined whether this strategy also helps adults learn to spell commonly misspelled words. Participants were native English speaking college students (N = 42), mean age 22.5 years (SD = 7.87). An experimental…

  8. Struggling to Deal with the Difficult Past: Polish Students Confront the Holocaust

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    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between school and cultural knowledge of Second World War in contemporary Poland. Drawing on analysis of 126 student responses to well-known photographs (photo elicitation), the author addresses what it means for schoolchildren to learn about an aspect of a contested past, the Holocaust, within the frame of…

  9. Helping Students with Difficult First Year Subjects through the PASS Program

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    Sultan, Fauziah K. P. D.; Narayansany, Kannaki S.; Kee, Hooi Ling; Kuan, Chin Hoay; Palaniappa Manickam, M. Kamala; Tee, Meng Yew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to find out if participants of a pilot PASS program found it to be helpful. The program was implemented for the first time in an institute of higher learning in Malaysia. An action research design guided the study, with surveys, documents, and reflections as primary data sources. The findings were largely…

  10. Helicopter Parents Help Students, Survey Finds

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    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Helicopter parents, notorious for hovering over their college-age children, may actually help students thrive, according to this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. Students whose parents intervene on their behalf--38 percent of freshmen and 29 percent of seniors--are more active in and satisfied with college, says the monstrous annual…

  11. Student Engagement in Assessments: What Students and Teachers Find Engaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soung; Kokka, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Although research has shown that student engagement is strongly related to performance on assessment tasks, especially for traditionally underserved subgroups of students, increasing student engagement has not been the goal of standardized tests of content knowledge. Recent state and federal policies, however, are changing the assessment…

  12. Colleges Scramble to Help Students Find New Lenders

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    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    Recent turbulence in the student-loan business has colleges scrambling to find new loan providers. Financial-aid offices at affected colleges are working hard to get the word out to students. Changes in the loan market have hit community colleges particularly hard because their students tend to have smaller loans and higher default rates than…

  13. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J; Dorozenko, Kate P; Roberts, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    should function as a teaching tool, which engages the user with each choice-point in the decision making process, rather than simply providing an "answer." Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for tools and strategies that could be deployed in the research methods classroom to facilitate and strengthen students' statistical decision making abilities.

  14. Difficult Decisions: A Qualitative Exploration of the Statistical Decision Making Process from the Perspectives of Psychology Students and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter J.; Dorozenko, Kate P.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2016-01-01

    should function as a teaching tool, which engages the user with each choice-point in the decision making process, rather than simply providing an “answer.” Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for tools and strategies that could be deployed in the research methods classroom to facilitate and strengthen students' statistical decision making abilities. PMID:26909064

  15. Difficult decisions: A qualitative exploration of the statistical decision making process from the perspectives of psychology students and academics

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    Peter James Allen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative research methods are essential to the development of professional competence in psychology. They are also an area of weakness for many students. In particular, students are known to struggle with the skill of selecting quantitative analytical strategies appropriate for common research questions, hypotheses and data types. To begin understanding this apparent deficit, we presented nine psychology undergraduates (who had all completed at least one quantitative methods course with brief research vignettes, and asked them to explicate the process they would follow to identify an appropriate statistical technique for each. Thematic analysis revealed that all participants found this task challenging, and even those who had completed several research methods courses struggled to articulate how they would approach the vignettes on more than a very superficial and intuitive level. While some students recognized that there is a systematic decision making process that can be followed, none could describe it clearly or completely. We then presented the same vignettes to 10 psychology academics with particular expertise in conducting research and/or research methods instruction. Predictably, these ‘experts’ were able to describe a far more systematic, comprehensive, flexible and nuanced approach to statistical decision making, which begins early in the research process, and pays consideration to multiple contextual factors. They were sensitive to the challenges that students experience when making statistical decisions, which they attributed partially to how research methods and statistics are commonly taught. This sensitivity was reflected in their pedagogic practices. When asked to consider the format and features of an aid that could facilitate the statistical decision making process, both groups expressed a preference for an accessible, comprehensive and reputable resource that follows a basic decision tree logic. For the academics in

  16. The Patient Feedback Response Framework - Understanding why UK hospital staff find it difficult to make improvements based on patient feedback: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Laura; Marsh, Claire; O'Hara, Jane; Armitage, Gerry; Wright, John; Lawton, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Patients are increasingly being asked for feedback about their healthcare experiences. However, healthcare staff often find it difficult to act on this feedback in order to make improvements to services. This paper draws upon notions of legitimacy and readiness to develop a conceptual framework (Patient Feedback Response Framework - PFRF) which outlines why staff may find it problematic to respond to patient feedback. A large qualitative study was conducted with 17 ward based teams between 2013 and 2014, across three hospital Trusts in the North of England. This was a process evaluation of a wider study where ward staff were encouraged to make action plans based on patient feedback. We focus on three methods here: i) examination of taped discussion between ward staff during action planning meetings ii) facilitators notes of these meetings iii) telephone interviews with staff focusing on whether action plans had been achieved six months later. Analysis employed an abductive approach. Through the development of the PFRF, we found that making changes based on patient feedback is a complex multi-tiered process and not something that ward staff can simply 'do'. First, staff must exhibit normative legitimacy - the belief that listening to patients is a worthwhile exercise. Second, structural legitimacy has to be in place - ward teams need adequate autonomy, ownership and resource to enact change. Some ward teams are able to make improvements within their immediate control and environment. Third, for those staff who require interdepartmental co-operation or high level assistance to achieve change, organisational readiness must exist at the level of the hospital otherwise improvement will rarely be enacted. Case studies drawn from our empirical data demonstrate the above. It is only when appropriate levels of individual and organisational capacity to change exist, that patient feedback is likely to be acted upon to improve services. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published

  17. Teaching Trajectories and Students' Understanding of Difficult Concepts in Biology in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area in Rivers State

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    Mumuni, Abosede Anthonia Olufemi; Dike, John Worlu; Uzoma-Nwogu, Azibaolanari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching trajectories on students' understanding of difficult concepts in Biology. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study which was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two public coeducational schools out of thirteen drawn through purposive sampling…

  18. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

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    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  19. Teaching Strategies for Students with ADHD: Findings from the Field

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    Hamilton, Nancy J.; Astramovich, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    Children with ADHD often experience academic challenges and interpersonal difficulties which may impact their educational success. Using a case study approach, the authors explored the experiences of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a fifth grade school setting. Findings indicated that the student had an elevated…

  20. Hands across the divide: Finding spaces for student-centered pedagogy in the undergraduate science classroom

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    Spier-Dance, Lesley

    This study explored college science students' and instructors' experiences with student-generated and performed analogies. The objectives of the study were to determine whether the use of student-generated analogies could provide students with opportunities to develop robust understanding of difficult science concepts, and to examine students' and instructors' perspectives on the utilization of these analogies. To address my objectives, I carried out a case study at a university-college in British Columbia. I examined the use of analogies in undergraduate biology and chemistry courses. Working with three instructors, I explored the use of student-generated analogies in five courses. I carried out in-depth analyses for one biology case and one chemistry case. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, researcher journal logs and students' responses to assessment questions. My findings suggest that involvement in the analogy exercise was associated with gains in students' conceptual understanding. Lower-achieving students who participated in the analogy activity exhibited significant gains in understanding of the science concept, but were unable to transfer their knowledge to novel situations. Higher-achieving students who participated in the activity were better able to transfer their knowledge of the analogy-related science topic to novel situations. This research revealed that students exhibited improved understanding when their analogies clearly represented important features of the target science concept. Students actively involved in the analogy activity exhibited gains in conceptual understanding. They perceived that embodied performative aspects of the activity promoted engagement, which motivated their learning. Participation in the analogy activity led to enhanced social interaction and a heightened sense of community within the classroom. The combination of social and performative elements provided motivational learning

  1. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  2. Finding viscosity of liquids from Brownian motion at students' laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Debowska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Brownian motion appears to be a good subject for investigation at advanced students' laboratory [1]. The paper presents such an investigation carried out in Physics Laboratory II at the Institute of Experimental Physics of Wroclaw University. The experiment has been designed to find viscosity of liquids from Brownian motion phenomenon. Authors use modern technology that helps to proceed with measurements and makes the procedure less time and effort consuming. Discussion of the process of setting up the experiment and the results obtained for three different solutions of glycerin in water are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the apparatus are pointed out along with descriptions of possible future uses

  3. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  4. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  5. Identifying and Investigating Difficult Concepts in Engineering Mechanics and Electric Circuits. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streveler, Ruth; Geist, Monica; Ammerman, Ravel; Sulzbach, Candace; Miller, Ronald; Olds, Barbara; Nelson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends ongoing work to identify difficult concepts in thermal and transport science and measure students' understanding of those concepts via a concept inventory. Two research questions provided the focal point: "What important concepts in electric circuits and engineering mechanics do students find difficult to learn?" and…

  6. Keeping Students "on Their Toes and on Their Game": Serendipitous Findings in Students' Assessments and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Kathie L.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends the empirical findings of the use of continuous, lecture-embedded assessments to increase engagement and enhance learning. Outcome data (exam performance and attendance rates) from college students in three upper-division business course sections who took quizzes and wrote two-minute papers (test group) were compared to outcome…

  7. Find the Dimensions: Students Solving a Tiling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Students learn mathematics by solving problems. Mathematics textbooks are full of problems, and mathematics teachers use these problems to test students' understanding of mathematical concepts. This paper discusses how problem-solving skills can be fostered with a geometric tiling problem.

  8. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  9. Team Work in International Programs: Why is it so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Madsen, Henning

    intercultural collaboration. The issues that arise seem to be grounded in linguistic, cultural and educational factors. This paper reports on and discusses a study of student responses to intercultural collaboration (in English) in two programmes at Aarhus University, Denmark. One conclusion...... is that the international students are more prepared to work in multicultural teams than their Danish peers. Another one tells us that once students have experience with the diversity of these teams, at least some of them become more open towards working in such teams in the future. It is interesting to discuss......Team Work in International Programs: Why is it so difficult? And what can we do about it? It is common knowledge that students often find it difficult to collaborate on assignments, projects, etc., but we require that they do so for a number of reasons, e.g. to learn how to work in teams or take...

  10. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research findings to other scientist and to advance scientific discovery. ... publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 ..... publication and advice policy on the necessary actions to.

  11. Difficult Decisions: Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Jal S.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the moral arguments for and against the controversial topic of voluntary active euthanasia. Discusses the question of legalization and decriminalization of the practice. Provides a student worksheet with questions to stimulate discussion on the issue. (MDH)

  12. Do students eventually get to publish their research findings? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon ...

  13. Federal Student Loans: Impact of Loan Limit Increases on College Prices Is Difficult to Discern. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, college prices have been rising consistently and have continued to rise at a gradual pace after the Stafford loan limit increases were enacted in 2008 and 2009. However, it is difficult to determine if a direct relationship exists between increases in college prices and the Stafford loan limit increases because of the…

  14. Making marketing difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    embraced by the market-place, while maintaining the old scientific alienation from political life. The case is made that modern science was born ambiguous towards the market-place, and that such ambivalence - relating to different interpretations of the idea of knowledge as a common good - is still...... to be encountered among scientists. Drawing on series of interviews with scientists from bioscience and biotechnology it is argued that, on the one hand, scientists are into marketing and PR exercises; but, on the other hand, they also voice a demand that journalists should make such marketing difficult...

  15. Dealing with difficult pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2013-01-01

    develop. I argue that such politically loaded manifestations of difficult pasts are highly significant during post-conflict renegotiations of society. They act as reminders of what happened, a commentary on how far society has – or has not moved on – and the potential for future relations and directions....... Using Robben Island and Long Kesh / Maze as case-studies this paper will explore the physical manifestations of political imprisonment, their experiences in the post-conflict context and reveal contestations of meaning at these dark heritage sites....

  16. Finding the Evidence in CAM: a Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ghassemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a future health care provider's perspective on the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Western (namely, in US medical education and practice. As a student of both public health and medicine in the United States, Jeffrey Ghassemi is interested in CAM's contribution to improving medical practice and teaching. The commentary highlights the ambiguous definitions of CAM to Westerners despite the rising popularity of and expenditures for alternative modalities of care. It then argues for collaboration between alternative and established medical communities to ascertain the scientific merits of CAM. It concludes by calling for a new medical paradigm that embraces the philosophies of both communities to advance education and patient care.

  17. School resources and student achievment: worldwide findings and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Meyer. M. Nascimento

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues raised in the Education Production Function literature since the US 1966 Coleman Report have fuelled high controversy on the role of school resources in relation to student performance. In several literature reviews and some self estimates, Erik Hanushek (1986, 1997, 2006 systematically affirms that these two factors are not associated one to another – neither in the US nor abroad. In recent cross-country analyses, Ludger Woessmann (2003; 2005a; 2005b links international differences in attainment to institutional differences across educational systems – not to resourcing levels. In the opposite direction, Stephen Heyneman and William Loxley (1982, 1983 tried to demonstrate in the 1980’s that, at least for low income countries, school factors seemed to outweigh family characteristics on the determination of students’ outcomes – although other authors show evidence that such a phenomenon may have existed only during a limited period of the 20th Century. In the 1990s, meta-analyses raised the argument that school resources were sufficiently significant to be regarded as pedagogically important. The turn of the Century witnessed a new movement: the recognition that endogenous determination of resource allocation is a substantial methodological issue. Therefore, efforts have been made to incorporate the decision-making processes that involve families, schools and policy-makers in economic models. This implies changes in research designs that may affect the direction of future policy advices patronised by international development and educational organisations.

  18. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  19. Medical education in difficult circumstances: analysis of the experience of clinical medical students following the new innovative medical curriculum in Aksum, rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C; Teshome, M; Crocker-Buque, T; Bhudia, R; Singh, K

    2018-05-31

    In 2012, 12 medical schools were opened in Ethiopia to tackle the significant shortage of doctors. This included Aksum School of Medicine situated in Aksum, a rural town in Northern Ethiopia. The new Innovative Medical Curriculum (NIMC) is a four-year programme designed by the Ethiopian Federal Ministries of Health and Education. The curriculum is designed to train biomedical science graduates to become doctors in 4 years, with a focus on the healthcare needs of rural people living in poverty. This research was conducted at Aksum School of Medicine and included two hospitals (Aksum Referral Hospital and St Mary's District Hospital). This study focused on medical students during their clinical years across multiple specialities (61 Clerkship 1 students and 13 Clerkship 2 students). We used primarily qualitative research methods supplemented with quantitative measures. There were 3 stages of data collection over a 1 month period, this included qualitative group interviews, direct observation of students in a clinical setting and direct observation of skills sessions followed by a questionnaire on the sessions. We analysed the data by reconstructing the student experience and comparing it with the NIMC. The proposed typical week set out in the NIMC tended to differ from the real clinical experience of these students. Through qualitative group interview and direct observation of teaching, the main theme that was consistent throughout was the lack of doctors with specialist postgraduate training. Clinical need often took priority over education. However, students enjoyed taking early responsibility and gaining practical experience. Through direct observation of skills sessions and short questionnaires, these sessions were highly valuable to the students and they felt confident in carrying out the taught procedures in the future. The combination of poorly resourced hospitals and lack of specialist doctors provides a challenging environment for medical students to learn

  20. The Influence Of Learning Model Guided Findings Of Student Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SaefulBahri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the influence of the learning model guided findings on student learning outcomes in subjects PAI eighth grade students of SMP Plus al Masoem. The research method used in this study is a quantitative method in the form of quasi-experiment Quasi-Experimental Design. The findings of the study are expected to demonstrate 1 the difference significant increase in learning outcomes between the experimental class using guided discovery method that uses the control class discussion of learning models 2 Constraints in the method of guided discovery activities and the limited ability of educators in the experimental class in implements the method of guided discovery and constraints faced by students while digging the information they need so we need special strategies to motivate students in the experimental class in order for them creatively find the right way to gather information that supports learning PAI.

  1. Findings From the INANE Survey on Student Papers Submitted to Nursing Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maureen Shawn; Newland, Jamesetta A; Owens, Jacqueline K

    Nursing students are often encouraged or required to submit scholarly work for consideration for publication but most manuscripts or course assignment papers do not meet journal standards and consume valuable resources from editors and peer reviewers. The International Academy of Nursing Editors (INANE) is a group of nurse editors and publishers dedicated to promoting best practices in publishing in the nursing literature. In August 2014, editors at INANE's annual meeting voiced frustrations over multiple queries, poorly written student papers, and lack of proper behavior in following through. This article describes the findings of a survey distributed to INANE members to seek feedback about submissions by students. Fifty-three (53) members responded to an online anonymous survey developed by the INANE Student Papers Work Group. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for Likert-type questions and content analysis of open-ended questions. Quantitative data revealed that most editors reported problems with student papers across all levels of graduate programs. Six themes emerged from the qualitative data: submissions fail to follow author guidelines; characteristics of student submissions; lack of professional behavior from students; lack of professional behavior from faculty; editor responses to student submissions; and faculty as mentors. These themes formed the basis for recommendations and strategies to improve student scholarly writing. Overall, editors endorsed supporting new scholars in the publication process but faculty engagement was integral to student success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  3. Information literacy in science writing: how students find, identify, and use scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-11-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.

  4. Finding Purpose in Pain: Using Logotherapy as a Method for Addressing Survivor Guilt in First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Williams, Cyrus, III; Harden, Dia

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college students face a variety of academic and personal challenges, including survivor guilt (Piorkowski, 1983). Survivor guilt for these students involves negative emotions related to leaving family and friends "behind" in difficult contexts and lived experiences. This article provides (a) an overview of first-generation college…

  5. Difficult physician-patient relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifsteck, S W

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the delivery of health care services in the United States are proceeding so rapidly that many providers are asking how the working relationships between doctors and patients will be effected. Accelerated by cost containment, quality improvement and the growth of managed care, these changes have caused some critics to feel that shorter visits and gatekeeper systems will promote an adversarial relationship between physicians and patients. However, proponents of the changing system feel that better prevention, follow-up care and the attention to customer service these plans can offer will lead to increased patient satisfaction and improved doctor-patient communication. Dedicated to addressing these concerns, the Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication was established in 1987 as a continuing medical education program (CME) focusing on this topic. A half-day workshop on clinician-patient communication to enhance health outcomes was introduced in 1992 and a second workshop, "Difficult' Clinician-Patient Relationships," was developed two years later. The two courses discussed in this article are offered to all physicians, residents, medical students, mid-level providers and other interested staff within the Carle system.

  6. Why Student Loans Are Different: Findings from Six Focus Groups of Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…

  7. How Chemistry Graduate Students and Researchers Are Finding and Using Chemical Information: Findings from Interviews in a Chinese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuening

    2017-01-01

    Although scholarship has addressed issues around serving international students in U.S. and Canadian libraries, reports on how Chinese graduate students use information in Chinese universities, especially for a particular discipline, are rare. In this study, the author interviewed 15 graduate students and researchers in a top-ranked chemistry…

  8. Dental Students' Knowledge of Resources for LGBT Persons: Findings from Three Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoying; Mugayar, Leda; Perez, Edna; Nagasawa, Pamela R; Brown, David G; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased attention to including cultural diversity in the education of health professionals, including concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) inclusion and visibility. Studies regarding cultural exposure and acceptance of LGBT populations have been concentrated in medicine, with findings showing that medical providers often graduate having missed the preparation required to care for LGBT persons. A visible, comprehensive, culturally competent environment in dental schools would help ensure that all oral health professionals and students are aware of services available to address the particular needs of LGBT students. The aims of this survey-based study conducted in 2015-16 were to determine dental students' perceptions regarding LGBT students' needs and to assess dental students' knowledge of resources for LGBT persons at three U.S. dental schools, one each in the Midwest, West, and South. Of the 849 students invited to participate, 364 completed the survey (338 dental, 26 dental hygiene), for an overall response rate of 43%. The response rate at individual schools ranged from 30% to 55%. The results showed perceptions of insufficient LGBT information, resources, and support at these institutions, especially at the Western school. There were significant differences among the three schools, with students at the Western school more than the other two schools perceiving that their institution was less aware of whether it met the academic, social support, and spiritual needs of LGBT students. There were no significant differences between LGBT and non-LGBT students' perceptions. The authors urge dental school administrators to explore the degree to which their programs teach respectful and caring behavior towards LGBT students and, by extension, LGBT patient populations.

  9. Five Fabulous Websites: Findings Schools for Deaf Students on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Provides information on noteworthy web pages of schools for deaf and hard-of-hearing students that show off their schools with style. Five web pages are evaluated on content, visual appeal, attention to technical details, and ease of finding information. Web addresses are provided. (CR)

  10. The Challenges of Teaching Business Analytics: Finding Real Big Data for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Alexander Y.; Drye, Sherrie L.

    2018-01-01

    This research shares the challenges of bringing in real-world big business data into the classroom so students can experience how today's business decisions can improve with the strategic use of data analytics. Finding a true big data set that provides real world business transactions and operational data has been a challenge for academics…

  11. The Self-assessment Practices of Hong Kong Secondary Students: Findings with a New Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi

    Self-assessment is a core skill that enables students to engage in self-regulated learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Self-assessment Practice Scale and to depict the characteristics of self-assessment practices of Hong Kong secondary students using this newly developed instrument. A total of 6,125 students from 10 Hong Kong secondary schools completed the survey. Both Rasch and factor analyses revealed a two-dimension scale structure (i.e., Self-directed Feedback Seeking and Self-reflection). The two subscales demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and suggestions for further improvement were proposed. The findings regarding self-assessment practices of secondary students indicated that, in general, students were quite used to engaging in self-reflection based on available feedback, but they were less disposed to taking the initiative to seek feedback on their own performance. Key demographic variables, e.g., gender and year level, played important roles in students' self-assessment practices. Girls had significantly higher self-assessment measures on both scales than did boys. Junior students had higher measures on both scales than did their senior counterparts. Implications and directions for future research were discussed.

  12. The impact of empathy on burnout in medical students: new findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Harscher, Heidi; Desmarais, Nathaly; Dollinger, Robert; Grossman, Seth; Aldana, Scarlett

    2018-03-01

    Research on medical students has shown they are at a higher risk for burnout and that this burnout may become more prevalent as they advance in medical school. The literature, thus far, has not explored the construct of ,emotional empathy and whether this can impact burnout in medical students. Objective: To understand the relationship  between empathy (Empathic Concern [EC] and Personal Distress [PD]) and burnout in medical students. Five successive classes of medical students enrolled at a new medical school were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index  over the course of three successive  years (n = 353).  Two dimensions of  empathy were evaluated to determine if they have an impact on three dimensions of burnout (Emotional Exhaustion/EE, Depersonalization/DP, Personal Accomplishment/PA). data was analyzed using a linear mixed model for each of the three components of burnout based on gender, age, year in medical school, and two types of empathy: EC, and PD.  Conclusion: It was discovered that students with high levels of EC had statistically lower scores of burnout over time while students with high levels of PD empathy showed statistically higher scores of burnout over three years. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  13. Helping Students Find Their Sweet Spot: A Teaching Approach Using the Sales Process to Find Jobs That Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Concha K.; Dugan, Riley G.; Popa, Eugen M.; Tarasi, Crina O.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of achieving person-job fit--and the role marketing educators play in developing students for career success--there remains a lack of guidance for faculty as they shepherd students through the career development process. This article details how the seven-stage selling process can be used as a basis for teaching the job…

  14. LIHTC Difficult to Develop Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Difficult Development Area (DDA) for the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program is an area designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)...

  15. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  16. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Darsow (U.); A. Wollenberg (A.); D. Simon; A. Taieb; T. Werfel; A.P. Oranje (Arnold); C. Gelmetti (C.); Ã. Svensson (Ãke); M. Deleuran (M.); A.M. Calza; F. Giusti; J. Lübbe (Jann); S. Seidenari (Stefania); J. Ring (J.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDifficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for

  17. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  18. Problem-based Learning and Problem Finding Among University Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit, A, Ravankar; Shotaro, Imai; Michiyo, Shimamura; Go, Chiba; Taichi, Takasuka

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, problem-based learning (PBL) techniques have been gaining momentum in schools and university curricula around the world. The main advantage of the PBL method is that it promotes creative problem solving, improves cognition and enhances overall thought processes in learners. For most PBL-style programmes, problem solving is at the core, although the notion of problem discovery or problem finding is not seriously considered. In most cases, students are always presen...

  19. TESTING OF ONLINE ESP COURSE FOR STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC SCHOOLS. FIRST FINDINGS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Vasilchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a detailed analysis of the Russian course-books for students of Economic Schools. The authoress exposes the discrepancies along with proposing the solutions. In the second part, the article possesses a brief description as well as highlights the advantages of the new online ESP course on Economics, Banking and Insurance for colleges. In conclusion, the authoress contemplates over the first findings the course appraisal suggests. 

  20. Preoperative Ultrasonography as a Predictor of Difficult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient.[8]. On the basis of ultrasound findings, surgeons can select the cases appropriate for their skills aiming at reducing operative complications and minimizing the waste of operative time.[2]. Based on ... bed-more than 20 min. 4. Spillage of bile and ... gallbladder turned out to be difficult laparoscopically. The positive ...

  1. Effect of Religious Beliefs on the Smoking Behaviour of University Students: Quantitative Findings From Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Alkoudmani, Ramez M; Elsayed, Tarek M; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair

    2016-12-01

    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.

  2. Findings on Student Use of Social Media at the Collegiate, Undergraduate, and Graduate Levels: Implications for Post-Secondary Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Tyler W. S.; Remillard, Chaseten; Aucoin, Robert; Takenishi, Akari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present findings on social media use by students at two institutions in three levels of postsecondary programs. We find that students are almost universally using at least one social network, with Facebook as the most popular, and Instagram second. Many respondents are simultaneously active on several social networks. However,…

  3. "Disruptive Technologies", "Pedagogical Innovation": What's New? Findings from an In-Depth Study of Students' Use and Perception of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conole, Grainne; de Laat, Maarten; Dillon, Teresa; Darby, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the findings from a study of students' use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings suggest that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that…

  4. Management of the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D E; Wiener-Kronish, J P

    1991-09-01

    For clinicians involved in airway management, a plan of action for dealing with the difficult airway or a failed intubation should be developed well in advance of encountering a patient in whom intubation is not routine. When difficulty is anticipated, the equipment necessary for performing a difficult intubation should be immediately available. It also is prudent to have a surgeon skilled in performing a tracheotomy and a criothyroidotomy stand by. The intubation should be attempted in the awake state, preferably using the fiberoptic bronchoscope. The more challenging situation is when the difficult airway is confronted unexpectedly. After the first failed attempt at laryngoscopy, head position should be checked and the patient ventilated with oxygen by mask. A smaller styletted tube and possibly a different laryngoscope blade should be selected for a second attempt at intubation. The fiberoptic bronchoscope and other equipment for difficult intubation should be obtained. A second attempt should then be made. If this is unsuccessful, the patient should be reoxygenated, and assistance including a skilled anesthesiologist and surgeon should be summoned. On a third attempt, traction to the tongue can be applied by an assistant, a tube changer could be used to enter the larynx, or one of the other special techniques previously described can be used. If this third attempt fails, it may be helpful to have a physician more experienced in airway management attempt intubation after oxygen has been administered to the patient. If all attempts are unsuccessful, then invasive techniques to secure the airway will have to be performed.

  5. Measuring the attitudes of dental students towards social accountability following dental education - Qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vivian; Foster Page, Lyndie; McMillan, John; Lyons, Karl; Gibson, Barry

    2016-06-01

    The term social accountability has gained increased interest in medical education, but is relatively unexplored in dentistry. The aim of this study is to explore dental students' attitudes towards social accountability. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups with University of Otago final year (5th year) Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students was carried out. A questionnaire designed to measure medical students' attitudes towards social responsibility was used as a guide. Following data collection, framework analysis was used to analyze each of the three focus groups, and repeating themes were noted. Analysis of the focus groups discovered recurring themes, such that participants believed that dentists should be accountable to society in a professional context and that they are responsible for patients who present at their clinic but that there is no professional obligation to help reduce oral health inequalities by working with populations facing inequalities. There was strong agreement that there needs to be change to the dental health care system from a structural and political level to address oral health inequalities, rather than individual dentists assuming greater responsibility. Our findings show that dental education may not be accountable to society in the sense that it is not producing graduates who believe that they have an obligation to address the priority oral health concerns of society.

  6. Identifying difficult concepts in introductory programming

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, Klaudija

    2014-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we try to find the answer to why students experience difficulties in introductory programming. We ask ourselves what causes most problems while trying to understand concepts in introductory programming, generating code and designing algorithms. In the first section we introduce programming language Python as the first programming language being taught to students. We compare it with programming language Pascal and stress the advantages of Python that seem important ...

  7. Competence evaluation process for nursing students abroad: Findings from an international Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Mette Bro

    2017-01-01

    , with between five and 88 items included. Through content analysis, 196 items emerged, classified into 12 different core competence categories, the majority were categorised as ‘Technical skills’ (=60), ‘Self-learning and critical thinking’ (=27) and ‘Nursing care process’ (=25) competences. Little emphasiswas......) were approached. Methods: Tools as instruments for evaluating competences developed in clinical training by international nursing students, and written procedures aimed at guiding the evaluation process, were scrutinised through a content analysis method. Findings: All clinical competence evaluation...... procedures and instruments used in the nursing programmes involvedwere provided in English. A final evaluation of the competenceswas expected by all nursing programmes at the end of the clinical placement, while only four provided an intermediate evaluation. Great variability emerged in the tools...

  8. Hierarchy of Identities in the Macedonian Multicultural Society. Findings from a Survey of Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova, Lidija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In multicultural societies as the Macedonian one, the attachment of citizens to particular identity traits is important for the democratic stability and peace. The aim of this paper is to find out how students from different ethnic origins in the R. Macedonia relate to their identity traits, especially to their national and ethnic identities, and relative to other identity traits. The basic assumptions are based on a phenomenon called "minority effect", according to which members of minority groups tend to attach greater importance to minority affiliations that are particularly important for their group identity (language, religion, ethnicity, tradition, etc.. Aside from importance of identity traits, the emotional and behavioural components of these attachments were also examined. The research results show that regardless of the ethnic origin, students attach greatest importance to their identities connected to their immediate social environment (family, friends, but also religion. In accordance with the “minority effect” hypothesis, religion and then ethnicity, are perceived by the ethnic Albanians as a strong cohesive and mobilising factor, whereas that is not the case with the ethnic Macedonians. When it comes to nationality, the responses suggest that for ethnic Albanians it has marginal importance (through the cognitive, emotional and the action component, while ethnic Macedonians show controversial relation to their national identity.

  9. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  10. Literacy and students' interest on Geosciences - Findings and results of GEOschools project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermeli, Georgia; Steininger, Fritz; Dermitzakis, Michael; Meléndez, Guillermo; Page, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    GEOschools is a European project supported by the Lifelong Learning Programme. Among the main aims of the project were to investigate the interest secondary school students have on geosciences and the teaching strategies used. Also, the development of a guide for Geosciences Literacy at a European level (Fermeli et al., 2011). GEOschools' literacy framework proposal is based on a comparative analysis of geoscience curricula in the partner countries (Austria, Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Results of an "Interest Research" survey involved around 1750 students and 60 teachers from partner countries, combined with specific proposals by the project partners (Calonge et al., 2011). Results of the GEOschools "Interest research" survey evidence students show a higher interest in those topics which have a potentially higher social impact, such as mass extinctions, dinosaurs, geological hazards and disasters and origin and evolution of life (including human evolution). These results provide an evidence base to justify why curriculum content and teaching strategies can be made more effective through focusing mainly on such "interest topics", instead of trying to follow an excessively rigid, or academic, development of teaching programs (Fermeli et al., 2013). GEOschools literacy framework is summarized in 14 separate chapters, each including a brief description of the main themes of each subject, the intended learning outcomes as well as keywords and a bibliography. More particularly, the chapters of the framework describe what students should know and do, and how they should relate, as European citizens, to the geosciences. To face the challenges of the present and the future, modern citizens should be literate in natural sciences and, within the context of the geosciences, be able to: • Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of basic principles, models, laws and terminology of Geosciences. • Know how and where to find and access scientifically reliable

  11. Post-Primary Students' Images of Mathematics: Findings from a Survey of Irish Ordinary Level Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ciara; Stynes, Martin; O'Donoghue, John

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out as part of a PhD research study to investigate the image of mathematics held by post-primary students in Ireland. The study focused on students in fifth year of post-primary education studying ordinary level mathematics for the Irish Leaving Certificate examination--the final examination for students in…

  12. Designing Mobile Technology to Enhance Library Space Use: Findings from an Undergraduate Student Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Hahn, Jim; Mestre, Lori S.

    2015-01-01

    To explore how libraries might integrate student perspectives and needs into their mobile development workflow, one large academic research library developed a fun, collaborative design methodology in order to stimulate student creativity. As part of a national IMLS (Institute for Museums and Library Services) grant, "The Student/Library…

  13. Transition and Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Joshi, Gauri S.

    2016-01-01

    Students with intellectual disability historically struggle with post-school outcomes. However, much of the research on students with intellectual disability relative to post-school outcomes and transition services is aggregated for students with mild, moderate, and severe intellectual disability. This secondary analysis of the National…

  14. Student Perceptions of Diversity on a College Campus: Scratching the Surface to Find More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Brigitta R.

    2006-01-01

    American universities have made efforts in the past to create a more diverse student population, and this diversity has been linked to strategic benefits for both students and society. However, little research has examined students' perspectives on these issues. In an attempt to address this issue, this paper reports an exploratory research using…

  15. Medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination: findings from an international cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Vnuk, Anna K; Sato, Toshio J

    2009-03-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes towards PPE at schools from different geographical and cultural regions and assess changes in their attitudes over their first year of medical study. Students at six schools (Peninsula, UK; Durham, UK; Auckland, New Zealand; Flinders, Australia; Sapporo, Japan and Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong) completed the Examining Fellow Students (EFS) questionnaire near the start of their academic year (T1), and students at four schools (Peninsula, Durham, Auckland and Flinders) completed the EFS for a second time, around the end of their academic year (T2). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a high level of acceptance for PPE of non-intimate body regions amongst medical students from all schools (greater than 83%, hips, at T1 and 94.5%, hips and upper body, at T2). At T1 and T2, students' willingness to engage in PPE was associated with their gender, ethnicity, religiosity and school. Typically, students least comfortable with PPE at T1 and T2 were female, non-white, religious and studying at Auckland. Although students' attitudes towards PPE were reasonably stable over their first year of study, and after exposure to PPE, we did find some statistically significant differences in attitudes between T1 and T2. Interestingly, attitude changes were consistently predicted by gender, even when controlling for school. While male students' attitudes towards PPE were relatively stable over time, females' attitudes were changeable. In this paper, we discuss our findings in light of existing research and theory, and discuss their implications for educational practice and further research.

  16. When are night shifts effective for nursing student clinical learning? Findings from a mixed-method study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Basso, Felix; Del Negro, Elena; Achil, Illarj; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Morandini, Marzia; Moreale, Renzo; Mansutti, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015. Two bachelor of nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy, three years in length and requiring night shifts for students starting in the second semester of the 1st year, were involved. First phase: all nursing students ending their last clinical placement of the academic year attended were eligible; 352 out the 370 participated. Second phase: a purposeful sample of nine students among those included in the first phase and who attended the highest amount of night shifts were interviewed. First phase: a questionnaire composed of closed and open-ended questions was adopted; data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Second phase: an open-ended face-to-face audio-recorded interview was adopted and data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the quantitative phase, showed that students who attended night shifts reported satisfaction (44.7%) less frequently than those who attended only day shifts (55.9%). They also reported boredom (23.5%) significantly more often compared to day shift students (p=0001). Understanding of the nursing role and learning competence was significantly inferior among night shift students as compared to day shift students, while the perception of wasting time was significantly higher among night shift students compared to their counterparts. Night shift students performed nursing rounds (288; 98.2%), non-nursing tasks (247; 84.3%) and/or less often managed clinical problems

  17. Finding foundations: A model for information literacy assessment of first-year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Fisher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brief This article presents a case study in establishing an information literacy instruction and assessment program for first-year university students at the University of Colorado Denver. Rather than presenting assessment data, we document the process in which our department engaged with the student learning assessment cycle, with the intention of allowing other information literacy professionals to see how we established an instruction program for first-year English Composition. We include a description of in-class exercises, rubrics, and the procedures we followed in order to assess the foundational information literacy skills of first-year students on our campus. This assessment was not conducted to demonstrate what students learned from librarians (thereby illustrating the value of library instruction. Rather, we assessed student learning to ascertain the information literacy skills students bring with them into a first-year English Composition course.

  18. Graduating student pharmacists' perspectives on e-professionalism and social media: qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize students' views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites and compare responses about social media behavior among students in different groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Four colleges of pharmacy in midwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS 516 graduating student pharmacists. INTERVENTIONS Online survey with open-ended questions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Qualitative analysis of responses and themes. RESULTS A total of 212 student pharmacists completed surveys (41% response rate). Mean (± SD) age was 25.2 ± 4.6 years, and 72% of respondents were women. Major overarching themes identified in the qualitative analysis were separation of personal and professional lives, how accountability for actions should vary by severity, and the extent of representation of the students' character on social media. CONCLUSION Identified themes provided important insights into the ways in which student pharmacists view social media and use this widely accessible means of personal communication.

  19. Emotional intelligence among nursing students: Findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štiglic, Gregor; Cilar, Leona; Novak, Žiga; Vrbnjak, Dominika; Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Pajnkihar, Majda

    2018-07-01

    Emotional intelligence in nursing is of global interest. International studies identify that emotional intelligence influences nurses' work and relationships with patients. It is associated with compassion and care. Nursing students scored higher on measures of emotional intelligence compared to students of other study programmes. The level of emotional intelligence increases with age and tends to be higher in women. This study aims to measure the differences in emotional intelligence between nursing students with previous caring experience and those without; to examine the effects of gender on emotional intelligence scores; and to test whether nursing students score higher than engineering colleagues on emotional intelligence measures. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. The study included 113 nursing and 104 engineering students at the beginning of their first year of study at a university in Slovenia. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Shapiro-Wilk's test of normality was used to test the sample distribution, while the differences in mean values were tested using Student t-test of independent samples. Emotional intelligence was higher in nursing students (n = 113) than engineering students (n = 104) in both measures [TEIQue t = 3.972; p emotional intelligence scores than male students on both measures, the difference was not statistically significant [TEIQue t = -0.839; p = 0.403; SSEIT t = -1.159; p = 0.249]. EI scores in nursing students with previous caring experience were not higher compared to students without such experience for any measure [TEIQue t = -1.633; p = 0.105; SSEIT t = -0.595; p = 0.553]. Emotional intelligence was higher in nursing than engineering students, and slightly higher in women than men. It was not associated with previous caring experience. Copyright

  20. Mentoring Matters: Finding the Golden Mean--Mentors and Student Teachers Working for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The cooperating teachers who make the greatest positive impact on interns allow student teachers to make mistakes and learn from them, offer constructive feedback, invest in their student teachers' success, practice current pedagogy in their own classrooms, and remain positive throughout the experience. In this article, the author suggests that…

  1. Finding Freedom Abroad: Working with Conservative Christian Students in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Calvin

    2015-01-01

    Conservative (fundamentalist, evangelical) Christian students present a general theological worldview that often correlates with significant anxiety. In a foreign setting, the anxiety of conservative students, removed from their supportive infrastructure, can be considerably heightened. This structure of thinking and emotion presents distinctive…

  2. A Survey of Former Nursing (RN and LVN) Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer, Culver-Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former nursing (RN and LVN) students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former nursing students who earned…

  3. The Structure of Discussions in an Online Communication Course: What Do Students Find Most Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of students regarding what was effective about the way in which the asynchronous discussions were structured in an upper level online organizational communication course. Surveys from 27 student participants were used, with questions focused upon the structure of discussions in the online…

  4. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  5. Finding the Right Fit: Helping Students Apply Theory to Service-Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although past studies of service-learning focus on assessing student growth, few studies address how to support students in applying theory to their service-learning experiences. Yet, the task of applying theory is a central component of critical reflections within the social sciences in higher education and often causes anxiety among…

  6. Finding actionable data to support student success in introductory science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Effective education demands an understanding of students' prior knowledge, prior experiences, and predispositions. Knowledge surveys are one way to match instruction to students' needs, but measure only one way in which students' needs vary. Computer learning systems can give instructors detailed, real-time information about cognitive biases or effort in key lessons. We show how the design of the online course Habitable Worlds facilitates the collection and use of these kinds of student data. Early effort in a course is thought to predict success, but our results show that more effort is not always a positive indicator. Unit 1, the introduction, is scored on completion, but requires a correct answer to each question to progress. An ANOVA found that a student who earns anything less than full points for Unit 1 will have a course grade 1.3 letter grades lower than a student who earns full points (F(1, 1272) = 136.4, p < .001). A second analysis included only students who earned a C or better and full Unit 1 points, to deemphasize very low performers. On 180 separate "screens" in Unit 1, the median screen attempts was 249. An ANOVA shows that students taking more attempts than the median earn lower course grades by 0.25 letter grades (F(1, 919) = 35.8, p < .001). These results show the value in tracking completion (too little effort) as well as difficulty or challenge (unexpectedly high effort). We are working to create interventions to aid students on both ends of this spectrum in future offerings. In addition to measures of objective course performance, we can also examine more subtle student characteristics. In Unit 1, students are asked to describe an image of a cloud that resembles an angel. Some provide an observation (cloud), while others make an interpretation (angel). Even this seemingly trivial question shows significant predictive value in two subsequent exercises that ask students to classify statements as observations or interpretations (F(1, 292) = 30

  7. On the problem of finding a suitable distribution of students to universities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes J.; Hirtreiter, Christian; Morgenstern, Ingo

    2009-10-01

    For many years, the problem of how to distribute students to the various universities in Germany according to the preferences of the students has remained unsolved. Various approaches, like the centralized method to let a central agency organize the distribution to the various universities or the decentralized method to let the students apply directly at their preferred universities, turned out to lead to a significant fraction of frustrated students ending up at universities not being on their preference list or even not having a place to study at all. With our centralized approach, we are able to decrease the fraction of frustrated students as well as the bureaucratic expenses for applicants and universities drastically.

  8. The 'values journey' of nursing and midwifery students selected using multiple mini interviews; Year One findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callwood, Alison; Bolger, Sarah; Allan, Helen T

    2018-05-01

    To explore how adult, child and mental health nursing and midwifery students, selected using multiple mini interviews, describe their 'values journey' following exposure to the clinical practice environment. Values based recruitment (VBR) incorporates assessment of healthcare students' personal values using approaches like multiple mini interviews. Students' experience of adjustment to their values during their programme is conceptualized as a 'values journey'. The impact of VBR in alleviating erosion of personal values remains unclear. A cross-professional longitudinal cohort study was commenced at one university in England in 2016 with data collection points at the end of years one, two and three. Non-probability consecutive sampling resulted in 42 healthcare students (8 adult, 8 child and 9 mental health nursing and 17 midwifery students) taking part. Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted at the end of participants' Year One (DC1). Data analysis incorporated inductive and deductive approaches in a hybrid synthesis. Participants described a 'values journey' where their values, particularly communication, courage and wanting to make a difference, were both challenged and retained. Participants personal journeys also acknowledged the: 'courage it takes to use values'; 'reality of values in practice' and 'need for self-reflection on values'. A 'values journey' may begin early in a healthcare student's education programme. This is important to recognize so that appropriate interventions designed to support students in higher education and clinical practice can be implemented. The values incorporated in VBR should be continually evaluated for fitness for purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student–teacher–scientist partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Erin

    2013-01-01

    As student–teacher–scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student–teacher–scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs. PMID:23828722

  10. Finding "safe" campuses: predicting the presence of LGBT student groups at North Carolina colleges and universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Melinda D

    2013-01-01

    A key indicator of a supportive campus climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) college students is the existence of an LGBT student organization. This article integrates the research on high school LGBT policies and programs with social movement studies of campus activism to examine the characteristics associated with the existence of university-approved LGBT groups on North Carolina campuses. Drawing on data from the National Center for Education Statistics, campus Web sites, and other sources, logistic regression is used to examine the importance of public opinion, campus and community resources, and the institutional context in predicting the location of these student groups.

  11. Russian, with Love. Learning a Supposedly Passe Language Can Have its Benefits, as Students in Connecticut Are Finding Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Almost since the moment the Berlin Wall crumbled, American schools' interest in teaching Russian did likewise. But precisely because the numbers of Russian learners fell off sharply, Glastonbury and the few other schools that have stuck with the language are finding their students very much in demand. In this article, the author reports how…

  12. Comment on 'Finding viscosity of liquids from Brownian motion at students' laboratory' and 'Brownian motion using video capture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Debowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The authors make comments and remarks on the papers by Salmon et al (2002 Eur. J. Phys. 23 249-53) and their own (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 827-33) concerning Brownian motion in two-dimensional space. New, corrected results of calculations and measurements for students' experiments on finding the viscosity of liquids from Brownian motion are presented. (letters and comments)

  13. Promoting Gatekeeper Course Success among Community College Students Needing Remediation: Findings and Recommendations from a Virginia Study (Summary Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Roksa, Josipa

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes key findings and recommendations from a Community College Research Center (CCRC) study designed to help community colleges develop strategies for improving the rate at which academically underprepared students take and pass initial college-level (or "gatekeeper") courses in math and English. CCRC conducted the…

  14. The Effectiveness of Web-Delivered Learning with Aboriginal Students: Findings from a Study in Coastal Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, David; Sharpe, Dennis; Neville, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to…

  15. Growing gratitude in undergraduate nursing students: Applying findings from social and psychological domains to nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Ann; Sheehan, Caryn

    2015-12-01

    Millennial students are often characterized as technology focused multitaskers, yet young nursing students are expected to focus on and thoughtfully engage with the person at the center of their caring efforts. Developing gratitude practices requires quiet contemplation and focus. Cultivating an attitude of gratitude in millennial nursing students may be one avenue to address concerns surrounding the provision of relationship based person-centered care by young nurses. In other disciplines, gratitude work has been studied extensively and is associated with several positive outcomes. Assignments included in most nursing programs can easily be modified to include a gratitude focus. Examples of gratitude assignments and the student reflection of these assignments are included here as a call for nurse educators to further study this concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cigarette demand is responsive to higher prices: findings from a survey of University students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand for university students aged 18-24 years in Jordan. Questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were adapted and administered to students from 10 public universities in Jordan in 2014. A two-part econometric model of cigarette demand was estimated. Nearly one-third of university students in Jordan smoke, purchasing 33.2 packs per month and paying 1.70 Jordanian dinars on average (US$2.40) for a pack of 20 cigarettes. The price elasticity of cigarette demand was estimated to be -1.15. Higher taxes may be particularly effective in reducing smoking among University students in Jordan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. An investigation to find strategies to improve student nurses' maths skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kerri

    Being able to perform drug calculations accurately is an essential skill for nurses. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that nurses need to improve this area of their practice and in particular their mathematical skills. Several strategies have been implemented to develop the drug calculation skills of nurses, with mixed success. This article reports on a study that was carried out to investigate whether strategies implemented within a second-year pre-registration course were perceived by students to be helpful in improving their mathematical skills for drug calculations. The results demonstrated that students felt their mathematics and confidence improved as a result of these strategies. The students' evaluation of the learning strategy that they found most helpful in learning drug calculation gave a mixed result, indicating that students have differing learning styles and needs. The study also indicates that student nurses were able to integrate the mathematical skills into their nursing practice by having different strategies that allowed them to develop conceptual, mathematical and practical skills concurrently. The study recommends the implementation of integrated strategies to address drug calculation skills in student nurses, although further research is still required.

  18. Finding the Words: Medical Students' Reflections on Communication Challenges in Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Genna; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia; Bruce, Janine S; Makoul, Gregory; Schillinger, Erika

    2016-11-01

    Interpersonal communication is essential to providing excellent patient care and requires ongoing development. Although aspects of medical student interpersonal communication may degrade throughout career progression, it is unknown what specific elements pose challenges. We aimed to characterize clerkship students' perspectives on communication challenges in the outpatient setting to help inform curricular development. Third-year medical students in a required family medicine clerkship were asked to describe a communication challenge they encountered. Open-ended written responses were collected through a mandatory post-clerkship survey. Responses were qualitatively coded using an a priori framework for teaching and assessing communication skills (The SEGUE Framework for Teaching and Assessing Communication Skills) with data-derived additions to the framework, followed by a team-based thematic analysis. We collected 799 reflections written by 518 students from 2007-2014. Three dominant themes emerged from the analysis: challenges with (1) effectively exchanging information with patients, (2) managing emotional aspects of the patient encounter, and (3) negotiating terms of the encounter. Communication curricula focus on content and process of the medical interview, but insufficient time and energy are devoted to psychosocial factors, including aspects of the encounter that are emotionally charged or conflicting. While gaps in students' communication skillsets may be anticipated or observed by educators, this study offers an analysis of students' own perceptions of the challenges they face.

  19. Undergraduate paramedic students' attitudes to e-learning: findings from five university programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Munro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Computers and computer-assisted instruction are being used with increasing frequency in the area of undergraduate paramedic education. Paramedic students' attitudes towards the use of e-learning technology and computer-assisted instruction have received limited attention in the empirical literature to date. The objective of this study was to determine paramedic students' attitudes towards e-learning. A cross-sectional methodology was used in the form of a paperbased survey to elicit students' attitudes to e-learning using three standardised scales. Convenience sampling was used to sample a cross-section of paramedic students at five universities during semester 1 of 2009. The scales used were: the Computer Attitude Survey (CAS, the Online Learning Environment Survey (OLES, and the Attitude Toward CAI Semantic Differential Scale (ATCAISDS. There were 339 students who participated. Approximately onehalf (57.7% were female and most (76.0% were under 24 years of age. Moderate results were noted for the CAS general and education subscales. The CAS results were broadly corroborated by the OLES, although a statistically significant difference between participants preferred and actual results on the OLES Computer Usage subscale identified that participants would prefer to use computers less than they actually do. Similarly, the ATCAISDS found participants were largely ambivalent towards computers. As paramedic degree programs continue to emerge and develop, careful consideration should be given to the usability and utility of various e-learning approaches.

  20. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  1. Medical students' attitudes to complementary and alternative medicine: further validation of the IMAQ and findings from an international longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Dennis, Ian; Amri, Hakima; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-02-01

    Current research mainly employs cross-sectional designs to examine changes in medical students' attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal study to further validate the Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ) and examine changes in medical students' attitudes over 3 years. A total of 154 medical students from four schools in three countries completed a modified version of the IMAQ during their first (T1) and fourth year (T2). We established the validity of a three-factor model for the IMAQ: (1) attitudes towards holism; (2) attitudes towards the effectiveness of CAM therapies, and (3) attitudes towards introspection and the doctor-patient relationship. We found that IMAQ factor scores did not differ significantly from T1 to T2, emphasizing the relative stability in attitudes across time. Various student characteristics were significantly associated with IMAQ factor scores at T2: age, gender, CAM use, CAM education and school; and two variables (gender and CAM use) predicted changes in medical students' attitudes between T1 and T2. We urge medical educators to continue exploring medical students' attitude changes towards CAM and we provide examples of what further research is needed.

  2. Consistency of Students' Conceptions of Wave Propagation: Findings from a Conceptual Survey in Mechanical Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongchai, Apisit; Sharma, Manjula Devi; Johnston, Ian D.; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Soankwan, Chernchok

    2011-01-01

    We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009)]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year…

  3. Finding friends online: online activities by deaf students and their well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Blom

    Full Text Available Generally, deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH children have fewer friends than hearing peers and their friendships are of a lower quality. The research hypothesis was that using the computer to communicate with new online friends through social network sites or playing games with offline friends is associated with D/HH friendship qualities, because it removes certain communication barriers D/HH face in offline communication settings. With online questionnaires the relation between computer use and online, mixed (offline friend who you also speak in online settings, and offline friendship quality of D/HH and hearing students (18-25 years was compared in both the Netherlands (n = 100 and the United States (n = 122. In addition, the study examined whether the different friendship qualities were related to the participants' well-being. Results showed that, in general, D/HH students' friendship qualities and levels of well-being were similar to their hearing peers. The quality of the mixed friendships was positively related to well-being. Furthermore, the frequency of pc use with both online and offline friends was positively related to friendships qualities in both hearing and D/HH students. A combination of the online and offline friendship seems to be the most important friendship type for both hearing and D/HH students and it is worthwhile to encourage this friendship type.

  4. Some research findings of motivation to volunteer activity in female students of helping professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Mlčák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the structure and intensity of the motives leading students of helping professions to undertake voluntary work, and to assess whether their motivation to carry out voluntary activities can be predicted on the basis of their levels of emotional and cognitive empathy.

  5. Finding Voice: The Higher Education Experiences of Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Doris; Egan, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in the student body, particularly the inclusion of disadvantaged groups, has been incorporated into the discourse of inclusive education, with social justice and equality now part of the agenda. However, the conflation of diversity with equality potentially obscures some structural elements of the contemporary university system. This…

  6. Arts Achieve, Impacting Student Success in the Arts: Preliminary Findings after One Year of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrorilli, Tara M.; Harnett, Susanne; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The "Arts Achieve: Impacting Student Success in the Arts" project involves a partnership between the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) and five of the city's premier arts organizations. "Arts Achieve" provides intensive and targeted professional development to arts teachers over a three-year period. The goal of the…

  7. Booksearch: What Dictionary (General or Specialized) Do You Find Useful or Interesting for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents classroom teachers' recommendations for a variety of dictionaries that may heighten students' interest in language: a reverse dictionary, a visual dictionary, WEIGHTY WORD BOOK, a collegiate desk dictionary, OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN REGIONAL ENGLISH, and a dictionary of idioms. (ARH)

  8. A Survey of Former Drafting & Engineering Design Technology Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former Drafting and Engineering Design Technology students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former drafting…

  9. Finding Common Ground: Exploring Undergraduate Student Volunteering as a Support for Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Andrew G.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Wong, Connie S.; Mesibov, Gary B.; Morrissey, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    There are many unmet needs among parents of children with autism for parent respite and social time for their children. The use of undergraduate student volunteers is a potential strategy for meeting some of these needs. Separate focus groups for parents and for undergraduates were convened to assess feasibility, comfort, reservations, and mutual…

  10. Texas Student Success Council: Finding Common Ground to Increase Community College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a prominent Texas business group erected provocative billboards condemning low completion rates at the state's community colleges and questioning the value of tax dollars spent there. The Texas Association of Business put up the signs to prod community colleges to do more to increase student success and help create a better educated…

  11. The Irony and the Ecstasy: How Holden Caulfield Helped My Advanced Composition Students Find Their Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Linda

    An instructor of an advanced composition course (adapted from one taught by James Seitz at the University of Pittsburgh) at the University of California Riverside took her students through a series of reading and writing assignments that asked them to "engage in a wide variety of prose styles and...consider what style suggests about language,…

  12. Digital Literature: Finding New Ways to Motivate Students to Read Brazilian Literature Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vania Soares; Lima, Vera; Silva, Rejane; Silva, Willy; Soares, Ana Carolina; de Sousa, Aline

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative and qualitative study is aimed to diagnose and promote the use of new technologies in teaching literature reading in Public (State) Schools, assessing materials accessibility and computer skills. The research consisted of three distinct steps: (1) A survey to detect teachers' and students' computer skills, their use of computers…

  13. Computer-Aided College Algebra: Learning Components that Students Find Beneficial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Douglas B.; Francisco, Cynthia; Utley, Juliana; Wescoatt, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted during the Fall 2008 semester to better understand the experiences of students participating in computer-aided instruction of College Algebra using the software MyMathLab. The learning environment included a computer learning system for the majority of the instruction, a support system via focus groups (weekly…

  14. Student Support for Reproductive Health Education in Middle Schools: Findings from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhanna, Farah; DeJong, Jocelyn; Afifi, Rima; Asmar, Khalil; Nazha, Bassel; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive health education (RHE) programmes in schools are a well-recognised means of helping young people make informed decisions relating to their sexual health and well-being. Very little research however has investigated attitudes towards such programmes among students in the Arab world. A national HIV education curriculum was developed in…

  15. Extended Test Time, Read Aloud and Student Characteristics: A Summary of Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Tuckwiller, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Important legal and policy changes in recent years have made postsecondary education an increasingly viable option for students with learning disabilities. These include substantive changes in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004) in the area of transition planning, research examining the importance of a college degree on…

  16. Information Literacy in Science Writing: How Students Find, Identify, and Use Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.

    2016-01-01

    For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we…

  17. Finding friends online: online activities by deaf students and their well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helen; Marschark, Marc; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Knoors, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Generally, deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) children have fewer friends than hearing peers and their friendships are of a lower quality. The research hypothesis was that using the computer to communicate with new online friends through social network sites or playing games with offline friends is associated with D/HH friendship qualities, because it removes certain communication barriers D/HH face in offline communication settings. With online questionnaires the relation between computer use and online, mixed (offline friend who you also speak in online settings), and offline friendship quality of D/HH and hearing students (18-25 years) was compared in both the Netherlands (n = 100) and the United States (n = 122). In addition, the study examined whether the different friendship qualities were related to the participants' well-being. Results showed that, in general, D/HH students' friendship qualities and levels of well-being were similar to their hearing peers. The quality of the mixed friendships was positively related to well-being. Furthermore, the frequency of pc use with both online and offline friends was positively related to friendships qualities in both hearing and D/HH students. A combination of the online and offline friendship seems to be the most important friendship type for both hearing and D/HH students and it is worthwhile to encourage this friendship type.

  18. High School Students' Engagement in Planning Investigations: Findings from a Longitudinal Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras-Pérez, B.; Jiménez-Aleixandre, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the process of high school students' planning investigations in the chemistry laboratory across two consecutive academic years in terms of their actions and their progress. The context is a set of five inquiry-based laboratory tasks in which participants (9th and 10th graders, 14-15 and 15-16 years of age) are required to plan…

  19. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  20. Finding the right doctoral thesis - an innovative research fair for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.

  1. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumpt...

  3. Agents of change: undergraduate students' attitudes following observations of speech-language pathology service delivery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne M; Ciocci, Sandra R

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate communication sciences and disorders students' attitudes toward speech-language pathology (SLP) clinical services to children and adults prior to and following community-based observations were examined. Participants (n=25) completed an online survey to elicit their opinions regarding their perceptions of their observation experiences. Findings revealed that after completion of community-based SLP clinical observations, 16 (64%) respondents reported a continued interest in a child-based clinical focus; 12 (48%) respondents continued to consider a clinical interest in adults, while 5 respondents (20%) changed career interests to an adult focus based on their observation experiences. Findings support the notion that observations of SLP appear to significantly influence students' career choices. Clinical observations typically occur at the junior/senior undergraduate levels; therefore, suggestions are offered for inclusion of gerontology education embedded throughout the undergraduate communication sciences and disorders curricula to foster and expand students' knowledge of aging, and to prepare our students to meet the healthcare challenges of elders in the 21st century.

  4. Light and optics conceptual evaluation findings from first year optometry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Damber; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2014-07-01

    The Light and Optics Conceptual Evaluation (LOCE) was developed to examine conceptual understanding of basic geometric and physical optics for the Active Learning in Optics and Photonics program administered by UNESCO. This 50 item test (46 multiple choice, 4 ray-tracing short answer) was administered to entering students in the Optometry professional degree (OD) program. We wanted to determine how much of the physics/optics concepts from undergraduate physics courses (a pre-requisite for entry to the OD program) were retained. In addition, the test was administered after the first year students had taken a required course in geometric and visual optics as part of their first semester courses. The LOCE was completed by two consecutive classes to the program in 2010 (n=89) and 2011 (n=84). The tests were administered the first week of the term and the test was given without any prior notice. In addition, the test was administered to the class of 2010 students after they had completed the course in geometric and visual optics. The means of the test were 22.1 (SD=4.5; range: 12-35) and 21.3(SD=5.1; range: 11-35) for the two entering classes. There was no statistical significance between the two classes (t-test, poptometry (and other allied health programs such as opticianry or ophthalmology).

  5. Student perceptions of a quality clinical experience: findings from the literature and their application to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a review of research findings into the clinical experience from the perception of students, with the aim of improving the clinical placements of radiation therapy students. Drawing on evidence from other allied health professions, the attributes of the ideal supervisor perceived by students is presented. The effect of clinical environment, departmental culture and communication with universities on student perception is also discussed. The lack of literature on radiation therapy education in the clinical setting has been highlighted and may be remedied in the future with the appointment of research radiation therapists. There is an ongoing need for the universities to assist radiation therapists in maintaining their skills in the supervision of students, perhaps through the provision of workshops and seminars. The list of attributes of the ideal supervisor extracted from the literature is extensive. It is an unrealistic expectation for a person to possess all of the characteristics, however the challenge is for supervisors to develop and exhibit as many as possible. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  6. Service-Learning by Doing: How a Student-Run Consulting Company Finds Relevance and Purpose in a Business Strategy Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David F.; Sherwood, Arthur Lloyd; DePaolo, Concetta A.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge for undergraduate learning in strategy is that the students lack professional work experiences. Without a rich background of experience, many strategic management topics are difficult to grasp. Our solution has been to develop a strategic management capstone course that combines service-learning and problem-based learning. The…

  7. Assessment of the Difficult Areas of the Senior Secondary School 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Difficult Areas of the Senior Secondary School 2 (Two) ... Correlation between the students' perceived difficulty and their achievement in a test and ... Students need counseling, encouragement and enlightenment in order to ...

  8. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between aerodynamic measures of glottal efficiency and stroboscopic findings in asymptomatic singing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, D S; Roy, S; Casiano, R R; Evans, J; Sullivan, P A; Xue, J W

    2000-06-01

    Singing requires exquisite coordination between the respiratory and phonatory systems to efficiently control glottal airflow. Asymptomatic singing students underwent pulmonary function testing (PFT), videostrobolaryngoscopic examination, and measures of glottal efficiency (maximum phonation time [MPT], glottal flow rate [GFR], and phonation quotient [PQ]) performed in both a sung and spoken tone. Pulmonary function and glottal efficiency values were within reported normative data for professional singers. However, sung tones were made with significantly higher GFR and PQ and lower PQ than spoken tones. The mean GFR was not related to the degree of glottal closure (by videostrobolaryngoscopy) or underlying pulmonary support.

  10. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Kahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007. Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235 were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007 were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI, and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85, alcohol misuse (OR 2.80, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13. Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%, anxiety (50%, and suicidal behaviours (50% generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%, anxiety (38%, suicidal behaviours (40%, and

  11. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  12. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-09-30

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  13. "Operating on a Basis of Student Consent": Peter Medway's Work in "Finding a Language"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Written nearly 40 years ago, Peter Medway's "Finding a Language" continues to be an arresting read, which offers a powerful vision of what might be possible in education. In this brief introduction, I set the work in context, referring to ideas that Pete engaged with and recalling a little of the times.

  14. Engaging Students in Learning: Findings from a Study of Project-Led Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Mesquita, Diana; Flores, Maria Assunção; Lima, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a three-year study of project-based learning implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme, at the University of Minho, Portugal. This particular model was inspired on project-led education (PLE), following Powell and Weenk's [2003. "Project-Led Engineering…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  18. Extent and pattern of problematic internet use among school students from Delhi: Findings from the cyber awareness programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Harshwardhan, M; Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, Shalini

    2018-04-01

    The student population is likely to be vulnerable to problems associated with increased online activity. We present the findings on extent and pattern of problematic internet use based on observations from a cyber awareness initiative undertaken in national capital city of New Delhi. A total of 25 schools were enrolled in the first phase of the initiative. The students in the middle, high, secondary and senior secondary grades were eligible for inclusion in the initiative. The Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 was used to assess problematic internet use. Correlation analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. A binary logistic regression was carried to see how various variables predicted the GPIUS scores. The level of statistical significance was kept at p < 0.05 for all the tests. A total of 6291 students participated in first phase. Around 19% of study participants reported problematic internet use and 37% used internet for mood regulation. Male gender, older age, studying in senior grades, and owning a personal device were associated with higher rates of problematic internet use. Use of internet for accessing social media, online gaming, and recreational surfing is associated with problematic internet use, while use of internet for educational activities was associated with lesser problems. There is a need to cover all students under cyber awareness program in order to facilitate safe and healthy use of internet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity and weight control measures: Findings from female college students of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H K Thakkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obesity has negative health impacts. Obese people have higher risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Overweight and obesity during young adulthood can track into later adulthood along with its higher risk for NCDs. Aims: To identify the weight control intention and dietary practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females and to know the reasons for discontinuation among ever tried subjects. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study conducted in urban and rural colleges of Agra. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among 400 female college students. Height and weight were measured to assess body composition according to BMI (Body Mass Index criteria (WHO 2002. Study included a semi-structured and semi-open-ended instrument to assess practices related to weight control. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted. Statistical analysis used: Frequency. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 18.5% and 4.5%, respectively, according to BMI (WHO 2002. One third of the subjects were recording their weight monthly. Slightly less than half of the subjects (46% were trying to maintain optimum weight. Almost one third of these subjects (33.5% were presently trying to lose weight. About one fifth of total 400 subjects (20.5% were not concerned about their weight status. Majority of the subjects (85% irrespective of their obesity status did not take any professional advice. More than half (52.7% were resorting to physical activity to lose weight. Taking more fruits/vegetables (44.7% was found to be the most common healthy dieting practices and most unhealthy was fasting (15.3%. More than one fourth (28.8% of the subjects abandoned weight control practices because of shortage of time followed by 22.4% due to physical weakness. Conclusions: Collectively, results indicate female college students, regardless of weight status, would benefit from open discussions

  20. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway. PMID:17184555

  1. Clinical review: management of difficult airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainly at induction of anesthesia. Nevertheless, claim reports emphasize that airway emergencies, tracheal extubation and/or recovery of anesthesia phases are still associated with death or brain damage, indicating that additional educational support and management strategies to improve patient safety are required. The present brief review analyses specific problems of airway management related to difficult tracheal intubation and to difficult mask ventilation prediction. The review will focus on basic airway management including preoxygenation, and on some oxygenation and tracheal intubation techniques that may be performed to solve a difficult airway.

  2. How Difficult It Is to Be God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Book review of Carlos Iván Degregori, How Difficult It Is to Be God: Shining Path's Politics of War in Peru,1980–1999 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012)......Book review of Carlos Iván Degregori, How Difficult It Is to Be God: Shining Path's Politics of War in Peru,1980–1999 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2012)...

  3. Understanding Social Learning Relations of International Students in a Large Classroom Using Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Héliot, YingFei; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in higher education is that international students find it difficult to develop learning and friendship relations with host students. When students are placed in a student-centred environment, international students from different cultural backgrounds are "forced" to work together with other students, which allows…

  4. The Use of a Student Group Log to Facilitate Student and Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenders, Fer

    2016-01-01

    In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of student learning. Teachers in a teacher…

  5. Difficult intubation: are you prepared for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, C

    1994-01-01

    The endotracheal intubation of a patient for surgery requires an anaesthetist who is aided by a skilled and experienced helper. This paper explores reasons why some patients are difficult to intubate. Some are predictable on pre-operative assessment and others are not. Suggestions are given on how the helper is useful to the anaesthetist in this potentially critical situation.

  6. Difficult diagnoses in the skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    The book on difficult diagnoses in the skeletal radiology discusses the path from symptom to diagnoses including image interpretation. Specific case studies concern the skull, the spinal cord, pelvis, shoulder and chest, upper and lower extremities. The used radiological techniques include projecting radiography, computerized tomography, scintiscanning, PET/CT, NNR imaging and ultrasonography.

  7. Preoperative Prediction of Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pujahari[2] [Table 1]. The scores were added up to get a total score and the patients were divided into categories of risks based on the total score [Table 2]. The following operative parameters ... The timing was noted from the first port site incision till the last ports closure. ..... Dhanke PS, Vgane SP. Factors predicting difficult ...

  8. Crisis management during anaesthesia: difficult intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paix, A D; Williamson, J A; Runciman, W B

    2005-06-01

    Anaesthetists may experience difficulty with intubation unexpectedly which may be associated with difficulty in ventilating the patient. If not well managed, there may be serious consequences for the patient. A simple structured approach to this problem was developed to assist the anaesthetist in this difficult situation. To examine the role of a specific sub-algorithm for the management of difficult intubation. The potential performance of a structured approach developed by review of the literature and analysis of each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 147 reports of difficult intubation capable of analysis among the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS. The difficulty was unexpected in 52% of cases; major physiological changes occurred in 37% of these cases. Saturation fell below 90% in 22% of cases, oesophageal intubation was reported in 19%, and an emergency transtracheal airway was required in 4% of cases. Obesity and limited neck mobility and mouth opening were the most common anatomical contributing factors. The data confirm previously reported failures to predict difficult intubation with existing preoperative clinical tests and suggest an ongoing need to teach a pre-learned strategy to deal with difficult intubation and any associated problem with ventilation. An easy-to-follow structured approach to these problems is outlined. It is recommended that skilled assistance be obtained (preferably another anaesthetist) when difficulty is expected or the patient's cardiorespiratory reserve is low. Patients should be assessed postoperatively to exclude any sequelae and to inform them of the difficulties encountered. These should be clearly documented and appropriate steps taken to warn future anaesthetists.

  9. Smoking Prevention for Students: Findings From a Three-Year Program of Integrated Harm Minimization School Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Lester, Leanne; Foxcroft, David R; Ramsden, Robyn; Venning, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the Drug Education in Victorian Schools (DEVS) program on tobacco smoking. The program taught about licit and illicit drugs in an integrated manner over 2 years, with follow up in the third year. It focused on minimizing harm, rather than achieving abstinence, and employed participatory, critical-thinking and skill-based teaching methods. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was conducted with a student cohort during years 8 (13 years), 9 (14 years), and 10 (15 years). Twenty-one schools were randomly allocated to the DEVS program (14 schools, n = 1163), or their usual drug education program (7 schools, n = 589). One intervention school withdrew in year two. There was a greater increase in the intervention students' knowledge about drugs, including tobacco, in all 3 years. Intervention students talked more with their parents about smoking at the end of the 3-year program. They recalled receiving more education on smoking in all 3 years. Their consumption of cigarettes had not increased to the same extent as controls at the end of the program. Their change in smoking harms, relative to controls, was positive in all 3 years. There was no difference between groups in the proportionate increase of smokers, or in attitudes towards smoking, at any time. These findings indicate that a school program that teaches about all drugs in an integrated fashion, and focuses on minimizing harm, does not increase initiation into smoking, while providing strategies for reducing consumption and harm to those who choose to smoke.

  10. K-12 Students' Perceptions of Scientists: Finding a valid measurement and exploring whether exposure to scientists makes an impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.; Bloodsworth, Kylie H.; Tilburg, Charles E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; List, Henrietta E.

    2014-10-01

    This study was launched from a National Science Foundation GK-12 grant in which graduate fellows in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are placed in classrooms to engage K-12 students in STEM activities. The investigation explored whether the STEM Fellows' presence impacted the K-12 students' stereotypical image of a scientist. Since finding a valid instrument is critical, the study involved (1) determining the validity of the commonly administered Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) against a newly designed six-question survey and (2) using a combination of both instruments to determine what stereotypes are currently held by children. A pretest-posttest design was used on 485 students, grades 3-11, attending 6 different schools in suburban and rural Maine communities. A significant but low positive correlation was found between the DAST and the survey; therefore, it is imperative that the DAST not be used alone, but corroboration with interviews or survey questions should occur. Pretest results revealed that the children held common stereotypes of scientists, but these stereotypes were neither as extensive nor did they increase with the grade level as past research has indicated, suggesting that a shift has occurred with children having a broader concept of who a scientist can be. Finally, the presence of an STEM Fellow corresponded with decreased stereotypes in middle school and high school, but no change in elementary age children. More research is needed to determine whether this reflects resiliency in elementary children's perceptions or limitations in either drawing or in writing out their responses.

  11. "Why Do I Have to Take This Course?": How Academic Advisers Can Help Students Find Personal Meaning and Purpose in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Kuwaye, Michael; Sano-Franchini, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, student engagement in general education continues to be a challenge. Perhaps one way to increase engagement is to connect general education with a deep student need: finding meaning and purpose in their lives or exploring what some have called "big questions." Recent scholarship has defined these clusters of…

  12. students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 16, 2017: 139-147 ... However, teaching strategies, ... minds-on strategy, integrating biological concepts to daily life and provision of .... to classroom management, to learning and.

  13. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  14. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  15. The long shadows of the difficult past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolnik, Kevin; Busse, Britta; Tholen, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of how young people today evaluate the Second World War today and how this ‘difficult past’ determines their political attitudes. Furthermore, the channels through which the current young generation in Europe is informed about the events dating back to the first...... half of the twentieth century (e.g. parents and grandparents, schools, the media) are examined. The theoretical basis chosen for addressing these questions is the work of Mannheim (1928) on the formation of successive generations, and the theories of collective memories and identities of Eisenstadt...... and his followers. Our empirical evidence comes from a transnational comparison of young people’s memories of this difficult past in Denmark, Finland and Germany. From a historical perspective a comparison of the three countries is particularly interesting as they played different roles during the Second...

  16. Clinical review: Management of difficult airways

    OpenAIRE

    Langeron, Olivier; Amour, Julien; Vivien, Benoît; Aubrun, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Difficulties or failure in airway management are still important factors in morbidity and mortality related to anesthesia and intensive care. A patent and secure airway is essential to manage anesthetized or critically ill patients. Oxygenation maintenance during tracheal intubation is the cornerstone of difficult airway management and is always emphasized in guidelines. The occurrence of respiratory adverse events has decreased in claims for injuries due to inadequate airway management mainl...

  17. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Benegas-Segarra, Agnes; Sinson, Fe A

    2013-12-10

    A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths' drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5,290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI=1.06-3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.05-2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI =1.06-2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  18. Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Jette Joost

    2012-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients Purpose: To explore nurses' relationships with patients they regard as being difficult. How do nurses feel about such patients and relate to them, and what are the consequences for nurse and patient? Design and methods....... Patients' case records were studied and four meetings with the staff were arranged to discuss the findings. Data collection lasted 18 months in all. Findings: Three strategies were identified: persuasion, avoidance (emotional distance), and compromise. Interestingly, in the relationship with a particular...... patient, the avoidance strategy did not necessarily represent the terminal stage, since a nurse could revert to the compromise strategy. Some of the nurses experienced painful emotions regarding these interactions. Conclusions: The avoidance strategy (emotional distance) resulted in important social...

  19. [Compassionate care for student nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Nurses are practising in a work environment which is sometimes difficult and which can affect their capacity to supervise students. They may sometimes find themselves taking out their frustration on these students. By being better trained in the specificities of adult learning, frontline professionals and tutors could find it easier to adopt a compassionate care attitude towards nursing students, an essential condition for the development of their skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Why are the Mathematics National Examination Items Difficult and What Is Teachers’ Strategy to Overcome It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Retnawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of national examination items plays an enormous role in identifying students’ competencies mastery and their difficulties. This study aims to identify the difficult items in the Junior High School Mathematics National Examination, to find the factors that cause students’ difficulty and to reveal the strategies that the teachers and the students might implement in order to overcome them. The study is phenomenological research with the mixed methods. The data were collected using documentation of students’ responses and focus group discussion (FGD of teachers. The data analysis was conducted using Milles & Hubberman steps. The results of the study showed that there were 4 difficult items of the 40 test items for the students. The students’ difficulties were the lack of concept understanding, difficulties in calculating, difficulties in selecting information, being deceived by the distractors, being unaccustomed to completing complex and non-integers test items, and completing contextual test items that have been presented in the form of figures or narrative texts.

  1. The effectiveness of web-delivered learning with aboriginal students: Findings from a study in coastal Labrador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Philpott

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the findings of a study that explores perspectives of e-learning for aboriginal students in five coastal communities in Labrador, Canada. The rural nature of many communities in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, coupled with a dramatically declining enrollment, has resulted in expanding use of e-learning as a means to provide quality high school curriculum. Recently, a Community University Research Alliance partnered with stakeholders to explore the success of e-learning in the province. Through one of the projects of this alliance, the authors examined the success of this mode of delivery for aboriginal students from the perspective of the students themselves, as well as the perspective of parents and educators. Additionally, student performance was examined in comparison to provincial peers. A wealth of data emerged which affords insights into factors that support and hinder e-learning in coastal areas and also informs educators about the diverse learning characteristics and needs of aboriginal students. As Canadian educators are increasingly challenged to address achievement issues that continue to characterize aboriginal populations, this study offers important data on the viability of e-learning as a mode of curriculum delivery. Résumé : Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude qui explore les perspectives de l’apprentissage en ligne pour les élèves autochtones dans cinq collectivités côtières du Labrador, Canada. Le caractère rural d’un grand nombre de collectivités de la province de Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador, jumelé à une baisse spectaculaire de la scolarisation, a mené à une utilisation accrue de l’apprentissage en ligne comme solution permettant d’assurer un curriculum de qualité au secondaire. Récemment, une alliance de recherche université-communauté a travaillé de pair avec les intervenants afin d’étudier les résultats de l’apprentissage en ligne dans la province

  2. Difficult Knowledge and the English Classroom: A Catholic Framework Using Cormac McCarthy's "The Road"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Scott; Burke, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the generative possibilities of risk-taking in the Catholic school English classroom. They associate pedagogical risk with what Deborah Britzman (1998) has called "difficult knowledge"--content that causes students to consider social trauma. Incorporating difficult knowledge meaningfully requires…

  3. Hemorrhagic herpes encephalitis: A difficult diagnosis in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, N.U.; Albert, H.H. von

    1982-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadically appearing encephalitis in Central Europe. Differential diagnosis to brain tumors or spontaneous intercerebral hemorrhage is difficult. There are CT scan findings which are characteristic of HSE but there are no pathognomonic patterns. These characteristic findings are helpful in differential diagnosis to neoplastic or vascular processes. Thus, other diagnostic procedures (i.e. brain biopsy) to confirm diagnosis of HSE and effective therapy may be carried out in time. The difficulties in differential diagnosis are shown by the presented case. (orig.) [de

  4. Attitudes toward Science among Grades 3 through 12 Arab Students in Qatar: Findings from a Cross-Sectional National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ziad; Summers, Ryan; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed students' attitudes toward science in Qatar. A cross-sectional, nationwide probability sample representing all students enrolled in grades 3 through 12 in the various types of schools in Qatar completed the "Arabic Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey" (ASSASS). The validity and reliability of the…

  5. Secrets to Success: Business Skills and Knowledge That Students Find Most Useful in Succeeding in a Capstone Course Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresch, Eric; Rawls, Janita

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory research examines students' perceptions of a capstone business simulation game by identifying (a) courses that were most useful in preparing students for the simulation and (b) interpersonal skills students found most helpful when working with teammates on the simulation. Also identified are the simulation's impact on student…

  6. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  7. Why is bullying difficult to change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hymel, S.; Swearer, S.; Gillette, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying and victimization are problematic behaviors with negative consequences for everyone: the victims, the bullies, the other students in the classroom and school, the teachers, the parents of the bullies and the victims, and perhaps even the neighborhood in which the school is located. Thus,

  8. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  9. Finding Opportunities to Nudge Student Groups over the Finish Line: Examining Students' Five-Year Progress. Data Notes. Volume 7, Number 1, January-February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Past research has revealed that students who complete coursework in a concentrated area, defined as completing three or more courses in a specific field of study, are much more likely to have successful outcomes than those who do not. Moreover, fewer than half of students included in this research, which followed students over seven years, entered…

  10. Difficult weaning in delayed onset diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively rare and result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Regardless of the mechanism, diagnosis is often missed and high index of suspicion is vital. The clinical signs associated with a diaphragmatic hernia can range from no outward signs to immediately life-threatening respiratory compromise. Establishing the clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries (DI can be challenging as it is often clinically occult. Accurate diagnosis is critical since missed DI may result in grave sequelae due to herniation and strangulation of displaced intra-abdominal organs. We present a case of polytrauma with rib fracture and delayed appearance of diaphragmatic hernia manifesting as difficult weaning from ventilatory support.

  11. Foreign body aspiration masquerading as difficult asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess patients of difficult/therapy resistant asthma carefully in order to identify whether there are any correctable factors that may contribute to their poor control. It is critical to make a diagnosis of asthma and to exclude other airway diseases. A 65-years-old lady presented with repeated acute episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing. She was on regular medication for bronchial asthma for 18 years. There was no history of foreign body aspiration or loss of consciousness. Her chest radiograph was normal. She showed poor response to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB showed intracordal cyst of the left vocal cord and 1cm size irregular piece of betel nut in right main bronchus, which was removed endoscopically with the help of dormia basket, following which her condition improved and asthma was controlled on inhaled bronchodilators.

  12. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  13. Chernobyl: Chronicle of difficult weeks [videorecording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodymyr, S

    1987-07-01

    1. Chernobyl : chronicle of difficult weeks. Shevchenko's film crew was the first in the disaster zone following the meltdown of the core of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. They shot continuously for more than three months. Portions of the film are exposed with white blotches - a radiation leakage. The film demonstrates how authorities and volunteers dealt with the accident, shows the efforts to get the fire under control, to take care of patients with radiation injuries, and to evacuate about 100,000 inhabitants of the area. 2. The BAM zone : permanent residents. The Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad in Siberia is called the longest monument to the stagnation of the Brezhnev years. The film shows the lives and fates of the people in contrast to the marches and songs praising the project.

  14. The use of a student group log to facilitate student and teacher learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of

  15. Conflict in Multicultural Classes: Approaches to Resolving Difficult Dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Stephen; Furr, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Survey data are presented from instructors (N = 114) regarding how they would hypothetically use conflict management interventions within multicultural courses. Findings indicate that participants had more difficulty dealing with conflict directed at the instructor than with cognitive conflict, which involved students' ideas or beliefs. In…

  16. Nostalgia: retreat or support in difficult times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between nostalgia and coping during difficult times was explored in 2 empirical studies. In the first, 80 undergraduates, 60 women and 20 men, completed the Nostalgia Inventory, a measure of nostalgia proneness, the COPE Inventory, a dispositional measure of strategies for coping with stressful events, and the Childhood Survey, a survey of impressions of childhood experiences. Nostalgia proneness correlated with use of adaptive coping, including emotional social support, expressing emotions, turning to religion, and suppressing competing activities, and did not correlate with escapist or avoidance strategies, including denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance abuse. Nostalgia proneness was related positively to favorable emotional and behavioral childhood experiences and did not correlate with adverse experiences. Favorable impressions of childhood correlated positively with adaptive coping strategies and inversely with dysfunctional ones, whereas unfavorable childhood experiences correlated positively with dysfunctional coping. Regression analyses suggested that the relationship between nostalgia proneness and certain coping strategies may be mediated in part by childhood experiences. In a second study, 100 undergraduates, 86 women and 14 men, completed the Nostalgia Inventory, recalled autobiographical memories that illustrated how childhood is either special or similar to their present life, and rated their likely use of strategies in dealing with 2 hypothetical problems. Nostalgia proneness correlated with emotional and instrumental social coping and with the goal-directed strategies of planning, taking action, and positive reframing. Further research is recommended to explore the role of childhood memories in coping and to identify mechanisms that mediate the relationship between nostalgia and coping.

  17. Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over diverse student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Isabelle; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-11-12

    Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption of the model that dimensional comparisons mainly depend on the difference in achievement between subjects. We compared correlations between subject-specific self-concepts of groups of elementary and secondary school students with or without achievement differences in the respective subjects. The main goals were (1) to show that effects of dimensional comparisons depend to a large degree on the existence of achievement differences between subjects, (2) to demonstrate the generalizability of findings over different grade levels and self-concept scales, and (3) to test a rarely used correlation comparison approach (CCA) for the investigation of I/E model assumptions. We analysed eight German elementary and secondary school student samples (grades 3-8) from three independent studies (Ns 326-878). Correlations between math and German self-concepts of students with identical grades in the respective subjects were compared with the correlation of self-concepts of students having different grades using Fisher's Z test for independent samples. In all samples, correlations between math self-concept and German self-concept were higher for students having identical grades than for students having different grades. Differences in median correlations had small effect sizes for elementary school students and moderate effect sizes for secondary school students. Findings generalized over grades and indicated a developmental aspect in self-concept formation. The CCA complements investigations within I/E-research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Finding Yourself in Poetry: A Reflection on How to Encourage Student Ownership through Risk Taking and Shared Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Philippa

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which our students, and indeed we, are manipulated by popular culture and a normative perception of an ideal way to be is an issue of increasing import. The changes we make to our teaching to engage students in this issue must be conducive to meaningful learning and subsequent academic achievement. The changes we make are based on…

  19. Academic Motivation and Approaches to Learning in Predicting College Students' Academic Achievement: Findings from Turkish and US Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if approaches to learning and academic motivation together predict grade point averages (GPAs) of students who study at Primary School Education and Preschool Education in Turkey and of students who study at Early Childhood Education in the US. The first group of participants included 166 third- and…

  20. K-12 Students' Perceptions of Scientists: Finding a Valid Measurement and Exploring Whether Exposure to Scientists Makes an Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.; Bloodsworth, Kylie H.; Tilburg, Charles E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; List, Henrietta E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was launched from a National Science Foundation GK-12 grant in which graduate fellows in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are placed in classrooms to engage K-12 students in STEM activities. The investigation explored whether the STEM Fellows' presence impacted the K-12 students' stereotypical image of a…

  1. Students' Views of Assessment in Project-Led Engineering Education: Findings from a Case Study in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Flores, Maria Assuncao; Lima, Rui Manuel

    2012-01-01

    According to the demands of the Bologna process, new educational methods and strategies are needed in order to enhance student-centred learning. Project work is one of those approaches. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of project-led education (PLE) on students' learning processes and outcomes, within the context of a first-year engineering…

  2. The Role of Teacher Morale and Motivation on Students' Science and Math Achievement: Findings from Singapore, Japan, Finland and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazaoglu, Ilkay; Aztekin, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is one of the factors that affect the realization of the teaching objectives, motivation and academic achievement of student. This study aimed to answer to the question "How is the relation between the students' academic (sciences and mathematics) achievement and teachers' morale/motivation in Singapore, Japan, Finland and…

  3. Confidence in Mathematics and Algebra Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Japan: Findings from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing interest in the identification of student and instructional factors associated with the mathematics achievement of students in Japan. The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have provided opportunities to examine factors associated with mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was…

  4. A Survey of Former Business Students (General Business, Management, Marketing, Real Estate). Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2002 staff of the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former business students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former business students in the areas of…

  5. The Impact of Scholarships for Asian American and Pacific Islander Community College Students: Findings from an Experimental Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Martin, Margary; Pazich, Loni Bordoloi; Alcantar, Cynthia M.; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Curammeng, Edward R.; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Chan, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on scholarship programs provides foundational knowledge on student enrollment patterns, different types of programs and their students, and outcomes for scholarship recipients in different sectors of higher education. Despite this growing body of research, however, looming questions remain about the measurable impact of scholarship…

  6. Finding New Ways to Reach Older Students: Creating a Social Media Marketing Plan for Professional and Continuing Higher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Marilyn Martin; Johnson, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Although traditional student enrollment is declining, the nontraditional segment of students is growing. This enrollment pattern will require recruitment strategies that speak directly to the adult learners. There is robust adoption of social media use by individuals and by organizations for marketing purposes. Social media marketing includes…

  7. Student Difficulties in Socio-Scientific Argumentation and Decision-Making Research Findings: Crossing the Borders of Two Research Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Omer; Turkmen, Lutfullah; Roychoudhury, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Students' poor argumentation in the context of socio-scientific issues has become a concern in science education. Identified problems associated with student argumentation in socio-scientific issues are misevaluation of evidence, naive nature of science conceptualizations, and inappropriate use of value-based reasoning. In this theoretical paper,…

  8. Clinicians' recognition and management of emotions during difficult healthcare conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliott B; Mazzola, Natalia M; Brandano, Jessica; Luff, Donna; Zurakowski, David; Meyer, Elaine C

    2015-10-01

    To examine the most commonly reported emotions encountered among healthcare practitioners when holding difficult conversations, including frequency and impact on care delivery. Interprofessional learners from a range of experience levels and specialties completed self-report questionnaires prior to simulation-based communication workshops. Clinicians were asked to describe up to three emotions they experienced when having difficult healthcare conversations; subsequent questions used Likert-scales to measure frequency of each emotion, and whether care was affected. 152 participants completed questionnaires, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial professionals. Most commonly reported emotions were anxiety, sadness, empathy, frustration, and insecurity. There were significant differences in how clinicians perceived these different emotions affecting care. Empathy and anxiety were emotions perceived to influence care more than sadness, frustration, and insecurity. Most clinicians, regardless of clinical experience and discipline, find their emotional state influences the quality of their care delivery. Most clinicians rate themselves as somewhat to quite capable of recognizing and managing their emotions, acknowledging significant room to grow. Further education designed to increase clinicians' recognition of, reflection on, and management of emotion would likely prove helpful in improving their ability to navigate difficult healthcare conversations. Interventions aimed at anxiety management are particularly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined precut in difficult biliary cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinel-Díez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: precut sphincterotomy refers to a variety of endoscopic techniques that are used in order to access the bile duct when conventional methods of cannulation have failed. There are not significant data (such as efficacy, safety about the use of different techniques of precutting at the same session. We have described our experience with combined precut sphincterotomy (CPS and we have compared our results to the use of an isolated precut. Patients and methods: we have performed 247 precuts of a total of 2.390 ERCPs. Patients were distributed according to the type of precut practiced: Needle-knife, transpancreatic and combined precut sphincterotomies. "Combined precut" consisted in performing first a transpancreatic sphincterotomy and, if the access was not achieved, then performing a needle-knife sphincterotomy in the same session. The data about safety and efficacy were prospectively collected. The complications were defined according to the consensus criteria. Results: we performed precutting techniques in 247 patients. Needle-knife, transpancreatic, and combined precuts were performed in 125 (6.9%, 74 (4.1% and 48 (2.6% patients, respectively. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 48 patients (100% in the group of combined precut, 121 patients (96.8% in the transpancreatic group, and 67 patients (90.5% in the needle-knife group (p = 0.03. There were not differences in complications rates between the three groups. There was no pancreatitis in the combined precut group. The complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusions: combined precut sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and successful technique in those cases of difficult bile duct cannulation.

  10. Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey--Budapest, Hungary, 1999. Findings on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P

    2004-06-01

    In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  11. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  12. Experiences of first-year nursing students during an education redesign: findings from the Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrogorsky, Tanya L; Raber, Anjanette M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize first-year students' (n = 908) experience during a nursing education redesign. Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) began its redesign of nursing education in 2000, long before the current national calls for nursing education reform. As OCNE moved from planning to implementation, a comprehensive evaluation of the students, the program, and curriculum ensued. Data were collected from first-year nursing students each spring from 2007-2010 using a standardized survey instrument that included demographic, attitudinal, and opinion-based survey items. Results indicated fellow students, course lectures and interaction, and faculty and courses were rated areas of satisfaction. Areas needing improvement included advising and facilities, administration, quality of instruction and curriculum, and overall program effectiveness. Mean scaled and open-ended responses from each area are reported.

  13. Are we failing to prepare nursing and midwifery students to deal with domestic abuse? Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Broadhurst, Karen

    2015-09-01

    To investigate student nurses' and midwives' knowledge, confidence and educational needs regarding recognition and responses to domestic abuse. Domestic abuse is a serious global problem and has greater, negative effects on long-term health than more obvious diseases, such as diabetes. Nurses and midwives are well-placed to recognize and respond to domestic abuse but many lack confidence in this area. There is firm evidence that training can increase the confidence of Registered Nurses and midwives in responding to domestic abuse. But the issue of undergraduate preparation is significantly under-investigated. A qualitative study. Nursing and midwifery students were recruited using purposive sampling. We facilitated eight focus groups with a total of 55 students (student midwives N = 32; student nurses n = 23). Data were collected between May-November 2014. Students in the study viewed the issue of domestic abuse as important and they possessed sound theoretical knowledge of its nature and consequences. However, they lacked confidence in recognizing and responding to abuse and were concerned about the implications of this for their future practice as registered practitioners. Interactive learning opportunities that engaged with service users and involved experts from practice were viewed as important educational requirements. Most students in the study felt insufficiently prepared to deal with the issue of domestic abuse. They perceived this as a cyclical state of disempowerment that would impact negatively on their practice and on their own ability to support nursing and midwifery students of the future. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Teen Dating Violence (Physical and Sexual) Among US High School Students: Findings From the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M

    2015-05-01

    National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were

  15. Osteopathic Medical Students Entering Family Medicine and Attitudes Regarding Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Preliminary Findings of Differences by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Helen H; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; Ridpath, Lance C; Bauer, Laurie J; Foster, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Factors distinguishing osteopathic physicians from their allopathic counterparts include the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), application of osteopathic principles and practice (OPP), and a greater likelihood of entering primary care, specifically family medicine (FM). In the United States, the percentage of entering osteopathic medical students who were female rose from 14.3% in fall 1977 to 44.3% in fall 2015. To investigate the perspectives of female osteopathic medical students as they relate to osteopathic distinctiveness. Students at the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine who were eligible to participate in graduation exercises in 2014 or 2015 were asked to complete the school's standard Exit Survey. The research team chose 5 items from the survey to include in the current analysis. Sex had been self-identified at admission, and residency in first postgraduate year was categorized as FM or other specialty. Graduates entering a transitional year or traditional internship were removed from analysis. Analysis was conducted for 308 of the 375 students (82%) expected to graduate in 2014 or 2015. χ2 analysis found no difference by sex in the number of graduates entering FM residencies vs other specialties (P=.727). Statistically significant differences were found in 2 survey items: "Use of OMT will enhance my practice" (P=.005) and "What emphasis do you believe OMT will have in your practice?" (P<.001). Graduating female students responded more favorably to OMT on both items. For the latter item, 91.4% of female and 80.3% of male students indicated OMT would have at least some role in their practices. Sex differences remained after statistically controlling for entry into FM. Female graduating osteopathic medical students were more likely to report that OMT will have at least some role in their practices. Future studies of the attitudes and practice patterns of osteopathic physicians should analyze for differences by sex.

  16. Multidisciplinary Difficult Airway Course: An Essential Educational Component of a Hospital-Wide Difficult Airway Response Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, W Robert; Haut, Elliott R; Pandian, Vinciya; Nakka, Sajan; Dodd-O, Jeffrey; Bhatti, Nasir; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Saheed, Mustapha; Dalesio, Nicholas; Schiavi, Adam; Miller, Christina; Kirsch, Thomas D; Berkow, Lauren

    2018-04-05

    A hospital-wide difficult airway response team was developed in 2008 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital with three central pillars: operations, safety monitoring, and education. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of the educational pillar of the difficult airway response team program, known as the multidisciplinary difficult airway course (MDAC). The comprehensive, full-day MDAC involves trainees and staff from all provider groups who participate in airway management. The MDAC occurs within the Johns Hopkins Medicine Simulation Center approximately four times per year and uses a combination of didactic lectures, hands-on sessions, and high-fidelity simulation training. Participation in MDAC is the main intervention being investigated in this study. Data were collected prospectively using course evaluation survey with quantitative and qualitative components, and prepost course knowledge assessment multiple choice questions (MCQ). Outcomes include course evaluation scores and themes derived from qualitative assessments, and prepost course knowledge assessment MCQ scores. Tertiary care academic hospital center PARTICIPANTS: Students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians from the departments of Surgery, Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, and Emergency Medicine; advanced practice providers (nurse practitioners and physician assistants), nurse anesthetists, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Totally, 23 MDACs have been conducted, including 499 participants. Course evaluations were uniformly positive with mean score of 86.9 of 95 points. Qualitative responses suggest major value from high-fidelity simulation, the hands-on skill stations, and teamwork practice. MCQ scores demonstrated significant improvement: median (interquartile range) pre: 69% (60%-81%) vs post: 81% (72%-89%), p < 0.001. Implementation of a MDAC successfully disseminated principles and protocols to all airway providers. Demonstrable

  17. Self-reported cheating among medical students: An alarming finding in a cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Haque, Shafiul; Almusalam, Yousef Abdullah; Alanezi, Saleh Lafi; Alsulaiman, Yazeed Abdulaziz; Irshad, Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahmed; Khamis, Nehal

    2018-01-01

    Academic misconduct/dishonesty has become widespread behavior among many university students across the globe, and medical education is not an exception. Until recently, few efforts have been made to study the dishonest behavior in Middle-Eastern universities. This study examined the prevalence and predisposing factors of cheating among medical students in Saudi Arabia and suggests suitable preventive measures. A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted at a government medical college during the 2014-2015 academic year. The response rate was 58.5% (421/720). The overall cheating behavior practiced by the participants was 29%, predominantly by male students. High GPA scoring students were the least likely to cheat. The participants living with their families were more likely to cheat compared to those who were living apart from their families. The reasons participants gave to justify their cheating behavior included getting better grades, passing the course, and lacking preparation while still recognizing that cheating is a 'mistake.' Overall, significant academic misconduct concerning cheating was found among the Saudi medical students; this misconduct is alarming in a reputable government institution. The implementation of strict punishments, requiring ethical courses and creating ethical awareness by exploiting the potential of Islamic religious belief might help to control this problem.

  18. The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to Change Students' Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and temperature. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or change and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…

  19. Accurate blood pressure recording: is it difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, A; Singh, R; D'cruz, S; Lehl, S S; Sachdev, A

    2005-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard guidelines issued by the BHS.

  20. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  1. Leveraging Scratch4SL and Second Life to motivate high school students' participation in introductory programming courses: findings from a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos; Peroutseas, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    Students in secondary education strive hard enough to understand basic programming concepts. With all that is known regarding the benefits of programming, little is the published evidence showing how high school students can learn basic programming concepts following innovative instructional formats correctly with the respect to gain/enhance their computational thinking skills. This distinction has caused lack of their motivation and interest in Computer Science courses. This case study presents the opinions of twenty-eight (n = 28) high school students who participated voluntarily in a 3D-game-like environment created in Second Life. This environment was combined with the 2D programming environment of Scratch4SL for the implementation of programming concepts (i.e. sequence and concurrent programming commands) in a blended instructional format. An instructional framework based on Papert's theory of Constructionism to assist students how to coordinate or manage better the learning material in collaborative practice-based learning activities is also proposed. By conducting a mixed-method research, before and after finishing several learning tasks, students' participation in focus group (qualitative data) and their motivation based on their experiences (quantitative data) are measured. Findings indicated that an instructional design framework based on Constructionism for acquiring or empowering students' social, cognitive, higher order and computational thinking skills is meaningful. Educational implications and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  2. КОПІНГ-СТРАТЕГІЇ СТУДЕНТІВ-МЕДИКІВ У СКЛАДНИХ ЖИТТЄВИХ СИТУАЦІЯХ / Coping strategies of medical students in difficult life situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тимофієва Марина

    2015-03-01

    rapid changes in society. Particularly important is the issue of finding ways to have an effective impact on promoting young people’s ability to overcome difficult situations. The article reviews the socialization and psychological health of medical students, the success of which depends on the choice of coping strategies for solving difficult life situations. Life situations stimulate the personal growth, promote the human development, the achievement of new forms of balanced relationship of the individual with the environment, promote the moral sta- bility and persistence. They arise in the case of imbalance in the relations of the individual and its environment; or correspondence between the goals, aspirations and their feasibility and personality qualities. Such situations stimulate the activity of the human and are the factor of the emergence of increased requirements to skills and personal potential. The main feature of the article is that we empirically examined the coping strategies of 1st year medical students in Bukovina State Medical University. We used a technique of J. Amirhan “The indicator of coping strategies”. The idea of this questionnaire is that all behavioral strategies that are formed in the course of human life can be divided into three groups: a strategy of solving problems, finding social support strategy, the strategy of avoidance. The types of difficult life situations faced by the person during early adulthood were identified as a result of our empirical study, and namely situations where relationship problems occur, interpersonal interaction; situations of worsening problems of personal development; situations of actual activity, certain actions of duties; threats and risks to health and life. Key words: coping strategies, difficult life situations, stress, cognitive reappraisal of the situation.

  3. The difficult births of sunlike stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahler, S.; Comins, N.

    1988-01-01

    Over 4.5 billion years ago a small region deep inside an enormous cloud of interstellar gas and dust, located in an outer spiral arm of the Milky Way, gradually contracted until it became gravitationally unstable. When the density in this region of the cloud became great enough to allow gravity to overcome all other forces acting on it, the region collapsed. Materials swirled inward, condensed, heated up, radiated energy, and eventually settled down to form the Sun and our solar system. What properties did that original unstable region have when it began to shrink? Astronomers know it rotated, because its angular momentum manifests itself today mostly in the orbital motions of the planets. But that alone cannot help us answer even the most fundamental questions we have about how stars like the Sun form. To find out more, astronomers are studying similar collapsing regions of interstellar gas and dust in the Milky Way known as cold cores, which are even now in the process of becoming solar-type stars. Astronomers want to answer three specific questions: What qualities do these cold cores have that allow stars like the Sun to form from them? What exactly happens during the collapse process? And how do newly formed stars evolve?

  4. Development, Implementation, and Outcomes of an Equitable Computer Science After-School Program: Findings from Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouza, Chrystalla; Marzocchi, Alison; Pan, Yi-Cheng; Pollock, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Current policy efforts that seek to improve learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emphasize the importance of helping all students acquire concepts and tools from computer science that help them analyze and develop solutions to everyday problems. These goals have been generally described in the literature under the…

  5. In Pursuit of the Secret Shopper: Effective New Strategies for Finding and Engaging Prospective Students. Noel-Levitz White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Today, prospective students in ever greater numbers are secretly exploring colleges online on their own terms, using official and unofficial sources, without completing a college's response form. Many are withholding college entrance exam scores from colleges they might be interested in and remaining unknown to their institutions of choice until…

  6. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Ns; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-05-01

    Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. TO CHECK IF A THESIS RESULTED IN A PUBLICATION, WE SEARCHED: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals

  7. Transitioning from Faculty-Led Lecture to Student-Centered Field Learning Facilitated by Near-Peer Mentors: Preliminary Findings from the GeoFORCE/ STEMFORCE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M.; Wright, V. D.; Ellins, K. K.; Browder, M. G. J.; Castillo, R.; Kotowski, A. J.; Libarkin, J. C.; Lu, J.; Maredia, N.; Butler, N.

    2017-12-01

    GeoFORCE Texas, a geology-based outreach program in the Jackson School of Geosciences, offers weeklong summer geology field based courses to secondary students from minority-serving high schools in Texas and the Bahamas. Students transitioning from eighth to ninth grade are recruited into the program and ideally remain in GeoFORCE for four years. The program aims to empower underrepresented students by exposing them to experiences intended to inspire them to pursue geoscience or other STEM careers. Since the program's inception in 2005, GeoFORCE Texas has relied on a mix of classroom lectures delivered by a geoscience faculty member and time in the field. Early research findings from a National Science Foundation-sponsored GeoPaths-IMPACT project are influencing the evolution of field instruction away from the faculty-led lecture model to student-centered learning that may improve students' grasp of key geological concepts. The eleventh and twelfth grade programs are shifting towards this strategy. Each trip is facilitated by a seven-person team comprised of a geoscience graduate student, master teachers, four undergraduate geology students, and preservice teachers. Members of the instructional team reflected the racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity that the geoscience strives to achieve; all are excellent role models for GeoFORCE students. The outcome of the most recent Central Texas twelfth grade trip, which used a student-centered, project-based approach, was especially noteworthy. Each group was given a topic to apply to what they saw in the field, such as fluvial systems, cultural significance, or geohazards, etc., and present in any manner in front of peers and a panel of geoscience experts. Students used the latest presentation technology available to them (e.g. Prezi, iMovies) and sketches and site notes from field stops. The final presentations were clear, informative, and entertaining. It can be concluded that the students were more engaged with the

  8. Students' interaction for enhancing learning motivation and learning success: findings from integrating a simulation game into a university course

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, a vast amount of literature has been published discussing the educational use of simulation games in higher education. Since their emergence in the 1960s, simulation games have had a substantial effect on the way we think about teaching and learning in higher education. One reason simulation games are regarded as superior to traditional teaching is that they encourage students to interact and collaborate. Simulation games can therefore be subsumed under Kolbs learning model...

  9. Gambling and health risk behaviors among U.S. college student-athletes: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina; Paskus, Thomas S

    2007-05-01

    To examine prevalence and associations of gambling problems and health risk behaviors among college athletes from the first national survey of gambling among U.S. college student-athletes. Conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), this self-administered and anonymous survey collected information from a nationally representative sample of 20,739 student-athletes. Males consistently had higher past-year prevalence of gambling than females (e.g., 62.4% of males reported some type of gambling vs. 42.8% of females). Based on DSM-IV Gambling Screen, this study identified 4.3% of males and 0.4% of females as problem/pathological gamblers. A general upward trend existed that as the level of gambling problems increased, so did the prevalence of substance use, gorging/vomiting, and unprotected sex. Cross-group comparisons by gambler type were all significant. Problem and pathological gamblers also experienced significantly more drug/alcohol-related problems than non-gamblers and social gamblers. Direct associations found between gambling and multiple risk behaviors in college student-athletes support the persistence of the youth problem-behavior syndrome and suggest the need for multi-faceted initiatives to tackle these risk behaviors simultaneously.

  10. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sexual and dating violence among adolescents and young adults in Chile: a review of findings from a survey of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesises and discusses results from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a closed-ended questionnaire administered to students attending general education courses at a major public university in Santiago (n = 484 women, 466 men). The survey included questions on sexual violence (SV) and dating violence (DV), public health problems that have received little attention in Chile and other Latin-American countries. This paper highlights key findings from a series of papers based on these data, noting lessons learned in the Chilean context that may be useful for other Latin-American countries. Important gaps in the international literature on SV and DV are also discussed. A central finding is the high prevalence of SV and DV in this sample of university students, warranting further public health attention to these problems. Potentially, the findings will contribute to changes in awareness, policy and practice along similar lines to efforts that transformed the US landscape regarding SV and DV on college campuses in the 1980s.

  12. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  13. Anti-Sweatshop Groups Find It Difficult To Turn Campus Idealism into Real Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Werf, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes some of the efforts colleges have undertaken to ensure that clothing with college logos is not produced in sweatshops. Outlines work by the Fair Labor Association and the Workers Rights Consortium, organizations to which many colleges belong, to set up programs to monitor factories in the United States and other countries. (SLD)

  14. Smoking among Secondary School Students in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia--Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hock Kuang; Teh, Huey Chien; Lim, Li Hui; Lau, Joo Keng; Kee, Cheong Chee; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Chan, Ying Ying; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff; Ismail, Hasimah; Mohd Zaki, Nor Azian; Thomas, Leni Tupang; Lim, Kuay Kuang; Sm, Cheong; Ibrahim, Normala; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a learnt behavior during adolescence and understanding the factor/s associated with smoking will assist in identifying suitable measures in combating the rising prevalence of smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to identify the factor/s associated with smoking among form four students in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of students in 2008 and data were collected using a self-administered validated questionnaire. This study revealed that the overall smoking prevalence was 19.0% with a significantly higher proportion of male smokers (35.8%) as compared to females (3.15%). Adolescents who were male (aOR 6.6, 95%CI 2.61-16.4), those who had peer/s who smoked (aOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.31-12.4), and those who studied in rural areas and Felda Settlements ( aOR 4.59, 95 CI 1.11-18.0; aOR 9.42, 95%CI 3.91-29.1) were more likely to smoke in the past one week. On the other hand, adolescents with better knowledge on the hazards of smoking and negative attitudes towards smoking were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.72; aOR 0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.99). Future promotional and interventional programmes on smoking should be considered and the above identified risk factors integrated to reduce smoking prevalence among students of school-going ages in Kota Tinggi. Johor.

  15. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K; He, Jia; Heizmann, Boris; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants' acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement) through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland), those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal), and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia). In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students' ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  16. Usability Testing for e-Resource Discovery: How Students Find and Choose e-Resources Using Library Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Amy; Rich, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, library staff at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio designed and conducted a usability study of key parts of the library web site, focusing on the web pages generated by the library's electronic resources management system (ERM) that list and describe the library's databases. The goal was to discover how users find and…

  17. Do Emergency Physicians and Medical Students Find It Unethical to ‘Look up’ Their Patients on Facebook or Google?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Yakov, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of search engines and online social media (OSM websites by healthcare providers is increasing and may even be used to search for patient information. This raises several ethical issues. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of OSM and web-searching for patient information and to explore attitudes towards the ethical appropriateness of these practices by physicians and trainees in the emergency department (ED. Methods: We conducted an online survey study of Canadian emergency physicians and trainees listed under then Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP and senior medical students at the University of Toronto. Results: We received 530 responses (response rate 49.1%: 34.9% medical students, 15.5% residents, 49.6% staff physicians. Most had an active Facebook account (74%. Sixty-four participants (13.5% had used Google to research a patient and 10 (2.1% had searched for patients on Facebook. There were no differences in these results based on level of training, and 25% of physicians considered using Facebook to learn about a patient “very unethical.” The most frequent ethical concerns were with violation of patient confidentiality, dignity, and consent. The practice was usually not disclosed to patients (14%, but often disclosed to senior colleagues (83%. Conclusion: This is the first study examining the prevalence of and attitudes towards online searching for obtaining patient information in the ED. This practice occurs among staff physicians and trainees despite ethical concerns. Future work should explore the utility and desirability of searching for patient information online. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:234–239.

  18. Concurrent and Predictive Relationships Between Compulsive Internet Use and Substance Use: Findings from Vocational High School Students in China and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Compulsive Internet Use (CIU has increasingly become an area of research among process addictions. Largely based on data from cross-sectional studies, a positive association between CIU and substance use has previously been reported. This study presents gender and country-specific longitudinal findings on the relationships between CIU and substance use. Methods: Data were drawn from youth attending non-conventional high schools, recruited into two similarly implemented trials conducted in China and the USA. The Chinese sample included 1,761 students (49% male; the US sample included 1,182 students (57% male with over half (65% of the US youth being of Hispanic ethnicity. Path analyses were applied to detect the concurrent and predictive relationships between baseline and one-year follow-up measures of CIU level, 30-day cigarette smoking, and 30-day binge drinking. Results: (1 CIU was not positively related with substance use at baseline. (2 There was a positive predictive relationship between baseline CIU and change in substance use among female, but not male students. (3 Relationships between concurrent changes in CIU and substance use were also found among female, but not male students. (4 Baseline substance use did not predict an increase in CIU from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: While CIU was found to be related to substance use, the relationship was not consistently positive. More longitudinal studies with better measures for Internet Addiction are needed to ascertain the detailed relationship between Internet addiction and substance use.

  19. The Difficult Patron in the Academic Library: Problem Issues or Problem Patrons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds Patience L.; Ingold, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies difficult patron issues in academic libraries from the librarians' perspectives and offers solutions to try and prevent them from becoming problems. Topics include labeling academic library users; eliminating sources of conflict between faculty and library staff; and conflicts between students and library staff. (Author/LRW)

  20. Difficult incidents and tutor interventions in problem-based learning tutorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Pawel; Grant, Christopher; Kulla, Steven; Poole, Gary; Godolphin, William

    2009-09-01

    Tutors report difficult incidents and distressing conflicts that adversely affect learning in their problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Faculty development (training) and peer support should help them to manage this. Yet our understanding of these problems and how to deal with them often seems inadequate to help tutors. The aim of this study was to categorise difficult incidents and the interventions that skilled tutors used in response, and to determine the effectiveness of those responses. Thirty experienced and highly rated tutors in our Year 1 and 2 medical curriculum took part in semi-structured interviews to: identify and describe difficult incidents; describe how they responded, and assess the success of each response. Recorded and transcribed data were analysed thematically to develop typologies of difficult incidents and interventions and compare reported success or failure. The 94 reported difficult incidents belonged to the broad categories 'individual student' or 'group dynamics'. Tutors described 142 interventions in response to these difficult incidents, categorised as: (i) tutor intervenes during tutorial; (ii) tutor gives feedback outside tutorial, or (iii) student or group intervenes. Incidents in the 'individual student' category were addressed relatively unsuccessfully (effective 75% of the time) by response (iii). None of the interventions worked well when used in response to problems related to 'group dynamics'. Overall, 59% of the difficult incidents were dealt with successfully. Dysfunctional PBL groups can be highly challenging, even for experienced and skilled tutors. Within-tutorial feedback, the treatment that tutors are most frequently advised to apply, was often not effective. Our study suggests that the collective responsibility of the group, rather than of the tutor, to deal with these difficulties should be emphasised.

  1. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja K. Schachner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001 and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000, we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’ acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland, those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal, and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia. In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students’ ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  2. The effects of non-physical peer sexual harassment on high school students' psychological well-being in Norway: consistent and stable findings across studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Mons; Daveronis, Josef; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2018-01-01

    The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image. Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status. The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.

  3. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  4. Motivating Students with Authentic Science Experiences: Changes in Motivation for School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Jenny M.; Lindberg, Stina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Students' motivation for science declines over the early teenage years, and students often find school science difficult and irrelevant to their everyday lives. This paper asks whether creating opportunities to connect school science to authentic science can have positive effects on student motivation. Purpose: To understand how…

  5. Evaluating the Impact and Determinants of Student Team Performance: Using LMS and CATME Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braender, Lynn M.; Naples, Michele I.

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners find it difficult to allocate grades to individual students based on their contributions to the team project. They often use classroom observation of teamwork and student peer evaluations to differentiate an individual's grade from the group's grade, which can be subjective and imprecise. We used objective data from student activity…

  6. E-cigarette curiosity among U.S. middle and high school students: Findings from the 2014 national youth tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Katherine A; Nguyen, Anh B; Slavit, Wendy I; King, Brian A

    2016-08-01

    Curiosity is a potential risk factor for electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, which has increased considerably among US youth in recent years. We examined the relationship between curiosity about e-cigarettes and perceived harm, comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertisement exposure. Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students. In 2014, 2.5% of middle school and 9.2% of high school students currently used cigarettes, while 3.9% of middle school and 13.4% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use. Among never e-cigarette users (n=17,286), descriptive statistics assessed curiosity about e-cigarettes by combustible tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and school level. Associations between curiosity and perceived harm (absolute and comparative to cigarettes), comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertising exposure were explored using multivariate models in 2015. Among youth who never used e-cigarettes, 25.8% reported curiosity about e-cigarettes. Higher levels of perceived absolute harm and comparative harm were associated with lower levels of curiosity, while no association was observed between comparative addictiveness and curiosity. Among never combustible tobacco users, the odds of high curiosity were greater among non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio (OR): 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-1.88), Hispanics (OR=1.79; 95% CI:1.48-2.16), and non-Hispanic 'Other' (OR=1.47; 95% CI:1.15-1.89) race/ethnicities than non-Hispanic whites. One-quarter of middle and high school students who have never used e-cigarettes are curious about the products, with greater curiosity among those with lower perceptions of harm from these products. These findings may help inform future strategies aimed at reducing curiosity about e-cigarettes among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Mobile devices in medicine: a survey of how medical students, residents, and faculty use smartphones and other mobile devices to find information*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruff, Jill T.; Storie, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The research investigated the extent to which students, residents, and faculty members in Canadian medical faculties use mobile devices, such as smartphones (e.g., iPhone, Android, Blackberry) and tablet computers (e.g., iPad), to answer clinical questions and find medical information. The results of this study will inform how health libraries can effectively support mobile technology and collections. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed by medical librarians at four Canadian universities to medical students, residents, and faculty members via departmental email discussion lists, personal contacts, and relevant websites. It investigated the types of information sought, facilitators to mobile device use in medical information seeking, barriers to access, support needs, familiarity with institutionally licensed resources, and most frequently used resources. Results: The survey of 1,210 respondents indicated widespread use of smartphones and tablets in clinical settings in 4 Canadian universities. Third- and fourth-year undergraduate students (i.e., those in their clinical clerkships) and medical residents, compared to other graduate students and faculty, used their mobile devices more often, used them for a broader range of activities, and purchased more resources for their devices. Conclusions: Technological and intellectual barriers do not seem to prevent medical trainees and faculty from regularly using mobile devices for their medical information searches; however, barriers to access and lack of awareness might keep them from using reliable, library-licensed resources. Implications: Libraries should focus on providing access to a smaller number of highly used mobile resources instead of a huge collection until library-licensed mobile resources have streamlined authentication processes. PMID:24415916

  8. Mobile devices in medicine: a survey of how medical students, residents, and faculty use smartphones and other mobile devices to find information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruff, Jill T; Storie, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the extent to which students, residents, and faculty members in Canadian medical faculties use mobile devices, such as smartphones (e.g., iPhone, Android, Blackberry) and tablet computers (e.g., iPad), to answer clinical questions and find medical information. The results of this study will inform how health libraries can effectively support mobile technology and collections. An electronic survey was distributed by medical librarians at four Canadian universities to medical students, residents, and faculty members via departmental email discussion lists, personal contacts, and relevant websites. It investigated the types of information sought, facilitators to mobile device use in medical information seeking, barriers to access, support needs, familiarity with institutionally licensed resources, and most frequently used resources. The survey of 1,210 respondents indicated widespread use of smartphones and tablets in clinical settings in 4 Canadian universities. Third- and fourth-year undergraduate students (i.e., those in their clinical clerkships) and medical residents, compared to other graduate students and faculty, used their mobile devices more often, used them for a broader range of activities, and purchased more resources for their devices. Technological and intellectual barriers do not seem to prevent medical trainees and faculty from regularly using mobile devices for their medical information searches; however, barriers to access and lack of awareness might keep them from using reliable, library-licensed resources. Libraries should focus on providing access to a smaller number of highly used mobile resources instead of a huge collection until library-licensed mobile resources have streamlined authentication processes.

  9. Validated questionnaires heighten detection of difficult asthma comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Tay, Tunn Ren; Hore-Lacy, Fiona; Stirling, Robert; Hoy, Ryan; Dabscheck, Eli; Hew, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Multiple extra-pulmonary comorbidities contribute to difficult asthma, but their diagnosis can be challenging and time consuming. Previous data on comorbidity detection have focused on clinical assessment, which may miss certain conditions. We aimed to locate relevant validated screening questionnaires to identify extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma, and evaluate their performance during a difficult asthma evaluation. MEDLINE was searched to identify key extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma. Screening questionnaires were chosen based on ease of use, presence of a cut-off score, and adequate validation to help systematically identify comorbidities. In a consecutive series of 86 patients referred for systematic evaluation of difficult asthma, questionnaires were administered prior to clinical consultation. Six difficult asthma comorbidities and corresponding screening questionnaires were found: sinonasal disease (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis), vocal cord dysfunction, dysfunctional breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, anxiety and depression, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. When the questionnaires were added to the referring clinician's impression, the detection of all six comorbidities was significantly enhanced. The average time for questionnaire administration was approximately 40 minutes. The use of validated screening questionnaires heightens detection of comorbidities in difficult asthma. The availability of data from a battery of questionnaires prior to consultation can save time and allow clinicians to systematically assess difficult asthma patients and to focus on areas of particular concern. Such an approach would ensure that all contributing comorbidities have been addressed before significant treatment escalation is considered.

  10. Therapist reactions in self-experienced difficult situations: an exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.M.; Kleijn, W.C.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of 63 difficult therapeutic situations described by 26 therapists. The study was part of research on specific reactions of therapists to traumatized clients. The research questions for the current analyses focused on the categorization of difficult

  11. Unusual tumour ablations: report of difficult and interesting cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Luca; Varano, Gianluca Maria; Shyn, Paul; Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Orsi, Franco; Solbiati, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided ablations are nowadays applied in the treatment of a wide group of diseases and in different organs and regions, and every day interventional radiologists have to face more difficult and unusual cases of tumour ablation. In the present case review, we report four difficult and unusual cases, reporting some tips and tricks for a successful image-guided treatment.

  12. "Everything Is in Parables": An Exploration of Students' Difficulties in Understanding Christian Beliefs Concerning Jesus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freathy, Rob; Aylward, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of interviews conducted with students (aged 11-13) in four English secondary schools, examining reasons why young people find it difficult to understand Christian beliefs regarding Jesus' miracles, resurrection, and status as the Son of God. For the students in this sample, understanding and belief are closely…

  13. Factors associated with alcohol and/or drug use at sexual debut among sexually active university students: cross-sectional findings from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Lilian A; Mouhanna, Farah; Yasmine, Rola; El Kak, Faysal

    2014-07-01

    Sexual activity accompanied by substance use can impair youth decision-making and enhance risk-taking behaviors. Less is known, however, about the sexual values, perceptions and subsequent sexual practices of youth whose sexual debut occurs while using alcohol/drugs. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey was conducted in April-August 2012 among undergraduate and graduate university students (aged 18 to 30) attending the 4th largest private university in Beirut. Pearson's Chi-square and regression models were run using Stata/IC 10.0. 940 university students had engaged in oral, anal and/or vaginal sex, of whom 10% admitted to having had consumed alcohol or taken drugs at sexual debut, a behavior that was more common in the males, less religious, non-Arabs, students living alone or who had lived abroad. Students who used alcohol/drugs at sexual debut were twice as likely to have: their first oral and vaginal sex with an unfamiliar partner [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.6, 4.2) and OR = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5), respectively], controlling for sex, nationality, current relationship status, living abroad after the age of 12, and spirituality. Students who had sex the first time while using alcohol/drugs were three times as likely to report having had 11 or more subsequent sexual partners versus one or two [OR = 3.0 (1.5-6.0)]; and almost twice as likely to ever engage in something sexual they did not want to do [OR = 1.7 (1.1, 2.8)]. Perceived peer pressure to have sex by a certain age [OR = 1.8 (1.1, 2.9)], and perceived peer norms to consume alcohol/drugs before sex [OR = 4.8 (2.3, 9.9)] were also strong correlates of having sex for the first time while using alcohol and/or drugs. Findings stress the importance of sexuality education for youth, and the need to begin understanding the true interplay--beyond association--between youth sexual practices and substance use behaviors from a broader public health perspective.

  14. Assessment Drives Student Learning: Evidence for Summative Assessment from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Rashida; Zahoor, Mahrukh; Zahoor, Mahwish

    2017-01-01

    Research studies from various parts of the world indicate that university students find research methodology courses among the most difficult subjects to grasp. Students in Pakistan display similar attitudes towards learning of research. Those of us who teach research at the institutions of higher learning in Pakistan continuously hear students…

  15. Guidelines and algorithms for managing the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ríos, M A; Gaitini, L; Matter, I; Somri, M

    2018-01-01

    The difficult airway constitutes a continuous challenge for anesthesiologists. Guidelines and algorithms are key to preserving patient safety, by recommending specific plans and strategies that address predicted or unexpected difficult airway. However, there are currently no "gold standard" algorithms or universally accepted standards. The aim of this article is to present a synthesis of the recommendations of the main guidelines and difficult airway algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. How libraries make tough choices in difficult times purposeful abandonment

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, David

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary library managers face the need to make difficult choices regarding resource allocation in the modern business environment. How Libraries Make Tough Choices in Difficult Times is a practical guide for library managers, offering techniques to analyze existing and potential services, implement best practices for maximizing existing resources, and utilize pressing financial scenarios in order to justify making difficult reallocation decisions. The book begins by asking the fundamental questions of why, what, and how, moving on to look at how to manage expectations and report to both a

  17. Finding science in students' talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    What does it mean to understand science? This commentary extends Brown and Kloser's argument on the role of native language for science learning by exploring the meaning of understanding in school science and discusses the extent that science educators could tolerate adulterated forms of scientific knowledge. Taking the perspective of social semiotics, this commentary looks at the extent that school science can be represented with other discourse practices. It also offers an example to illustrate how everyday language can present potential hindrance to school science learning.

  18. Difficult Sudoku Puzzles Created by Replica Exchange Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm to create difficult Sudoku puzzles is proposed. An Ising spin-glass like Hamiltonian describing difficulty of puzzles is defined, and difficult puzzles are created by minimizing the energy of the Hamiltonian. We adopt the replica exchange Monte Carlo method with simultaneous temperature adjustments to search lower energy states efficiently, and we succeed in creating a puzzle which is the world hardest ever created in our definition, to our best knowledge. (Added on Mar. 11, the ...

  19. "Everything Is about Balance": Graduate Education Faculty and the Navigation of Difficult Discourses on Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, Kayon; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to describe the experiences of graduate education faculty of varying racial/ethnic backgrounds, learning to navigate difficult discourses on race effectively over time. The study employed positionality as a theoretical framework. Findings indicate that faculty balance what we refer to as "strategies…

  20. Critique: A Communicative Event in Design Education--A Qualitative Research on Western Faculty and Asian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Lan Helena

    2011-01-01

    Critique is a communicative and sociable event in which students present their design and critics provide feedback. Students often find it difficult to explain their work and articulate their thoughts because most design knowledge is tacit by nature. If design is about new concepts, then in a critique, students have to describe and clearly present…

  1. Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension of Production Planning and Control and Operations Performance Measurement Concepts Using a Production Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James F., III; Walker, Edward D., II

    2005-01-01

    Production planning and control (PPC) systems and operations performance measures are topics that students generally find both boring and difficult to understand. In the article, the authors present a production line game that they have found to be an effective tool to increase student interest in the topics as well as student comprehension. The…

  2. A Pilot Intervention to Improve the Structural Quality of Exam Essay Writing in UK Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Barnett, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Psychology undergraduates need to produce good quality essays in order to succeed at university. Students find the transition to university writing difficult. Using a rubric, a profile of student weakness in psychology essay writing was described. The students were generally poor at the structural organisation of their essays. A pilot intervention…

  3. Using a Multi-Tier Diagnostic Test to Explore the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions on Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaw Kai; Subramaniam, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on grade 12 students' understanding of reaction kinetics. A 4-tier diagnostic instrument was developed for this purpose and administered to 137 students in the main study. Findings showed that reaction kinetics is a difficult topic for these students, with a total of 25 alternative conceptions (ACs) being uncovered. Except for…

  4. Distractor dwelling, skipping, and revisiting determine target absent performance in difficult visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Horstmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search. We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a distractor dwelling (b distractor skipping, and (c distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences.

  5. Distractor Dwelling, Skipping, and Revisiting Determine Target Absent Performance in Difficult Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2016-01-01

    Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search). We aimed to examine three hypotheses concerning the causes of differential search efficiencies in target-absent trials: (a) distractor dwelling (b) distractor skipping, and (c) distractor revisiting. Reaction times increased with target similarity which is consistent with existing theories and replicates earlier results. Eye movement data indicated guidance in target trials, even though search was very slow. Dwelling, skipping, and revisiting contributed to low search efficiency in difficult search, with dwelling being the strongest factor. It is argued that differences in dwell time account for a large amount of total search time differences. PMID:27574510

  6. Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics*

    OpenAIRE

    Mushambi, M C; Kinsella, S M; Popat, M; Swales, H; Ramaswamy, K K; Winton, A L; Quinn, A C

    2015-01-01

    The Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. They comprise four algorithms and two tables. A master algorithm provides an overview. Algorithm 1 gives a framework on how to optimise a safe general anaesthetic technique in the obstetric patient, and emphasises: planning and multidisciplinary communication; how to prevent ...

  7. How to manage a child with difficult asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglani, Sejal; Fleming, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Children with difficult asthma have significant morbidity and fail to achieve asthma control despite being prescribed high dose maintenance treatment. If control remains poor after diagnostic confirmation, detailed assessments of the reasons for asthma being difficult-to-control are needed. Underlying modifiable factors including non-adherence to medication, persistent environmental exposures that trigger asthma symptoms and psychosocial factors contribute to poor control in these patients. The focus of this review is to provide a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of difficult asthma including an overview of long term assessments to identify potential progression to true, severe asthma. A multi-disciplinary team is critical to enable modifiable factors to be identified and addressed. Significant resources are required to manage paediatric difficult asthma optimally and only specialist centres should be tasked with the assessment of these patients. Although this may have an impact on healthcare resources, long term benefits for lung health are significant. Expert commentary: The management of paediatric difficult asthma is not simple and involves numerous professionals with varied expertise. However, if it is not undertaken with the appropriate skills, there is a significant risk of children receiving inappropriate invasive investigations and therapies that will have no impact on morbidity.

  8. Making difficult decisions how to be decisive and get the business done

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    You are faced with so many difficult decisions. Often your decision making seems random. It can be swayed by different situations and emotions. You need to be more rigorous in the way you make decisions and yet you have very little time to do so. Experience from others who have made tough decisions and a framework to help you do so would be invaluable. The courage to make decisions is sometimes a bit elusive. It is difficult to find the calmness to be able to make and live with those decisions. There is so much that can be learned from the experience of others. After working through this boo

  9. A novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To propose a novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization procedures. Technique: The sheath tip of an intravenous catheter is cut off, replaced to the needle tip and pushed through the distal drainage side hole to Foley catheter tip, and finally withdrawn for cannulation. In situations making urethral catheterization difficult, a guide wire is placed under direct vision. The modified Foley catheter is slid successfully over the guide wire from its distal end throughout the urethral passage into the bladder. Results: The modified Foley catheter was used successfully in our clinic in cases requiring difficult urethral catheterization. Conclusions: This easy and rapid modification of a Foley catheter may minimize the potential complications of blind catheter placement in standard catheterization.

  10. Teacher learning and student outcomes in the context of classroom discourse. Findings from a video-based teacher professional development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kiemer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an innovative teacher professional development programme (TPD focusing on the re-definition of teachers’ discourse behaviour. We report findings on teacher learning and student outcomes, and reflect on practical implications and directions for future research on the programme. In the “Dialogic Video Cycle” (DVC six teachers participated in a year-long intervention built on effective components of TPD and using videos of teachers’ own practices as tools for reflection and basis for group discussions. We compared the DVC with a traditional TPD programme (n= 4 teachers. Additionally, students (N= 226 were assessed regarding their motivational orientations and individual beliefs. Results show that effective TPD components could successfully be implemented in the DVC and that this new and innovative programme enhances teachers’ performance in classroom discourse and affects students’ interest in the subject, self-efficacy and domain-specific self-concept of ability positively. Thus, the DVC seems a promising tool to foster teacher learning with an impact on perceived student motivation and learning. Presentiamo un programma innovativo per lo sviluppo professionale degli insegnanti (TPD, centrato sulla ridefinizione della conduzione di interazioni verbali in classe. Sono riportati i risultati dell’apprendimento di insegnanti e studenti, e la riflessione sulle implicazioni pratiche per la ricerca futura sul programma. Nel “Dialogic Video Cycle” (DVC sei insegnanti hanno partecipato per un anno a un intervento di TPD mediante videoregistrazioni usate come strumenti di riflessione sulle proprie pratiche e per le discussioni di gruppo. Abbiamo confrontato il DVC con un programma TPD tradizionale (n= 4 insegnanti. Inoltre sono stati valutati gli orientamenti degli studenti (N= 226 in termini di motivazione e fiducia nelle proprie capacità. I risultati mostrano che le componenti efficaci del TPD potrebbero essere attuate con

  11. The Role of Arts-Related Information and Communication Technology Use in Problem Solving and Achievement: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Sudmalis, David

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data set comprising over 190,000 15-year-old students in 25 countries, the current study sought to examine the role of arts-related information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' problem-solving skill and science and mathematics achievement. Structural equation…

  12. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  13. Braving difficult choices alone: children's and adolescents' medical decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Ruggeri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. METHODS: Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1 own informed choice; (2 informed parents' choice to amputate; (3 informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4 uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. RESULTS: Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. CONCLUSIONS: Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.

  14. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to

  15. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethrorectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption ...

  16. Seeking the best training model for difficult conversations in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Beatrice E; Shields, Robin; Tucker, Richard; Bender, G Jesse

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that a formal simulation curriculum prepares neonatology fellows for difficult conversations better than traditional didactics. Single-center neonatology fellowship graduates from 1999 to 2013 were sent a retrospective web-based survey. Some had been exposed to a Difficult Conversations curriculum (simulation group), others had not (no simulation group). The simulation group participated in one workshop annually, consisting of lecture, simulation, and debriefing. Scenarios were customized to year of training. Epoch comparisons were made between the simulation and no simulation groups. Self-rated baseline effectiveness at discussing difficult topics was not different. The simulation group reported more supervised family meetings and feedback after fellow-led meetings. Simulations were rated very positively. The simulation group reported increased comfort levels. Strategic pause and body positioning were specific communication skills more frequently acquired in the simulation group. In both groups, the highest ranked contributors to learning were mentor observation and clinical practice. In the simulation group, simulation and debriefing outranked didactics or other experiences. Simulation-based workshops improve communication skills in high stakes conversations. However, they do not substitute for mentor observation and experience. Establishing a structured simulation-based difficult conversations curriculum refines vital communication skills necessary for the high stakes conversations neonatologists direct in clinical practice.

  17. Percutaneous transhepatic cholelithotripsy for difficult common bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, J G; Moesgaard, F; Grønvall, S

    1998-01-01

    or ureteroscope in ten patients and by stone removal by basket in the remaining four patients. The procedure was carried out using local anesthesia in the last 11 patients. Except for two patients with transient cholangitis, no complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Difficult bile duct and intrahepatic stones can...

  18. Confronting "Difficult Knowledge": Critical Aesthetics and War in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heybach Vivirito, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-site case study explores critical aesthetic experiences in teacher education classrooms, and advocates for the inclusion of theoretical and practical knowledge of "difficult knowledge," visual culture, and critical aesthetics in the classroom. Social reality consists of a perpetual stream of tragic and horrific…

  19. Braving difficult choices alone: children's and adolescents' medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1) own informed choice; (2) informed parents' choice to amputate; (3) informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4) uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.

  20. Difficult airway in a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaculangan, D; Lokhandwala, B; Wlody, D; Gross, R

    2001-02-01

    We report on a patient with Coffin-Siris syndrome and consider a potential association between this condition and difficult intubation. Although this inherited condition is extremely rare, anesthesiologists should be aware of its existence and prepare for potential airway management problems whenever it is encountered.

  1. Braving Difficult Choices Alone: Children's and Adolescents' Medical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Objective What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. Methods Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1) own informed choice; (2) informed parents' choice to amputate; (3) informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4) uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. Results Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. Conclusions Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process. PMID:25084274

  2. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  3. Distraction during learning with hypermedia: Difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eScheiter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In educational hypermedia environments, students are often confronted with potential sources of distraction arising from additional information that, albeit interesting, is unrelated to their current task goal. The paper investigates the conditions under which distraction occurs and hampers performance. Based on theories of volitional action control it was hypothesized that interesting information, especially if related to a pending goal, would interfere with task performance only when working on easy, but not on difficult tasks. In Experiment 1, 66 students learned about probability theory using worked examples and solved corresponding test problems, whose task difficulty was manipulated. As a second factor, the presence of interesting information unrelated to the primary task was varied. Results showed that students solved more easy than difficult probability problems correctly. However, the presence of interesting, but task-irrelevant information did not interfere with performance. In Experiment 2, 68 students again engaged in example-based learning and problem solving in the presence of task-irrelevant information. Problem-solving difficulty was varied as a first factor. Additionally, the presence of a pending goal related to the task-irrelevant information was manipulated. As expected, problem-solving performance declined when a pending goal was present during working on easy problems, whereas no interference was observed for difficult problems. Moreover, the presence of a pending goal reduced the time on task-relevant information and increased the time on task-irrelevant information while working on easy tasks. However, as revealed by mediation analyses these changes in overt information processing behavior did not explain the decline in problem-solving performance. As an alternative explanation it is suggested that goal conflicts resulting from pending goals claim cognitive resources, which are then no longer available for learning and

  4. Elapsed Time: Why Is It So Difficult to Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Russell, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Piaget's theory of logico-mathematical knowledge, 126 students in grades 2-5 were asked 6 questions about elapsed time. The main reason found for difficulty with elapsed time is children's inability to coordinate hierarchical units (hours and minutes). The educational implications drawn are that students must be encouraged to think about…

  5. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess...... the airways, the association between DTI and quantities of anesthetics used to induce general anesthesia, and the association between DTI and difficulties with venous and arterial cannulation. This is a monocentric prospective observational clinical study of a consecutive series of 539 obese patients...... was 3.5 % and the patients with DTI were more frequently males, had higher CLC, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and noticeably, a lower BMI compared to the patients with easy tracheal intubation. After adjustment with multivariable analyses body mass...

  6. Interesting cases which were difficult to diagnose by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Koji; Okubo, Koichi; Shinohara, Shinji

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) clinically provides us with much more useful diagnostic informations regarding the localization, size, shape, extent and inner structure of the lesions and then in some cases the specific diagnosis can be also obtained by CT alone. However, it is usually difficult to define the longitudinal extent of the lesions, their relation to adjacent tissues, the originated site in enormous lesion and histological type also. At CT examination, it is essential to recognize these drawback and limitation on CT. From these points of view, six interesting cases (i.e. pericardial diverticulum, hepatoma with retroperitoneal metastasis, cholangiohepatoma, afferent loop syndrome, invagination and retroperitoneal malignant schwannoma) which were difficult to diagnose by CT and proved ultimately with operation or autopsy were illustrated with some reviews. (author)

  7. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: assistant techniques for difficult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuo; Minami, Yasunori; Chung, Hobyung; Hayaishi, Sousuke; Ueda, Taisuke; Tatsumi, Chie; Takita, Masahiro; Kitai, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Kinuyo; Ishikawa, Emi; Yada, Norihisa; Hagiwara, Satoru; Ueshima, Kazuomi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-07-01

    To confirm the safety and effectiveness of techniques to assist radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for difficult cases, we retrospectively evaluated successful treatment rates, early complications and local tumor progressions. Between June 1999 and April 2009, a total of 341 patients with 535 nodules were treated as difficult cases. Artificial pleural effusion assisted ablation was performed on 64 patients with 82 nodules. Artificial ascites-assisted ablation was performed on 11 patients with 13 nodules. Cooling by endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) tube-assisted ablation was performed on 6 patients with 8 nodules. When the tumors were not well visualized with conventional B-mode ultrasonography (US), contrast-enhanced US-assisted ablation with Levovist or Sonazoid or virtual CT sonography-assisted ablation was performed. Contrast-enhanced US-assisted ablation was performed on 139 patients with 224 nodules and virtual CT sonography-assisted ablation was performed on 121 patients with 209 nodules. In total, complete ablation was achieved in 514 of 535 (96%) nodules in difficult cases. For RFA with artificial pleural effusion, artificial ascites and ENBD, complete response was confirmed in all cases. For contrast-enhanced US- and CT sonography-assisted ablation, complete response was 95%. Early complications were recognized in 24 cases (4.5%). All cases recovered with no invasive treatment. Local tumor recurrence was investigated in 377 nodules of 245 patients, and 69 (18%) nodules were positive. Tumor recurrences in each assisted technique were 14.7% in artificial pleural effusion cases, 7% in artificial ascites, 12.5% in ENBD tube cases, 31% in virtual CT sonography, and 8.5% in contrast-enhanced US. Although local tumor progression needs to be carefully monitored, assisted techniques of RFA for difficult cases are well tolerated and expand the indications of RFA. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Difficult factors in Management of Impacted Dental Prosthesis in Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efiaty A. Soepardi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A dental prosthesis which ingested and impacted in esophagus, is an emergency case and life threatening, so require immediate esophagoscopy intervention for removing. The objective of this study is to assess some factors can caused dtfficulties in diagnosing and treating the ingested and impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus and their complications. This retrospective study analyzed patient’s chart whose underwent esophagoscopy for removing the impacted dental prosthesis in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia during a period between January 1997 and December 2003. Neck-chest X-ray and esophagoscopy were performed in all patients to identify the existence of the dental prosthesis as a diagnostic and treatment procedure. The length of time for removing the dental prosthesis was recorded and stated as a less difficult esophagoscopy when it takes time less than 60 minutes and as a difficult  esophagoscopy takes 60 minutes or longer. Some risk difficulties factors were statistically analyzed. There were 53 patients of ingested dental prosthesis in esophagus. Only 51 cases were analyzed According to the length of time for removing the dental prosthesis by esophagoscopy, 22 patients were recorded as less difficult cases and 29 patients as difficult cases. Two cases among the cases needed cervicotomy after unsuccessful esophagoscopy removal. The difficulties to diagnose an impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus caused by unreliable clinical history, unclear signs and symptoms, unable to be detected by X-ray and was not found during esophagoscopy. The difficulties in treating due to mucosal laceration, edema, bleeding, failure of the first extraction and conformity with the size and shape, the wire outside the dental prosthesis and the length of time stayed in the esophagus. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 33-6Keywords: ingested dental prosthesis, radioluscent foreign body, length of time of esophagoscopy

  9. The Adverse Effect of Weight Stigma on the Well-Being of Medical Students with Overweight or Obesity: Findings from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Phelan, Sean M.; Burgess, Diana J.; Puhl, Rebecca; Dyrbye, Liselotte N.; Dovidio, John F.; Yeazel, Mark; Ridgeway, Jennifer L.; Nelson, David; Perry, Sylvia; Przedworski, Julia M.; Burke, Sara E.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The stigma of obesity is a common and overt social bias. Negative attitudes and derogatory humor about overweight/obese individuals are commonplace among health care providers and medical students. As such, medical school may be particularly threatening for students who are overweight or obese. OBJECTIVE The purpose of our study was to assess the frequency that obese/overweight students report being stigmatized, the degree to which stigma is internalized, and the impact of these fa...

  10. Exposure to point‐of‐sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point‐of‐sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Design Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Settings Nottinghamshire, UK. Participants A total of 2270 children aged 11–16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. Measurements We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Findings Among non‐susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non‐susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Conclusions Noticing tobacco point‐of‐sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of

  11. Depression and Hopelessness Levels of University Students According to Their Opinions on Finding Employment or Falling out of Labor Force in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of the thoughts on university students' depression and hopelessness levels about whether to become employed or unemployed after graduation. The study sampling consists of 980 students from the departments of Selcuk University, such as the Faculties of Health Sciences, Law, Veterinary, Science,…

  12. Engagement in Science Lessons and Achievement Test Scores of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Findings from the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literacy and student engagement in science are important components of the school curriculum in Korea. In addition, several studies from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessments have identified factors associated with the learning outcomes of students in Korea. The purpose of this study was to…

  13. Finding My Way: Perceptions of Institutional Support and Belonging in Low-Income, First-Generation, First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2017-01-01

    For this qualitative case study we explored students' perceptions of institutional support and sense of belonging within the college environment. Following 10 low-income, first-generation college students out of a college access program and through their first year of college, we examined institutional support structures that have been reported to…

  14. The Impact of Teacher Evaluation Reform on Student Learning: Success and Challenges in Replicating Experimental Findings with Non-Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jennie Y.; Sartain, Lauren; Sporte, Susan E.; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and urgent problems facing education policymakers is the provision of highly effective teachers in all of the nation's classrooms. Of all school-level factors related to student learning and achievement, the student's teacher is consistently the most important (Goldhaber 2002; Rockoff 2004; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain…

  15. Hazardous alcohol use and cultural adjustment among U.S. college students abroad in Italy: Findings and recommendations for study abroad staff and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael A; Poyrazli, Senel; Broyles, Lauren Matukaitis

    2016-01-01

    Italy is a top destination for U.S. college students studying abroad. Both international and local Italian media outlets, such as city newspapers, have cited the discordance between Italian cultural norms and U.S. college students' drinking behaviors. Hazardous alcohol consumption abroad, such as binge drinking, can result in individual- (e.g., physical injury) and social- (e.g., promotion of negative stereotypes) level adverse consequences. We assessed the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use and recent binge drinking in a sample of U.S. college students studying abroad in Italy (n = 111). We evaluated associations among drinking and cultural adjustment and determined which sociocultural factors predicted binge drinking for students abroad. Forty-six percent of students were classified as hazardous drinkers and 63% reported recent binge drinking. Socializing with American peers was a significant predictor for binge drinking abroad. Binge drinking was quite prevalent in our sample of students studying abroad in Italy. Study abroad advisors, instructors, and staff should consider diverse strategies to screen, educate, prevent, and/or intervene on alcohol misuse with their students. These strategies should be personalized to both the student as well as the host culture's norms.

  16. Cross-Grade Comparison of Students' Conceptual Understanding with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, G.

    2015-01-01

    Students commonly find the field of physics difficult. Therefore, they generally have learning problems. One of the subjects with which they have difficulties is optics within a physics discipline. This study aims to determine students' conceptual understanding levels at different education levels relating to lenses in geometric optics. A…

  17. Actively Engaging Students in Culture, Gender, and Class Issues in Medieval Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Colleen E.

    2017-01-01

    Students often find it difficult to understand literature of another era and a world that differs from their own. From interacting with illuminated manuscript pages to conducting a mock trial, this article discusses ways in which visual and active learning techniques can be used to engage students in medieval literature and culture.

  18. Teaching Appropriate Play to Replace Stereotypy Using a Treatment Package with Students Having Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeremy H.; Lau, Wendy; Lau, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Students with special education needs such as autism tend to have difficulty with appropriate play skills and leisure time skills. A lack of play may lead to inappropriate behaviors such as stereotypy or passivity. When students have a limited community of reinforcers it may be difficult for educators to find motivators that can be used to teach…

  19. Easy and difficult performance-approach goals : Their moderating effect on the link between task interest and performance attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, Monica; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the positive link between task interest and performance attainment can he negatively affected by the pursuit of difficult performance-approach goals. This was tested in a sample of 60 undergraduate Students at a Dutch university, In line with

  20. [Intraoperative choledochoscopy usefulness in the treatment of difficult biliary stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuendis-Velázquez, A; Rojano-Rodríguez, M E; Morales-Chávez, C E; González Angulo-Rocha, A; Fernández-Castro, E; Aguirre-Olmedo, I; Torres-Ruiz, M F; Orellana-Parra, J C; Cárdenas-Lailson, L E

    2014-01-01

    Choledocholithiasis presents in 5-10% of the patients with biliary lithiasis. Numerous treatment algorithms have been considered for this disease, however, up to 10% of these therapeutic procedures may fail. Intraoperative choledochoscopy has become a useful tool in the treatment of patients with difficult-to-manage choledocholithiasis. To determine the usefulness of intraoperative choledochoscopy in the laparoendoscopic treatment of difficult stones that was carried out in our service. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The case records were reviewed of the patients that underwent intraoperative choledochoscopy during biliary tree exploration plus laparoscopic choledochoduodenal anastomosis within the time frame of March 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012, at the Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González. Transabdominal choledochoscopies were performed with active stone extraction when necessary, followed by peroral choledochoscopies through the recently formed bilioenteric anastomosis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency. The mean age was 71 years, 57% of the patients were women, and the ASA III score predominated. Active extraction of stones with 7 to 35mm diameters was carried out in 4 of the cases and the absence of stones in the biliary tract was corroborated in all the patients. The mean surgery duration was 18 minutes (range: 4 to 45min). Choledochoscopy is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for the definitive treatment of difficult stones. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. The Difficult Empowerment in Danish Hospital: Power to the nurses!?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Flemming; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    The employee empowerment literature promises better organizational performance as well as more motivated and satisfied employees. However, this literature often neglects the specific context of public services in general, or the health care sector, hospitals, and nursing in particular. Nurses...... in Danish public hospitals work in a unique situation that makes the uncritical transfer of empowerment interventions intended to redesign their work difficult or even unfeasible. Analysis from an institutional perspective of the ongoing power struggle between agens of change at several levels in the Danish...

  2. Assessment of the storz video Macintosh laryngoscope for use in difficult airways: A human simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Aaron E; Olmsted, Kalani; Brown, Calvin A; Barker, Tobias; Pallin, Daniel; Walls, Ron M

    2010-10-01

    need for an invasive airway. In this simulation, video laryngoscopy was associated with improved glottic exposure, was perceived as easier, and was slightly faster than conventional direct laryngoscopy in a simulated difficult airway. Absence of secretions and blood limits the generalizability of our findings; human studies are needed.

  3. Intraabdominal actinomycosis resulting in a difficult to diagnose intraperitoneal mass: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Naoto; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Nakahara, Yujiro; Wakasugi, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Takachi, Kou; Oshima, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kyotaro

    2018-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous disease caused by Actinomyces israelii. Preoperative confirmed diagnosis is very difficult, so most cases are diagnosed preoperatively as malignant tumors. We report a case of intraabdominal actinomycosis which was difficult to diagnose preoperatively. A woman, 60 years old, experienced discomfort in her lower right abdomen. She complained of nausea and anorexia and visited our hospital. Laboratory blood tests, abdominal CT, and abdominal MRI led to a diagnosis of a uterine sarcoma or primary intestinal mass, and she underwent surgery. Her histopathological diagnosis was intraabdominal actinomycosis. Actinomycosis is a chronic purulent granulomatous inflammation caused by Actinomyces israelii. No clinical symptoms or laboratory findings are characteristic of abdominal actinomycosis, so this disorder is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Therefore, many cases are diagnosed as malignant tumors and undergo surgery. After surgery, long-term antibiotic treatment (penicillin) is usually administered. We reported a case of intraabdominal actinomycosis that resulted in a difficult to diagnose intraperitoneal mass. When a large intraperitoneal mass is found, actinomycosis needs to be included as one of differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  5. Determination of difficult to measure actinides in radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, V.; Galanda, D.; Dulanska, S.; Remenec, B.; Kuruc, J.

    2014-01-01

    In decommissioning of a nuclear facilities and radioactive waste treatment the activity of various radionuclides need to be measured for the waste characterization. Radiochemical separation of 241 Am, 237 Np and isotopes of plutonium was tested on model solution of evaporator concentrate sample for isolation of each of them for alpha-spectrometry analysis. This paper describes use of the molecular recognition technology product AnaLig(R)Pu-01 gel from IBC Advanced technologies, Inc. to effectively and selectively pre-concentrate, separate and recover difficult-to-measure actinides from model solution of evaporator concentrate samples which belong to the most difficult matrices to analyse. The method is suitable for analysing highly contaminated samples of radioactive waste in a relatively short time. For counting the alpha activity of 241 Am, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 237 Np ORTEC 576A alpha-spectrometer equipped with ULTRA TM ion implanted silicon detectors (600 mm 2 active area) was used. The spectra were processed by using the Alpha-vision TM 32-bit emulation software from the EG and G ORTEC company. (authors)

  6. Maxillofacial trauma patient: coping with the difficult airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Michal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Establishing a secure airway in a trauma patient is one of the primary essentials of treatment. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality. Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem with regard to the patient's airway. By definition, the injury compromises the patient's airway and it is, therefore, must be protected. In most cases, the patient undergoes surgery for maxillofacial trauma or for other, more severe, life-threatening injuries, and securing the airway is the first step in the introduction of general anaesthesia. In such patients, we anticipate difficult endotracheal intubation and, often, also difficult mask ventilation. In addition, the patient is usually regarded as having a "full stomach" and has not been cleared of a C-spine injury, which may complicate airway management furthermore. The time available to accomplish the task is short and the patient's condition may deteriorate rapidly. Both decision-making and performance are impaired in such circumstances. In this review, we discuss the complexity of the situation and present a treatment approach.

  7. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  8. Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens F. Beckmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the

  9. Why Is Learning Fraction and Decimal Arithmetic so Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Fraction and decimal arithmetic are crucial for later mathematics achievement and for ability to succeed in many professions. Unfortunately, these capabilities pose large difficulties for many children and adults, and students' proficiency in them has shown little sign of improvement over the past three decades. To summarize what is known about…

  10. "Impossible Is Nothing": Expressing Difficult Knowledge through Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Kendrick, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on a digital storytelling project conducted in a school district's transition program, in which adolescent refugee and immigrant English learners were invited to share aspects of their identities and social worlds through a range of modes. In this article, the authors look closely at one student's digital story through a…

  11. Are Atoms and Molecules Too Difficult for Primary Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Presents evidence that suggests that upper elementary students can be taught about the particulate nature of matter in a meaningful way. Investigated the effects of lesson sequences on children's ability to apply a particulate understanding to chemical and physical phenomena and found conceptual gains on lesson specific phenomena. (Contains 15…

  12. A Survey of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Use of Drugs by Teenagers. Part I, Part II, Part III.; A Survey of Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of the Schools in Dealing with Teenage Drug Use. A General Overview of Survey Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Three volumes report the findings of a student survey among a random sample of 2,777 junior high and senior high school students. Volume one presents the overall findings: the typical student believes that drug use and experimentation are not common, except for marihuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and glue; believes that drug use is increasing; is not…

  13. Finding Their Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In…

  14. How secondary school students conceptualize infrared radiation-matter interaction? Findings from a research study and implications for an instructional design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, María Isabel; Ríos, Raquel; Pintó, Roser

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out within the REVIR scenario, which is a project promoting that secondary school students have access to a computerized laboratory at the Faculty of Education of our university and work in small groups during four hours with specific instructional material. One of the laboratory sessions included in the REVIR project deals with IR radiation-matter interaction, and is addressed to post-compulsory secondary students (16–18 year-old students). Within this framework, we have conducted a research study to analyse students’ conceptualizations of the processes or mechanisms that take place in IR radiation-matter interaction (energy transfer, selective absorption), and its effects at a macroscopic level (temperature increase) and at a molecular level (vibration). For data collection, a question was posed to all students at the end of each REVIR session, asking students to relate what was described in an article about the application of an IR laser for acne treatment to what they had learnt throughout the session. The analysis of the 67 students’ answers to that question revealed that many students explained the effects of the IR laser in vague terms, often repeating information included in the article, without explaining absorption of IR radiation in terms of energy. In consecutive versions of the instructional material, more oriented application questions were added after the article and explicit discussion around synthesis and exploratory (of students’ previous ideas) questions was carried out during the session. From the analysis of 49 and 119 students’ answers in consecutive later versions, we found that the introduction of these changes resulted in a greater number of students’ descriptions in macroscopic and microscopic terms, and a lower number of answers simply repeating information extracted from the reading. Furthermore, more students explicitly explained absorption in terms of energy associated to IR light. Implications

  15. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  16. Management of difficult airway in intratracheal tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Surendra K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal malignancies are usual victim of delay in diagnosis by virtue of their symptoms resembling asthma. Sometimes delayed diagnosis may lead to almost total airway obstruction. For difficult airways, not leaving any possibility of manipulation into neck region or endoscopic intervention, femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass can be a promising approach. Case Presentation We are presenting a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma occupying about 90% of the tracheal lumen. It was successfully managed by surgical excision of mass by sternotomy and tracheotomy under femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Conclusion Any patient with recurrent respiratory symptoms should be evaluated by radiological and endoscopic means earlier to avoid delay in diagnosis of such conditions. Femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass is a relatively safe way of managing certain airway obstructions.

  17. Ploughs for difficult seams of Bergbau AG Niederrhein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, K.-H.

    1989-06-29

    Ploughs for difficult seams have been used in five panels at collieries of Bergbau AG Niederrhein. It was determined during operation that short or standard ploughs achieve a 30% higher area rate of advance than double ploughs. Differences in pitch in the plough chain lead to regenerative operation of the motor with the greater chain pitch in the case of deviations over 1.5%. An excessively high pretensioning force depending on the wire diameter may lead to an increase in the no-load power up to 100%. In future special attention must be paid to observance of a defined cutting depth; systems for load equalisation and the tensioner for the plough chain which can be used during continuous operation, must be further developed. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. U. K. storage market improves after difficult start to year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, J

    1979-07-15

    According to J. Kingston of PD Oil and Chemical Storage Ltd., the present shortage of oil and product supplies has raised storage capacity rates and some tankage expansion is being considered, but there is no prospect of new terminal construction in the short-term without considerable hardening of storage tariffs. The few tanks under construction are for the specific requirements of certain chemical producers. PD Oil and Chemical operates three storage facilities at Barry, South Wales, where many tanks are specially lined for handling difficult products, Ipswich, and Purfleet, U.K., which have a total capacity of 733,600 cu m, as well as seven others in South Africa, Australia, Spain, France, the U.S., Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands in conjunction with subsidiary or associated companies. A table lists PD Oil and Chemical's facilities in the U.K., including location, type of storage, capacity, and accessibility.

  19. Cylindrical plunge grinding of difficult to grind materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshikatsu; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Kayahara, Masayuki.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical plunge grinding processes of titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys with various kinds of conventional grinding wheels, which are known as difficult to grind materials, are experimentally investigated, analyzing size generation process, grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio and so on. For grinding titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, GC grinding wheel yields most superior grinding results which leads to lower grinding force, smaller residual stock, less wheel wear and higher grinding ratio up to about 3 with GC 80 L 9 V wheel. Then, for grinding nickelbase superalloys Waspaloy and Rene 41, WA 150 L 9 V wheel yields better grinding results in surface roughness, wheel wear, grinding ratio without chatter vibration though grinding force is higher, and the grinding ratio about 3 is obtained. Furthermore, higher plunge speed and speed ratio result in higher grinding efficiency though grinding force, surface roughness, wheel wear increase for grinding titanium alloy and nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  20. Difficult colonoscopy: air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, Alisha; Pandey, Vikas; Patel, Ruchir; Poddar, Prateik; Phadke, Aniruddha; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to compare tolerance to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation in patients with anticipated difficult colonoscopy (young, thin, obese individuals, and patients with prior abdominal surgery or irradiation). Patients with body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m 2 or more than 30 kg/m 2 , or who had undergone previous abdominal or pelvic surgeries were randomized to air, carbon dioxide, or water insufflation during colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation with mild pain (less than 5 on visual analogue scale [VAS]), without use of sedation. The primary end point was achieved in 32.7%, 43.8%, and 84.9% of cases with air, carbon dioxide and water insufflation ( P carbon dioxide, and water insufflation ( P carbon dioxide for pain tolerance. This was seen in the subgroups with BMI 30 kg/m 2 .

  1. Contentious Conversations: Using Mediation Techniques in Difficult Clinical Ethics Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Mediators utilize a wide range of skills in the process of facilitating dialogue and resolving conflicts. Among the most useful techniques for clinical ethics consultants (CECs)-and surely the least discussed-are those employed in acrimonious, hostile conversations between stakeholders. In the context of clinical ethics disputes or other bedside conflicts, good mediation skills can reverse the negative interactions that have prevented the creation of workable treatment plans or ethical consensus. This essay lays out the central framework mediators use in distinguishing positions from interests and describes a set of strategies for managing contentious ethics consultations or working with "difficult" patients, families, or patient-careprovider interactions. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  2. Penile Corporeal Reconstruction during Difficult Placement of a Penile Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Q. Tran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For some patients with impotence and concomitant severe tunical/corporeal tissue fibrosis, insertion of a penile prosthesis is the only option to restore erectile function. Closing the tunica over an inflatable penile prosthesis in these patients can be challenging. We review our previous study which included 15 patients with severe corporeal or tunical fibrosis who underwent corporeal reconstruction with autologous rectus fascia to allow placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12 to 64, all patients had a prosthesis that was functioning properly without evidence of separation, herniation, or erosion of the graft. Sexual activity resumed at a mean time of 9 weeks (range 8 to 10. There were no adverse events related to the graft or its harvest. Use of rectus fascia graft for coverage of a tunical defect during a difficult penile prosthesis placement is surgically feasible, safe, and efficacious.

  3. Taking a holistic approach to managing difficult stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L; Best, Thomas M

    2016-09-09

    Stress fractures and other bony stress injuries occur along a spectrum of severity which can impact treatment and prognosis. When treating these injuries, it should be borne in mind that no two stress fractures behave exactly alike. Given that they are not a consistent injury, standardized treatment protocols can be challenging to develop. Treatment should be individualized to the patient or athlete, the causative activity, the anatomical site, and the severity of the injury. A holistic approach to the treatment of the most difficult stress fractures should be taken by orthopedists and sports medicine specialists. This approach is necessary to obtain optimal outcomes, minimize loss of fitness and time away from sports participation, and decrease the risk of recurrence.

  4. Acceptance issues for large items and difficult waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.; Lock, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Peter Lock described some particular cases which had given rise to difficult acceptance issues at NIREX, ranging from large size items to the impacts of chemicals used during decontamination on the mobility of radionuclides in a disposal facility: The UK strategy for intermediate level and certain low level radioactive waste disposal is based on production of cementitious waste-forms packaged in a standard range of containers as follows: 500 litre Drum - the normal container for most operational ILW (0.8 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Box - a larger container for solid wastes (1.72 m x 1.72 m plan x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Drum - a larger container for in-drum mixing and immobilisation of sludge waste-forms (1.72 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 4 m Box - for large items of waste, especially from decommissioning (4.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high); 2 m LLW Box - for higher-density wastes (2.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high). In addition the majority of LLW is packaged by supercompaction followed by grouting in modified ISO freight containers (6 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m). Some wastes do not fit easily into this strategy. These wastes include: very large items, (too big for the 4 m box) which, if dealt with whole, pose transport and disposal problems. These items are discussed further in Section 2; waste whose characteristics make packaging difficult. Such wastes are described in more detail in Section 3

  5. Performance specifications: the nearly impossible versus the merely difficult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2000-08-01

    Affordability is the objective of acquisition reform. The institution of 'performance' specifications in lieu of 'design' specifications is a key strategy. Design of a cockpit display, for example, is left to the prime contractor based on a performance requirement stated by the government. The prime delegates to the integrator. The integrator develops the display and bill of materials provided by vendors. There is no feedback loop from the vendors to the ultimate customer, the government. As a result of this situation a communication gap exists: the government, primes, and integrators have concluded that they should pay commodity prices for custom displays. One step in the closing of this gap is the establishment of cross- cutting common reference performance specifications for aerospace and defense displays. The performance specification for cockpit displays is nearly impossible to achieve -- the last ounce of technology and more is required. Commodity markets, such as consumer notebook computers, are based on but a fraction of currently available technology -- companies 'bank' technology and roll it out across several 18-month product generations. Ruggedized consumer displays can be used in aerospace and defense applications other than the cockpit, such as mission crew stations. The performance specification for non-cockpit aerospace and defense applications is merely difficult. Acquisition reform has been defined by the Secretary of Defense to mean DoD should leverage the commercial market to the maximal extent possible. For the achievement of this end, an entirely different approach is wanted for cockpit displays versus large platform mission displays. That is, the nearly impossible requires a different design and business approach from the merely difficult.

  6. The Difficult Transition of the Italian University System: Growth, Underfunding and Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Italian universities in terms of growth, economic sustainability and reforms can be interpreted in the light of the élite, mass and universal access categories defined by Martin Trow. The findings from this analysis show that although the number of enrolled students and funding problems propel the Italian university system towards…

  7. Why Are Nonprototypical Events So Difficult, and What Are the Implications for Social-Developmental Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzstein, Herbert D.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews three studies of high school and college students' reasoning about nonprototypical issues in the context of the development and differentiation of evaluative domains. Considers possible answers to questions concerning the organization and functioning of moral thought in relation to the studies' findings. Suggests future directions for…

  8. All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Ramkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives (mother and foetus. Thus tracheal intubation in the pregnant patient poses unique challenges, and necessitates meticulous planning, ready availability of equipment and expertise to ensure maternal and foetal safety. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA proposes a stepwise plan for the safe management of the airway in obstetric patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists (ISA. Modified rapid sequence induction using gentle intermittent positive pressure ventilation with pressure limited to ≤20 cm H 2 O is acceptable. Partial or complete release of cricoid pressure is recommended when face mask ventilation, placement of supraglottic airway device (SAD or tracheal intubation prove difficult. One should call for early expert assistance. Maternal SpO 2 should be maintained ≥95%. Apnoeic oxygenation with nasal insufflation of 15 L/min oxygen during apnoea should be performed in all patients. If tracheal intubation fails, a second- generation SAD should be inserted. The decision to continue anaesthesia and surgery via the SAD, or perform fibreoptic-guided intubation via the SAD or wake up the patient depends on the urgency of surgery, foeto-maternal status and availability of resources and expertise. Emergency cricothyroidotomy must be performed if complete ventilation failure occurs.

  9. Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushambi, M C; Kinsella, S M; Popat, M; Swales, H; Ramaswamy, K K; Winton, A L; Quinn, A C

    2015-11-01

    The Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. They comprise four algorithms and two tables. A master algorithm provides an overview. Algorithm 1 gives a framework on how to optimise a safe general anaesthetic technique in the obstetric patient, and emphasises: planning and multidisciplinary communication; how to prevent the rapid oxygen desaturation seen in pregnant women by advocating nasal oxygenation and mask ventilation immediately after induction; limiting intubation attempts to two; and consideration of early release of cricoid pressure if difficulties are encountered. Algorithm 2 summarises the management after declaring failed tracheal intubation with clear decision points, and encourages early insertion of a (preferably second-generation) supraglottic airway device if appropriate. Algorithm 3 covers the management of the 'can't intubate, can't oxygenate' situation and emergency front-of-neck airway access, including the necessity for timely perimortem caesarean section if maternal oxygenation cannot be achieved. Table 1 gives a structure for assessing the individual factors relevant in the decision to awaken or proceed should intubation fail, which include: urgency related to maternal or fetal factors; seniority of the anaesthetist; obesity of the patient; surgical complexity; aspiration risk; potential difficulty with provision of alternative anaesthesia; and post-induction airway device and airway patency. This decision should be considered by the team in advance of performing a general anaesthetic to make a provisional plan should failed intubation occur. The table is also intended to be used as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion and learning regarding the complex nature of decision-making when faced with a failed intubation. Table 2 gives practical considerations of how to

  10. Finding Sliesthorp?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a hitherto unknown Viking age settlement was discovered at Füsing in Northern Germany close to Hedeby/Schleswig, the largest of the early Scandinavian towns. Finds and building features suggest a high status residence and a seat of some chiefly elite that flourished from around 700 to th...... and the transformation of socio‐political structures in Northern Europe as it transitioned from prehistory into the middle Ages....

  11. Replicated Findings of an Evaluation of a Brief Intervention Designed to Prevent High-Risk Drinking among First-Year College Students: Implications for Social Norming Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Georgia Ann; Smith, Bradley H.; Gant, Rick; Bogle, Kristin E.

    2004-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard alcohol programming (SAP) or (b) SAP plus an intervention designed to change perceptions of alcohol norms (PAN). Effects of the intervention delivered during one class period (i.e., 55 minutes) were assessed using pre- and post-intervention surveys about personal alcohol use…

  12. How Much Do Engineering Students Know about Sustainable Development? The Findings of an International Survey and Possible Implications for the Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azapagic, Adisa; Perdan, Slobodan; Shallcross, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of engineering education for sustainable development. In an attempt to facilitate a better integration of sustainability teaching into the engineering curriculum, it seeks to provide answers to the following fundamental questions: (1) How much do engineering students know about sustainable development? (2) What are…

  13. The Vital Role of Administrative Cost Allowances to Student Financial Aid Offices: Key Findings from NASFAA's Administrative Cost Allowance Survey, July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) recently conducted a survey on the 2009-10 award year Administrative Cost Allowances (ACA), which are funds used by colleges and universities to support operations and professional development. Specifically, ACA is often used in essential areas that support the day-to-day…

  14. The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools…

  15. How Much Math Do Students Need to Succeed in Business and Economics Statistics? An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey J.; Stone, Courtenay C.; Zegeye, Abera; Charles, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Because statistical analysis requires the ability to use mathematics, students typically are required to take one or more prerequisite math courses prior to enrolling in the business statistics course. Despite these math prerequisites, however, many students find it difficult to learn business statistics. In this study, we use an ordered probit…

  16. Expert Consensus on Barriers to College and University Online Education for Students with Blindness and Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithran, Sachin D.

    2017-01-01

    Online education courses have increased exponentially over the last twenty years. These courses provide opportunities for education to students that may find attending in a regular classroom difficult, if not impossible. The number of students with disabilities enrolling in online education courses is also increasing. However, because of the mode…

  17. Active Learning Session Based on Didactical Engineering Framework for Conceptual Change in Students' Equilibrium and Stability Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Michael; Duque, Mauricio; de Hosson, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Engineering students on control courses lack a deep understanding of equilibrium and stability that are crucial concepts in this discipline. Several studies have shown that students find it difficult to understand simple familiar or academic static equilibrium cases as well as dynamic ones from mechanics even if they know the discipline's criteria…

  18. Resilience and Struggle: Exploring the Experiences of Undocumented College Students through Chicana Feminist Theory and Dialogical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Sergio F.

    2017-01-01

    In an increasingly hostile political and social climate undocumented students in the United States continue to struggle to find space for themselves within universities. This research project undertakes a goal of illuminating how undocumented students make sense of their experiences on university campuses despite facing difficult climates at their…

  19. Normative misperceptions of tobacco use among university students in seven European countries: baseline findings of the 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Claudia R; Helmer, Stefanie M; McAlaney, John; Bewick, Bridgette M; Vriesacker, Bart; Van Hal, Guido; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Akvardar, Yildiz; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Salonna, Ferdinand; Orosova, Olga; Dohrmann, Solveig; Dempsey, Robert C; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-12-01

    Research conducted in North America suggests that students tend to overestimate tobacco use among their peers. This perceived norm may impact personal tobacco use. It remains unclear how these perceptions influence tobacco use among European students. The two aims were to investigate possible self-other discrepancies regarding personal use and attitudes towards use and to evaluate if perceptions of peer use and peer approval of use are associated with personal use and approval of tobacco use. The EU-funded 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE' study was conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Slovak Republic, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom. In total, 4482 students (71% female) answered an online survey including questions on personal and perceived tobacco use and personal and perceived attitudes towards tobacco use. Across all countries, the majority of students perceived tobacco use of their peers to be higher than their own use. The perception that the majority (>50%) of peers used tobacco regularly in the past two months was significantly associated with higher odds for personal regular use (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.90-3.73). The perception that the majority of peers approve of tobacco use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of tobacco use (OR: 6.49, 95% CI: 4.54-9.28). Perceived norms are an important predictor of personal tobacco use and attitudes towards use. Interventions addressing perceived norms may be a viable method to change attitudes and tobacco use among European students, and may be a component of future tobacco control policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pipeline developments 1998 and beyond : more choices, more difficult decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderSchee, K.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the basic economic principles that drive gas prices and gas flows across North America, and the pressures these have placed on the pipeline sector, are reviewed. Of pressing importance to the natural gas industry in Western Canada is the prospect that in the near future industrial gas users in eastern Canada will have a wider array of pipeline choices available to them than ever before. This will mean that the users will face more offerings from more pipeline providers, forcing pipeline owners to make more difficult decisions regarding new pipeline capacity. Variables such as price, terms and conditions will become increasingly negotiable. Market power concerns also remain an important issue. As a result, there is increasing call for market-based financial regulation of pipelines. 'Market gaming' a condition where a firm manipulates the market to its own market advantage is also receiving considerable attention. The latter is of particular concern in the United States. Against this background, the nature of competition (or the lack of it) in natural gas transport, the influence of short-term service revenues for pipelines, pipeline commitments through subsidiaries, and concerns over short term pipeline valuations skewing investment decisions, are issues that will continue to invite much attention. Regarding market outlook, it was noted that significantly increased export capacity from Alberta could raise the costs of Alberta supplies to eastern Canadian end-users relative to other supply/transport options which may now be viable economic alternatives. figs

  1. Pipeline developments 1998 and beyond : more choices, more difficult decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderSchee, K. [EnergyERA (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Some of the basic economic principles that drive gas prices and gas flows across North America, and the pressures these have placed on the pipeline sector, are reviewed. Of pressing importance to the natural gas industry in Western Canada is the prospect that in the near future industrial gas users in eastern Canada will have a wider array of pipeline choices available to them than ever before. This will mean that the users will face more offerings from more pipeline providers, forcing pipeline owners to make more difficult decisions regarding new pipeline capacity. Variables such as price, terms and conditions will become increasingly negotiable. Market power concerns also remain an important issue. As a result, there is increasing call for market-based financial regulation of pipelines. `Market gaming` a condition where a firm manipulates the market to its own market advantage is also receiving considerable attention. The latter is of particular concern in the United States. Against this background, the nature of competition (or the lack of it) in natural gas transport, the influence of short-term service revenues for pipelines, pipeline commitments through subsidiaries, and concerns over short term pipeline valuations skewing investment decisions, are issues that will continue to invite much attention. Regarding market outlook, it was noted that significantly increased export capacity from Alberta could raise the costs of Alberta supplies to eastern Canadian end-users relative to other supply/transport options which may now be viable economic alternatives. figs.

  2. The Difficult Chore of Measuring Coordination by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Kelly, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neither the theory nor the interpretation of Extended X-Ray-Absorption Fine-Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy requires assumptions of crystalline symmetry or periodicity. As a result, EXAFS is a tool applied to a wide range of scientific disciplines and to a wide variety of experimental systems. A simple enumeration of the atoms in the coordination environment of the absorber is often the primary goal of an EXAFS experiment. There are, however, a number of pitfalls in the way of an accurate determination of coordination number (CN). These include statistical limitations of the EXAFS fitting problem, empirical effects due to sample preparation, and the assumptions made about the physical structure surrounding the absorber in the course of data analysis. In this paper we examine several of these pitfalls and their effects upon the determination of CN. Where possible, we offer suggestions for avoiding or mitigating the pitfalls. We hope this paper will help guide the general EXAFS practitioner through the difficult chore of accurately determining CN

  3. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  4. [Decubitus ulcer in the calcaneus region: rapid development, difficult recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Bona, F

    1996-03-01

    Heel pressure sores frequently arise in patients kept in bed for a long time independently of their primary disease. In account of this event the authors completed a study concerning possible mutual relations between heel pressure sores and primary disease of the patients; to validate the pharmacological treatment in less severe sores and the surgical resolution in more serious cutaneous lesions. In the last 3 years (1992-1995) at the Rehabilitation Centre of Montescano the authors have treated 39 patients suffering from 63 different severe cutaneous lesions: from phlycten to deep necrosis. The therapeutic plane utilized pharmacological treatment for 1st, 2nd, 3rd degree pressure sores, and surgical treatment for 4th degree. Pharmacological treatment included: enzymatic drugs, bactericidal and bacteriostatic medicines and cicatrizing substances. Different healing times were related to different pressure sore severity. Surgical treatment consisted of transposition of flap into wound defect. This system caused considerable reduction in resolution times. The authors noticed how easily pressure sores arise in the heel region, and how difficultly they heal. This is probably connected with particular anatomical and vascular characteristics of this region.

  5. Genetic evidence of multiple loci in dystocia - difficult labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westgren Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystocia, difficult labour, is a common but also complex problem during childbirth. It can be attributed to either weak contractions of the uterus, a large infant, reduced capacity of the pelvis or combinations of these. Previous studies have indicated that there is a genetic component in the susceptibility of experiencing dystocia. The purpose of this study was to identify susceptibility genes in dystocia. Methods A total of 104 women in 47 families were included where at least two sisters had undergone caesarean section at a gestational length of 286 days or more at their first delivery. Study of medical records and a telephone interview was performed to identify subjects with dystocia. Whole-genome scanning using Affymetrix genotyping-arrays and non-parametric linkage (NPL analysis was made in 39 women exhibiting the phenotype of dystocia from 19 families. In 68 women re-sequencing was performed of candidate genes showing suggestive linkage: oxytocin (OXT on chromosome 20 and oxytocin-receptor (OXTR on chromosome 3. Results We found a trend towards linkage with suggestive NPL-score (3.15 on chromosome 12p12. Suggestive linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 10, 20. Re-sequencing of OXT and OXTR did not reveal any causal variants. Conclusions Dystocia is likely to have a genetic component with variations in multiple genes affecting the patient outcome. We found 6 loci that could be re-evaluated in larger patient cohorts.

  6. Genetic evidence of multiple loci in dystocia - difficult labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dystocia, difficult labour, is a common but also complex problem during childbirth. It can be attributed to either weak contractions of the uterus, a large infant, reduced capacity of the pelvis or combinations of these. Previous studies have indicated that there is a genetic component in the susceptibility of experiencing dystocia. The purpose of this study was to identify susceptibility genes in dystocia. Methods A total of 104 women in 47 families were included where at least two sisters had undergone caesarean section at a gestational length of 286 days or more at their first delivery. Study of medical records and a telephone interview was performed to identify subjects with dystocia. Whole-genome scanning using Affymetrix genotyping-arrays and non-parametric linkage (NPL) analysis was made in 39 women exhibiting the phenotype of dystocia from 19 families. In 68 women re-sequencing was performed of candidate genes showing suggestive linkage: oxytocin (OXT) on chromosome 20 and oxytocin-receptor (OXTR) on chromosome 3. Results We found a trend towards linkage with suggestive NPL-score (3.15) on chromosome 12p12. Suggestive linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 10, 20. Re-sequencing of OXT and OXTR did not reveal any causal variants. Conclusions Dystocia is likely to have a genetic component with variations in multiple genes affecting the patient outcome. We found 6 loci that could be re-evaluated in larger patient cohorts. PMID:20587075

  7. Simultaneous Optimization of Tallies in Difficult Shielding Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wagner, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo is quite useful for calculating specific quantities in complex transport problems. Many variance reduction strategies have been developed that accelerate Monte Carlo calculations for specific tallies. However, when trying to calculate multiple tallies or a mesh tally, users have had to accept different levels of relative uncertainty among the tallies or run separate calculations optimized for each individual tally. To address this limitation, an extension of the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) method, which is used for difficult source/detector problems, has been developed to optimize several tallies or the cells of a mesh tally simultaneously. The basis for this method is the development of an importance function that represents the importance of particles to the objective of uniform Monte Carlo particle density in the desired tally regions. This method utilizes the results of a forward discrete ordinates solution, which may be based on a quick, coarse-mesh calculation, to develop a forward-weighted source for the adjoint calculation. The importance map and the biased source computed from the adjoint flux are then used in the forward Monte Carlo calculation to obtain approximately uniform relative uncertainties for the desired tallies. This extension is called forward-weighted CADIS, or FW-CADIS

  8. Radionuclides difficult to measure in waste packages. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierfeldt, S; Deckert, A [Brenk Systemplanung, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    In this study nuclide specific correlation analyses between key nuclides that can be easily measured and nuclides that are difficult to measure are presented. Data are taken from studies and data compilations from various countries. The results of this study can serve to perform assays of the nuclide specific radionuclide contents in waste packages by gamma measurements of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs and calculation of the contents of other nuclides via the correlation analyses, sometimes referred to as `scaling factor method`. It can thus be avoided to have to take samples from the waste for separate analysis. An attempt is made to also investigate the physical and chemical backgrounds behind the proposed correlations. For example, a formation pathway common to the two nuclides to be correlated can be regarded as an explanation, if a good correlation is found. On the other hand, if the observed correlation is of poor quality, reasons may possibly lie in different behaviour of the two nuclides in the water system of the nuclear plant. This implies not only chemical solubility, transfer constants etc. in the water system, which would not only affect the proportionality between the two nuclides, but a different behavior in different parts of the water system must be assumed (e.g. different filter efficiencies etc). 47 refs, 57 figs, 40 tabs.

  9. A technical solution to a difficult problem - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A goal of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program (RERTR) established by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop the technical means needed to utilize LEU instead of HEU fuels in research and test reactors and to do so without operational penalties and without affecting safety characteristics. This goal has been pursued now for seven years in cooperation with many of you who are participants in this conference. The program has made significant progress in the development, demonstration and application of new LEU research reactor fuels. According to recent projections, the percentage of HEU fuel in international commerce which is technically replaceable with LEU fuels has been growing steadily as research continues. There appears to be no technical barrier to eventual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel in research and test reactors. While there are many politically complex and technically difficult issues involved in nonproliferation, I conclude that the use of highly enriched weapons grade uranium as a fuel in civilian research reactors stands out as one problem which has a straight forward technical solution. The technical solution is the effort you in the RERTR program are embarked on. Once that solution is in hand, the operators of research reactors are urged to take political and legal initiatives to make the conversion happen. By effecting this conversion they will help minimize the trade in highly enriched uranium and make the world a little safer

  10. Difficult issues in mentoring: recommendations on making the "undiscussable" discussable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Janet; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2011-10-01

    Many mentoring relationships do not reach fruition because the individuals fail to bridge a critical difference. When a difference prevents a learning partnership from achieving its potential, the loss is multidimensional for the individuals and the institution--wasting opportunities for the fostering of current and future talent. Insights into when such impasses are likely to arise may help both mentors and mentees address what feels "undiscussable." The authors offer numerous examples of how differences related to ethnicity, language, gender, and generation may interfere with the development of mentoring relationships. Next, the authors offer recommendations on preparing for and handling difficult conversations, including creating safety, noticing assumptions and emotions, and raising sensitive issues. Virtually all faculty can become more effective at communicating across differences and addressing difficulties that prevent mentoring relationships from achieving their potential. The pay-offs for these efforts are indisputable: increased effect in the limited time available for mentoring, an expanded legacy of positive influence, and enhanced communication and leadership skills. The honing of these relational skills enhances the colleagueship and teamwork on which virtually all research, clinical, and educational enterprises depend. Academic health centers that systematically support mentoring enhance institutional stability, talent development, and leadership capacity.

  11. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy and public opinion - a difficult relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaase, M.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear energy remains an explosive subject. Less people demand to give up nuclear energy at once but the emotional and cognitive environment of attitudes to nuclear energy makes this relative 'peaceabilty' seem a very precarious issue. The Chernobyl shock is still active. The future will depend on whether new accidents will occur in nuclear power stations and how dangerous they will be. The highly political nature and the polarization of the subject together with an assumingly still negative coverage by the mass media and a general distrust of the people in established politics will make it very difficult to influence attitudes by means of information. We should attempt to bring sober facts and objectiveness to the discussion of nuclear energy and to involve citizens more actively than in the past while ensuring that there is less auto-selectivity (bias). What we also need is the basic and credible readiness of all participants to accept the results of a democratic process of the development of opinion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. A technical solution to a difficult problem - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asselstine, J K

    1985-07-01

    A goal of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program (RERTR) established by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop the technical means needed to utilize LEU instead of HEU fuels in research and test reactors and to do so without operational penalties and without affecting safety characteristics. This goal has been pursued now for seven years in cooperation with many of you who are participants in this conference. The program has made significant progress in the development, demonstration and application of new LEU research reactor fuels. According to recent projections, the percentage of HEU fuel in international commerce which is technically replaceable with LEU fuels has been growing steadily as research continues. There appears to be no technical barrier to eventual replacement of HEU fuel with LEU fuel in research and test reactors. While there are many politically complex and technically difficult issues involved in nonproliferation, I conclude that the use of highly enriched weapons grade uranium as a fuel in civilian research reactors stands out as one problem which has a straight forward technical solution. The technical solution is the effort you in the RERTR program are embarked on. Once that solution is in hand, the operators of research reactors are urged to take political and legal initiatives to make the conversion happen. By effecting this conversion they will help minimize the trade in highly enriched uranium and make the world a little safer.

  14. Analysing Student Programs in the PHP Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…

  15. The role of personality disorder in 'difficult to reach' patients with depression: Findings from the ODIN study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Brendan D.; Casey, Patricia R.; Dunn, Graham; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with personality disorders (especially paranoid personality disorder) tend to be reluctant to engage in treatment. This paper aimed to elucidate the role of personality disorder in predicting engagement with psychological treatment for depression. The Outcomes of Depression International Network (ODIN) involves six urban and three rural study sites throughout Europe at which cases of depression were identified through a two-stage community survey. One patient in seven who was offe...

  16. Structured Communication: Teaching Delivery of Difficult News with Simulated Resuscitations in an Emergency Medicine Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Nagurka, Roxanne; Offin, Michael; Scott, Sandra R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective is to describe the implementation and outcomes of a structured communication module used to supplement case-based simulated resuscitation training in an emergency medicine (EM) clerkship. Methods We supplemented two case-based simulated resuscitation scenarios (cardiac arrest and blunt trauma) with role-play in order to teach medical students how to deliver news of death and poor prognosis to family of the critically ill or injured simulated patient. Quantitative outcomes were assessed with pre and post-clerkship surveys. Secondarily, students completed a written self-reflection (things that went well and why; things that did not go well and why) to further explore learner experiences with communication around resuscitation. Qualitative analysis identified themes from written self-reflections. Results A total of 120 medical students completed the pre and post-clerkship surveys. Majority of respondents reported that they had witnessed or role-played the delivery of difficult news, but only few had real-life experience of delivering news of death (20/120, 17%) and poor prognosis (34/120, 29%). This communication module led to statistically significant increased scores for comfort, confidence, and knowledge with communicating difficult news of death and poor prognosis. Pre-post scores increased for those agreeing with statements (somewhat/very much) for delivery of news of poor prognosis: comfort 69% to 81%, confidence 66% to 81% and knowledge 76% to 90% as well as for statements regarding delivery of news of death: comfort 52% to 68%, confidence 57% to 76% and knowledge 76% to 90%. Respondents report that patient resuscitations (simulated and/or real) generated a variety of strong emotional responses such as anxiety, stress, grief and feelings of loss and failure. Conclusion A structured communication module supplements simulated resuscitation training in an EM clerkship and leads to a self-reported increase in knowledge, comfort, and

  17. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  18. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also

  19. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q),...

  20. Rules and technical tricks in extremely difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Drăghici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We remind you of some technical artifices required in order to resolve difficult cases, such as: antegrade laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC, subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC and the “stairs” clipping of the cystic duct. Also we acknowledge the closing of the cystic duct. We analyzed the medical records of 15251 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during 1994-2015, with emphasis on: surgical technique, conversion rate, hemorrhage, postoperative bile leaking, iatrogenic MBD injuries and mortality. We divided the cases in 5 study groups, group 1 (1994- 2004 N= 5138, group 2 (2005-2015 N= 10113, group 3 (fundus first cholecystectomies, N=2348, group 4 (retrograde cholecystectomies, N=12889 and group 5 (subtotal laparoscopic cholecystectomy-SLC, N=14 which we compared regarding the main parameters. We prefer to perform a “step by step” clipping each time the length of the clip does not cover all the circumference of the cystic duct. This artifices, is a simple laparoscopic gesture easy to perform and has the advantage of avoiding a large excessive and risky laparoscopic dissection in the vicinity of the main biliary duct. More seldom we appeal to the suture of the cystic stump using the intracorporeal knots or a simple stump ligation with an extracorporeal preformed not. We did not encounter any late or early complications following the implementation of this technical laparoscopic artifice. Laborious laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by a well-trained surgical team ensure the premises of a good performance even while adopting laparoscopic ingenious and difficile gestures that also respect the intraoperatory rules and principals.

  1. Public health in Kosovo after five difficult years of independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Jerliu

    2015-12-01

    administration. Regarding the health status, five years after independence, compared with other European countries, post-war transitional Kosovo is still characterized by higher mortality rates including traditional public health problems pertinent to infant mortality and maternal deaths. In parallel, however, Kosovo is undergoing a rapid process of epidemiological transition characterized by an aging trend which is inevitably coupled with high cardiovascular and cancer mortality and morbidity along with an excess mortality in external causes of death and injuries among the adult population. Adoption of the new Health Law in December 2012 by the Kosovo Assembly aims the transition from centralized health care system established under emergency conditions of the post-war period towards a contemporary modern health care system with a clear purchaser-provider split based on a high transparency and accountability of the health care providers and their contractors. The health care reform, leading eventually to significant changes within the health sector in Kosovo, consists of two main pillars: (i structural and functional reorganization of the health care system through establishment of Kosovo Health Service (an autonomous and non-for-profit public enterprise at central level of the health care sector, and; (ii establishment for the first time of the public health insurance system with a Health Insurance Fund as its main body. Nevertheless, five years after declaration of independence, Kosovo, the newest state in Europe consisting of the youngest population, is currently facing a particularly difficult socioeconomic and political transition and is additionally struggling and mainstreaming all energies and efforts in order to get full international recognition.

  2. Species delimitation in taxonomically difficult fungi: the case of Hymenogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stielow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available False truffles are ecologically important as mycorrhizal partners of trees and evolutionarily highly interesting as the result of a shift from epigeous mushroom-like to underground fruiting bodies. Since its first description by Vittadini in 1831, inappropriate species concepts in the highly diverse false truffle genus Hymenogaster has led to continued confusion, caused by a large variety of prevailing taxonomical opinions.In this study, we reconsidered the species delimitations in Hymenogaster based on a comprehensive collection of Central European taxa comprising more than 140 fruiting bodies from 20 years of field work. The ITS rDNA sequence dataset was subjected to phylogenetic analysis as well as clustering optimization using OPTSIL software.Among distinct species concepts from the literature used to create reference partitions for clustering optimization, the broadest concept resulted in the highest agreement with the ITS data. Our results indicate a highly variable morphology of H. citrinus and H. griseus, most likely linked to environmental influences on the phenology (maturity, habitat, soil type and growing season. In particular, taxa described in the 19(th century frequently appear as conspecific. Conversely, H. niveus appears as species complex comprising seven cryptic species with almost identical macro- and micromorphology. H. intermedius and H. huthii are described as novel species, each of which with a distinct morphology intermediate between two species complexes. A revised taxonomy for one of the most taxonomically difficult genera of Basidiomycetes is proposed, including an updated identification key. The (semi-automated selection among species concepts used here is of importance for the revision of taxonomically problematic organism groups in general.

  3. Techniques for assisting difficult delivery at caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heather; Grivell, Rosalie M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-01-31

    Caesarean section involves making an incision in the woman's abdomen and cutting through the uterine muscle. The baby is then delivered through that incision. Difficult caesarean birth may result in injury for the infant or complications for the mother. Methods to assist with delivery include vacuum or forceps extraction or manual delivery utilising fundal pressure. Medication that relaxes the uterus (tocolytic medication) may facilitate the birth of the baby at caesarean section. Delivery of the impacted head after prolonged obstructed labour can be associated with significant maternal and neonatal complication; to facilitate delivery of the head the surgeon may utilise either reverse breech extraction or head pushing. To compare the use of tocolysis (routine or selective use) with no use of tocolysis or placebo and to compare different extraction methods at the time of caesarean section for outcomes of infant birth trauma, maternal complications (particularly postpartum haemorrhage requiring blood transfusion), and long-term measures of infant and childhood morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials comparing the use of tocolytic agents (routine or selective) at caesarean section versus no use of tocolytic or placebo at caesarean section to facilitate the birth of the baby. Use of instrument versus manual delivery to facilitate birth of the baby. Reverse breech extraction versus head pushing to facilitate delivery of the deeply impacted fetal head. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Seven randomised controlled trials, involving 582 women undergoing caesarean section were included in this review. The risk of bias of included trials was variable, with some trials not adequately describing allocation or

  4. The Role of Attention Shifting in Orthographic Competencies: Cross-Sectional Findings from 1st, 3rd, and 8th Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje von Suchodoletz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention shifting refers to one core component of executive functions, a set of higher-order cognitive processes that predict different aspects of academic achievement. To date, few studies have investigated the role of attention shifting in orthographic competencies during middle childhood and early adolescence. In the present study, 69 first-grade, 121 third-grade, and 85 eighth-grade students' attention shifting was tested with a computer version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS; Zelazo, 2006. General spelling skills and specific writing and spelling strategies were assessed with the Hamburger Writing Test (May, 2002. Results suggested associations between attention shifting and various orthographic competencies that differ across age groups and by sex. Across all age groups, better attention shifting was associated with less errors in applying alphabetical strategies. In third graders, better attention shifting was furthermore related to better general spelling skills and less errors in using orthographical strategies. In this age group, associations did not differ by sex. Among first graders, attention shifting was negatively related to general spelling skills, but only for boys. In contrast, attention shifting was positively related to general spelling skills in eighth graders, but only for girls. Finally, better attention shifting was associated with less case-related errors in eighth graders, independent of students' sex. In sum, the data provide insight into both variability and consistency in the pattern of relations between attention shifting and various orthographic competencies among elementary and middle school students.

  5. Time series prediction by feedforward neural networks - is it difficult?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The difficulties that a neural network faces when trying to learn from a quasi-periodic time series are studied analytically using a teacher-student scenario where the random input is divided into two macroscopic regions with different variances, 1 and 1/γ 2 (γ >> 1). The generalization error is found to decrease as ε g ∝ exp(-α/γ 2 ), where α is the number of examples per input dimension. In contradiction to this very slow vanishing generalization error, the next output prediction is found to be almost free of mistakes. This picture is consistent with learning quasi-periodic time series produced by feedforward neural networks, which is dominated by enhanced components of the Fourier spectrum of the input. Simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical results

  6. Does Fostering Reasoning Strategies for Relatively Difficult Basic Combinations Promote Transfer by K-3 Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Purpura, David J.; Eiland, Michael D.; Reid, Erin E.; Paliwal, Veena

    2016-01-01

    How best to promote fluency with basic sums and differences is still not entirely clear. Some advocate a direct approach--using drill to foster memorization of basic facts by rote. Others recommend an indirect approach that first involves learning reasoning strategies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2…

  7. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How did the Good School Toolkit reduce the risk of past week physical violence from teachers to students? Qualitative findings on pathways of change in schools in Luwero, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, N; Namakula, S; Mulindwa, J; Lwanyaaga, J; Naker, D; Namy, S; Nakuti, J; Parkes, J; Knight, L; Walakira, E; Devries, K M

    2017-05-01

    Violence against children is a serious violation of children's rights with significant impacts on current and future health and well-being. The Good School Toolkit (GST) is designed to prevent violence against children in primary schools through changing schools' operational cultures. Conducted in the Luwero District in Uganda between 2012 and 2014, findings from previous research indicate that the Toolkit reduced the odds of past week physical violence from school staff (OR = 0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.64, p students, teachers, school administration, and parents, and two focus group discussion with teachers. Interviews were conducted using semi-structured tools and analysed using thematic analysis complemented by constant comparison and deviant case analysis techniques. Within a context of normative acceptance of corporal punishment this qualitative paper reports suggestive pathways related to teacher-student relationships through which reductions in violence operated. First, improved student-teacher relationships resulted in improved student voice and less fear of teachers. Second, the intervention helped schools to clarify and encourage desired behaviour amongst students through rewards and praise. Third, many teachers valued positive discipline and alternative discipline methods, including peer-to-peer discipline, as important pathways to reduced use of violence. These shifts were reflected in changes in the views, use, and context of beating. Although the GST is effective for reducing physical violence from teachers to students, violence persisted, though at significantly reduced levels, in all schools with reductions varying across schools and individuals. Much of the success of the Toolkit derives from the support it provides for fostering better student-teacher relationships and alternative discipline options. Such innovation could usefully be incorporated in teacher training syllabi to equip teachers with knowledge and skills to maintain discipline without the

  9. [Vascular adrenal cyst causing difficult to control high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Escudero, D; Torres Roca, M; Hernández Contreras, M E; Sánchez Rodríguez, C; Oñate Celdrán, J

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease in developed countries. Adrenal masses, and especially adrenal cysts, are a rare and usually asymptomatic finding, which can go unnoticed or be detected as incidental findings in imaging tests. These circumstances make the multidisciplinary approach mandatory. The case is presented on a 72 year-old woman with uncontrolled high blood pressure referred to the Urology Department due to the incidental finding of a right retroperitoneal mass. A functional and imaging study was performed, establishing a diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing hypertensive symptoms. A literature search was performed in order to assess diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. With the diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing uncontrolled high blood pressure, a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. After surgery the patient has maintained blood pressure within the normal range. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the management of rare diseases. The surgical approach, if possible, should be laparoscopic. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. "Difficult-to treat" ulcers management: use of pulse dose radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Gennaro; Solimeno, G; Furino, E; Sivero, Luigi; Bucci, Luigi; Massa, Salvatore; Benassai, Giacomo; Apperti, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we wanted to evaluate the impact of pain reduction on the evolution of "difficult-to treat" ulcers, using Radiofrequency analgesia in pulse-dose modality. We have performed a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of the RF in PD mode to reduce the healing time of ulcers of difficult management as outpatient for spontaneous and provoked pain. We enrolled 23 patients, including 7 males (30%) and 16 females (70%), aged between 53 and 79 years (mean age = 67.2) sorted according to the first letter of the last name in ascending order and assigned alternately to one or another group. In Group A healing was obtained in 33% of patients (4/12), with an average healing time of 6 months while in Group B healing has been obtained in 81% of patients (9/11) with an average time of 3 months (range 1-5 months) Student's T was performed to compare the average recovery time among the two groups; moreover we have analyzed the proportions of healed patients in the group A and B. Healing time significantly decreased in group B (p = 0,013079). Even the cure rate has changed favorably, in a statistically significant way. According to the literature related to the use of the RF pulse dose, there is a greater effectiveness of this technique in respect of the classical PRF, in terms of immediate and long-term reduction of pain and this impacts positively on the course of ulcer healing.

  11. The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25–29.9 kg/m2 and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as waist circumfe...

  12. Pulmonary embolism and difficult-to-treat asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Teles Martins

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma control is a key point in patient management. GINA's most recent report emphasises the need to investigate uncontrolled asthma, of which non-compliance with treatment, COPD, smoking, chronic sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity are the usual causes.The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE in cases of difficult-to-treat asthma. We reviewed the case reports of patients with severe persistent asthma followed in our Asthma Outpatients Clinic between 2004 and 2006. We selected the ones that maintained uncontrolled disease despite an optimal therapeutical approach and investigated the causes.In this group (n = 254, 28 (11% had severe persistent asthma and their mean age was 44 ± SD18 years old. 86% were females. Of these, 57% (n = 16 had uncontrolled disease: 35% (n = 6 due to non-compliance with treatment; 29% (n = 5 pulmonary thrombombolism (scintigraphic confirmation; 12% (n = 2 severe rhinosinusitis; 6% (n = 1 hypereosinophilic syndrome; 6% (n = 1 persistent allergen exposure and 6% (n = 1 are still being investigated.Patients with TPE (mean age 56 ± SD9 years old; 80% females; 80% Caucasians were diagnosed with asthma as adults (mean age 37 ± SD14 years old. The mean time until the diagnosis of TPE was 18 ± SD12 years. Predisposing factors for TPE were venous insufficiency (40%, hypertension (40% and deficit of functional protein C and S (20%.All these patients received anticoagulant therapy (80% are still medicated. It should be noted that after the beginning of anticoagulants, 40% of the patients achieved control of their asthma and 40% have partially controlled disease. There were no hospital admissions for asthma exacerbations after the beginning of anticoagulation in this group.This study supports the inclusion of TPE in the group of comorbidities to consider while investigating uncontrolled

  13. Characteristics of Difficult-to-Place Youth in State Custody: A Profile of the Exceptional Care Pilot Project Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Marilyn P.; Schwab, James

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of Texas youth designated as "most difficult to place" recipients of service under the "Exceptional Care Pilot Project" (N = 46). Findings include, among others, high levels of comorbid psychiatric disturbance (greater than 3 diagnostic groupings), physical (78.3%) and sexual (88%)…

  14. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…

  15. Staff and students' perceptions and experiences of teaching and assessment in Clinical Skills Laboratories: interview findings from a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine E; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    The Clinical Skills Laboratory has become an essential structure in nurse education and several benefits of its use have been identified. However, the literature identifies the need to examine the transferability of skills learned there into the reality of practice. This research explored the role of the Clinical Skills Laboratory in preparing nursing students for the real world of practice. This paper focuses specifically on the perceptions of the teaching and assessment strategies employed there. Qualitative multiple case study design. Five case study sites. Interviewees (n=58) included academic staff, clinical staff and nursing students. Semi-structured interviews. The Clinical Skills Laboratory can provide a pathway to practice and its authenticity is significant. Teaching strategies need to incorporate communication as well as psychomotor skills. Including audio-visual recording into assessment strategies is beneficial. Effective relationships between education institutions and clinical settings are needed to enhance the transferability of the skills learned. The Clinical Skills Laboratory should provide an authentic learning environment, with the appropriate use of teaching strategies. It is crucial that effective links between educators and clinical staff are established and maintained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. When Do Students Recognize Relationships between Molecular Structure and Properties? A Longitudinal Comparison of the Impact of Traditional and Transformed Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Sonia M.; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to use a chemical structure to predict and explain phenomenon is essential to a robust understanding of chemistry; however, previous research has shown that students find it difficult to make the connection between structure and properties. In this study we examine how student recognition of the connections between structure and…

  17. Why is it so difficult to tilt Uranus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoszinski, Zeeve; Hamilton, Douglas

    2018-04-01

    The leading hypothesis for the origin of Uranus' large obliquity (98°) is a polar strike from an Earth sized object, but to tilt Saturn similarly would require an impactor roughly 10x as massive. A more likely cause for Saturn's tilt (27°) is a spin-orbit resonance with Neptune (Ward & Hamilton, 2004; Hamilton & Ward, 2004); might the same process work for Uranus? It initially seems unlikely, as at its current location Uranus' axial precession period is too long to resonate with any of the giant planets' orbital precession frequencies. If we place Uranus between Jupiter and Saturn, however, then Uranus' spin axis would precess much more quickly. Thommes et al. (1999, 2002, 2003) first postulated that Uranus and Neptune were formed between Jupiter and Saturn because the conditions there allow the ice giants to be built rapidly. A resonance for our closer Uranus still requires a distant planet, nevertheless, a condition that can be satisfied if Neptune is ejected from Jupiter and Saturn first with Uranus following significantly later. This scenario, while contrived, is consistent with at least some versions of the Nice model and allows us to fully test the resonance hypothesis. We discovered that even with these optimistic assumptions, i) a resonance capture requires a migration timescale on the order of 100 Myr, and ii) it is impossible to tilt Uranus past 90°. Increasing Neptune's migration speed precludes resonant capture, and instead results in a resonance kick. In the most favorable cases, a resonance kick could raise Uranus' obliquity by 40° on a time span of about 50 Myr. We conclude that even in our best scenario, a resonance cannot fully account for Uranus' tilt. We have investigated some scenarios that include both resonances and collisions, and will report on our findings.

  18. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β 0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019), but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the 'positive urgency,' 'premeditation,' and 'sensation seeking' UPPS subscores ( R 2 of the model: 25%). Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.

  19. Effective e-learning for health professionals and students--barriers and their solutions. A systematic review of the literature--findings from the HeXL project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Sue; Blenkinsopp, Elizabeth; Hall, Amanda; Walton, Graham

    2005-12-01

    In 2003/4 the Information Management Research Institute, Northumbria University, conducted a research project to identify the barriers to e-learning for health professionals and students. The project also established possible ways to overcome these barriers. The North of England Workforce Development Confederation funded the project. The project comprised a systematic review of the literature on barriers to and solutions/critical success factors for e-learning in the health field. Fifty-seven references were suitable for analysis. This review was supplemented by a questionnaire survey of learners and an interview study of learning providers to ensure that data identified from the literature were grounded in reality. The main barriers are: requirement for change; costs; poorly designed packages; inadequate technology; lack of skills; need for a component of face-to-face teaching; time intensive nature of e-learning; computer anxiety. A range of solutions can solve these barriers. The main solutions are: standardization; strategies; funding; integration of e-learning into the curriculum; blended teaching; user friendly packages; access to technology; skills training; support; employers paying e-learning costs; dedicated work time for e-learning. The authors argue that librarians can play an important role in e-learning: providing support and support materials; teaching information skills; managing and providing access to online information resources; producing their own e-learning packages; assisting in the development of other packages.

  20. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rolland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE and other disordered eating symptoms (DES are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q, and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019, but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the ‘positive urgency,’ ‘premeditation,’ and ‘sensation seeking’ UPPS subscores (R2 of the model: 25%. Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.

  1. MELAS syndrome: neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, A.; Romero, A. I.; Bravo, F.; Vida, J. M.; Espejo, S.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) and their contribution to the diagnosis of this entity. We present three patients in which a diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was confirmed by muscle biopsy. CT revealed pathological findings in two patients: bilateral calcifications in the basal nuclei in one and low-attenuation lesions in occipital lobes in the other. Initial or follow-up MR demonstrated pathological findings highly suggestive of MELAS syndrome in all the patients. They consisted of hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted images, located predominantly in the cortex of occipital and parietal lobes. Cerebellar atrophy was also observed in two patients. The clinical signs varied, but epileptic seizures, headache, vomiting, ataxia, muscle weakness and pyramidal involvement were among the major ones. Only one patient presented high lactic acid levels, and in two, the initial muscle biopsy was not conclusive enough to provide the definitive diagnosis. CT and, especially, MR are useful tools in the diagnosis of MELAS syndrome, particularly in those cases in which initial negative laboratory and histological results make diagnosis difficult. (Author) 21 refs

  2. METHODOLOGY OF DETERMINATION OF ADMISSIBLE SPEEDS OF TRAIN MOVEMENT ON DIFFICULT SECTIONS OF RAILROAD PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of improvement ways of admissible speeds of train movement on the difficult sections of а railroad plan. Methodology. Mathematical modeling of the train traffic is used to achieve the purpose of research. The average weighted speed and elevation of outer rail is predicted on this basis. Findings. The case analysis of the speeds determination in curved sections of track was carried out. The above mentioned track sections adversely affect the ride comfort and the intensity of the way disorder, as well as the reasons that contribute to the speed limits traffic on the railways of Ukraine. The technique of performing the calculations for determining the permissible train speeds was developed and tested on real curves of railways, were the accelerated movement of trains was introduced. Proposals on automate calculations in distances and services by way of determining the permissible speeds in curves were developed. Originality. Methodology of determining the permissible motion speeds and elevation of outer rails on the difficult sections of the railway plan was developed. This approach allows you to get a rational decisions on reorganization of plan based on local conditions. Practical value. The developed technique of definition of admissible speeds of motion in curves was implemented as a program DopShvid. The program was tested on real railway sections, where the accelerated train motion was introduced.

  3. Does ego development increase during midlife? The effects of openness and accommodative processing of difficult events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilgendahl, Jennifer Pals; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2013-08-01

    Although Loevinger's model of ego development is a theory of personality growth, there are few studies that have examined age-related change in ego level over developmentally significant periods of adulthood. To address this gap in the literature, we examined mean-level change and individual differences in change in ego level over 18 years of midlife. In this longitudinal study, participants were 79 predominantly White, college-educated women who completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test in early (age 43) and late (age 61) midlife as well as measures of the trait of Openness (ages 21, 43, 52, and 61) and accommodative processing (assessed from narratives of difficult life events at age 52). As hypothesized, the sample overall showed a mean-level increase in ego level from age 43 to age 61. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that both the trait of Openness at age 21 and accommodative processing of difficult events that occurred during (as opposed to prior to) midlife were each predictive of increasing ego level from age 43 to age 61. These findings counter prior claims that ego level remains stable during adulthood and contribute to our understanding of the underlying processes involved in personality growth in midlife. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Nottinghamshire, UK. A total of 2270 children aged 11-16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of smoking uptake. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Health risk factors and the incidence of hypertension: 4-year prospective findings from a national cohort of 60 569 Thai Open University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2013-06-25

    This study evaluates the impact of a number of demographic, biological, behavioural and lifestyle health risk factors on the incidence of hypertension in Thailand over a 4-year period. A 4-year prospective study of health risk factors and their effects on the incidence of hypertension in a national Thai Cohort Study from 2005 to 2009. As Thailand is transitioning from a developing to a middle-income developed country, chronic diseases (particularly cardiovascular disease) have emerged as major health issues. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke and cross-sectional studies have indicated that the prevalence is increasing. A total of 57 558 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University students who participated in both the 2005 and 2009 questionnaire surveys and who were normotensive in 2005 were included in the analysis. Adjusted relative risks associating each risk factor and incidence of hypertension by sex, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and underlying diseases. The overall 4-year incidence of hypertension was 3.5%, with the rate in men being remarkably higher than that in women (5.2% vs 2.1%). In both sexes, hypertension was associated with age, higher BMI and comorbidities but not with income and education. In men, hypertension was associated with physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and fast food intake. In women, hypertension was related to having a partner. In both men and women, hypertension was strongly associated with age, obesity and comorbidities while it had no association with socioeconomic factors. The cohort patterns of socioeconomy and hypertension reflect that the health risk transition in Thais is likely to be at the middle stage. Diet and lifestyle factors associate with incidence of hypertension in Thais and may be amenable targets for hypertension control programmes.

  6. Adventure tourism and schistosomiasis: serology and clinical findings in a group of Danish students after white-water rafting in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röser, Dennis; Bjerrum, Stephanie; Helleberg, Marie; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; David, Kim Peter; Thybo, Søren; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2018-04-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis in travellers is a clinical challenge, since cases may present with no symptoms or a few non-specific symptoms. Here, we report on the laboratory and clinical findings in Danish travellers exposed to Schistosoma -infested water during white-water rafting on the Ugandan part of the upper Nile River in July 2009. Forty travellers were offered screening for Schistosoma -specific antibodies. Serological tests were performed 6-65 weeks after exposure. A self-reporting questionnaire was used to collect information on travel activity and health history, fresh water exposure, and symptoms. Seropositive cases were referred to hospitals where clinical and biochemical data were collected. Schistosoma -specific antibodies were detected in 13/35 (37 %) exposed participants, with 4/13 (31 %) seroconverting later than 2 months following exposure. Four of thirteen (31 %) cases reported ≥3 symptoms compatible with schistosomiasis, with a mean onset of 41 days following exposure. No Schistosoma eggs were detected in stool or urine in any of the cases. Peripheral eosinophilia (>0.45×10 9 cells l -1 ) was seen in 4/13 cases, while IgE levels were normal in all cases. Schistosomiasis in travellers is not necessarily associated with specific signs or symptoms, eosinophilia, raised IgE levels, or detection of eggs. The only prognostic factor for infection was exposure to freshwater in a Schistosoma -endemic area. Seroconversion may occur later than 2 months after exposure and therefore - in the absence of other diagnostic evidence - serology testing should be performed up to at least 2-3 months following exposure to be able to rule out schistosomiasis.

  7. Disarming Contankerous People: Coping with Difficult Personalities in ECE Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Luis; Smith, Connie Jo

    2009-01-01

    Difficult personalities come in a variety of roles in just about every setting. While types have been identified in the typical corporate and business culture, difficult work personalities also inhabit the world of early childhood education (ECE) workplaces. Because difficult people have an impact on workplace morale and productivity, the topic…

  8. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    . Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...... in contact with their peers, more attention-related problems and less emotional or psychological resources. Furthermore the mothers experience more trouble in child rearing than what is found in an average family. The results are important in the way that they attract attention to the child’s own situation...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child...

  10. Pediatric Trainees Managing a Difficult Airway: Comparison of Laryngeal Mask Airway, Direct, and Video-Assisted Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Ambrosio MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Difficult airway management is a key skill required by all pediatric physicians, yet training on multiple modalities is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of, and time to, successful advanced infant airway placement with direct laryngoscopy, video-assisted laryngoscopy, and laryngeal mask airway (LMA in a difficult airway simulator. This study is the first to compare the success with 3 methods for difficult airway management among pediatric trainees. Study Design Randomized crossover pilot study. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Methods Twenty-two pediatric residents, interns, and medical students were tested. Participants were provided 1 training session by faculty using a normal infant manikin. Subjects then performed all 3 of the aforementioned advanced airway modalities in a randomized order on a difficult airway model of a Robin sequence. Success was defined as confirmed endotracheal intubation or correct LMA placement by the testing instructor in ≤120 seconds. Results Direct laryngoscopy demonstrated a significantly higher placement success rate (77.3% than video-assisted laryngoscopy (36.4%, P = .0117 and LMA (31.8%, P = .0039. Video-assisted laryngoscopy required a significantly longer amount of time during successful intubations (84.8 seconds; 95% CI, 59.4-110.1 versus direct laryngoscopy (44.9 seconds; 95% CI, 33.8-55.9 and LMA placement (36.6 seconds; 95% CI, 24.7-48.4. Conclusions Pediatric trainees demonstrated significantly higher success using direct laryngoscopy in a difficult airway simulator model. However, given the potential lifesaving implications of advanced airway adjuncts, including video-assisted laryngoscopy and LMA placement, more extensive training on adjunctive airway management techniques may be useful for trainees.

  11. Linguistic Simplification of Mathematics Items: Effects for Language Minority Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Nicole; Heppt, Birgit; Roppelt, Alexander; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In large-scale assessment studies, language minority students typically obtain lower test scores in mathematics than native speakers. Although this performance difference was related to the linguistic complexity of test items in some studies, other studies did not find linguistically demanding math items to be disproportionally more difficult for…

  12. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  13. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  14. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  15. "What Say These Young Ones": Students' Responses to Shakespeare--An Icon of Englishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska-Ourdeva, Vessela; Johnston, Ingrid; Mangat, Joyti; McKeown, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Challenging the taken-for-granted status of canonical authors, especially Shakespeare, is difficult, but not impossible. This research offers a glimpse into the inferential processes of a group of grade ten students from diverse backgrounds who read unfamiliar passages from Shakespeare. The findings reveal a complex picture of meaning-making,…

  16. Promoting Middle School Students' Proportional Reasoning Skills through an Ongoing Professional Development Programme for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2016-01-01

    Proportional reasoning, the ability to use ratios in situations involving comparison of quantities, is essential for mathematical competence, especially in the middle school years, and is an important determinant of success beyond school. Research shows students find proportional reasoning and its foundational concepts difficult. Proportional…

  17. A Study of the Effects of Outsourcing Residence Life Programs on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, James H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are facing the difficult challenge of meeting increased demands for high quality education and services for students, while keeping costs low, and finding new sources of revenue to compensate for the decrease in funding from state and federal sources. In an attempt to meet these demands new strategies and…

  18. Sea Lions and Honors Students: More in Common than You May Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Biolsi, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    One can easily find a link between the general principles of learning in relation to both nonhuman and human animals. What may be a more difficult but equally important parallel is how these learning principles are applied to the training of animals and the teaching of honors students. The author considers what teachers can learn from observing…

  19. Using genetic programming to find Lyapunov functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Angelis, G.Z.; Ryan, C; Spector, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper Genetic Programming is used to find Lyapunov functions for (non)linear dif ferential equations of autonomous systems. As Lyapunov functions can be difficult to find, we use OP to make the decisions concerning the form of the Lyapunov function. As an e5cample two systems are taken to

  20. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA. It may be noninvasive (NI or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA.

  1. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Joshi, Rohan; Kuhel, William I.; Tabbara, Sana O.; Rezaei, M. Katayoon; Hoda, Rana S.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA). It may be noninvasive (NI) or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA. PMID:25972908

  2. Undergoing an immunization is effortlessly, manageable or difficult according to five-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Söderbäck, Maja

    2015-06-01

    To prevent diseases among children they regularly undergo immunizations. Previous research show different approaches available to facilitate immunization-procedures for children to protect them from harm. To complement this research and provide care suited for children, research recognizing their perceptions of undergoing such a procedure is needed. The aim of this study was to describe 5-year-old children's perceptions of undergoing an immunization. A phenomenographic approach and analysis was used to describe the children's (n = 21) various perceptions. The data-collection was accomplished directly after the immunization to grasp the children's immediate perceptions. Drawings and reflective talks were used as they are considered as suitable methods when involving young children in research. The right to conduct research with children was approved by the appropriate research ethics committee and also by each child and the parents. The findings show that children's perceptions of an immunization-procedure may vary from effortlessly, to manageable or difficult. Regardless of how the child perceive the immunization-procedure each perception embrace the children's descriptions of actors and articles in the situation, their feelings in the situation and also their actions to deal with the immunization. Nevertheless, these descriptions vary according to how the children perceive the immunization as effortlessly, manageable or difficult. Children's and adults' perceptions of medical procedures may differ and children need guidance, time and space to deal with them. Recognizing children's perceptions of undergoing an immunization contributes to the promotion of their right to be involved in their own health care and towards the development of child-centred care. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. "Stiction Syndrome": Non-Operative Management of Patients With Difficult AMS 700 Series Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Nicholas L; Viers, Boyd R; VanDyke, Maia E; Pagliara, Travis J; Morey, Allen F

    2017-09-01

    Static friction (stiction) is a mechanical phenomenon in which a state of increased resistance exists across a control valve mechanism. To present a strategy for non-operative management of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) cases with pump malfunction from pump valve stiction. All patients had American Medical Systems (AMS; Minnetonka, MN, USA) 700 series Momentary Squeeze IPPs with transient pump malfunction owing to pump valve stiction after extended periods of device inactivity. Our evolving non-operative management experience with the "forced deflation" maneuver is described. This technique has successfully prevented the need for surgical pump replacement. Of patients with IPP who were instructed to inflate and deflate daily to prevent stiction recurrence, none have re-presented with difficult inflation. Of 306 patients receiving the AMS 700 series IPP at our institution from 2007 through 2015, 6 (1.9%) presented with difficulty activating the Momentary Squeeze pump (from 2011 through 2015). Four additional patients were referred from outside institutions with the same complaint. All patients (10 of 10, 100%) presented after a prolonged period of inactivity (minimum = 6 weeks) during which the IPP was not cycled and remained stagnant. Although the initial four patients (40%) underwent surgical exploration with pump mobilization and replacement, the six most recent patients (60%) were successfully instructed in the forced deflation maneuver in the office, which enabled the device to cycle normally thereafter. Device inactivity, for as little as 6 weeks, can predispose to Momentary Squeeze pump valve malfunction; and a regimen of daily IPP cycling could prevent stiction-related malfunction. Our findings should encourage practitioners to attempt conservative management of patients with "stiction syndrome" whenever possible, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgery. Kavoussi NL, Viers BR, VanDyke ME, et al. "Stiction Syndrome": Non-Operative Management of Patients

  4. Dermoscopy Findings of Hidroacanthoma Simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Sato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidroacanthoma simplex (HAS, also known as intraepidermal eccrine poroma, is a rare eccrine adnexal tumor that tends to be misdiagnosed as other types of benign skin tumor, including clonal seborrheic keratosis. Notably, HAS is sometimes misdiagnosed and treated by cryosurgery as seborrheic keratosis, which could trigger the later development of porocarcinoma. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of HAS is indispensable for dermatologists to avoid the development of malignant tumors by an unsuitable treatment. In this report, we present the characteristic dermoscopy findings of HAS. Indeed, the dermoscopy findings might be related to the melanin-rich necrotic cells in the epidermis, which are quite different from dermoscopy findings of clonal seborrheic keratosis. As a previous report suggested, it is difficult for a dermatologist to differentiate HAS from clonal seborrheic keratosis by the naked eye. Our findings might be supportive for the early diagnosis of HAS.

  5. Improving Students' Understanding of Waves by Plotting a Displacement-Time Graph in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yajun

    2012-04-01

    The topic of waves is one that many high school physics students find difficult to understand. This is especially true when using some A-level textbooks1,2used in the U.K., where the concept of waves is introduced prior to the concept of simple harmonic oscillations. One of the challenges my students encounter is understanding the difference between displacement-time graphs and displacement-position graphs. Many students wonder why these two graphs have the same sinusoidal shape. Having the students use multimedia simulations allows them to see, in a hands-on fashion, the relationship between the two graphs.

  6. Radiologic findings of sacroiliitis : emphasis on MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Jong Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the characteristic MR findings of infectious sacroiliitis (IS) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We retrospectively reviewed MR findings in eight patients with IS (pyogenic in six, tuberculosis in two) confirmed by culture and clinical follow-up, and in six with AS by HLA-B27 typing. AA control group of 13 asymptomatic volunteers was formed, and they underwent MRI Findings were analysed for morphology, degree of bone erosion, and adjacent soft tissue change. CT findings of AS in four patients and IS in four were also compared to MR findings. MR characteristics of IS included unilaterality (100%), abnormal cartilage signal intensity (100%), bone marrow change (100%), contrast enhancement (100%), erosion (63%), and soft tissue change (63%). MR findings of AS showed bilaterality (67%), abnormal cartilage signal intensity (80%), bone marrow change (80%), erosion (80%), contrast enhancement (44%) and soft tissue change (10%). CT scan showed bony sclerosis and erosion (86%), and abnormal joint space (71%). MR findings of sacroiliitis were loss of thin zone of a cartilage and erosions on T1-weighted image, and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted image. MRI is regarded as a useful diagnostic method where conventional diagnosis is difficult, and is able to image cartilage abnormalities directly and noninvasively. Significant differences in MR findings between IS and AS were not noted, however

  7. Modificación de actitudes ante el Sida en estudiantes de enfermería: Resultados de una experiencia pedagógica Modification of attitudes regarding AIDS among nursing students: Findings of a pedagogic experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Fernández Donaire

    2006-06-01

    change in the students' attitude is registered in the intervention group after having finished the training period, compared to the results obtained at the beginning of the trial. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the results determined in the two tests for students in the control group. These findings confirm the effectiveness of the pedagogic methodology used to effect a positive change in student attitudes regarding topics such as AIDS; an area that is often subject to a social and cultural bias that can affect the quality of an individual's future work as a health-care professional.

  8. Findings of autopsy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Saito, Tsukuru; Itoya, Saori

    2009-01-01

    Described is the outline of autopsy imaging (Ai) by CT, MRI and ultrasonography (US) as the reading of the postmortem images is becoming important for radiologist on site. The present major Ai modality is CT, where the cause of death can be identified in most cases of injuries like that by traffic accident, and of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. It is difficult for CT alone to determine the cause due to acute heart failure, for which Ai by enhanced CT (2-min heart massage during the intravenous infusion of a contrast agent) has been introduced. CT findings in Ai are varied according to the death cause, anabiotic treatment conducted and postmortem changes. The second item includes the gastrointestinal tract dilation, rib fracture, pneumo- or hemo-thorax, bruise or rupture, and intravascular gas, and the third, the blood hypostasis, which emphasizing the shadow at the gravity-loaded portions in Ai CT. MRI signals vary dependently on the temperature and the inversion time should be shortened to suppress the cerebrospinal signal at Ai of the cold body like that stored in a refrigerator. US can detect clear, macroscopic morphological changes and the portable machine has been in practice at autopsy onsite. As sound speed depends on the temperature in water, Ai US images are obscure relative to living body due to the low temperature. Authors think the problem to identify the cause of death will be mostly solved in Japan when radiological technologists more actively participate in Ai. (K.T.)

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sung Hoo; Kang, Ik Won; Park, Yang Hee; Kim, Chu Wan; Chi, Je Geun

    1982-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in infants and young children which has relatively favorable prognosis with early diagnosis and adequate treatment, however, it can be lethal if the treatment is delayed or inadequate. Clinically, early diagnosis is often difficult because of minimal subjective and objective signs and symptoms, and the patients are usually too young to complain visual disturbance. When ophthalmoscopicexamination is impossible due to presence of opaue media in front of tumor mass as associated inflammatory reaction, hemorrhage, corneal opacity, retinal detachment, etc, ultrasonography is necessary for diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Authors analyzed ultrasonographic al findings with pathological correlation on 10 cases of confirmed retinoblastoma during the period of March 1981 to September1982 at the Seoul National University Hospital. In all cases, ultrasonography demonstrates intraocular masses and all of which are cystic type.Reflectivity of masses are higher than retroorbital fat tissue in 8 cases, and 7 cases show irregular internal echogenic texture. There is no correlation between reflexivity and internal echogenic texture with microscopic findings as rosette, pseudo rosette and micro cysts. Calcifications are demonstrated by ultrasonography as strong reflectiveness with posterior sonic shadowing in 9 cases and 9 of 10 cases are well correlated with calcifications in pathologic specimens. Anechoic cystic areas are shown in 9 cases, and 6 of 10 cases are well correlated with necrosis in pathologic specimen. In all cases, there is no attenuation of sound within tumor masses, and no demonstrable choroidal excavation. Associated retinal detachment is hardly identifiable in irregular contour and internal texture of cystic tumor masses

  10. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    -specific assessment. Data from patients' pre-operative airway assessment are registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database. Objective scores for intubation and mask ventilation grade the severity of airway managements. The accuracy of predicting difficult intubation and mask ventilation is measured for each group...... the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non...... that registration of the SARI and predictors for difficult mask ventilation are mandatory for the intervention group but invisible to controls....

  11. A Comparison of Cormeck-Lehane and Mallampati Tests with Mandibular and Neck Measurements for Predicting Difficult Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Acer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Various prediction tests were formulated to forecast difficult intubation. The Mallampati test, Wilson score, Cormack-Lehane test and thyromental distance are the most commonly used tests pre-operatively to assess the airway. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a combination of the Mallampati and Cormack-Lehane’s classification to predict difficult intubation compared with sternomental and thyromental distances, mandibular length, width and neck length and circumference. Material and Methods: Two hundred twenty seven cases between 17 and 70 years old undergoing elective surgery were included in the study. Age, gender, body weight, body height and BMI were noted preoperatively. The pharyngeal structures were examined before the operation. At the time of intubation, laryngoscopic evaluation was performed according to the Cormack-Lehane’s laryngoscopic classification.Results: For analysis, Mallampati and Cormack-Lehane’s laryngoscopic classification were grouped as difficult (grades III and IV or easy (grades I and II. Whereas Mallampati scoring were class 1 and 2 (easy in 72.7% cases, Cormack-Lehane’s laryngoscopic scoring 90.7% of the cases were in class 1 and 2. The combination of the Cormeck-Lehane classification with neck circumference had the highest sensitivity (94.74%, but this combination decreased the positive predictive value. The combination of the Mallampati classification with neck length had the highest sensitivity (67.86%, but this combination decreased the positive predictive value.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Mallampati and Cormeck-Lehane classification by itself is insufficient for predicting difficult intubation so should be used in conjunction with measurement of neck circumference and Cormeck-lehane test. Mallampati test with sternomental and thyromental distances in addition with neck length may be useful in routine test for preoperative prediction of difficult

  12. Finding Connections: Using Accounting Concepts in a Career Planning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, the most common challenge for students is the ability to find a connection between one subject that they have learned and another subject. Thus, students' learning becomes compartmentalized and piecemeal. For instance, accounting students may find attending a drawing class boring and a waste of time. Science students may…

  13. From biology to mathematical models and back: teaching modeling to biology students, and biology to math and engineering students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiel, Hillel J; McManus, Jeffrey M; Shaw, Kendrick M

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a course to teach modeling and mathematical analysis skills to students of biology and to teach biology to students with strong backgrounds in mathematics, physics, or engineering. The two groups of students have different ways of learning material and often have strong negative feelings toward the area of knowledge that they find difficult. To give students a sense of mastery in each area, several complementary approaches are used in the course: 1) a "live" textbook that allows students to explore models and mathematical processes interactively; 2) benchmark problems providing key skills on which students make continuous progress; 3) assignment of students to teams of two throughout the semester; 4) regular one-on-one interactions with instructors throughout the semester; and 5) a term project in which students reconstruct, analyze, extend, and then write in detail about a recently published biological model. Based on student evaluations and comments, an attitude survey, and the quality of the students' term papers, the course has significantly increased the ability and willingness of biology students to use mathematical concepts and modeling tools to understand biological systems, and it has significantly enhanced engineering students' appreciation of biology.

  14. From Biology to Mathematical Models and Back: Teaching Modeling to Biology Students, and Biology to Math and Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Jeffrey M.; Shaw, Kendrick M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a course to teach modeling and mathematical analysis skills to students of biology and to teach biology to students with strong backgrounds in mathematics, physics, or engineering. The two groups of students have different ways of learning material and often have strong negative feelings toward the area of knowledge that they find difficult. To give students a sense of mastery in each area, several complementary approaches are used in the course: 1) a “live” textbook that allows students to explore models and mathematical processes interactively; 2) benchmark problems providing key skills on which students make continuous progress; 3) assignment of students to teams of two throughout the semester; 4) regular one-on-one interactions with instructors throughout the semester; and 5) a term project in which students reconstruct, analyze, extend, and then write in detail about a recently published biological model. Based on student evaluations and comments, an attitude survey, and the quality of the students' term papers, the course has significantly increased the ability and willingness of biology students to use mathematical concepts and modeling tools to understand biological systems, and it has significantly enhanced engineering students' appreciation of biology. PMID:20810957

  15. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma Is Difficult to Discriminate from a Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old woman presented with a high-grade fever of 40°C and was admitted to our institution for intensive examination and treatment. Noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (CT revealed low-density masses at segments 5 and 8, suggestive of a liver abscess. On further examination, a contrast-enhanced abdominal CT showed a 30×30 mm mass with an enhanced margin at segment 8 in the arterial phase; the contrast agents were washed out in the venous phase. In addition, a 63×52 mm mass with a density lower than that of liver parenchyma was observed at segment 8 in the portal phase. On the basis of these findings, either a liver abscess or hepatocellular carcinoma was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, a fine needle biopsy was scheduled. Histopathological analysis of the biopsied specimens confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy was not indicated owing to the patient’s age and poor performance status; thus, best supportive care was planned. On day 22 after admission, the patient died of pneumonia. We experienced a case of PHL that was difficult to discriminate from a liver abscess. Imaging alone is insufficient to diagnose PHL; therefore, fine needle biopsy is recommended for a definitive diagnosis.

  16. Incidence and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy in 11,219 pediatric anesthesia procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sebastian; Birkholz, Torsten; Ihmsen, Harald; Irouschek, Andrea; Ackermann, Andreas; Schmidt, Joachim

    2012-08-01

    Difficult laryngoscopy in pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia. This retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate incidence and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy in a large cohort of pediatric patients receiving general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Young age and craniofacial dysmorphy are predictors for the difficult pediatric airway and difficult laryngoscopy. For difficult laryngoscopy, other general predictors are not yet described. Retrospectively, from a 5-year period, data from 11.219 general anesthesia procedures in pediatric patients with endotracheal intubation using age-adapted Macintosh blades in a single center (university hospital) were analyzed statistically. The overall incidence of difficult laryngoscopy [Cormack and Lehane (CML) grade III and IV] was 1.35%. In patients younger than 1 year, the incidence of CML III or IV was significantly higher than in the older patients (4.7% vs 0.7%). ASA Physical Status III and IV, a higher Mallampati Score (III and IV) and a low BMI were all associated (P pediatric anesthesia is lower than in adults. Our results show that the risk of difficult laryngoscopy is much higher in patients below 1 year of age, in underweight patients and in ASA III and IV patients. The underlying disease might also contribute to the risk. If the Mallampati score could be obtained, prediction of difficult laryngoscopy seems to be reliable. Our data support the existing recommendations for a specialized anesthesiological team to provide safe anesthesia for infants and neonates. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Awake fiberoptic or awake video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Thøgersen, Bente; Afshari, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation (FFI) is the gold standard for management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to compare awake FFI to awake McGrath® video laryngoscope, (MVL), (Aircraft Medical, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom) intubation in patients...... with an anticipated difficult intubation. The authors examined the hypothesis that MVL intubation would be faster than FFI....

  18. Between Trauma and Perpetration: Psychoanalytical and Social Psychological Perspectives on Difficult Histories in the Israeli Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Tsafrir

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the applicability of psychoanalytic trauma-centered perspectives and social psychological intergroup comparison perspectives to difficult histories of the Israeli context. The study describes 2 test cases of difficult histories in the Jewish-Israeli context at the levels of curriculum policy, teachers, and learners. The first…

  19. If Science Teachers Are Positively Inclined Toward Inclusive Education, Why Is It So Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Yifrach, Merav

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges that students with learning disabilities (LD) experience in science studies and addresses the question of the extent to which science teachers are willing and prepared to teach in inclusive classrooms. We employed the theory of planned behavior (TPB), according to which behavioral intentions are a function of individuals' attitudes toward the behavior, their subjective norms, and their perceived control—i.e., their perception of the simplicity and benefits of performing the behavior. The study comprised 215 junior high school science teachers, who answered a TPB-based quantitative questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to support and enrich the findings and conclusions. We found that teachers held positive attitudes and were willing to adapt their teaching methods (perceived control), which correlated and contributed to their behavioral intention. In terms of subjective norms, however, they felt a lack of support and ongoing guidance in providing the appropriate pedagogy to meet the needs of students with LD. We therefore recommend that educational policy makers and school management devote attention and resources to providing professional training and appropriate instructional materials and to establishing frameworks for meaningful cooperation between the science teachers and special education staff. This could ensure the efficient cooperation and coordination of all the involved parties and send a positive message of support to the science teachers who are the actual implementers of change.

  20. Relação entre achados em neuroimagem, habilidades auditivas e metafonológicas em escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento Relationship between neuroimaging findings and auditory and metaphonological abilities in students with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Donadon Germano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relacionar as habilidades auditivas, metafonológicas e de neuroimagem em escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento e comparar os achados dessas habilidades em escolares com bom desempenho acadêmico. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 20 escolares, sendo dez com diagnóstico interdisciplinar de dislexia do desenvolvimento e dez com bom desempenho acadêmico, submetidos a avaliações audiológica, do processamento auditivo e de consciência fonológica. Os escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento foram submetidos a exame de imagem (SPECT. RESULTADOS: Os resultados indicaram diferença estatisticamente significante entre as habilidades auditivas de sequência para sons verbais, mensagem competitiva ipsi e contralateral, dicótico de dígitos e dissílabos alternados e habilidades de síntese, segmentação, manipulação e transposição fonêmica. Entre os escolares com dislexia do desenvolvimento, evidenciou-se hipoperfusão da porção mesial do lobo temporal. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados deste estudo evidenciaram correlação entre provas de memória auditiva e manipulação silábica e fonêmica e associação entre habilidades auditivas e fonológicas, sugerindo que os processos auditivos interferem diretamente na percepção de aspectos acústicos, temporais e sequenciais dos sons para formação de uma representação fonológica estável, e que isto pode ser decorrente da presença de alterações de fluxo sanguíneo no lobo temporal.PURPOSE: To correlate auditory and metaphonological abilities and neuroimaging in students with developmental dyslexia, and to compare these findings to those obtained with students with good academic performance. METHODS: Twenty children participated in this study: ten with an interdisciplinary diagnostic of developmental dyslexia, and ten students with good academic performance. All subjects carried out audiologic, auditory processing and phonological awareness evaluations. The students with

  1. Improving Student Vocabulary Mastery Using Word Mapping Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Satuna Indah Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to find out whether the word mapping strategywas able to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The process of masteringis mainly affected by the worst thought of the vocational students who said that English as the most difficult subject to learn and was often tracked into boringcondition since theywere not involved in the process of learning. Thisstudy was conducted by using classroom action research in two cycles and each cycleconsisted of four me...

  2. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  3. Sending Learning Pills to Mobile Devices in Class to Enhance Student Performance and Motivation in Network Services Configuration Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Organero, M.; Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching electrical and computer software engineers how to configure network services normally requires the detailed presentation of many configuration commands and their numerous parameters. Students tend to find it difficult to maintain acceptable levels of motivation. In many cases, this results in their not attending classes and not dedicating…

  4. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment

  6. How Much Math Do Students Need to Succeed in Business and Economics Statistics? An Ordered Probit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey J. Green; Courtenay C. Stone; Abera Zegeye; Thomas A. Charles

    2008-01-01

    Because statistical analysis requires both familiarity with and the ability to use mathematics, students typically are required to take one or more prerequisite math courses prior to enrolling in the business statistics course. Despite these math prerequisites, however, students find it extremely difficult to learn business statistics. In this study, we use an ordered probit model to examine the effect of alternative prerequisite math course sequences on the grade performance of 1,684 busines...

  7. Pedagogies of Partnership: What Works. A Report on the Findings of the Higher Education Academy Funded Project Examining How Partnership-Based Pedagogies Impact on Student Learning at the University of Lincoln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Karin; Horsley, Reece; Hagyard, Andy; Derricott, Dan

    2015-01-01

    "Pedagogies of partnership: What works?" seeks to identify whether the student learning experience is enhanced or in any way made different through the implementation of teaching and learning that is explicitly intended to foster partnership. The value of student-staff partnerships and student engagement is recognised nationally and in…

  8. Difficult behaviors in the emergency department: a cohort study of housed, homeless and alcohol dependent individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Svoboda

    Full Text Available This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events.Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP (n = 50, men from the general homeless population (GH (n = 61, and men residing in low-income housing (LIH (n = 58 were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817 from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours.Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3-16.5 and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2-17.3 times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43-59.65%, 24% (95% CI 19-29%, and 20% (95% CI 16-24% of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72 and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69, respectively.Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents.

  9. Videolaryngoscopy versus Fiber-optic Intubation through a Supraglottic Airway in Children with a Difficult Airway: An Analysis from the Multicenter Pediatric Difficult Intubation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burjek, Nicholas E; Nishisaki, Akira; Fiadjoe, John E; Adams, H Daniel; Peeples, Kenneth N; Raman, Vidya T; Olomu, Patrick N; Kovatsis, Pete G; Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Hunyady, Agnes; Bosenberg, Adrian; Tham, See; Low, Daniel; Hopkins, Paul; Glover, Chris; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Szmuk, Peter; McCloskey, John; Dalesio, Nicholas; Koka, Rahul; Greenberg, Robert; Watkins, Scott; Patel, Vikram; Reynolds, Paul; Matuszczak, Maria; Jain, Ranu; Khalil, Samia; Polaner, David; Zieg, Jennifer; Szolnoki, Judit; Sathyamoorthy, Kumar; Taicher, Brad; Riveros Perez, N Ricardo; Bhattacharya, Solmaletha; Bhalla, Tarun; Stricker, Paul; Lockman, Justin; Galvez, Jorge; Rehman, Mohamed; Von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta; Sommerfield, David; Soneru, Codruta; Chiao, Franklin; Richtsfeld, Martina; Belani, Kumar; Sarmiento, Lina; Mireles, Sam; Bilen Rosas, Guelay; Park, Raymond; Peyton, James

    2017-09-01

    The success rates and related complications of various techniques for intubation in children with difficult airways remain unknown. The primary aim of this study is to compare the success rates of fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway to videolaryngoscopy in children with difficult airways. Our secondary aim is to compare the complication rates of these techniques. Observational data were collected from 14 sites after management of difficult pediatric airways. Patient age, intubation technique, success per attempt, use of continuous ventilation, and complications were recorded for each case. First-attempt success and complications were compared in subjects managed with fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy had similar first-attempt success rates (67 of 114, 59% vs. 404 of 786, 51%; odds ratio 1.35; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.00; P = 0.16). In subjects less than 1 yr old, fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway was more successful on the first attempt than videolaryngoscopy (19 of 35, 54% vs. 79 of 220, 36%; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.31; P = 0.042). Complication rates were similar in the two groups (20 vs. 13%; P = 0.096). The incidence of hypoxemia was lower when continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway was used throughout the fiber-optic intubation attempt. In this nonrandomized study, first-attempt success rates were similar for fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway and videolaryngoscopy. Fiber-optic intubation via supraglottic airway is associated with higher first-attempt success than videolaryngoscopy in infants with difficult airways. Continuous ventilation through the supraglottic airway during fiber-optic intubation attempts may lower the incidence of hypoxemia.

  10. When care situations evoke difficult emotions in nursing staff members: an ethnographic study in two Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvoll, Anne Marie; Grov, Ellen Karine; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Hauge, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Caring practice in nursing homes is a complex topic, especially the challenges of meeting the basic needs of residents when their behaviour evokes difficult emotions. Cognitive and physical changes related to aging and disability can contribute to behaviours considered to be unacceptable. For example, resident behaviours such as spitting, making a mess with food or grinding teeth are behaviours that most people do not want to see, hear or experience. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nursing home staff members deal with such behaviours in care situations. This article draws on ethnographic data to describe how nursing home staff members manage unpleasant resident behaviours. The study was based on two long-term units in two Norwegian public nursing homes. The Region's Medical Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services granted approval. In total, 45 participants (37 nursing aides and eight nurses) agreed to participate in this study. Ten of the participants were interviewed at the end of the field study. This study indicates that nursing home staff members experience difficult emotions related to some residents' behaviours. However, they found these feelings difficult to express and rarely verbalized them openly. In addition, they were characterized by a strong obligation to help all residents, despite their own feelings. Therefore, it appears that an inner struggle occurs as a part of everyday practice. Despite these difficult emotions, nursing staff members believed that they needed to manage their responses and continued to offer good care to all residents. These findings extend our understanding of this unarticulated part of nursing home practice.

  11. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  12. Still a difficult business? Negotiating alcohol-related problems in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Tim; May, Carl; Frances Kaner, Eileen

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of detecting and managing alcohol and alcohol-related problems in consultations. We undertook qualitative research in two phases in the North-East of England. Initially, qualitative interviews with 29 GPs explored their everyday work with patients with alcohol-related issues. We then undertook group interviews--two with GPs and one with a primary care team--where they discussed and challenged findings of the interviews. The GPs reported routinely discussing alcohol with patients with a range of alcohol-related problems. GPs believed that this work is important, but felt that until patients were willing to accept that their alcohol consumption was problematic they could achieve very little. They tentatively introduced alcohol as a potential problem, re-introduced the topic periodically, and then waited until the patient decided to change their behaviour. They were aware that they could identify and manage more patients. A lack of time and having to work with the multiple problems that patients brought to consultations were the main factors that stopped GPs managing more risky drinkers. Centrally, we compared the results of our study with [Thom, B., & Tellez, C. (1986). A difficult business-Detecting and managing alcohol-problems in general-practice. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 405-418] seminal study that was undertaken 20 years ago. We show how the intellectual, moral, emotional and practical difficulties that GPs currently face are quite similar to those faced by GPs from 20 years ago. As the definition of what could constitute abnormal alcohol consumption has expanded, so the range of consultations that they may have to negotiate these difficulties in has also expanded.

  13. [A Case of Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Penis Difficult to Distinguish from Fournier Gangrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Makoto; Inoue, Takaaki; Nishida, Teruhisa; Kawabata, Takashi; Kawakita, Shigenari; Muguruma, Kouei; Murota, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum of the penis which was difficult to distinguish from Fournier gangrene. The patient was a 54-year-old male who was aware of redness and swelling of the glanspenis for 1 month prior to a consultation at our department. Although he was diagnosed with herpes and treated at a nearby hospital, his symptoms did not improve. Subsequently, the patient visited our department following the onset of pain and fever. During his initial consultation, he had a fever of 39 °C as well as redness and swelling of the glans penis with partial spontaneous purulent discharge. His blood test revealed an elevated white blood cell count (20, 000/μl) and C-reactive protein (19.1 mg/dl). Because Fournier gangrene was suspected, administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents was initiated but proved to be ineffective. An abscess (2 cm in diameter) was also noted in the umbilical region.Enterococcus faecalis was detected by the bacterial culture ; and therefore, Fournier gangrene was diagnosed. A partial penectomy was performed to control the infection. Pathological findings showed only non-specific inflammation ; however, fever persisted postoperatively and blood test results showed no improvement. Furthermore, new abscess lesions emerged on the right heel and back. Because the re-performed abscess bacterial culture test result was negative, pyoderma gangrenosum was suspected, and he was started on oral prednisolone (20 mg/day). On the following day, his fever subsided and his blood test results also showed improvement. A final diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum was ultimately made.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of the Pentax AWS, Glidescope, and Macintosh laryngoscopes in predicted difficult intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential for the Pentax AWS and the Glidescope to reduce the difficulty of tracheal intubation in patients at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation, in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  15. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  16. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  17. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  18. Attributions of blame to battered women when they are perceived as feminists or as "difficult to deal with".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Fernández, Ana; Megías, Jesús L

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of victim-related and observer-related factors in victim blaming of battered women. Two hundred and forty six college students participated. They were asked to read a scenario describing a hypothetical case of physical violence perpetrated by a man against his partner. Depending on the experimental condition, the victim was described either as a feminist and/or as exhibiting difficulties in her relationship with others or not. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed with victim blaming as dependent variable. Participants' hostile sexism positively predicted victim blaming when the victim was described as a feminist and as a "difficult to deal with" woman (p feminist woman (p < .001). These results underscore the importance of victim-related and observer-related factors, and of their interaction, in blaming the victim of gender-based violence.

  19. Difficult airway management patterns among anesthesiologists practicing in Cairo University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat I. Abdel rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The practice of anesthesiologists in Cairo university hospitals is close to the recommendations of the ASA guidelines for management of difficult airway. There is increased skills in fiberoptic bronchoscopes and SGA with increased frequency of difficult airway managements training courses; however, they need to improve their skills in awake fiberoptic intubations technique and they need to be trained on invasive airway management access to close the discrepancy between their theoretical choices in different situations and their actual skills.

  20. Difficult intubation in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold–Chiari malformation: Use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Bensghir; Chkoura, K.; Elhassani, M.; Ahtil, R.; Azendour, H.; Kamili, N. Drissi

    2011-01-01

    Anesthetic technique in parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold–Chiari malformation is variable depending on the teams. Difficult intubation is one of the risks when general anesthesia is opted. Different devices have been used to manage the difficult intubation in pregnant women. We report the use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope after failed standard laryngoscopy in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold–Chiari type I malformation. PMID:22144932

  1. Difficult intubation in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari malformation: Use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensghir Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic technique in parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari malformation is variable depending on the teams. Difficult intubation is one of the risks when general anesthesia is opted. Different devices have been used to manage the difficult intubation in pregnant women. We report the use of Airtraq™ laryngoscope after failed standard laryngoscopy in a parturient with syringomyelia and Arnold-Chiari type I malformation.

  2. New Methodologies for Development of High Efficient Machining of Difficult to Cut Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, S; Comoglio, M; Rostagno, M

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the automotive and aerospace industries. In these industries the need for enhanced materials performance is necessary if they are to remain competitive in global terms. Unfortunately the material properties, which make them so attractive to the aerospace and automotive industry can also make them difficult to machine. This paper will discuss integrated developments in machining techniques and cutting tools, which are emerging to cope with difficult to cut materials.

  3. [Correlation between obstructive apnea syndrome and difficult airway in ENT surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Marcia Hiray; Tardelli, Maria Angela; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Silva, Helga Cristina Almeida da

    2017-12-21

    ENT patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a tendency of collapsing the upper airways in addition to anatomical obstacles. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to the increased risk of difficult airway and also increased perioperative complications. In order to identify these patients in the preoperative period, the STOP Bang questionnaire has been highlighted because it is summarized and easy to apply. Evaluate through the STOP Bang questionnaire whether patients undergoing ENT surgery with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome have a higher risk of complications, particularly the occurrence of difficult airway. Measurements of anatomical parameters for difficult airway and questionnaire application for clinical prediction of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were performed in 48 patients with a previous polysomnographic study. The sample detected difficult airway in about 18.7% of patients, all of them with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This group had older age, cervical circumference > 40cm, ASA II and Cormack III/IV. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome had higher body mass index, cervical circumference, and frequent apnea. In subgroup analysis, the group with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome showed a significantly higher SB score compared to patients without this syndrome or with a mild/moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The STOP Bang questionnaire was not able to predict difficult airway and mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but it identified marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. All patients with difficult airway had moderate and marked obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, although this syndrome did not involve difficult airway. The variables Cormack III/IV and BMI greater than 35 Kg.m -2 were able to predict difficult airway and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Advances in Rosetta structure prediction for difficult molecular-replacement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMaio, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modeling advances using Rosetta structure prediction to aid in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems are discussed. Recent work has shown the effectiveness of structure-prediction methods in solving difficult molecular-replacement problems. The Rosetta protein structure modeling suite can aid in the solution of difficult molecular-replacement problems using templates from 15 to 25% sequence identity; Rosetta refinement guided by noisy density has consistently led to solved structures where other methods fail. In this paper, an overview of the use of Rosetta for these difficult molecular-replacement problems is provided and new modeling developments that further improve model quality are described. Several variations to the method are introduced that significantly reduce the time needed to generate a model and the sampling required to improve the starting template. The improvements are benchmarked on a set of nine difficult cases and it is shown that this improved method obtains consistently better models in less running time. Finally, strategies for best using Rosetta to solve difficult molecular-replacement problems are presented and future directions for the role of structure-prediction methods in crystallography are discussed

  5. Students' understandings of electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady-Morris, Kathryn

    Electrochemistry is considered by students to be a difficult topic in chemistry. This research was a mixed methods study guided by the research question: At the end of a unit of study, what are students' understandings of electrochemistry? The framework of analysis used for the qualitative and quantitative data collected in this study was comprised of three categories: types of knowledge used in problem solving, levels of representation of knowledge in chemistry (macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate), and alternative conceptions. Although individually each of the three categories has been reported in previous studies, the contribution of this study is the inter-relationships among them. Semi-structured, task-based interviews were conducted while students were setting up and operating electrochemical cells in the laboratory, and a two-tiered, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument was designed to identify alternative conceptions that students held at the end of the unit. For familiar problems, those involving routine voltaic cells, students used a working-forwards problem-solving strategy, two or three levels of representation of knowledge during explanations, scored higher on both procedural and conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held fewer alternative conceptions related to the operation of these cells. For less familiar problems, those involving non-routine voltaic cells and electrolytic cells, students approached problem-solving with procedural knowledge, used only one level of representation of knowledge when explaining the operation of these cells, scored higher on procedural knowledge than conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held a greater number of alternative conceptions. Decision routines that involved memorized formulas and procedures were used to solve both quantitative and qualitative problems and the main source of alternative conceptions in this study was the overgeneralization of theory

  6. Infant difficult behaviors in the context of perinatal biomedical conditions and early child environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvinskiene Giedre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems experienced within the first year of an infant's life can be precursors of later mental health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and continuity of difficult behaviors in infants at 3 and 6 months of age and the associations of these difficulties with biomedical and psychosocial factors. Methods This study was a part of an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study. Study participants were 189 uniparous mothers and their full-term newborns. The index of infant difficult behavior was constructed. This index was then associated with the following factors: delivery mode, newborn function after birth, maternal emotional well-being, risk behavior, subjective evaluation of the quality of the relationship of the couple, and attitudes toward infant-rearing. Results Common difficult behaviors, including crying, sleeping and eating problems, were characteristic for 30.2% of 3 month old and for 22.2% of 6 month old full-term infants. The expression of infant difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months increased the likelihood of the expression of these difficulties at 6 months by more than 5 times. Factors including younger maternal age, poor prenatal and postnatal emotional well-being, prenatal alcohol consumption, low satisfaction with the couple's relationship before pregnancy, and deficiency of infant-centered maternal attitudes towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of difficult behaviors in infants at the age of 3 months. Low maternal satisfaction with the relationship of the couple before pregnancy, negative emotional reactions of both parents toward pregnancy (as reported by the mother and the deficiency of an infant-centered maternal attitude towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of infant difficult behaviors continuing between the ages of 3 to 6 months. Perinatal biomedical conditions were not related to the difficult behaviors in infants. Conclusions Our study suggests

  7. Endotypes of difficult-to-control asthma in inner-city African American children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Brown

    Full Text Available African Americans have higher rates of asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in comparison with other racial groups. We sought to characterize endotypes of childhood asthma severity in African American patients in an inner-city pediatric asthma population. Baseline blood neutrophils, blood eosinophils, and 38 serum cytokine levels were measured in a sample of 235 asthmatic children (6-17 years enrolled in the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Asthma Phenotypes in the Inner City (APIC study (ICAC (Inner City Asthma Consortium-19. Cytokines were quantified using a MILLIPLEX panel and analyzed on a Luminex analyzer. Patients were classified as Easy-to-Control or Difficult-to-Control based on the required dose of controller medications over one year of prospective management. A multivariate variable selection procedure was used to select cytokines associated with Difficult-to-Control versus Easy-to-Control asthma, adjusting for age, sex, blood eosinophils, and blood neutrophils. In inner-city African American children, 12 cytokines were significant predictors of Difficult-to-Control asthma (n = 235. CXCL-1, IL-5, IL-8, and IL-17A were positively associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma, while IL-4 and IL-13 were positively associated with Easy-to-Control asthma. Using likelihood ratio testing, it was observed that in addition to blood eosinophils and neutrophils, serum cytokines improved the fit of the model. In an inner-city pediatric population, serum cytokines significantly contributed to the definition of Difficult-to-Control asthma endotypes in African American children. Mixed responses characterized by TH2 (IL-5 and TH17-associated cytokines were associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma. Collectively, these data may contribute to risk stratification of Difficult-to-Control asthma in the African American population.

  8. "What Today's University Students Have Taught Us”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Head

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, more students in the US are attending university than ever before. An unprecedented number of these students were born digital—meaning digital technologies have been a constant feature in their lives. For these young adults, information literacy competencies are always being formed, practiced, and learned. Project Information Literacy (PIL is a series of ongoing quantitative and qualitative research studies in the US that investigates what it is like to be a university student in the digital age. This research study has investigated how students find information and conduct research—in their words and through their experiences—for coursework, use in their everyday lives, and, once they graduate, in the workplace and their communities. Since 2008, more than 11,000 university students at nearly 60 US higher education institutions have been surveyed or interviewed, making PIL the largest study of information literacy ever conducted. Results from PIL’s studies have concluded students’ information competencies are put to the test in the vast information landscape they inhabit. Furthermore, finding and using information is exponentially more complex than it was a generation ago, especially since the information landscape has shifted from one of scarce resources to one of overload. In this keynote, five research takeaways were presented from PIL’s eight studies: (1 Students find research more difficult than ever before, (2 getting started is the hardest part of research, (3 frustrations begin with finding context, i.e., big picture, information-gathering, language, and situational context, (4 search strategies are based on predictability, familiarity, and efficiency, and (5 evaluation is the one information skills most learn to use. Discussion included implications of these findings for teaching, learning, work, and librarianship in the 21st century.

  9. Improving the Student's Vocabulary Mastery by Using Constructivism Principle in the Second Year Students of Sman 1 Kauman

    OpenAIRE

    Budairi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary plays important roles in mastering English. Vocabulary refers to all words in the whole language used in a particular variety. In this case, the students have some problems. The problems about difficult in mastering vocabulary, that the students are lack of vocabularies, the students often get difficult in expressing their ideas, the students have low motivation. The students felt unsatisfactory in their results. It's caused the students are lack of practice and lack vocabulary to ...

  10. US findings of tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Sung; Kim, Hyun Hee; Jee, Mi Hyun; Kweon, Young Hwa; Oh, Yoon Jin; Hong, Ju Hee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Sang Young

    1994-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ruptured and unruptured tubal pregnancy became more accurate with the introduction of transvaginal sonographic equipment. The management principle of tubal pregnancy might be changed according to the sonographic findings. The purposes of this study were to define the sonographic findings of tubal pregnancy and to determine whether it is possible to differentiate the unruptured tubal pregnancies from the ruptured ones depending on the sonographic findings. The authors investigated the sonographic findings of the surgically confirmed 25 tubal pregnancy patients. There were 22(88%) unruptured and 3(12%) ruptured tubal pregnancies. Unruptured pregnancies showed tubal ring in 8, well defined hematosalpinx in 11, and poorly defined hematosalpinxin 2 patients. Ruptured pregnancies showed tubal sac with irregular margin in 2, and ill-defined hematosalpinx in one patient. In summary, well marginated tubal ring and hematosalpinx suggested unruptured tubal pregnancy, while tubal sac with irregular margin suggested ruptured pregnancy. However, it was difficult to differentiate the unruptured tubal pregnancy from the ruptured one when hematosalpinx was ill-defined

  11. Difficult airway equipment in departments of emergency medicine in Ireland: results of a national survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse effects associated with difficult airway management can be catastrophic and include death, brain injury and myocardial injury. Closed-malpractice claims have shown prolonged and persistent attempts at endotracheal intubation to be the most common situation leading to disastrous respiratory events. To date, there has been no evaluation of the types of difficult airway equipment currently available in Irish departments of emergency medicine. The objective of this survey was to identify the difficult airway equipment available in Irish departments of emergency medicine. METHODS: Departments of emergency medicine in the Republic of Ireland with at least one dedicated Emergency Medicine consultant were surveyed via telephone. RESULTS: All of the departments contacted held at least one alternative device on site for both ventilation and intubation. The most common alternative ventilation device was the laryngeal mask airway (89%). The most common alternative intubating device was the surgical airway device (100%). CONCLUSIONS: Irish departments of emergency medicine compare well with those in the UK and USA, when surveyed concerning difficult airway equipment. However, we believe that this situation could be further improved by training inexperienced healthcare providers in the use of the laryngeal mask airway and intubating laryngeal mask airway, by placing greater emphasis on the ready availability of capnography and by the increased use of portable difficult airway storage units.

  12. Flow cytometry of duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes improves diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Julio; Morgado, José Mario T; Ruiz-Martín, Juan; Guardiola, Antonio; Lopes-Nogueras, Miriam; García-Vela, Almudena; Martín-Sacristán, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease is difficult when the combined results of serology and histology are inconclusive. Studies using flow cytometry of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) have found that celiac patients have increased numbers of γδ IELs, along with a decrease in CD3-CD103 + IELs. The objective of this article is to assess the role of flow cytometric analysis of IELs in the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases. A total of 312 patients with suspicion of celiac disease were included in the study. Duodenal biopsy samples were used for histological assessment and for flow cytometric analysis of IELs. In 46 out of 312 cases (14.7%) the combination of serology and histology did not allow the confirmation or exclusion of celiac disease. HLA typing had been performed in 42 of these difficult cases. Taking into account HLA typing and the response to a gluten-free diet, celiac disease was excluded in 30 of these cases and confirmed in the remaining 12. Flow cytometric analysis of IELs allowed a correct diagnosis in 39 out of 42 difficult cases (92.8%) and had a sensitivity of 91.7% (95% CI: 61.5% to 99.8%) and a specificity of 93.3% (95% CI: 77.9% to 99.2%) for the diagnosis of celiac disease in this setting. Flow cytometric analysis of IELs is useful for the diagnosis of celiac disease in difficult cases.

  13. Should Colleges Focus More on Personal and Social Responsibility? Initial Findings from Campus Surveys Conducted for the Association of American Colleges and Universities as Part of Its Initiative, Core Commitments: Educating Students for Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaros, Mary; Barnhardt, Cassie; Holsapple, Matthew; Moronski, Karen; Vergoth, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    On behalf of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), researchers at the University of Michigan's Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education surveyed 23,000 undergraduate students and 9,000 campus professionals (faculty, academic administrators, and student affairs staff) at 23 institutions participating in…

  14. Find a Podiatrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RSS Home » Learn About Feet » Find a Podiatrist Find a Podiatrist Search Criteria: First Name: Last Name: ... first 3 digits of your zip code to find the closest doctor. Country: Australia Canada Guam Israel ...

  15. Find a Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My ADAA Blog Home / Find Help Print | Email Find a Therapist Zip Code: Radius: 5 Miles 10 ... personal referrals. We supply information to help you find local mental health services and resources that allow ...

  16. Radiologic findings of struma ovarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Struma ovarii is ovarian tumor composed solely or predominantly of thyroid tissue or tumor in which hyperthyroidism results from ovarian thyroid tissue, and usually occurs in tandem with cystic teratoma. Ovarian cystic teratoma is radiologically easily diagnosed due to calcification or fat, for example, but the preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii is often difficult due to rare characteristic features of thyroid tissue. Our purpose was to determine whether there were specific findings of struma ovarii which distinguished it from other ovarian tumors, and this involved analysis of its radiologic findings. Using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, preoperative radiologic findings of pathologically-proven struma ovarii in eleven patients were retrospectively evaluated for site, margin, nature (cystic, solid, mixed), contrast enhancement, septa, mural nodule, calcification, fat, and metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. All eleven tumors were unilateral, ten had smooth tumor margins, seven were mixed cystic and solid tumors (more than 70% of solid components in one tumor), and nine had regular septa. Three of four cystic masses (one unilocular, one bilocular and two multilocular cysts) had mural nodules. Calcifications were found in two tumors, and fat in one. Malignant change or metastasis was not found in any tumor. In one patient with hyperthyroidism due to struma ovarii, symptoms and signs of this subsided after removal of the tumor on salpingo-oophorectomy. Most cases of struma ovarii occurred unilaterally within ovarian teratomas in premenopausal women, and were mixed cystic and solid masses with smooth margins that are commonly enhanced on contrast enhanced scans. In one patient, hyperthyroidism was caused by struma ovarii. There were, however, no specific radiologic findings that were sufficiently typical to suggest the correct preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii.

  17. Radiologic findings of struma ovarii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Shin, Hyun Ja; Kim, Seung Hyup; Byun, Jae Young

    1997-01-01

    Struma ovarii is ovarian tumor composed solely or predominantly of thyroid tissue or tumor in which hyperthyroidism results from ovarian thyroid tissue, and usually occurs in tandem with cystic teratoma. Ovarian cystic teratoma is radiologically easily diagnosed due to calcification or fat, for example, but the preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii is often difficult due to rare characteristic features of thyroid tissue. Our purpose was to determine whether there were specific findings of struma ovarii which distinguished it from other ovarian tumors, and this involved analysis of its radiologic findings. Using ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, preoperative radiologic findings of pathologically-proven struma ovarii in eleven patients were retrospectively evaluated for site, margin, nature (cystic, solid, mixed), contrast enhancement, septa, mural nodule, calcification, fat, and metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. All eleven tumors were unilateral, ten had smooth tumor margins, seven were mixed cystic and solid tumors (more than 70% of solid components in one tumor), and nine had regular septa. Three of four cystic masses (one unilocular, one bilocular and two multilocular cysts) had mural nodules. Calcifications were found in two tumors, and fat in one. Malignant change or metastasis was not found in any tumor. In one patient with hyperthyroidism due to struma ovarii, symptoms and signs of this subsided after removal of the tumor on salpingo-oophorectomy. Most cases of struma ovarii occurred unilaterally within ovarian teratomas in premenopausal women, and were mixed cystic and solid masses with smooth margins that are commonly enhanced on contrast enhanced scans. In one patient, hyperthyroidism was caused by struma ovarii. There were, however, no specific radiologic findings that were sufficiently typical to suggest the correct preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii

  18. Reviewing Hit Discovery Literature for Difficult Targets: Glutathione Transferase Omega-1 as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiyue; Dahlin, Jayme L; Oakley, Aaron J; Casarotto, Marco G; Board, Philip G; Baell, Jonathan B

    2018-05-10

    Early stage drug discovery reporting on relatively new or difficult targets is often associated with insufficient hit triage. Literature reviews of such targets seldom delve into the detail required to critically analyze the associated screening hits reported. Here we take the enzyme glutathione transferase omega-1 (GSTO1-1) as an example of a relatively difficult target and review the associated literature involving small-molecule inhibitors. As part of this process we deliberately pay closer-than-usual attention to assay interference and hit quality aspects. We believe this Perspective will be a useful guide for future development of GSTO1-1 inhibitors, as well serving as a template for future review formats of new or difficult targets.

  19. The primary study of fistulae isolation for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by two accesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziliang; Li Tianxiao; Zhai Shuiting; Cao Huicun; Xu Jiangyu; Bai Weixing; Liu Jian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and security of the isolation of fistulae for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by the anterio or inferior communicating artery. Methods: Five patients with difficult-cured TCCF including four males and one female. They were cathetered by both femoral arteries. Balloon-catheter directly attached to the near of fistulae and microcatheter conversely attached to the far of fistulae. Detachable balloons and micro coils were used to isolated the fistulae. Results: Five patients were cured with fistulae isolation and angiography did not show remnants fistulae in time. Clinical signs and symptoms got better and better. During follows-up no one recurred. Conclusions: The isolation of fistulae is a feasible and secure therapy for the difficult-cured traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistulae. (authors)

  20. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  1. The "difficult" patient reconceived: an expanded moral mandate for clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2012-01-01

    Between 15 and 60% of patients are considered "difficult" by their treating physicians. Patient psychiatric pathology is the conventional explanation for why patients are deemed "difficult." But the prevalence of the problem suggests the possibility of a less pathological cause. I argue that the phenomenon can be better explained as a response to problematic interactions related to health care delivery. If there are grounds to reconceive the "difficult" patient as reacting to the perception of ill treatment, then there is an ethical obligation to address this perception of harm. Resolution of such conflicts currently lies with the provider and patient. But the ethical stakes place these conflicts into the province of the ethics consult service. As the resource for addressing ethical dilemmas, there is a moral mandate to offer assistance in the resolution of these ethically charged conflicts that is no less pressing than the more familiar terrain of clinical ethics consultation.

  2. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Energy, entropy, environment: Why is protection of the environment objectively difficult?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebane, Karl K [Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-05-01

    Evolution and man`s history indicate that the winners are the species and societies that act faster and consume more high-quality energy and materials: in other words, those which cause more pollution and faster growth of entropy. This could be the reason why protection of the environment is objectively difficult and, in particular, why it is almost impossible to considerably reduce man`s consumption of energy and materials in a world of competition. To escape this fatal evolutionary outcome, fundamentally new thinking is needed, thinking which takes the survival of mankind as the primary value. The role of religion in solving this tremendously difficult task should not be neglected

  4. Edward’s syndrome: A rare cause of difficult intubation-utility of left molar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18 is an autosomal abnormality with dysmorphic face, visceral deformities and delayed mental and motor development including congenital heart disease. Challenges may arise during mask ventilation, laryngoscopy and/or intubation of the trachea due to dysmorphic face. Difficult airway cart should be kept ready. Left molar approach using a standard Macintosh blade improves the laryngoscopic view in patients with difficult midline laryngoscopy. We hereby present a case report of a 2 year old male child with Edward’s syndrome posted for evacuation and drainage of brain abscess, intubated successfully using left molar approach.

  5. Rosetta Structure Prediction as a Tool for Solving Difficult Molecular Replacement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Molecular replacement (MR), a method for solving the crystallographic phase problem using phases derived from a model of the target structure, has proven extremely valuable, accounting for the vast majority of structures solved by X-ray crystallography. However, when the resolution of data is low, or the starting model is very dissimilar to the target protein, solving structures via molecular replacement may be very challenging. In recent years, protein structure prediction methodology has emerged as a powerful tool in model building and model refinement for difficult molecular replacement problems. This chapter describes some of the tools available in Rosetta for model building and model refinement specifically geared toward difficult molecular replacement cases.

  6. The importance of subjective facial appearance on the ability of anesthesiologists to predict difficult intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Christopher W; Segal, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated that a computer algorithm based on bedside airway examinations and facial photographs accurately classified easy and difficult airways. The extent of the ability of anesthesiologists to perform the same task is unknown. We hypothesized that providing photographs would add to the predictive ability of anesthesiologists over that achieved when provided only with the Mallampati (MP) score and the thyromental distance (TMD). We further hypothesized that human observers would implicitly bias their predictions toward more sensitive determination of difficult airways, rather than more specific determination of easy airways. Residents, fellows, and attending anesthesiologists with varying levels of experience (N = 160) were presented with MP and TMD information from 80 Caucasian men subjects. The same subjects' data, accompanied by 3 facial photographs in head-on and right and left profiles, were also presented. Anesthesiologists classified the airways as easy or difficult according to specified criteria ("easy" defined as a single attempt with a Macintosh 3 blade resulting in a grade 1 laryngoscopic view; "difficult" defined as >1 attempt by an operator with at least 12 months anesthesia experience, grade 3 or 4 laryngoscopic view, need for a second operator, or nonelective use of an alternative airway device). Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated for each anesthesiologist. We further developed a cost function to quantify a relative bias toward avoiding an unexpectedly difficult intubation versus overpreparing for an easy intubation. One hundred sixty respondents completed the study. Presenting photographs improved respondents' sensitivity and accuracy in classifying airways, though specificity decreased slightly. Overall accuracy when given photographs was 61.6% (95% confidence interval, 60.8%-62.4%), which was significantly lower than the computer's performance of 87.5% (t test, P interval, 4.9:1-8.4:1). Anesthesiologists can

  7. High levels of IGF-1 predict difficult intubation of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaopeng; Pei, Lijian; Zhang, Zhuhua; Tan, Gang; Xing, Bing

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the characteristics of difficult intubation and identify novel efficient predictors in patients with acromegaly. Patients with either untreated acromegaly or non-functional pituitary adenomas were enrolled. Patients with acromegaly underwent hormone assays, upper airway computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations and preoperative overnight polysomnography. The modified Mallampati classification, mouth opening, neck circumference, and neck extension were assessed, and the Cormack-Lehane grades and the time of tracheal intubation were recorded. Patients with acromegaly had a higher incidence of difficult intubation (62.5%). The time of tracheal intubation was prolonged, the neck circumference was enlarged, and the neck extension was confined. In patients with acromegaly and difficult intubation, the insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and apnea/hypoxia index were significantly higher compared to patients without difficult intubation (1115.40 ± 253.73 vs. 791.67 ± 206.62 ng/ml, P = 0.020; 22.17 ± 23.25 vs. 2.47 ± 2.84, P = 0.026, respectively). The bilateral regression analysis revealed that high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 were an independent risk factor for developing difficult intubation (p = 0.042, Exp B = 1.006). The modified Mallampati classification was positively correlated with apnea/hypoxia index and could be calculated using the following logarithmic equation: MMC = 0.2982 * ln (AHI) + 2.1836. In patients with acromegaly, neck movement is confined, the time of tracheal intubation is prolonged, and the neck circumference is enlarged, and these patients suffer from an increased incidence of difficult intubation (62.5%) during anesthesia induction. The apnea/hypoxia index and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are both increased in acromegalic patients with difficult intubation, and elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels are an independent risk factor of difficult

  8. Combined treatment with immunoadsorption and rituximab leads to fast and prolonged clinical remission in difficult-to-treat pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, M; Möbs, C; Kneisel, A; Möller, M; Hoyer, J; Hertl, M; Eming, R

    2012-04-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening autoimmune bullous disorder which is characterized by blisters and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. A frequently applied first-line therapy for PV consists of systemic corticosteroids (CS) combined with immunosuppressive agents. In refractory cases, novel therapeutic strategies such as immunoadsorption (IA) and the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (Rtx) aim at directly interfering with pathogenic autoantibodies (auto-Abs). To investigate the long-term efficacy of IA in combination with Rtx in patients with difficult-to-treat PV, we assessed the clinical response to treatment by monitoring the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score, IgG auto-Abs against desmoglein 1 and 3 (Dsg1 and Dsg3) and the dose of systemic CS. We retrospectively analysed clinical and serological parameters of 10 patients with difficult-to-treat PV who received IA at 4-week intervals, followed by Rtx either twice at 1000 mg or four times at 375mg m(-2) . During a 12-month follow-up period, CS were tapered according to the individual clinical status. Six months after the first IA treatment eight of 10 patients were in complete remission on therapy while one patient showed a partial response and one patient was unresponsive to the treatment. At 12 months, six of eight patients were in complete remission on therapy, one patient showed stable disease and one patient had relapsed. Overall, anti-Dsg3 IgG and anti-Dsg1 IgG auto-Abs correlated well with the clinical activity and systemic CS were tapered gradually. The present findings show that the combination of IA and Rtx induces rapid clinical remission and long-term control in difficult-to-treat pemphigus. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Practical science communication strategies for graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D

    2014-10-01

    Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will

  10. Sustaining Student Engagement in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Charpentier, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Many students perceive science to be a difficult subject and are minimally engaged in learning it. This article describes a lesson that embedded an activity to engage students in learning science. It also identifies features of a science lesson that are likely to enhance students' engagement and learning of science and possibly reverse students'…

  11. Undergraduate Students' Initial Conceptions of Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Erickson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Counting problems offer rich opportunities for students to engage in mathematical thinking, but they can be difficult for students to solve. In this paper, we present a study that examines student thinking about one concept within counting, factorials, which are a key aspect of many combinatorial ideas. In an effort to better understand students'…

  12. Maternal Affective-Cognitive Processes in the Perception of Newborn Difficultness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; St. James-Roberts, Ian

    A short-term longitudinal study investigated the way parents come to perceive their infant's temperament as difficult, and to identify factors influencing parents' impression formation. Subjects were 40 middle and lower middle class breastfeeding mothers and their singleton newborns of 38 weeks gestation and 2500 grams birth weight. All mothers…

  13. Characterization of parameters and strategies used by physical therapists in difficult mechanical ventilation weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Maria Sabino Meireles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the main strategies and parameters used by physical therapists in difficult mechanical ventilation weaning. Methods: Cross-sectional study including all the physical therapists working in adult Intensive Care Units in three public hospitals in Fortaleza-CE. A questionnaire with closed questions related to difficult mechanical ventilation weaning was applied, with either one or multiple answers. The data was treated with descriptive and non-parametric analysis. Results: Among the parameters mostly used by the 56 interviewed physical therapists for the difficult weaning, were found: current volume reduction (26 - 46.4% and desaturation during aspiration (17 - 30.4%. It was observed that 38 (67.9% alternate T-tube and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP as strategies for difficult weaning, and 28 (50% reported reducing the pressure support. There was no statistical difference between the strategies used in the studied hospitals, neither correlation between strategies and parameters. Conclusion: It was found that physical therapists have been performing similar strategies, which are also shown in the literature, but this is not the case with the parameters. The parameters used are not supported by the literature.

  14. Problems in psychiatric care of 'difficult patients': a Delphi-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Meijel, Berno; Schene, Aart; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2009-01-01

    'difficult patients' may evoke strong feelings in health professionals. The ambivalent attitude of, especially, non-psychotic chronic patients towards psychiatric care may be frustrating and burdensome to professionals. Many of these patients are cared for in non-specialized services, where

  15. Problems in psychiatric care of 'difficult patients': a Delphi-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.W.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Schene, A.H.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - 'difficult patients' may evoke strong feelings in health professionals. The ambivalent attitude of, especially, non-psychotic chronic patients towards psychiatric care may be frustrating and burdensome to professionals. Many of these patients are cared for in non-specialized services, where

  16. Regional anesthesia in difficult airway: The quest for a solution continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Chatrath, Veena; Dhawan, Akshay; Attri, Joginder Pal

    2016-01-01

    Difficult airway, a scenario with potentially life threatening outcome, is routinely encountered by an anesthesiologist leaving him with the dilemma of whether to use regional anesthesia (RA) or general anesthesia. Our study aims to look into this problem. The literature search was performed in the Google, PubMed, and Medscape using key words "regional anesthesia, difficult airway, pregnancy, ventilation, intubation, epidural anesthesia, nerve blocks." More than 38 free full articles and books published from the year 1987 to 2014 were retrieved and studied. At first sight, RA may appear to offer an ideal solution as it helps to avoid the problem of difficult airway. However, the possibility of a total spinal block, failed or incomplete RA, local anesthetic toxicity or unforeseen surgical complication may make it imperative that the airway is secured. The correct decision can only be made by the anesthetist when all the relevant clinical information is taken into account. It is also important to ensure that before considering RA in a patient of difficult airway, an anesthesiologist must have a preformulated strategy for intubation.

  17. How to Handle Difficult Parents: Proven Solutions for Teachers. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Suzanne Capek

    2012-01-01

    "How to Handle Difficult Parents" is a funny, but practical, guide to working effectively with parents and avoiding unnecessary conflict. Whether you're a teacher (regular or special education) or a coach, this book will give you practical suggestions regarding what to say and how to say it to parents who question your lesson plans, challenge your…

  18. Prehospital prognosis is difficult in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Katrine P.; Brøchner, Anne C.; Lassen, Annmarie T.

    2017-01-01

    in the form of intubation. The emergency physician faces difficult treatment decisions, however, and prognostic tools that could assist in determining which patients would benefit from intubation and ventilator support would be helpful. The aim of the current study was to identify prehospital clinical...

  19. Long-Term Memory for Pictures under Conditions of Difficult Foil Discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Donald; Viera, Cynthia

    Research has demonstrated that subjects are sensitive to both thematic and non-thematic information in pictorial stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to investigate memory for pictures under conditions of difficult foil discriminability and lengthy retention intervals. The foils differed from the studied persons in the number and quality of…

  20. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined with urethro-rectal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Kerkeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethro-rectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption due to a gunshot wound and complicated by urethro-rectal fistula.

  1. Difficult management of posterior urethra gunshot wound combined with urethro-rectal fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Kerkeni; Ahmed Saadi; Mohamed Hédi Rebai; Abderrazak Bouzouita; Mohamed Cherif; Amine Derouiche; Tahar Khalfallah; Mohamed Riadh Ben Slama; Mohamed Chebil

    2015-01-01

    Posterior urethra gunshot wounds are poorly described in the literature. They are often associated with pelvic vital lesions making difficult early repair of urethral injuries. They can be complicated by urethro-rectal fistula, which makes their management more complicated. We report a new case of posterior urethra disruption due to a gunshot wound and complicated by urethro-rectal fistula.

  2. Environmental risk evaluation of difficult substances in USES 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen P van; ECO

    1998-01-01

    An inventory is given of the problems which arise when difficult substances are evaluated with the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). It gives an indication about the different classes of chemicals which can give problems in USES. Further, it describes the problems which occur

  3. Pharmacotherapeutic approaches for treating psoriasis in difficult-to-treat areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelevitch, Dario; Frieder, Jillian; Watson, Ian; Paek, So Yeon; Menter, M Alan

    2018-04-01

    Despite great therapeutic advancements in psoriasis, four notable difficult-to-treat areas including the scalp, nails, intertriginous (including genitals), and palmoplantar regions, pose a challenge to both physicians and patients. Localized disease of these specific body regions inflicts a significant burden on patients' quality of life and requires an adequate selection of treatments. Areas covered: This manuscript discusses appropriate therapies and important treatment considerations for these difficult-to-treat areas based on the available clinical data from the literature. Expert opinion: Clinical trials assessing therapies for the difficult-to-treat areas have been inadequate. With the first biological clinical trial for genital psoriasis pending publication, it is with hope that other biological agents will be evaluated for region-specific psoriasis. A greater understanding of the genetic and immunologic aspects of regional psoriasis, as well as identification of unique biomarkers, will further guide management decisions. For example, the recent discovery of the IL-36 receptor gene for generalized pustular psoriasis may prove valuable for other forms of psoriasis. Ultimately, identification of the most beneficial treatments for each psoriasis subtype and difficult-to-treat area will provide patients with maximal quality of life.

  4. Has it become more difficult for young households in rental housing to become homeowners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten; Bloze, Gintautas

    2013-01-01

    by increased income inequality. In this paper we present calculations of the number of month it takes for an average young wage earner family that is presently in a tenant position to save 10 per cent of the average dwelling value. Our calculations show that it has become more difficult for young families...

  5. Difficult Dialogues, Rewarding Solutions: Strategies to Expand Postsecondary Opportunities While Controlling Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerwahr, John

    2009-01-01

    This report from Public Agenda is a summary of the process and outcomes of the "Difficult Dialogues" that took place in November 2008 at the 4th annual policy summit of the Midwestern Higher Education Compact (MHEC). Nearly 200 state legislators, institutional and system-level leaders and governing board members, faculty, executive…

  6. A New CT-Guided Modified Trocar Technique for Drainage of Difficult Locations Abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyng, Chiang J., E-mail: chiangjengtyng@gmail.com; Amoedo, Maurício K.; Bohrer, Yves; Bitencourt, Almir G. V.; Barbosa, Paula N. V.; Almeida, Maria Fernanda A.; Zurstrassen, Charles E. [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Department of Imaging (Brazil); Coimbra, Felipe J. F.; Costa, Wilson L. da [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Department of Abdominal Surgery (Brazil); Chojniak, Rubens [AC Camargo Cancer Center, Department of Imaging (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeComputed tomography (CT) is commonly used to guide drainage of deep-seated abdominal fluid collections. However, in some cases, these collections seem to be inaccessible due to surrounding organs or their being in difficult locations. The aim of this study is to describe a modified Trocar technique to drain collections in difficult locations, especially those in the subphrenic space, without passing through intervening organs.Materials and MethodsThis retrospective case series study describes seven inpatients who underwent CT-guided drainage using a modified Trocar technique for abscesses that are difficult to access percutaneously. All patients provided written informed consent prior to the procedure. After placement of a 12–14F catheter inside the peritoneum, the Trocar stylet was removed so that the tip of the catheter became blunt and flexible to avoid injury to organs and structures in the catheter route, and the catheter was slowly advanced towards the collection using CT guidance and tactile sensation. After reaching the target, the stylet was reintroduced to enter the abscess wall.ResultsAll procedures were performed using an anterior abdominal wall access with adequate catheter positioning and resulted in clinical status improvement in the days after the drainage. No complications related to the procedure were identified in any of the patients.ConclusionsThe modified Trocar technique for percutaneous CT-guided drainage of abdominal abscesses may be feasible for lesions that are difficult to access with conventional methods.

  7. Information-Limited Parallel Processing in Difficult Heterogeneous Covert Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosher, Barbara Anne; Han, Songmei; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Difficult visual search is often attributed to time-limited serial attention operations, although neural computations in the early visual system are parallel. Using probabilistic search models (Dosher, Han, & Lu, 2004) and a full time-course analysis of the dynamics of covert visual search, we distinguish unlimited capacity parallel versus serial…

  8. Difficult airways: a reliable “Plan B” | Bishop | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation (PTJV) is an accepted method of rescue ventilation following unsuccessful attempts to secure the airway through conventional methods. Pre-emptive use of PTJV in the difficult airway has also been described as using either a specifically designed jet ventilation catheter, or other ...

  9. Making Difficult History Public: The Pedagogy of Remembering and Forgetting in Two Washington DC Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Avner Segall explores some pedagogical processes in the context of two museums in Washington, DC, that focus on difficult knowledge, the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In doing so, Segall's aim is not to explore the museums as a whole or provide a comprehensive…

  10. Successful difficult airway management of a child with Coffin-siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ahmet Selim; Akbas, Sedat; Yalin, Mehmet Ridvan; Ozdemir, Emine; Koylu, Zeynep

    2017-08-01

    Management of airway in patients who have Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is often problematic because most of these patients have difficult airway. NTI via C-MAC VL is an useful alternative to direct laryngoscope for orotracheal intubation in airway and anesthetic management in a case of CSS. Alternative airway devices should be readily available.

  11. Successful difficult airway management of a child with Coffin?siris syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Ahmet Selim; Akbas, Sedat; Yalin, Mehmet Ridvan; Ozdemir, Emine; Koylu, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Management of airway in patients who have Coffin?Siris syndrome (CSS) is often problematic because most of these patients have difficult airway. NTI via C?MAC VL is an useful alternative to direct laryngoscope for orotracheal intubation in airway and anesthetic management in a case of CSS. Alternative airway devices should be readily available.

  12. Vulnerability as a Key Concept in Museum Pedagogy on Difficult Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinning, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in museum studies in exhibitions on what is termed Difficult Matters (Silvén and Björklund 2006)--such as rape and mass murder--and how such exhibitions may evoke ethical change. This raises the question about the conditions on which such exhibitions can lead to an ethical change. By developing…

  13. Assessment of risk factors responsible for difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Khalil

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: All potential causes of ventilator dependency should be identified when a patient is difficult-to-wean. Then, a plan should be developed that uses a multidisciplinary team approach to correct the reversible causes of weaning failure and facilitates weaning thereafter.

  14. Comparison of different tests to determine difficult intubation in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Turan Inal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The difficulties with airway management is the main reason for pediatric anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the value of modified Mallampati test, Upper-Lip-Bite test, thyromental distance and the ratio of height to thyromental distance to predict difficult intubation in pediatric patients. Design: Prospective analysis. Measurements and results: Data were collected from 5 to 11 years old 250 pediatric patients requiring tracheal intubation. The Cormack and Lehane classification was used to evaluate difficult laryngoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and AUC values for each test were measured. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of modified Mallampati test were 76.92% and 95.54%, while those for ULBT were 69.23% and 97.32%. The optimal cutoff point for the ratio of height to thyromental distance and thyromental distance for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 23.5 (sensitivity, 57.69%; specificity, 86.61% and 5.5 cm (sensitivity, 61.54%; specificity, 99.11%. The modified Mallampati was the most sensitive of the tests. The ratio of height to thyromental distance was the least sensitive test. Conclusion: These results suggested that the modified Mallampati and Upper-Lip-Bite tests may be useful in pediatric patients for predicting difficult intubation.

  15. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  16. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  17. Cutting Costs, Keeping Quality: Financing Strategies for Youth-Serving Organizations in a Difficult Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This research brief highlights three effective financing strategies that successful youth-serving organizations are using to maintain quality services despite difficult economic times. The brief provides examples of how organizations have implemented these strategies and offers tips to help leaders consider how best to adapt these strategies to…

  18. Difficult airway management of children in ambulatory anesthesia: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang AS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrea S Huang,1 Lindsey Rutland,2 John Hajduk,1 Narasimhan Jagannathan1,2 1Department of Pediatric Anesthesia, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: As the field of pediatric ambulatory anesthesia expands, anesthesiologists can anticipate encountering an increasing number of patients with expected and unexpected difficult airways. This unique setting and patient population both present challenges in making a decision whether and how to safely proceed in the case of a child with a difficult airway. A host of patient, provider, procedure, and facility-specific factors should be considered. Providers should understand the differences between the pediatric and adult airway, recognize common features and syndromes associated with difficult airways, and be comfortable with different airway equipment and techniques available in the ambulatory setting. Early anticipation, a comprehensive patient assessment, and a clear decision-making algorithm with multiple airway management plans are all critical in safely and effectively managing these patients. These issues and recommendations will be discussed in this comprehensive narrative review. Keywords: difficult airway, pediatrics, ambulatory surgery, airway devices, children

  19. Combination therapy versus monotherapy for gastroesophageal reflux in children with difficult-to-treat bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Salah Bediwy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Combination of domperidone and esomeprazole was more effective in improving the endoscopic reflux score, childhood-asthma control test (C-ACT and FEV1 (% of predicted and significantly reduced the sputum SP than the use of esomeprazole only in children with difficult-to-treat asthma.

  20. Global Climate Change for Kids: Making Difficult Ideas Accessible and Exciting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Greene, M. P.

    2009-12-01

    NASA has recently launched its Global Climate Change web site (http://climate.nasa.gov), and it has been very well received. It has now also launched in preliminary form an associated site for children and educators, with a plan for completion in the near future. The goals of the NASA Global Climate Change Education site are: To increase awareness and understanding of climate change science in upper-elementary and middle-school students, reinforcing and building upon basic concepts introduced in the formal science education curriculum for these grades; To present, insofar as possible, a holistic picture of climate change science and current evidence of climate change, describing Earth as a system of interconnected processes; To be entertaining and motivating; To be clear and easy to understand; To be easy to navigate; To address multiple learning styles; To describe and promote "green" careers; To increase awareness of NASA's contributions to climate change science; To provide valuable resources for educators; To be compliant with Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The site incorporates research findings not only on climate change, but also on effective web design for children. It is envisioned that most of the content of the site will ultimately be presented in multimedia forms. These will include illustrated and narrated "slide shows," animated expositions, interactive concept-rich games and demonstrations, videos, animated fictionalized stories, and printable picture galleries. In recognition of the attention span of the audience, content is presented in short, modular form, with a suggested, but not mandatory order of access. Empathetic animal and human cartoon personalities are used to explain concepts and tell stories. Expository, fiction, game, video, text, and image modules are interlinked for reinforcement of similar ideas. NASA's Global Climate Change Education web site addresses the vital need to impart and emphasize Earth system science