Heller, Jan C
Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.
One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…
Keating, Joseph P.
In preparation for the 1987 demise of the current community college funding mechanism in California, this discussion paper reviews the current fiscal situation in the state and considers the needs that should be addressed in the finance mechanism that would become effective in July 1987. Background information is presented on the history of the…
Robertson, Amy D.; Shaffer, Peter S.
On the basis of responses to written questions administered to more than one thousand introductory chemistry students, we claim that students often rotely apply memorized combustion rules instead of reasoning based on explanatory models for what happens at the molecular level during chemical reactions. In particular, many students argue that…
Feijs, L.M.G.; Bartneck, C.
We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.
Full Text Available We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of employing 2D drawing tools, such as Adobe Illustrator, the students define their tessellation in mathematical formulas, using the Mathematica software. This procedure enables them to understand the mathematical principles on which graphical tools, such as Illustrator are built upon. But we do not stop at a digital representation of their tessellation design we continue to cut their tessellations in Perspex. It moves the abstract concepts of math into the real world, so that the students can experience them directly, which provides a tremendous reward to the students.
Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling
Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.
Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric
We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...
Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.
It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.
Clark, Christopher H.
Political division in the United States is the subject of much analysis in the fields of political science and psychology. While political partisanship looms large over discussions of the national political climate's influence on schools and classrooms, very little work exists that directly examines the effects of high school students' political…
Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Panayides, Alexandros
Economics is usually perceived as a difficult subject among undergraduate students and the literature suggests that the student's problems with principles of economics are mainly related to the chalk and talk type of teaching, the simplicity of economic models, limited discussions on current economic issues, and on race, gender, and other types of…
Discusses the ethical challenges of information technology, particularly electronic indexes and the Internet; considers principles to guide students; and discusses possible librarian responses. Topics include Kant's categorical imperative, ownership, right to privacy, social responsibility, self-respect, plagiarism and copyrights, and three…
Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.
We conducted 2 studies that investigated student outcomes when using discussion Web pages in psychology classes. In Study 1, we assigned 213 students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology courses to either a mandatory or an optional Web page discussion condition. Students used the discussion Web page significantly more often and performed…
Henning, John E.; Balong, Megan
This article introduces the framing discussion, an informal discussion of a mathematical problem that takes place at the beginning of a lesson or unit. The purpose of the framing discussion is to assess student knowledge, motivate student interest, and to serve as a basis for guiding students to more formal mathematical knowledge. The article…
Misconceptions about sinking and floating phenomena are some of the most challenging to overcome (Yin 2005), possibly because explaining sinking and floating requires students to understand challenging topics such as density, force, and motion. Two scientific principles are typically used in U.S. science curricula to explain sinking and floating:…
Miller, Scott T.
A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…
Alzahrani, Majed Gharmallah
This study aims to investigate student satisfaction with using online discussion forums (ODFs). It also aims to examine the relationships between student satisfaction with using ODFs and student demographics as well as with their experience with ICT and online education. Data are collected from 2171 students from four leading universities at Saudi…
Silva, José Luis Ángel Rodríguez; Aguilar, Mario Sánchez
We present a proposal for helping students to cope with statistical word problems related to the classification of different cases of confidence intervals. The proposal promotes an environment where students can explicitly discuss the reasons underlying their classification of cases.
Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.
Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)
Weih, Timothy G.
Student-centered discussion strategies are described in this article in pursuance of insuring that ALL student voices have a chance to be heard in the classroom. Discussion strategies that are presented include the following: The 10 Second Rule, Think-Pair-Share, Quick Writes, Recorder-Reporter, and K-W-L.
Interteaching is a college teaching method grounded in the principles of applied behavior analysis. Research on interteaching demonstrates that it improves academic performance, and students report greater satisfaction with interteaching as compared to traditional teaching styles. The current study investigates whether discussion group size, a…
Pijls, M.; Dekker, R.
This article adds to current research on enhancing student discourse in mathematics teaching specifically in secondary schools but with equal relevance to elementary schools. Three mathematics teachers in secondary education were confronted with the question of how to encourage students to discuss
Katrina A. Meyer, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Feedback theory proposes that feedback influences the behavior of a system and its parts and that is governed by rules. This exploratory study attempts to test this theory in a graduate-level class on leadership theory. Twelve students were asked to participate in five online discussions, each lasting one week. The questions for each discussion were selected to be provocative and rich, without having any correct answer. At the end of the discussion, students were asked to indicate which posting and poster they felt was “best” or most valuable and why they felt the posting was “best.” There is mixed evidence that the voting influenced subsequent postings; some individuals did improve while others were consistently good or poor posters. Students selected postings that were (in declining frequency of occurrence: thoughtful or thought-provoking, well written or justified, uplifting, presented new information, same as their own opinions, changed me, or complex. These reasons are similar to those of the instructor, although the students’ difficulty in choosing and rationalizing a choice and the frequency at which students chose posts that captured their own thoughts and opinions are of some concern. This study provides some evidence that these graduate students could evaluate their own discussions without the instructor intruding or dictating an evaluation scheme, although this may not be true for other groups of online students.
This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions
Timm, Donna F; Woodson, Deidra; Jones, Dee
Several library faculty members at the Louisiana State University Health Shreveport Health Sciences Library offered a book discussion course as an elective for first-year medical students. This article provides details on how the librarians developed, taught, and evaluated this elective. The librarians took a team-teaching approach, required the students to read two books, and outlined the criteria for participation. At the end of the course, the students completed an evaluation, commenting on positive and negative aspects of the course. The elective proved to be successful, and the librarians look forward to offering the course again in the spring of 2014.
Kamijo, Tetsuya; Huang, Guangwei
The purpose of this study is to show the effectiveness of principle component analysis (PCA) as a method of alternatives analysis useful for improving the discussion of alternatives and public involvement. This study examined public consultations by applying quantitative text analysis (QTA) to the minutes of meetings and showed a positive correlation between the discussion of alternatives and the sense of public involvement. The discussion of alternatives may improve public involvement. A table of multiple criteria analysis for alternatives with detailed scores may exclude the public from involvement due to the general public's limited capacity to understand the mathematical algorithm and to process too much information. PCA allowed for the reduction of multiple criteria down to a small number of uncorrelated variables (principle components), a display of the merits and demerits of the alternatives, and potentially made the identification of preferable alternatives by the stakeholders easier. PCA is likely to enhance the discussion of alternatives and as a result, lead to improved public involvement.
McRay, Jeni; Goertzen, Brent; Klaus, Kaley
This application brief describes a "Module Discussant" activity assigned in an online graduate-level leadership theory course. The assignment was designed to stimulate higher-level thinking, apply leadership theory to practice, and foster extensive communication among students in the online learning environment using a common learning…
Newman, Stanley M.
Describes a strategy for designing an introductory course in cultural anthropology for "nonelite" students. Discusses the thematic approach to teaching anthropology. Emphasis is placed on the importance of using the culture concept as an analytical tool to understand culturally different behaviors. (JS)
Frambach, Janneke M.; Driessen, Erik W.; Beh, Philip; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
A tool used in student-centered education is discussion among students in small learning groups. The Western origin of student-centered education, coupled with cross-cultural differences in communication styles, may detract from its cross-cultural applicability. This study investigates how in student-centered education, students' cultural…
Elizabeth A. van Es
Full Text Available Video is being used widely in professional development. Yet, little is known about how to design video-based learning environments that are productive for teacher learning. One promising model is a video club (Sherin, 2000. Video clubs bring teachers together to view and analyze video segments from one another’s classrooms. The idea is that by watching and discussing video segments focused on student thinking, teachers will learn practices for identifying and analyzing noteworthy student thinking during instruction and can use what they learn to inform their instructional decisions. This paper addresses issues to consider when setting up a video club for teacher education, such as defining goals for using video, establishing norms for viewing and discussing one another’s teaching, selecting clips for analysis, and facilitating teacher discussions. Si consiglia la discussione tra osservatori. Nei Video Club gli insegnanti mettono a fuoco le modalità con cui gli studenti apprendono.Il video è stato ampiamente utilizzato per la formazione professionale. Tuttavia poche sono le conoscenze relative alla progettazione di ambienti di apprendimento basati su video che siano efficaci per la formazione degli insegnanti. Un modello promettente è il “video club” (Sherin, 2000. Video club uniscono insegnanti che guardano ed analizzano insieme segmenti video delle proprie rispettive classi. L'idea è che gli insegnanti, guardando e discutendo segmenti video centrati sul pensiero degli alunni, imparino ad adottare durante l’insegnamento pratiche d'identificazione e analisi di pensieri degli alunni degni di nota e possano poi utilizzare ciò che hanno imparato nelle decisioni didattiche. Questo articolo affronta le questioni da considerare quando si configura un video club per la formazione degli insegnanti, come ad esempio la definizione di obiettivi per l'utilizzo dei video, le norme per la visione e discussione dei rispettivi video, la selezione
Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes
Vision II school science is often stated to be a democratic and inclusive form of science education. But what characterizes the subject who fits into the Vision II school science? Who is the desirable student and who is constructed as ill-fitting? This article explores discourses that structure the Vision II science classroom, and how different students construct their identities inside these discourses. In the article we consider school science as an order of discourses which restricts and enables what is possible to think and say and what subject-positions those are available and non-available. The results show that students' talk about a SSI about body and health is constituted by several discourses. We have analyzed how school science discourse, body discourse and general school discourse are structuring the discussions. But these discourses are used in different ways depending on how the students construct their identities in relation to available subject positions, which are dependent on how students at the same time are "doing" gender and social class. As an example, middle class girls show resistance against SSI-work since the practice is threatening their identity as "successful students". This article uses a sociopolitical perspective in its discussions on inclusion and exclusion in the practice of Vision II. It raises critical issues about the inherited complexity of SSI with meetings and/or collisions between discourses. Even if the empirical results from this qualitative study are situated in specific cultural contexts, they contribute with new questions to ask concerning SSI and Vision II school science.
Ferrell, Linda; Gonzalez, Gabriel
Students were surveyed to determine their beliefs and expectations prior to taking their Principles of Marketing class. The students were surveyed on the first day of class before any introduction to the course. The students were asked eight open-ended questions to determine their knowledge and awareness about marketing as a field of study. The…
Darabi, Aubteen; Jin, Li
This article focuses on heavy cognitive load as the reason for the lack of quality associated with conventional online discussion. Using the principles of cognitive load theory, four online discussion strategies were designed specifically aiming at reducing the discussants' cognitive load and thus enhancing the quality of their online discussion.…
Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind
The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…
Camey, John P.; Williams, Janice K.
Many marketing departments have experienced decreasing enrollments in marketing courses and difficulty recruiting students into the marketing major. This article examines and validates the Principles of Marketing class as significantly influencing students' overall perceptions of and attitudes toward marketing and the pursuit of marketing as their…
Bob Brown; Allen Wilkins
Questionnaires on academic ethics were completed by 115 students enrolled in principles of economics at a state university. Ninety-seven percent admitted to having engaged in at least 1 of 16 academic practices while a university student considered unethical in the literature. Levels of participation in specific practices ranged from 20% to 88% and were unrelated to student characteristics. Students participated more in practices they rated less unethical. Primary reasons for participation we...
Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas
Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…
Moncada, Susan M.; Sanders, Joseph C.
This study examined the help-seeking propensities of college students enrolled in a "Principles of Financial Accounting I" course. A total of 364 students responded to a questionnaire on various aspects of help-seeking behavior. It was found that the most frequently used source of help was friends or classmates, followed by the instructor and the…
Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara
The purpose of this study was to examine student perceptions of privacy principles related to learning analytics. Privacy issues for learning analytics include how personal data are collected and stored as well as how they are analyzed and presented to different stakeholders. A total of 330 university students participated in an exploratory study…
Ghadirian, Hajar; Fauzi Mohd Ayub, Ahmad; Salehi, Keyvan
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' perceptions of online discussions, participation and e-moderation behaviours in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions. Using survey data, the learning system's activity log and discussion transcripts, the authors analysed how 84 learners' perceptions of online…
Busom, Isabel; Lopez-Mayan, Cristina; Panadés, Judith
Economic views held by the general public tend to differ significantly from those of economic experts. Would these differences fade away if people were exposed to some economic instruction? In this article, the authors identify college students' preconceptions about economic issues at the beginning of the semester, verify their persistence…
Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions
Extended Huygens-Fresnel principle (EHF) currently is the most common technique used in theoretical studies of the optical propagation in turbulence. A recent review paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, 2038 (2014)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.31.002038] cites several dozens of papers that are exclusively based on the EHF principle. We revisit the foundations of the EHF, and show that it is burdened by very restrictive assumptions that make it valid only under weak scintillation conditions. We compare the EHF to the less-restrictive Markov approximation and show that both theories deliver identical results for the second moment of the field, rendering the EHF essentially worthless. For the fourth moment of the field, the EHF principle is accurate under weak scintillation conditions, but is known to provide erroneous results for strong scintillation conditions. In addition, since the EHF does not obey the energy conservation principle, its results cannot be accurate for scintillations of partially coherent beam waves.
Hoover, Carrie Ann; Dinndorf-Hogenson, Georgia Ann; Peterson, Jennifer Lee; Tollefson, Bethany Renae; Berndt, Jodi Lisbeth; Laudenbach, Nikki
Use of the flipped classroom model is recognized as a popular method of instruction. Effective preclass preparation methods can create more time for instructors to reinforce application, evaluation, and analysis of information using active learning strategies. This quasi-experimental study used a convenience sample of 42 third-year baccalaureate nursing students. Students were randomized into two groups and received either a narrated video (vodcast) or guided readings for the preclass preparation. A quiz was administered to assess preparation prior to class, and students completed a survey following the classroom activities. Students preferred media preparation to guided readings. This preference translated to higher quiz scores. Positive correlations were noted between quiz scores and students' understanding and increased confidence. Students' preference for the vodcast translated to the perception of an increase in confidence and understanding of the material. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(3):163-165.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji
The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…
Imel, Phillip W.
Reports that the introductory level Principles of Accounting classes at Southwest Virginia Community College (SVCC) had high unsuccessful grade rates between 1989 and 1999. Describes a study conducted to determine whether there was a statistical difference in the test scores and GPA of successful versus unsuccessful accounting students. Finds that…
Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris
Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…
Facilitating students' critical thinking in asynchronous discussions is important in online learning environments. Since students need to be self-regulated in online learning, the instructors are expected to scaffold students by providing structure and guidance. This paper discusses critical inquiry in two groups of students' online discussions.…
Лариса Владимировна Борисова
Full Text Available In the article the various points of view on the work organization, stated by heads of the Soviet Russia are analyzed during discussion about militarization and forced labor by spring of 1920.
Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.
The development of the theory of the finite - state, finite - memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem is discussed. The sufficiency of the FSFM minimum principle (which is in general only a necessary condition) was investigated. By introducing the notion of a signaling strategy as defined in the literature on games, conditions under which the FSFM minimum principle is sufficient were determined. This result explicitly interconnects the information structure of the FSFM problem with its optimality conditions. The min-H algorithm for the FSFM problem was studied. It is demonstrated that a version of the algorithm always converges to a particular type of local minimum termed a person - by - person extremal.
Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.
We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…
Hawkins, Amy J.; Stark, Louisa A.
This review highlights free online resources for teaching bioethics that will be useful for educators working with high school and undergraduate students. These materials provide frameworks of ethical analysis, curricula and lesson plans, case studies, and resources that have a special focus on protection of human research participants.
Full Text Available Becoming a nurse requires development of professional capabilities, specifically socialisation into the profession and developing a professional identity (PI. A search of the literature highlights a lack of empirical research in PI development during pre-registration nursing education. A range of factors will be explored that relate to PI, including identity, professional socialisation, a sense of belonging to the profession and clinical placement. Exploring the development of a PI in nursing students can assist with identifying drivers and inhibitors. The aim of this paper is to describe PI development in pre-registration nursing students’ education and the relationship between development of a PI and the tertiary provided education. There are a multitude of factors that impact on developing a PI such as identity, professional socialisation, belonging, clinical placements and educators. Nursing students predominantly develop a nursing PI in the pre-registration program with professional socialisation through exposure to academia, clinical practice and role models. The onus of responsibility for developing a PI in nursing students is attributed to educational institutions. An expected outcome of the pre-registration program is that nursing students will have formed a PI. A greater depth of understanding PI is important in supporting the education of the nurses of the future. There may not be one simple explanation for what PI is, or how it is developed, but a greater depth of understanding of PI by both the tertiary sector and the nursing profession is important in supporting the education of the nurses of the future. Further research will enable a dialogue describing the development of a PI in nursing students and an understanding of the attributes and conceptions attributed to a nursing PI.
Stone, Gerard; Fiedler, Brenton Andrew; Kandunias, Chris
This paper proposes principles to guide accounting students' and accounting educators' use of Facebook as an educational resource to engage students with their learning. A body of cross-disciplinary research has investigated potential applications of Facebook to invigorate student engagement. Generic guidelines for educators who are contemplating…
Quílez-Pardo, Juan; Solaz-Portolés, Joan Josep
The aim of this article was to study the reasons, strategies, and procedures that both students and teachers use to solve some chemical equilibrium questions and problems. Inappropriate conceptions on teaching and a lack of knowledge regarding the limited usefulness of Le Chatelier's principle, with its vague and ambiguous formulation and textbook presentation, may be some of the sources of misconceptions about the prediction of the effect of changing conditions on chemical equilibrium. To diagnose misconceptions and their possible sources, a written test was developed and administered to 170 1st-year university chemistry students. A chemical equilibrium problem, relating to the students' test, was solved by 40 chemistry teachers. First, we ascertained that teacher's conceptions might influence the problem-solving strategies of the learner. Based on this first aspect, our discussion also concerns students' and teachers' misconceptions related to the Le Chatelier's principle. Misconceptions emerged through: (a) misapplication and misunderstanding of Le Chatelier's principle; (b) use of rote-learning recall and algorithmic procedures; (c) incorrect control of the variables involved; (d) limited use of the chemical equilibrium law; (e) a lack of mastery of chemical equilibrium principles and difficulty in transferring such principles to new situations. To avoid chemical equilibrium misconceptions, a specific pattern of conceptual and methodological change may be considered.Received: 16 November 1993; Revised: 21 September 1994;
Osborne, Kristen; Fowler, Craig; Circelli, Michelle
This discussion paper explores the possibilities and risks that data linkage presents for the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Along with a broad overview of the nature of data linkage, it highlights possible applications for data linkage in the VET sector and examines the key challenges associated with its use. A number of case…
Fisher, Ronald J.
Describes a small group discussion project involving students and teachers in two large white suburban high schools. The project's intention was to focus discussion on the social quality of the relationship between students and teachers, and to assess the impact of the discussions on student perceptions. (Author/RK)
Smith, Deborah N.
This article discusses the use of online asynchronous discussion boards as a valuable tool for connecting students to leadership concepts, theories, and models in introductory leadership survey courses. Recommendations are given for designing effective discussion boards that engage students and enhance their learning. Student outcomes include…
O'Brien, Elysha Patino
This qualitative case study addressed a lack of research concerning literature discussions for students with learning disabilities in reading. Fourth and fifth grade students with reading disabilities participated in twice-weekly literature discussions, 30-to-60 minutes each, for 12 weeks. The students attended a Title I school and most were…
Herrera, Juan Sebastian
Research in geoscience education addressing students' conceptions of geological subjects has concentrated in topics such as geological time, plate tectonics, and problem solving in the field, mostly in K-12 and entry level college scenarios. Science education research addressing learning of sedimentary systems in advance undergraduates is rather limited. Therefore, this dissertation contributed to filling that research gap and explored students' narratives when explaining geological processes associated with the interaction between sediment deposition and sea level fluctuations. The purpose of the present study was to identify the common conceptions and alternative conceptions held by students when learning the basics of the sub discipline known as sequence stratigraphy - which concepts students were familiar and easily identified, and which ones they had more difficulty with. In addition, we mapped the cognitive models that underlie those conceptions by analyzing students' gestures and conceptual metaphors used in their explanations. This research also investigated the interaction between geoscientific visual displays and student gesturing in a specific learning context. In this research, an in-depth assessment of 27 students' ideas of the basic principles of sequence stratigraphy was completed. Participants were enrolled in advanced undergraduate stratigraphy courses at three research-intensive universities in Midwest U.S. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, spatial visualization tests, and lab assignments. Results indicated that students poorly integrated temporal and spatial scales in their sequence stratigraphic models, and that many alternative conceptions were more deeply rooted than others, especially those related to eustasy and base level. In order to better understand the depth of these conceptions, we aligned the analysis of gesture with the theory of conceptual metaphor to recognize the use of mental models known as image
Student poverty is an issue with which far too many students are confronted. Student affairs professionals must increase their awareness of this human dynamic and develop programs, services, and personal knowledge to support students faced with this challenge.
Hargreaves, Janet; Walker, Lizzie
A discussion exploring the ways disabled students are managed in practice settings. It proposes and argues for morally and legally viable principles to guide risk assessment and inclusive decision-making in practice. Equality law means that universities are bound not to discriminate against students on the basis, amongst other things, of disability. As a consequence in the UK, there is a perceived increase in numbers of disabled people applying for and succeeding as health professionals. Whilst placement providers are equally obliged by the law to have inclusive policies, competing needs including patient safety, public confidence and professional regulations mean that adjustments that can be made in an educational environment to appropriately support student learning may prove to be more difficult in placements that provide direct care to the public. This discussion is an outcome of recommendations from published research by the authors and their research partners. It is supported by related literature, critical debate amongst academics, disabled students and disabled and non-disabled practitioners. Ensuring a nursing workforce that mirrors the diversity of the population it serves is of universal importance. Effective management of disabled students can contribute to achieving this goal and to promoting a positive view of disabled practitioners. Legislation is necessary to protect disabled people from discrimination. To respect this legislation, when preparing nurses and other health professions, a clear understanding of the law and a principles-based approach to guiding risk is important. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mauldin, Shawn; Crain, John L.; Mounce, Patricia H.
A survey of 81 accounting majors, 60 business majors, 12 nonbusiness majors, and 13 undecided students in accounting principles courses found that accounting principles instructors play the most significant role in the decision to major in accounting. Many students decide to major during their first principles course. (SK)
White, Geoffry D.
Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)
Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.; Thummaphan, Phonraphee; Lan, Ming-Chih; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
In response to calls for implementing active learning in college-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses, classrooms across the country are being transformed from instructor centered to student centered. In these active-learning classrooms, the dynamics among students becomes increasingly important for understanding student experiences. In this study, we focus on the role a student prefers to assume during peer discussions, and how this preferred role may vary given a student’s social identities. In addition we explore whether three hypothesized barriers to participation may help explain participation difference in the classroom. These barriers are 1) students are excluded from the discussion by actions of their groupmates; 2) students are anxious about participating in peer discussion; and 3) students do not see value in peer discussions. Our results indicate that self-reported preferred roles in peer discussions can be predicted by student gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality. In addition, we found evidence for all three barriers, although some barriers were more salient for certain students than others. We encourage instructors to consider structuring their in-class activities in ways that promote equity, which may require more purposeful attention to alleviating the current differential student experiences with peer discussions. PMID:26628561
Ghadirian, Hajar; Salehi, Keyvan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd
An ego network is an individual's social network relationships with core members. In this study, the ego network parameters in online discussion spaces of high- and low-performing students were compared. The extent to which students' ego networks changed over the course were also analyzed. Participation in 7 weeks of online discussions were…
The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of students regarding what was effective about the way in which the asynchronous discussions were structured in an upper level online organizational communication course. Surveys from 27 student participants were used, with questions focused upon the structure of discussions in the online…
Juergens, Maria Helena; Smedema, Susan Miller; Berven, Norman L.
The purpose of this study was to obtain a greater understanding of the willingness of graduate students in rehabilitation counseling to discuss sexuality with clients. This was done by testing a model of factors predicted to influence the willingness of rehabilitation counseling master's students to discuss sexuality with clients, using path…
Sucha, Michael; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio
The world wide web opens up new opportunities to interconnect electronic and classroom teaching and to promote active student participation. In this project article we describe the use of internet discussion forums as part of a student-centred teaching concept of pharmacology and discuss its advantages and disadvantages based on evaluation data and current literature. Final year medical students at the Technische Universität München (Munich, Germany) with the elective pharmacology moderated an internet forum that allowed all students to discuss pharmacology-related questions. Evaluation results of forum participants and elective students demonstrated a learning benefit of internet forums in pharmacology teaching. Internet discussion forums offer an easy-to-implement and effective way to actively engage students and increase the learning benefit of electronic and classroom teaching in pharmacology.
Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel
Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as they pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.
Donnelly, Mary Broderick; Horsley, Trisha Leann; Adams, William H; Gallagher, Peggy; Zibricky, C Dawn
Background Undergraduate nursing education standards include acquisition of knowledge of ethics principles and the prevalence of health-care ethical dilemmas mandates that nursing students study ethics. However, little research has been published to support best practices for teaching/learning ethics principles. Purpose This study sought to determine if participation in an ethics consultation simulation increased nursing students' knowledge of nursing ethics principles compared to students who were taught ethics principles in the traditional didactic format. Methods This quasi-experimental study utilized a pre-test/post-test design with randomized assignment of students at three universities into both control and experimental groups. Results Nursing students' knowledge of nursing ethics principles significantly improved from pre-test to post-test ( p = .002); however, there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups knowledge scores ( p = .13). Conclusion Further research into use of simulation to teach ethics principles is indicated.
O'Brien, Joseph; Lawrence, Nicholas; Green, Kori
In seeking to prepare students to be "citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world," teachers engage students in live, online discussions about what justifies war, while at the same time grappling with the requirements to teach the memorization of people, places and isolated events. Teachers and a…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…
Claywell, Lora; Wallace, Cara; Price, Jill; Reneau, Margaret; Carlson, Kathleen
This study determined the relationships between faculty participation in online discussions with student satisfaction and perceived learning in online RN-BSN and MSN courses. Analysis of faculty participation in online courses (n = 280) demonstrated a relationship between faculty participation and student satisfaction and perceived learning. The results of this study offer guidance on the minimal faculty participation necessary in online discussions in nursing courses.
The Principles for a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Management of Mangrove Ecosystems is a guide to assist states, local and national non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to develop cooperatively local codes, laws and/or regulations to protect mangroves and the critical functions......, grassroots organizations and other interested individuals and groups. The Principles were formulated based on a review of global mangrove management experience, about fifteen country case studies, including Auastralia, from all regions where mangroves exist, and seven regional workshops to date. The purpose...... of making a presentation on the Mangrove Principles at IMPAC is to gain additional feedback from interested stakeholders and experts, in particular, to provide inputs to the content of the Principles and recommendations for activities to promote their use as a management tool. The Principles and many...
Martono, Fkipuntan; Salam, Urai
Asynchronous discussion forums are among the most preferred tools chosen to foster learning opportunities and knowledge construction. To reveal the cognitive engagement evidenced in the transcripts of the discussion forums, this study presents 51 papers. 17 papers reported research on students' attitude toward the use of ICT for learning, 16…
Zimmerman, Lynn W.
This study examines whether and how online discussions used in learning situations help to develop interactive intercultural communication. Undergraduate university students in the US, Taiwan, and Israel engaged in an online discussion about gender stereotypes. This study examines their perceptions of the interactions. There were 31 undergraduate…
Shukor, N.B.A.; Tasir, Z.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Harun, J.
Online collaborative learning allows discussion to occur at greater depth where knowledge can be constructed remotely. However students were found to construct knowledge at low-level where they discussed by sharing and comparing opinions; those are inadequate for new knowledge creation. As such,
Tonni, Ingrid; Mora, Luca; Oliver, Richard G
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a portfolio learning strategy designed to develop students' reflection abilities in a postgraduate orthodontic program in the UK. Nine first-year postgraduate orthodontic students and seven mentors participated in the one-year program, which included a reflective portfolio, mentorship, and discussion. After the program, the students' and mentors' perceptions were collected using focus groups and individual interviews, respectively. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four categories emerged. The first, reflection, was considered a skill to learn, and time was needed for students to fully understand its meaning and achieve its outcomes. The second theme, characteristics of reflection, was descriptive at the beginning and more critical at the end of the experience. The third theme, outcomes of reflection, involved students' improved problem-solving and action-planning abilities and increased self-awareness, motivation, confidence, and communication skills. In the fourth theme, stimulation of reflection, students did not agree with mentors regarding the importance of reflective writing, but they recognized the value of the portfolio's reflective log in facilitating the reflective process. There was greater agreement between students and mentors regarding discussions with mentors and among peers as tools to achieve higher levels of reflection. Overall, these students and mentors considered the strategy an effective tool for improving students' reflection.
Green, Rodney A; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L; Chan, Siew-Pang
Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to improved learning outcomes. This study used a path model to analyze the contribution of forum participation, previous academic ability, and student campus of enrolment to final marks in a multicampus gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. The course has a substantial online learning management system (LMS) that incorporates asynchronous forums as a learning tool, particularly to answer learning objectives. Students were encouraged to post new threads and answer queries in threads started by others. The forums were moderated weekly by staff. Discussion forums were the most used feature of the LMS site with 31,920 hits. Forty-eight percent of the students posted at least once with 186 threads initiated by students and a total of 608 posts. The total number of posts made a significant direct contribution to final mark (P = 0.008) as did previous academic ability (P = 0.002). Although campus did not contribute to final mark, there was a trend for students at the campus where the course coordinator was situated to post more often than those at the other campus (P = 0.073). These results indicate that asynchronous online discussion forums can be an effective tool for improving student learning outcomes as evidenced by final marks in gross anatomy teaching. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
DiVall, Margarita V; Kirwin, Jennifer L
To use Facebook to facilitate online discussion of the content of a Comprehensive Disease Management course and to evaluate student use and perceptions of this exercise. A Facebook page was created and coordinators encouraged students to "like" the page and to post and view study tips, links, or questions. At the end of the course, students' use and perceptions were evaluated using an anonymous survey tool. At the end of week 1, there were 81 followers, 5 wall posts, and 474 visits to the course Facebook page. At peak use, the page had 117 followers, 18 wall posts, and 1,326 visits. One hundred nineteen students (97% of the class) completed the survey tool. Twenty-six percent of students contributed posts compared to 11% who posted on the course discussion board on Blackboard. Students were more likely to post and be exposed to posts on Facebook than on Blackboard. Students found Facebook helpful and 57% said they would miss Facebook if use was not continued in subsequent courses. Students in a Comprehensive Disease Management course found the addition of a Facebook page a valuable study tool and thought most posts added to their learning.
Gravett, Emily O.
The benefits of in-class discussion, a form of active learning, are well-documented; in particular, discussions allow students the opportunity to learn from their peers. Yet students often treat discussions as 'down' or 'free' time. If students are not taking notes during discussion and reviewing those notes later on, they may not be learning much…
The Principles for a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Management of Mangrove Ecosystems is a guide to assist states, local and national non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to develop cooperatively local codes, laws and/or regulations to protect mangroves and the critical functions...... they serve with regard to contributions to local livelihood, biodiversity conservation and coastal protection though sustainable management. The objective is to help bring attention to the importance of mangrove ecosystems, particularly to policy makers, to help arrest and reverse their loss. The Principles...... mangrove management experience, about fifteen country case studies from all regions where mangroves exist, and seven regional workshops to date. The purpose of the presentation at this ReNED forum is gain additional feedback from researchers, in particular, to provide input on the content of the Principles...
DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana
Current research and professional organizations call for greater emphasis on reasoning and sense making in algebra (Chazan, 2000; Cuoco, Goldenberg, & Mark, 1996; Harel & Sowder, 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2009, 2010). This paper illustrates how students in an Algebra II class had opportunities to develop…
Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student
Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel
Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And
Birkeland, Kathryn; Weinandt, Mandie; Carr, David L.
This study looks at the performance of students in an online and face-to-face section of economic principles with the same instructor. After controlling for the bias of students selecting the online section and observable characteristics, we did not find any statistical difference in the exam performance of students across delivery modes of the…
Full Text Available Thinking about education in general and about the advances that have been coming up, brings us to reflect on the proposal of the inclusive school. The Brazilian educational policies point in this direction and new propositions appear to the school in order to understand how to make significant changes in the daily education. Accordingly, this article is to hold a discussion regarding the identification of students with high abilities/giftedness, articulating with some ideas proposed by the inclusive education. It is with that highlight the importance of identifying these students for a more genuine inclusion of these students in the educational context. In this sense, is used as input theoretical Gardner (1995, Renzulli (2004, Perez (2004, Virgolim (2007, Vieira (2005, among other authors who assist in the discussion of this issue. The considerations made about the high abilities and their process of identification highlight the importance of a great attention facing the process of identification and relevance of this to the actual inclusion of students with high skills in the educational context. Since they are not identified, these students may not be receiving the necessary guidance to learn and develop their potential, often distancing themselves from colleagues and friends. Thus, it is a debate about the appropriate identification of these students and how it can contribute to the inclusion of them.
This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students. The analysis was based on gender theory viewing gender both as a process and a discourse. Specifically discursive psychology analysis was used to examine how students position themselves and their peers within discourses of physics and gender. The results of the study reveal how images of physics and of "skilled physics student" were constructed in the context of the interviews. These discourses were reconstructed in the students' discussions and their social interactions within groups. Traditional gendered positions were reconstructed, for example with boys positioned as more competent in physics than girls. These positions were however also resisted and challenged.
Pijls, M.; de Kramer, D.; Maj, B.; Pytlak, M.; Swoboda, E.
In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the
Green, Rodney A.; Hughes, Diane L.
Asynchronous online discussion forums are increasingly common in blended learning environments but the relationship to student learning outcomes has not been reported for anatomy teaching. Forums were monitored in two multicampus anatomy courses; an introductory first year course and a second year physiotherapy-specific course. The forums are…
Balaji, M. S.; Chakrabarti, Diganta
The present study contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of online discussion forum in student learning. A conceptual model based on "theory of online learning" and "media richness theory" was proposed and empirically tested. We extend the current understanding of media richness theory to suggest that use of…
Angera, Jeffrey J.; Latty, Christopher R.
Human sexuality courses are common across many college/university campuses. The methods of instruction typically encourage discussion to increase knowledge and critical thinking about self, relationships, and professional pathways. However, often the pedagogical practices do not include methods to draw out students with a range of personalities,…
Adams, Helen R.
Every day in school libraries nationwide, students' privacy rights are under attack, but many principals, teachers, parents, and community members do not know much about these rights. Even though school librarians are among the strongest proponents of privacy, the subject is rarely discussed, probably because state and federal laws can be…
The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…
Ozyurt, Ozcan; Ozyurt, Hacer
This study was conducted in order to reveal the usage profiles and perceptions of Asynchronous Discussion Forums (ADFs) of 126 computer engineering students from the Computer Engineering Department in a university in Turkey. By using a mixed methods research design both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Research…
In this article, 61 high-school students learned about ocean acidification through a virtual laboratory followed by a virtual lecture and an asynchronous discussion with a marine scientist on an online platform: VoiceThread. This study focuses on the students' development of ocean literacy when prompted to ask questions to the scientist. The students' questions were thematically analysed to assess (1) the kind of reasoning that can be discerned as premises of the students' questions and (2) what possibilities for enhancing ocean literacy emerge in this instructional activity. The results show how interacting with a scientist gives the students an entry point to the world of natural sciences with its complexity, uncertainty and choices that go beyond the idealised form in which natural sciences often are presented in school. This activity offers an affordable way of bringing marine science to school by providing extensive expertise from a marine scientist. Students get a chance to mobilise their pre-existing knowledge in the field of marine science. The holistic expertise of the marine scientist allows students to explore and reason around a very wide range of ideas and aspect of natural sciences that goes beyond the range offered by the school settings.
Brewer, Stephanie M.; Jozefowicz, James J.
The authors address two informal writing assignments implemented in introductory economics classes. One assignment involves students writing short reflection papers, and the other assignment involves students writing short journal entries for a designated period of time. Both assignments are designed to help students realize that economics is…
Jang, S Mo; Lee, Hoon; Park, Yong Jin
Although previous research has indicated that Facebook users, especially young adults, can cultivate their civic values by talking about public matters with their Facebook friends, little research has examined the predictors of political discussion on Facebook. Using survey data from 442 college students in the United States, this study finds that individual characteristics and network size influence college students' expressive behavior on Facebook related to two controversial topics: gay rights issues and politics. In line with previous studies about offline political discussion, the results show that conflict avoidance and ambivalence about target issues are negatively associated with Facebook discussions. Perhaps the most interesting finding is that users who have a large number of Facebook friends are less likely to talk about politics and gay rights issues on Facebook despite having access to increasing human and information resources. Theoretical implications of these findings and future directions are addressed.
Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.
Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.
Quilez-Pardo, Juan; Solaz-Portoles, Joan Josep
Study of strategies and procedures of 170 students and 40 teachers when solving chemical equilibrium problems found misconceptions emerging through: misapplication of Le Chatelier's Principle, use of rote-learning recall, incorrect control of variables, limited use of chemical equilibrium law, lack of mastery of chemical equilibrium principles,…
McIntyre, Shelby H.; Munson, J. Michael
Cramming for finals is common on college campuses, and many students seem to cram for their final in the Principles of Marketing course. This article addresses the question of defining and measuring a "cramming study strategy." Scales are developed to assess (a) cramming for courses in general and (b) cramming specifically in the Principles of…
Culross, Rita R.; Jenkins-Friedman, Reva
The article describes two approaches, based on the ideas of Jerome Bruner, to helping gifted students handle the social-emotional tasks involved in actualizing their abilities. One approach stresses developmental principles of Bruner while the other applies Bruner's principles to personal and group empowering. (DB)
Monica E. McGlynn-Stewart
Full Text Available With a view to improving the quality of class discussions of assigned articles, I implemented a new way of organizing small group seminars in an undergraduate early childhood education course. The seminars were led by student facilitators and had a balance of accountability and autonomy. Mid-way through the course, the students reflected anonymously on the experience of the seminars. They identified a variety of cognitive and social benefits of the seminars as well as key components that could be applied in a variety of post-secondary settings
Michelini, M.; Ragazzon, R.; Santi, L.; Stefanel, A.
Within some research projects a proposal for the teaching of quantum mechanics in secondary school has been carried out, and some didactic material has been prepared in order to illustrate it, offering resources for its class experimentation (www.fisica.uniud.it/URDF/). In order to study in depth the critical points, which cause learning difficulties for the students in this field, a pilot activity was carried out for a restricted group of students with which the crucial points were discussed. Some interesting elements emerged, such as for example the fact that the major problems in understanding the concept of quantum state are linked to the meaning of incompatible observables.
Grimes, Paul W.; Sanderson, Patricia L.; Ching, Geok H.
Principles of Economics students at Mississippi State University were provided the opportunity to use computer assisted instruction (CAI) as a supplemental study activity. Students were free to choose the extent of their computer work. Throughout the course, weekly surveys were conducted to monitor the time each student spent with their textbook, computerized tutorials, workbook, class notes, and study groups. The surveys indicated that only a minority of the students actively pursued CAI....
Nanda, Aman; Farrell, Timothy W; Shield, Renée R; Tomas, Maria; Campbell, Susan E; Wetle, Terrie
Given the aging U.S. population, it is imperative that medical students recognize and apply geriatrics principles. To address this need, in 2006, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University integrated geriatrics content into a new medical school curriculum. Preclinical and clinical medical students submitted written reflective journals in response to prompts regarding the geriatrics content of the new medical school curriculum, including their didactic and clinical experiences. An interdisciplinary team used a structured qualitative approach to identify themes, including the recognition and application of geriatrics principles. Thirty medical student journalers submitted 405 journal entries. Themes regarding students' emerging understanding of geriatrics principles included a growing understanding of geriatrics principles, recognition of the importance of psychosocial factors and patient preferences in caring for older adults, recognition of the complexities of treating older adults and application of geriatric principles to clinical situations, and understanding of physicians' roles in managing the care of older adults. Medical student reflective journaling allows medical educators to obtain timely feedback on curricular innovations and helps illuminate the process by which medical students learn to recognize and apply core geriatrics principles. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Greer, Rachelle R.
In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…
Deal, Linda J.; Wismer, Michael G.
The "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" published in 2000 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) created a vision of mathematical concepts and processes to establish core educational guidelines for instruction from grades K to 12. The overall plan does emphasize higher level thinking, problem solving, and…
Renata Gomes Camargo
Full Text Available Thinking about educational accessibility in academic research constitutes a necessity in view of the reality of education today and investigations unexplored, such as the relation between the high skills/giftedness -AH/SD-, researchin university and educational accessibility. This paper aims to discuss the dialogue between school and university research regarding the accessibility of students with AH/SD, seeking to highlight some actions related to a research project of theUniversidade Federal de Santa Maria/RS. The discussion in this article is guided in a qualitative perspective, is the main theoretical support studies of Manzini (2005 and Freitas and Pérez (2010. Among the main considerations, it follows that: shared responsibility between school and university, through action research projects, contributes significantly to the establishment of educational accessibility for students with AH/SD.
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European
Zhao, Beiqun; Potter, Donald D
To compare lecture-based learning (LBL) and discussion-based learning (DBL) by assessing immediate and long-term knowledge retention and application of practical knowledge in third- and fourth-year medical students. A prospective, randomized control trial was designed to study the effects of DBL. Medical students were randomly assigned to intervention (DBL) or control (LBL) groups. Both the groups were instructed regarding the management of gastroschisis. The control group received a PowerPoint presentation, whereas the intervention group was guided only by an objectives list and a gastroschisis model. Students were evaluated using a multiple-choice pretest (Pre-Test MC) immediately before the teaching session, a posttest (Post-Test MC) following the session, and a follow-up test (Follow-Up MC) at 3 months. A practical examination (PE), which tested simple skills and management decisions, was administered at the end of the clerkship (Initial PE) and at 3 months after clerkship (Follow-Up PE). Students were also given a self-evaluation immediately following the Post-Test MC to gauge satisfaction and comfort level in the management of gastroschisis. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and the Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA. A total of 49 third- and fourth-year medical students who were enrolled in the general surgery clerkship were eligible for this study. Enrollment into the study was completely voluntary. Of the 49 eligible students, 36 students agreed to participate in the study, and 27 completed the study. Mean scores for the Pre-Test MC, Post-Test MC, and Follow-Up MC were similar between the control and intervention groups. In the control group, the Post-Test MC scores were significantly greater than Pre-Test MC scores (8.92 ± 0.79 vs 4.00 ± 1.04, p educational experience was more worthwhile than students in the control group did. After a single instructional session, there was a significant difference in the students' scores between the
Wells, Harvey; Jones, Anna; Jones, Sue C.
In formal learning settings, there will always be instances of resistance to learning from students, resulting in either open conflict or withdrawal and consequent disillusionment on the part of both students and teachers. This paper presents a set of principles and associated practices for responding to disengagement from learning in constructive…
Ziegert, Andrea L.
Explores the relationship between student personality types and measures of student performance in principles of microeconomics using the Keirsey Sorter, a 70-question Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); results from the Test of Understanding of College Economics (TUCE); and course grades. Suggests that personality types do affect student…
Barroso, Luciana R.; Morgan, James R.
This paper describes the creation and evolution of an undergraduate dynamics and vibrations course for civil engineering students. Incorporating vibrations into the course allows students to see and study "real" civil engineering applications of the course content. This connection of academic principles to real life situations is in…
Bouillon, Marvin L.; Doran, B. Michael
The performance of female and male students in Accounting Principles (AP) I and II was compared by using multiple regression techniques to assess the incremental explanatory effects of gender. Males significantly outperformed females in AP I, contradicting earlier studies. Similar gender of instructor and student was insignificant. (JOW)
Stokhof, Harry; De Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob
Student questioning is an important self-regulative strategy and has multiple benefits for teaching and learning science. Teachers, however, need support to align student questioning to curricular goals. This study tests a prototype of a principle-based scenario that supports teachers in guiding
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between course design and predictor variables: motivation, satisfaction, and success for students enrolled in the hybrid Principles of Finance course. The participants for this research project were 117 undergraduate students (encompassing 6 semesters) at Robert Morris University,…
Marshall, R; Page, T
This paper describes a case study evaluation of a module that engages students on product and industrial design programmes with the principles of Design for Manufacturing (DFM). The primary element of the module is to expose students to the constraints of a full design to manufacture process. The module explores the design of a small polymer promotional item, together with the means of mass producing that item. This is done through the process of injection moulding and students design an inje...
Fleming, Andrew P.; McMahon, Robert J.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between 2 and 8 % of college students. ADHD is associated with impaired academic, psychological, and social functioning, and with a wide array of negative outcomes including lower GPAs, graduation rates, and self-reported quality of life. The college environment often brings decreased…
Rob, Mohammad A.; Etnyre, Vance
Teaching concepts of information systems to general business students through a course such as management information systems (MIS) can be challenging in today's fast-changing environment of information technology (IT). Such a course must provide not only an understanding of the development, applications, and management of information systems, but…
The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)
Full Text Available This study assesses the quality of distance learning (DL in higher education assessed by considering the Seven Principles of Good Practice (SPGP. The participants were 77 second-year students from the Computer and Instructional Technologies Program (CEIT of a Faculty of Education in Turkey. A questionnaire was developed in line with the SPGP and administered to collect data after 14 weeks of teaching. The author's observations were added to a discussion of the connections between student perspectives and the SPGP. The lessons were delivered in a virtual classroom. It is a synchronous online learning environment with online meetings, chat, forums, whiteboards, desktop sharing, document sharing and other online features. The analysis of the results of the questionnaire indicate that this questionnaire as it has been developed in this study can be effective in understanding and evaluating the perspectives of learners on the quality of distance learning in virtual classrooms. This study also presents some new evidence on the potential of virtual classrooms for teaching, learning and learner interaction. Finally, some suggestions regarding the expectations of distance learners were also provided for instructors who wish to utilize virtual classrooms in their teaching.
Mathues, Patricia Kelly
Although the social constructivist theory proposed by Vygotsky states the value of discourse as a contribution to the ability of the learner to create meaning, student-led discussions have often been relegated to the language arts classroom. The standards created by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association have long recognized that learners create meaning in a social context. The National Science Education Standards have also challenged science teachers to facilitate discourse. However, the science standards document provides no specific structure through which such discourse should be taught. This study investigated the effectiveness of a discussion strategy provided by Shoop and Wright for teaching and conducting student-centered discussions (SCD). Fifth graders in one school were randomly selected and randomly assigned to one of two science classes; 22 students in one class learned and applied the SCD strategies while a second class with 19 students learned the same science concepts from a teacher using traditional methods as described by Cazden. This study used a pretest-posttest design to test the hypothesis that participation in SCD's would effect a difference in fifth-graders' abilities to comprehend science concepts. Results of independent-samples t-tests showed that while there was no significant difference between the mean ability scores of the two groups of subjects as measured by a standardized mental abilities test, the mean pretest score of the traditional group was significantly higher than the SCD group's mean pretest score. ANCOVA procedures demonstrated that the SCD group's mean posttest score was significantly higher than the mean posttest score of the traditional group. Data analysis supported the rejection of the null hypothesis. The investigator concluded that the SCD methodology contributed to students' understanding of the science concepts. Results of this study challenge content area teachers to
Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel
Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.
Full Text Available The article characterizes national - orientation principle in teaching Chinese students Russian phraseology. Basing on the observations of Russian linguists and methodists, and on her own experience of teaching Chinese students, the author pays attention to the following aspects of the problem: the main differences between Russian and Chinese phraseological systems; difficulties in comparing Russian and Chinese phraseological units; the most common mistakes made by Chinese students while using Russian phraseological units. According to the author, describing and considering the above-mentioned problems helps to make the process of teaching Chinese students Russian phraseological units more effective.
Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C. Daniel
Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services. PMID:18698403
Bradley, Renee; Doolittle, Jennifer; Bartolotta, Robert
The purpose of this article is to add to the discussion regarding identification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). In addition, the article discusses services that students with EBD receive and their outcomes. The article reviews data from several national longitudinal studies to present a comprehensive picture of issues…
Khalid, Abdulla A.
The purpose of this study was to perform an empirical investigation of the influence of select factors on the academic performance of students studying Principles of Financial Accounting (II). This study attempts to fill some of the gaps in the existing local and regional accounting education literature and to provide comparative evidence for the harmonization of international accounting education. A stepwise regression model using a sample of 205 students from the College of B...
Leiv Opstad; Lars Fallan
Several studies indicate that females perform more poorly in economic courses than their male counterparts. Other studies reveal that students' personality types affect their performance in economic courses, as well. The present study explores this issue by testing a number of interactions between gender and the Kersey-Bates temperament types in an ordered probit model explaining students' grades in Principles of Macroeconomics. The results confirm that the interaction of gender and temperame...
Rudsberg, Karin; Östman, Leif; Aaro Östman, Elisabeth
The aim is to investigate how encounters with peers affect an individual's meaning making in argumentation about socio-scientific issues, and how the individual's meaning making influences the argumentation at the collective level. The analysis is conducted using the analytical method "transactional argumentation analysis" (TAA) which enables in situ studies. TAA combines a transactional perspective on meaning making based on John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy with an argument analysis based on Toulmin's argument pattern. Here TAA is developed further to enable analysis that in detail clarifies the dynamic interplay between the individual and the collective—the intra- and the inter-personal dimensions—and the result of this interplay in terms of meaning making and learning. The empirical material in this study consists of a video-recorded lesson in a Swedish upper secondary school. The results show that the analysed student is influenced by peers when construing arguments, and thereby acts on others' reasoning when making meaning. Further, the results show that most of the additions made by the analysed student are taken further by peers in the subsequent discussion. This study shows how an individual's earlier experiences, knowledge and thinking contribute to the collective meaning making in the classroom.
Alharbi, Sultan H.
The principal purpose of this paper is to critically examine and evaluate the efficacy of the principled eclectic approach to teaching English as second/foreign language (ESL/EFL) writing to undergraduate students. The paper illustrates that this new method adapts mainstream writing pedagogies to individual needs of learners of ESL/EFL in order to…
Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Hendrik H.; McKenney, Susan
A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of
This study assesses the quality of distance learning (DL) in higher education assessed by considering the Seven Principles of Good Practice (SPGP). The participants were 77 second-year students from the Computer and Instructional Technologies Program (CEIT) of a Faculty of Education in Turkey. A questionnaire was developed in line with the SPGP…
Many students in secondary and post-secondary institutions generally have a difficult time grasping the concepts of accounting. This article contends that it is not the subject matter that is dry, but rather the methods in which faculty have traditionally presented accounting fundamentals and principles. Departing from standard lectures and…
Bollen, Lars; Van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan
A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of
Ding, Lin; Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce
We investigated students' conceptual learning of energy topics in an innovative college-level introductory mechanics course, entitled Matter & Interactions (M&I) Modern Mechanics. This course differs from traditional curricula in that it emphasizes application of a small number of fundamental principles across various scales, involving…
This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with the principles of refrigeration. Covered in the module are defining the term heat, defining the term British Thermal Unit (BTU), defining the term latent heat, listing…
Silva, João Rodrigo Santos da; Guimarães, Fernando; Sano, Paulo Takeo
The teaching of botany is characterised as being taught in a technical and uninteresting way for students. The objective of this work is to find out what students think of the way Botany is taught and their views on this as students and in the future as teachers. To achieve this objective an open questionnaire was given to first year undergraduate students studying Biological Sciences. Two hundred and twenty one students from four different Universities filled in the questionnaire. From the r...
Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera; Munn, Caitlin; Lane, Laura
In this article, we discuss how our analysis of several popular culture artifacts featuring "super" women characters (superheroes and supernatural) provided the foundation for a media discussion group for female college students with learning exceptionalities. We explore the use of popular culture in discussion groups as well as discuss…
Kolluru, Srikanth; Varughese, James T
To facilitate active academic discussions using an online, education-centered platform and reinforce concepts, in order to improve overall course outcomes. A third year integrated pharmacotherapy course was enrolled on an online searchable platform, Piazza®, to facilitate academic discussions. Students could ask, answer, and explore content, and build on submitted answers in wiki style in collaboration. Instructor posted learning objectives, endorsed student responses with correct answers and led follow-up discussions. Review sessions were conducted on this platform before all major exams. A student t-test was used to compare class performance with those of previous years. In a post-activity qualitative survey, most students appreciated the less stressful, online interaction with peers and faculty. For 15 medicinal chemistry course hours, there were 83 posts on Piazza® with 303 total contributions, 107 student responses, and 546min of group discussion time. 94% of questions received student responses and 89% of those were endorsed by the instructor. Students enjoyed pre-exam discussions, organization of the page, and reinforcing material on complex learning objectives. This discussion forum fostered personal exploration of content by the students, which led to better performance on examinations. Involving the use of an online, education-centered platform for student discussions was an effective means of increasing class engagement with the course material. Student performance on exams was significantly improved in both cohorts that utilized active learning compared to the cohort without active learning (p=0.001 and p= 0.002 respectively). Piazza® can be utilized for any course and across disciplines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carol Chunfeng Wang
Full Text Available Globalisation requires that nursing education focuses on culturally competent care. International students studying in Australia present a valuable resource for cultural learning, yet internationalisation presents opportunities and challenges for both lecturers and students. This paper explores Chinese nursing students, the single largest group of international students in Australia, their communication behaviour, patterns and learning styles at Australian universities from cultural and psychosocial perspectives. Our aim is to provide insight for educators in Western countries to better understand this particular ethnic group and help Chinese nursing students overcome learning difficulties and develop their potential learning capabilities. We further recommend coping strategies to help international Chinese nursing students' learning.
Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob
Student questioning is an important self-regulative strategy and has multiple benefits for teaching and learning science. Teachers, however, need support to align student questioning to curricular goals. This study tests a prototype of a principle-based scenario that supports teachers in guiding effective student questioning. In the scenario, mind mapping is used to provide both curricular structure as well as support for student questioning. The fidelity of structure and the process of implementation were verified by interviews, video data and a product collection. Results show that the scenario was relevant for teachers, practical in use and effective for guiding student questioning. Results also suggest that shared responsibility for classroom mind maps contributed to more intensive collective knowledge construction.
Boardman, Alison G.; Boelé, Amy L.; Klingner, Janette K.
This study examined how teacher and student interactions were influenced by a multistrategy reading model, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), where students learn to apply before-, during-, and after-reading strategies in small cooperative learning groups. Five middle school English language arts teachers and their students (N = 184)…
Zhao Da Wei
Full Text Available This article explores the current situation of university students taking part time jobs as tutors in families. This is very popular in China, especially in cities and towns. After systematic investigations, the author suggests that the office of student affairs in Chinese universities should play a substantial role by providing opportunities for these students to become better tutors.
Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra
Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science…
Brame, Cynthia J.
Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the video; and how to promote active learning from the video. This essay reviews literature relevant to each of these principles and suggests practical ways instructors can use these principles when using video as an educational tool. PMID:27789532
E-learning is an important trend globally that is believed to enhance the acquisition of knowledge by students within and outside the classroom to improve their academic pursuit. The Online Discussion Forum (ODF) is one of the tools that are used for e-learning in Nigerian universities. It facilitates interaction among postgraduate students as…
Engle, Randi A.; Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.; McKinney de Royston, Maxine
It is commonly observed that during classroom or group discussions some students have greater influence than may be justified by the normative quality of those students' contributions. We propose a 5-component theoretical framework in order to explain how undue influence unfolds. We build on literatures on persuasion, argumentation, discourse, and…
Hajhosseini, Mansoureh; Zandi, Saeid; Hosseini Shabanan, Sediqeh; Madani, Yaser
Following the failures in traditional methods of teaching, theorists have recently emphasized students' active role in education in which the teacher is no longer a mere transmitter of knowledge. Discussion-based teaching has been regarded as a route to improving students' active role. The current study intended to discover the benefits of using…
Sasmita, E.; Edriati, S.; Yunita, A.
Related to the math score of the first semester in class at seventh grade of MTSN Model Padang which much the score that low (less than KKM). It because of the students who feel less involved in learning process because the teacher don't do assessment the discussions. The solution of the problem is discussion assessment in Cooperative Learning Model type Numbered Head Together. This study aims to determine whether the discussion assessment in NHT effect on student learning outcomes of class VII MTsN Model Padang. The instrument used in this study is discussion assessment and final tests. The data analysis technique used is the simple linear regression analysis. Hypothesis test results Fcount greater than the value of Ftable then the hypothesis in this study received. So it concluded that the assessment of the discussion in NHT effect on student learning outcomes of class VII MTsN Model Padang.
Aronoff, Nell; Stellrecht, Elizabeth; Lyons, Amy G; Zafron, Michelle L; Glogowski, Maryruth; Grabowski, Jeremiah; Ohtake, Patricia J
The research assessed online learning modules designed to teach health professions students evidence-based practice (EBP) principles in an interprofessional context across two institutions. Students from nine health professions at two institutions were recruited to participate in this pilot project consisting of two online learning modules designed to prepare students for an in-person case-based interprofessional activity. Librarians and an instructional designer created two EBP modules. Students' competence in EBP was assessed before and after the modules as well as after the in-person activity. Students evaluated the online learning modules and their impact on the students' learning after the in-person session. A total of 39 students from 8 health professions programs participated in the project. Average quiz scores for online EBP module 1 and module 2 were 83% and 76%, respectively. Following completion of the learning modules, adapted Fresno test of competence in EBP scores increased ( p =0.001), indicating that the modules improved EBP skill competence. Student evaluations of the learning modules were positive. Students indicated that they acquired new information skills that contributed to their ability to develop a patient care plan and that they would use these information skills in their future clinical practice. Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.
Hewitt, Paul G.
Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…
Valery G. Tylets
Full Text Available The article considers the problem of professional training of students in e-learning environment in accordance with the principle of security. The authors offer the essay technology of multiple difficulty levels. In the article the description of each level of technology proves its conformity to the positions of principle of security. The main methods of measurement performance were made by expert assessment and subjective scaling. The analysis of results of approbation of essay technology of multiple difficulty levels in the experimental sample showed an increase of objective and subjective indicators. Positive methodological and personal effects of the introduction of technology into the process of university education were identified, corresponding to the positions of principle of security. Methodical recommendations of application of technology were formulated.
Full Text Available The research objective was to determine (1 the development of values from the second principle of Pancasila for sixth graders; (2 what are the constraints of sixth grade teachers in developing the values of the second principle of Pancasila; (3 the solution from teachers to overcome the obstacles in developing the values to the learners. Data were collected using an open questionnaire. Informants were the teachers of sixth graders. Data were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion/ verification. To develop the values of the second principle of Pancasila: (a students needed the examples from various stakeholders such as teachers, parents and community leaders; (b the problem is the selfish attitude of learners who did not cooperate with their friends; (c the solution suggested were having patience and diligence.
The paper compares discussions in 12 groups of university students (6 Slovak and 6 Scottish) equal in sex and age. The participants discussed the same problem--how to control the spread of HIV/AIDS and respect medical confidentiality (MC). Systematic comparisons revealed striking differences between the two national groups. The Scottish…
Scott, Heather Inez Ricks
This article examines the use of a book discussion as an instructional tool for developing leadership competency skills in female university students. A book discussion centered on Sheryl Sandberg's book "Lean In" was held as a means to conceptualize discourse regarding leadership issues in the arena of women and leadership in a…
Harrison, G.; Mulloy, B.; Harris, A.; Flinton, D.
In 2009 an asynchronous on-line case discussion assessment was introduced, to replace an existing traditional case study assessment, within the Medical Ultrasound Programmes at City University London, to help extend collaborative, inter-professional student-led learning skills. Two clinical modules were used to develop the on-line learning method with associated assessments. Students selected and led a clinical case from their department, uploaded anonymised images and case details with questions, to encourage interaction from other colleagues. Thirty students participated in the on-line case discussions. The assessment was evaluated via informal feedback, end of module feedback and an on-line questionnaire. Some students completed two modules, using the on-line discussion, others were involved in only one module, of which 21 out of 26 students completed end of module feedback for the 1st module and 18 out of 20 students completed feedback from the 2nd module. Twelve students out of 30 completed the on-line questionnaire. Feedback suggested that the on-line case discussions were a good learning tool, providing a wide range of cases for students to participate in or read and learn from each other. All students found the cases interesting, engaging and useful, but time consuming. Despite the small numbers involved, useful feedback was provided to assist further development of the assessment, particularly in relation to the number of cases being assessed and length of availability. On-line case discussions are an innovative, engaging method to encourage self directed, collaborative learning which could be utilised in the health care setting to share interesting cases, promote inter-professional and self-directed learning.
Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.; Coombes, John
Research has established that intrinsic motivation has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of different technology-supported learning activities on student intrinsic motivation or whether such learning activities significantly enhance student intrinsic motivation compared to traditional…
Blings, Steffen; Maxey, Sarah
In their transition to college, students often struggle to identify and make connections between the main arguments, evidence, and empirical findings of articles from academic journals commonly assigned on political science syllabi. Which active learning techniques are most effective for teaching students to recognize and evaluate social science…
The development of college students' civic identity is understudied, but worthy of attention because of its salience to many students and higher education's commitment to fostering an engaged citizenry. Using 45,271 participants from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership, this study uses structural equation modeling to explore…
The article presents research from a practitioner research study conducted in a non-denominational Jewish secondary school. As part of the study, students created artistic works based on chapter 12 of the biblical book of Numbers. Four of the twelve student groups created works that directly engaged with their conceptions of God as represented in…
Crippen, Kent J.; Boyer, Treavor H.; Korolev, Maria; de Torres, Trisha; Brucat, Phil J.; Wu, Chang-Yu
Undergraduate engineering education in the United States is in need of reform that addresses the recruitment and retention of a diverse population of students. Change Chem is a curriculum reform model that has been created to address this issue for freshman students. This article reports on a mixed method efficacy study of Change Chem, which uses…
Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Herring, Susan C.; Hew, Khe Foon
Project-based learning engages students in problem solving through artefact design. However, previous studies of online project-based learning have focused primarily on the dynamics of online collaboration; students' knowledge construction throughout this process has not been examined thoroughly. This case study analyzed the relationship between…
Wuttiprom, Sura; Toeddhanya, Khanti; Buachoom, Aakapong; Wuttisela, Karntarat
In decades Peer Instruction (PI) has been confirmed that it can improve students' conceptual understanding. Anyway the main problem for using PI is an audience responding system which is required for gathering students' answer, to enhance the learning process of PI instead of using Clickers which cost about 40 USD per item. In this work we decided…
Full Text Available Approximately one million international students were enrolled at U.S. universities in the academic year 2015–2016, and the number has been steadily rising since. Although these students aim to increase intercultural communication skills, international knowledge, and critical thinking skills, some international students experience difficulty participating in class discussion. Several studies have revealed a range of obstacles to full participation in in-class discussions, including language, cultural differences, academic differences, and social isolation. Among these barriers, some studies have identified emotional factors that significantly affect learning. This study was an in-depth exploration of the adverse emotional factors that impede discussion participation. Using a qualitative approach, twenty-three international students at one university were interviewed, and their responses analyzed. Students reported that fear, embarrassment, social isolation, judgment and discrimination were barriers to participation. These findings are discussed in the context of a framework for reducing negative emotional states, employing self-efficacy theory. This framework was applied to the interview results and the author’s observation of international students’ behavior in dormitories and university offices. These findings suggest a possible intervention approach for educators to help international students express themselves in the classroom.
BARKER, RICHARD L.
TWENTY-TWO OHIO HIGH SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TO 262 JUNIOR AND SENIOR STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY TO MEASURE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS DESIGNED TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES WHEN USED IN TEACHING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOL…
Cokely, Dennis R.
The paper reviews issues in evaluating the manual communications skills of pre-college hearing impaired students, including testing of visual discrimination and visual memory, simultaneous communication, and attention span. (CL)
Gonzalez, Kenneth P.
The Achieving the Dream (ATD) initiative works with more than 100 community colleges across the United States with the specific goal of increasing student success. Together, Achieving the Dream colleges graduate or transfer close to 250,000 students a year. With just a 5 percent increase in graduation rates, individuals can positively impact the…
Pang Weng Ian
Full Text Available Shift report is an essential method for nursing staff to carry out health care communication. The most important purpose of the shift report is to ensure the safety of patients and to provide continuous care. Nursing students are inadequate of clinical experience and rational organization during patient care. They may not be able to handle the critically ill patients and pass the messages to the following nursing staff. ISBAR (Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation tool is increasingly being utilized as a format for structured shift report communication. In this study, a scale of ISBAR principles is designed to provide students with self-assessment and teachers with evaluation, in a way to improve nursing students’ self-awareness of shift report. Hopefully, with the use of the scale of ISBAR, nursing students are able to complete shift report in systemic integrity and orderliness during clinical placement.
Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder
Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.
Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenjing; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Sun, Jianwen; Liu, Sannyuya
As an overt expression of internal mental processes, discourses have become one main data source for the research of interactive learning. To deeply explore behavioral regularities among interactions, this article firstly adopts the content analysis method to summarize students' engagement patterns within a course forum in a small private online…
Yannuzzi, Thomas J.; Martin, Daniela
The current paper explores the discursive complexities of teaching and learning in inclusive, critically oriented classrooms. It argues that to accomplish the ontological goals of higher learning, we need to focus on the construction of student voice, or the ability to be considered in and have influence on teaching and learning. The paper further…
Learners' identity is considered a resource, but is also assumed to conflict with impartial history learning practices. This empirical study explores the relationship between learners' social identity and their historical practices and understanding. Sixty-four Jewish-Israeli 12th-grade students of Mizrahi and Ashkenazi ethnicities studied a…
The Utrecht School of Journalism has a long tradition in international higher education. The School’s European Culture & European Journalism (ED&EJ) programme is an example of a pedagogical practice in higher education where advanced students learn how to perform in an international context.
Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf
This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…
French postsecondary education for 16- to 19-year-olds is divided into programs that lead to the Baccalaureats--general, technical, and vocational--and to the lower-level Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnel (CAP) and Brevet d'Etudes Professionnelles (BEP). A common mathematics core curriculum is specified for all CAP students, regardless of…
Akman, Özkan; Alagöz, Bülent
Form of inquiry should be based on cognitive approach, student-centered, question and inquiry-based, free of memorization and focused on high-level cognitive skills (critical-creative thinking and problem-solving) rather than conventional teacher-centered teaching and learning based on memorization and behavioral approach. The life quality of…
Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan
A total of 370 counselor educators in CACREP-accredited [Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs] programs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of master's students' problems of professional competence (PPC) and their perception of roadblocks that affect gatekeeping practices. Findings suggest that educators…
Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter
College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.
Full Text Available Brad WolgastCenter for Counseling and Student Development, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USAI was recently directed to, “Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students”, from Hershner and Chervin.1 As a psychologist who specializes in treating college student sleep problems, I was very pleased to see this article. Overall, it is a gem: thorough, well-conceived, and thoughtful. However, I have concerns about two sections. First, on page 74, Hershner and Chervin1 write, “How much sleep a young adult needs is not clearly known, but is thought to be 8 hours.” They then cite Wehr et al2 as well as Van Dongen et al.3 These choices are surprising as reference for the assertion that young adults need approximately 8 hours of sleep.View original paper by Hershner and Chervin.
Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H
The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.
Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen
This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole…
Burder, Ronan L.; Tangalaki, Kathy; Hryciw, Deanne H.
Content based language instruction can assist English as a second language (ESL) students to achieve better learning and teaching outcomes, however, it is primarily used to understand content, and may not help to develop critical analysis skills. Here we describe a pilot study that used a "Socratic" small-group discussion in addition to…
Nielsen, J. A.
'. As a preliminary step, this study investigated how Danish upper secondary biology students actually interwove science facts and values in socio-scientific discussions. In particular, the focus was the argumentative effects of different ways of blurring the fact-value distinction. The data consisted...
Kochis, Bruce; Gillespie, Diane
In this contribution to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor as a fruitful heuristic for qualitative analysis, the authors re-analyzed transcripts of college student discussions of problematic situations involving cultural diversity and interpersonal conflict. The authors show how they identified metaphorical linguistic expressions and…
Pulcini, C; Wencker, F; Frimodt-Møller, N; Kern, W V; Nathwani, D; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Simonsen, G S; Vlahović-Palčevski, V; Gyssens, I C
We surveyed European medical schools regarding teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing in the undergraduate curriculum. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 13 European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom) in 2013. Proportional sampling was used, resulting in the selection of two to four medical schools per country. A standardized questionnaire based on literature review and validated by a panel of experts was sent to lecturers in infectious diseases, medical microbiology and clinical pharmacology. In-depth interviews were conducted with four lecturers. Thirty-five of 37 medical schools were included in the study. Prudent antibiotic use principles were taught in all but one medical school, but only four of 13 countries had a national programme. Interactive teaching formats were used less frequently than passive formats. The teaching was mandatory for 53% of the courses and started before clinical training in 71%. We observed wide variations in exposure of students to important principles of prudent antibiotic use among countries and within the same country. Some major principles were poorly covered (e.g. reassessment and duration of antibiotic therapy, communication skills). Whereas 77% of the respondents fully agreed that the teaching of these principles should be prioritized, lack of time, mainly due to rigid curriculum policies, was the main reported barrier to implementation. Given the study design, these are probably optimistic results. Teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing principles should be improved. National and European programmes for development of specific learning outcomes or competencies are urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neill, Mark; Hayward, Karen S; Peterson, Teri
This study examined students' perceptions of interprofessional practice within a framework of servant leadership principles, applied in the care of rural older adults utilizing a service learning model. Mobile wellness services were provided through the Idaho State University Senior Health Mobile project in a collaborative team approach in the community-based setting. Students from varied health professional programs were placed in teams for the provision of wellness care, with communication among team members facilitated by a health professions faculty member serving as field coordinator. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was used to measure students' perceptions of interprofessional practice using a pretest post-test research design. Multivariate analysis was performed revealing a significant pretest to post-test effect on students' perceptions as measured by factors inherent in the IEPS and deemed essential to effective interprofessional practice. Univariate analysis revealed a significant change in students' perception of professional competence and autonomy, actual cooperation and resource sharing within and across professions, and an understanding of the value and contributions of other professionals from pretest to post-test.
Christopher N. Amos Sr.
Full Text Available This paper examines a group of graduate students and their previous experiences with online education, various teaching and learning online tools, and their perceptions on the effectiveness of these tools as it relates to their learning, interpersonal skills and communication. This paper presents the graduate student's self-reported educational experience at a regional state university in the southeast United States in a 100% online Master's Degree program. The data was collected through the use of a 28 open-ended question survey, which was completed by a group of 127 graduate students and the findings produced six main findings, which were: 1 The respondents indicated at a high percentage (85% a high level (level 4, 5 and 6 of technology use and understanding. 2 The majority of the respondents (97% indicated they preferred live synchronous sessions rather than discussion boards for learning content and communication. 3 The majority of the respondents (72% indicated that when choosing future courses, the inclusion of discussion boards in a course was not important (34% or somewhat unimportant (38%. 4 100% of the respondents indicated that Live Elluminate Sessions were Highly Effective (65% or Somewhat Effective (35%, as it pertained to understanding the content. 5 Respondents indicated that 59% (12% Highly Effective, 47% Somewhat Effective of the respondents indicated discussion boards as an impactful way of learning content at the graduate level. It also shows that 41% (22% Somewhat Ineffective, 19% Not Effective. This study helps universities identify the importance of synchronous learning in a digital format when delivering online teaching and learning. There is a clear change in the needs of students enrolled in 100% online courses, which will force university faculty to increase the synchronous interaction between them and their students and between the students and their peers. Keywords: Synchronous learning, discussion boards, Blackboard
Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Ahmad, Awaatif
Past research revealed that students and society, in general, are relatively under-skilled in performing the practice of Islamic funeral management which is one of the "ibadah fardu kifayah" (a legal obligation that must be discharged by the Muslim community as a whole) in Islam. Participation among youth in managing funerals is relatively low, partly due to the ineffectiveness of the instructional approach. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the signaling principle in virtual reality courseware pertaining to the topic of Islamic Funeral Management in the Islamic Education subject to ensure the accomplishment of transfer learning among students with different spatial abilities. The study comprises of two phases namely the courseware development phase and treatment phase. The courseware development employs the Instructional Design Model by Alessi and Trollip. Besides that, the courseware is integrated with components of CLE, principles in Theory of CATLM and signaling principle in multimedia learning. The sample consisted of 130 Form Two students who were selected randomly from four Malaysian secondary schools. They were divided into two experimental groups with 63 students in group one and 67 students in group two. The experimental group one used VR courseware without the signaling principle (VRTI) while experimental group two used the VR courseware with the signaling principle (VRDI). The experiment lasted for three weeks. ANOVA was utilised to analyse the data from this research. The findings showed significant differences between students who used VRDI in the transfer of learning compared to students who used VRTI.
The current study describes the development of a content analysis coding scheme to examine transcripts of online asynchronous discussion groups in higher education. The theoretical framework comprises the theories regarding knowledge construction in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) based on a sociocultural perspective. The coding…
Farenga, Stephen J.; Niess, Daniel; Hutchinson, Michael
Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine. We explain how practitioners in veterinary medicine harvest animal stem cells from adipose (fat) tissue in treating pet illness or injury. Further, we narrate…
Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong
As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
Imakyure, Osamu; Shuto, Hideki; Nishikawa, Fumi; Hagiwara, Yoshifuka; Inoue, Sachiko; Koyanagi, Taeko; Hirakawa, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yasufumi
The acquirement of basic knowledge of clinical trials and professional attitude in their practices is a general instructional objective in the Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education. Unfortunately, the previous program of clinical trial education was not effective in the acquirement of a professional attitude in their practices. Then, we developed the new clinical trial education program using protocol through small group discussion (SGD) and roll-playing. Our program consists of 7 steps of practical training. In step 1, the students find some problems after presentation of the protocol including case and prescription. In step 2, they analyse the extracted problems and share the information obtained in SGD. In steps 3 and 5, five clinical case scenarios are presented to the students and they discuss which case is suitable for entry to the clinical trial or which case corresponds to the discontinuance criteria in the present designed protocol. In steps 4 and 6, the roll-playing is performed by teachers and students as doctors and clinical research coordinators (CRC) respectively. Further, we conducted a trial practice based on this program for the students. In the student's self-evaluation into five grades, the average score of the skill acquisition level in each step was 3.8-4.7 grade. Our clinical trial education program could be effective in educating the candidates for CRC or clinical pharmacists.
Salemi, Michael K.
One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…
Jameson, A. Keith
Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on Le Chatelier's principle includes objectives, prerequisites, pretest, instructions for executing the computer program, and…
The author uses data from two Principles of Microeconomics courses to examine differences in characteristics and performance of online versus face-to-face students. The analysis indicates that even in a traditional institution, the two delivery modes may be serving students with distinctly different backgrounds and characteristics. In terms of…
BARKER, RICHARD L.; BENDER, RALPH E.
TWENTY-TWO SELECTED OHIO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND 262 JUNIOR AND SENIOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY TO MEASURE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS DESIGNED TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN FARM MANAGEMENT. FARM MANAGEMENT WAS TAUGHT IN THE…
Crawley, Josephine Mary
Narrative pedagogy influences many areas of nursing education, with emphasis on the co-constructing of narrative between students, educators, and clinicians. Little has been written about published children's literature as a basis for narrative discussion in nursing education. This article describes how narrative pedagogy already works within nursing education and explores features of children's picture books that give them value as a narrative educational tool for nursing students, providing stories that encourage self-understanding and deconstruct the multiple realities of narratives about the human condition.
Wang, Xiaoping; Cai, Peijun; Liu, Yuling; Wang, Liqiang; Liang, Yiyong
Courses are an important way of cultivating talents in college education. Advanced training schemes and the course system are implemented through course teaching. Advanced teaching notions and methods also rely on course teaching. Therefore, the quality of course teaching is the fundamental guarantor for grooming talent. The teachers of the course "Microcontroller Principles and Interface Techniques" in the Optical Science and Engineering College of Zhejiang University insist on course teaching becoming student centered and ability-training-oriented. They pay attention to students'all-round development in terms of learning ability, practical ability, innovation ability, and exploring spirit. They actively carried out course reforms in four aspects, namely teaching, learning, evaluation, and experimentation. This paper mainly introduced these reforms. First, the teaching method was reformed by introducing case analysis and the notion of a flipped classroom to shift the course focus from the teacher to the students. Second, the learning method was reformed through the use of techniques such as peer learning and project design to promote students' sense of enquiry and learning initiative. Third, the evaluation method was reformed through the use of process assessment and diversity evaluation to encourage students to develop logical thinking and a down-to-earth manner. Fourth, the experimentation method was reformed by introducing hierarchical content, process management, and diversification of examination to change students'learning attitude from "dependence, passivity, and imitation" to "independence, active involvement, and creation."In general, the teaching method reform promoted reforms in learning, evaluation, and experimentation methods and further improved the style of study. These reforms improved teachers' teaching abilities and enabled course teaching to transform from being teacher centered to student centered. Years of exploration and practice results have
Banerjee, Arna; Slagle, Jason M; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Booker, Ray; Miller, Anne; France, Daniel J; Rawn, Lisa; Weinger, Matthew B
Failures of teamwork and interpersonal communication have been cited as a major patient safety issue. Although healthcare is increasingly being provided in interdisciplinary teams, medical school curricula have traditionally not explicitly included the specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors required to function effectively as part of such teams. As part of a new "Foundations" core course for beginning medical students that provided a two-week introduction to the most important themes in modern healthcare, a multidisciplinary team, in collaboration with the Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment, was asked to create an experiential introduction to teamwork and interpersonal communication. We designed and implemented a novel, all-day course to teach second-week medical students basic teamwork and interpersonal principles and skills using immersive simulation methods. Students' anonymous comprehensive course evaluations were collected at the end of the day. Through four years of iterative refinement based on students' course evaluations, faculty reflection, and debriefing, the course changed and matured. Four hundred twenty evaluations were collected. Course evaluations were positive with almost all questions having means and medians greater than 5 out of 7 across all 4 years. Sequential year comparisons were of greatest interest for examining the effects of year-to-year curricular improvements. Differences were not detected among any of the course evaluation questions between 2007 and 2008 except that more students in 2008 felt that the course further developed their "Decision Making Abilities" (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07-2.67). With extensive changes to the syllabus and debriefer selection/assignment, concomitant improvements were observed in these aspects between 2008 and 2009 (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.28-3.50). Substantive improvements in specific exercises also yielded significant improvements in the evaluations of those exercises. This
Full Text Available Megan C Riddle,1,* Jiahui Lin,3,* Jonathan B Steinman,2 Joshua D Salvi,2 Margaret M Reynolds,3 Anne S Kastor,3,† Christina Harris,4 Carla Boutin-Foster3 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, 2Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan-Kettering Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 4Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, LA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work †Anne S Kastor passed away on July 5, 2013. Abstract: As the health care delivery landscape changes, medical schools must develop creative strategies for preparing future physicians to provide quality care in this new environment. Despite the growing prominence of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH as an effective model for health care delivery, few medical schools have integrated formal education on the PCMH into their curricula. Incorporating the PCMH model into medical school curricula is important to ensure that students have a comprehensive understanding of the different models of health care delivery and can operate effectively as physicians. The authors provide a detailed description of the process by which the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC, a student-run free clinic, has integrated PCMH principles into a service-learning initiative. The authors assessed patient demographics, diagnoses, and satisfaction along with student satisfaction. During the year after a PCMH model was adopted, 112 students and 19 licensed physicians volunteered their time. A review of the 174 patients seen from July 2011 to June 2012 found that the most common medical reasons for visits included management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, anxiety, and depression. During the year after the adoption of the PCMH model, 87
Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman
Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better
This article describes a study which explored the social interaction and the reproduction and challenge of gendered discourses in small group discussions in physics. Data for the study consisted of video recordings of eight upper secondary school groups solving physics problems and 15 audiotaped individual interviews with participating students.…
Full Text Available E-learning is an important trend globally that is believed to enhance the acquisition of knowledge by students within and outside the classroom to improve their academic pursuit. The Online Discussion Forum (ODF is one of the tools that are used for e-learning in Nigerian universities. It facilitates interaction among postgraduate students as they can communicate and share information sources with one another to promote learning. However, the optimum use of this forum is determined by anchor factors in TAM 3 such as computer self-efficacy, perceptions of external control, computer anxiety and computer playfulness. A conceptual model based on TAM 3 was proposed and empirically tested. Using a survey research design and an online questionnaire for 121 Library and Information Science (LIS postgraduate students, the paper demonstrated that computer self-efficacy, perceptions of external control, computer anxiety and computer playfulness have significant influence on the use of ODF. The paper therefore proposes that Online Discussion Forums should be encouraged for learning in postgraduate education.
Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda
The purpose of this paper is to present elements of a discussion on the discipline of nursing that arose from a student-faculty exchange programme, as a reflection of the experiences the students and faculty had during the 3-year exchange. It suggests that the globalization of health and the international migration of nurses might prove to be an opportunity for nurses to learn more about nursing practice. It became apparent to the participants that the phenomenon of nursing, although understood by them all, was not easy to describe, and words used in Swedish, Finnish or British or American English were often not easy to interpret or explain. These reflections were noted by the authors when the group came together to plan the programme and design experiences for the participants. We were concerned how nursing could contribute to health-care improvement globally if it wasn't universally understood within the four countries concerned.
E. I. Zadorozhnaya
Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to demonstrate the implementation of general methodological principles of optional elementary school online foreign languages learning on an example of a virtual course for students of the second and third grades.Methods. The methods involve pedagogical modeling and projecting; the experience of foreign and Russian methodists, teachers and researchers is analysed, generalized and adjusted to the modern realias.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the requirements of the state educational standard and interest of pupils in computer games, the author’s technique of the combined facultative educational activities integrated to training in English at elementary school is developed. Online training in the form of games (additional to the major classroom activities gives a possibility of the choice of tasks interesting to children, studying the material at optimum comfortable and individual speed; it is possible to perform the tasks at home excluding the stressful situations that are specific to school examination, and allows pupils to master most effectively personal, metasubject and object competences. In general context of quality improvement of the general education, the modernization of educational process assumes not only justification of its new maintenance, but also restructuring of scientific and methodical support which has to meet essential needs of teachers and pupils, to facilitate access to necessary specific information. The lack of methodical base of creation of electronic distance resources for foreign-language education of younger school students has motivated the author to create own methodical concept of online training taking into account age of pupils. The complex of the general methodical principles is thoroughly considered; based on the general methodical principles, the proposed modular technique of the organization of an online class is created and implemented. Interactive blocks are
This paper explores ethical dilemmas in situated fieldwork ethics concerning ethnographic studies of adolescent students. While consequentialist and deontological ethics form the basis of the ethical stances shared by ethnographers and research ethics committees, the interpretation of those principles may diverge in school-based ethnography with adolescent students because of the particular role of the adult ethnographer vis-à-vis developmentally immature adolescents not held legally responsible for many of their actions. School ethnographers attempt to build trust with adolescent participants in order to learn about their hidden cultural worlds, which may involve activities that are very harmful to the youths involved. They face many difficult and sometimes unexpected choices, including whether to intervene and how to represent events and adolescents in published findings. Scenarios with examples drawn from research conducted in public high schools are used to illustrate and explicate dilemmas in formal research and latent insider/outsider roles and relations involving harmful adolescent behaviors, advocacy, and psychological trauma. Also examined are analytical procedures used to construct interpretations leading to representations of research participants in the resulting publication.
Pilar, Frank L.
Discusses whether chemistry should be taught using a purely descriptive approach or using the current "principles" approach. Considers what sort of background should be provided given the uses students are most apt to make of their general chemistry training. (SK)
Ragan, James F., Jr.; Walia, Bhavneet
The authors analyze 19 semesters of student evaluations at Kansas State University. Faculty member fixed effects are sizable and indicate that among faculty members who teach both types of courses, the best principles teachers also tend to be the best nonprinciples teachers. Estimates that ignore faculty effects are biased because principles…
LaFleur, Elizabeth K.; Babin, Laurie A.; Lopez, Tara Burnthorne
This article describes the process one marketing faculty followed to demonstrate assurance of learning for marketing students and presents longitudinal results associated with a course-embedded direct assessment device in the Principles of Marketing course. The process follows closely the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business…
Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.
Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…
This article presents a review of extant research on student dropout in Norway, originally undertaken as part of a systematic review. The article contextualizes the foundational principle of equality as championed by the welfare state and identifies the significance of dropout in upper secondary education in Norway. The article then assesses…
Rystrom, David S.
The author taught two sections of Principles of Finance in two different years. The courses were identical, except that in the second section, in 2004, students had access to the solutions manual for the answers to the many assigned practice problems which constituted a large proportion of the exam material. The author found that student…
Gilleskie, Donna B.; Salemi, Michael K.
In a typical economics principles course, students encounter a large number of concepts. In a literacy-targeted course, students study a "short list" of concepts that they can use for the rest of their lives. While a literacy-targeted principles course provides better education for nonmajors, it may place economic majors at a…
V. V. Guzikova
Full Text Available Introduction. In modern education, against the backdrop of rapidly increasing processes of informatization and globalization as well as the requirements of specialists’ mobility, one of the priorities is vocational-oriented education in foreign languages. It ensures the formation of students’ ability to communicate in foreign languages in specific professional, business, scientific spheres and situations, taking into account the peculiarities of their future profession. The aims of this article are the following: to reveal the peculiarities of the organization of teaching foreign languages in the master’s degree of a non-linguistic high school; to present effective methods, approaches, and techniques of working with master students of the direction of “Musical Education”. Methodology and research methods. In the process of the research, such theoretical scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, specification, and generalization were used. The experimental design of the present study was based on the concept of Lifelong Learning. The methods of interview, observation and testing were applied. Results and scientific novelty. The authors have developed a set of exercises for mastering the skills of conducting a scientific discussion by the master students of the direction “Music Education”. The proposed technique has a cross-disciplinary character. It is designed to teach the students how to effectively communicate with colleagues in a foreign (English language when performing professional tasks, including scientific and research activities. The samples of particular tasks are given. Practical significance. The research materials may be of interest to methodologists, educators, and teachers of the system of continuous professional education.
罗克品; 王海艳; 杨明
Based on clearing the significance of medical propaganda in hospital construction and charateristics of medical services, it addressed that medical media should follow the medical ethical principles of integrity, nonprofit, beneficence, confidentiality and moderate, in order to solve the current problems and promote the sustainable development of medical media, reflect the social values of hospital rather than perform a purely profit-maximizing business behavior.%在明确医疗宣传在医院建设发展中的重要作用及医疗服务特点的基础上,针对现阶段医疗宣传中存在的一些问题,提出医疗宣传应当遵循诚信、公益性、有利、保密、适度等伦理原则,以促进医疗宣传可持续发展,最大程度地体现医院社会价值,而不是单纯追求利润最大化的商业行为.
Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob
Student questioning is an important learning strategy, but rare in many classrooms, because teachers have concerns if these questions contribute to attaining curricular objectives. Teachers face the challenge of making student questioning effective for learning the curriculum. To address this challenge, a principle-based scenario for guiding effective student questioning was developed and tested for its relevance and practicality in two previous studies. In the scenario, which consists of a sequence of pedagogical activities, mind maps support teachers and students to explore and elaborate upon a core curriculum, by raising, investigating, and exchanging student questions. In this paper, a follow-up study is presented that tested the effectiveness of the scenario on student outcomes in terms of attainment of curricular objectives. Ten teachers and their 231 students participated in the study. Pre- and posttest mind maps were used to measure individual and collective learning outcomes of student questioning. Findings show that a majority of students progressed in learning the core curriculum and elaborated upon it. The findings suggest that visualizing knowledge construction in a shared mind map supports students to learn a core curriculum and to refine their knowledge structures.
Robert Joseph McKee
Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.
Vocabulary plays important roles in mastering English. Vocabulary refers to all words in the whole language used in a particular variety. In this case, the students have some problems. The problems about difficult in mastering vocabulary, that the students are lack of vocabularies, the students often get difficult in expressing their ideas, the students have low motivation. The students felt unsatisfactory in their results. It's caused the students are lack of practice and lack vocabulary to ...
Hintergraeber, M.; Wittmann, R.
A new concept for the seismic design of npp was drafted in Germany. This new concept is thought to be a substitute of the existing safety standard KTA 2201.1 'Basic principles of the design of npp against seismic events' (issued 6/75). The aim of this presentation is to give a survey of the present stage of the relevant discussions within the regulatory committees. (orig.)
Bird, J O
Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients
Laura Castellano Ramírez
Full Text Available This article is centered in detecting the presence of comunication towards the student sector, like a formal element in the redaccion of the organization basic principles (OBP of La Universidad del Zulia, such as Mision, Vision, Values, Polítics, Objectives and Strategies. Starting from the theoric approach of that the OBP conform the basic component of the Corporative Identity, in wish are rised the other three: the organizational beheivier, the simbology or visual identity and the comunication. Through the documentary research it has concluded that the communication towards the student community is not taken in count in the redaction of the basic principles, it is mentioned only in the comunicational politic but in a very general way.
Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin
Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…
Researchers often use focus groups to collect data for qualitative research, but focus groups can also be used by organizational leaders to articulate participants' values or principles--principles that can be used to guide organizational change. This paper examines one staff's mobilization of a focus group to collect data for a research study…
Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero; Javier Marrero Acosta; Marco Antonio Moreira
Following a discussion of Johnson-Laird's mental models theory, we report a study regarding high school students mental representations of cell, understood as mental models. Research findings suggest the appropriatedness of such a theory as a framework to interpret students' representations.
Bakon, Shannon; Craft, Judy; Christensen, Martin; Wirihana, Lisa
To explore if active learning principles be applied to nursing bioscience assessments and will this influence student perception of confidence in applying theory to practice? A review of the literature utilising searches of various databases including CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar and Mosby's Journal Index. The literature search identified research from twenty-six original articles, two electronic books, one published book and one conference proceedings paper. Bioscience has been identified as an area that nurses struggle to learn in tertiary institutions and then apply to clinical practice. A number of problems have been identified and explored that may contribute to this poor understanding and retention. University academics need to be knowledgeable of innovative teaching and assessing modalities that focus on enhancing student learning and address the integration issues associated with the theory practice gap. Increased bioscience education is associated with improved patient outcomes therefore by addressing this "bioscience problem" and improving the integration of bioscience in clinical practice there will subsequently be an improvement in health care outcomes. From the literature several themes were identified. First there are many problems with teaching nursing students bioscience education. These include class sizes, motivation, concentration, delivery mode, lecturer perspectives, student's previous knowledge, anxiety, and a lack of confidence. Among these influences the type of assessment employed by the educator has not been explored or identified as a contributor to student learning specifically in nursing bioscience instruction. Second that educating could be achieved more effectively if active learning principles were applied and the needs and expectations of the student were met. Lastly, assessment influences student retention and the student experience and as such assessment should be congruent with the subject content, align with the learning
Sutherland, Peter E
Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. . Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers
Conclusions: Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.
This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…
Approximately one million international students were enrolled at U.S. universities in the academic year 2015-2016, and the number has been steadily rising since. Although these students aim to increase intercultural communication skills, international knowledge, and critical thinking skills, some international students experience difficulty…
Pai, Aditi; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Lee, Mark; Stovall, Kyndra; McGinnis, Gene
We adopted Facebook as part of a large enrollment science discussion class in a bid to exploit students' time on this social networking site and tested the effectiveness of this "co-option" strategy of creating education-related activity on Facebook for our students. We used a "Facebook Group" to create an online avenue for…
Hankerson, Pamela S.
The following is a discussion on student level of academic achievement, specifically that of African American learners. The misdiagnosis of Black students having learning disabilities and other disabilities will be examined, and the factors as to why this misdiagnosis occurs so often. Research will be provided as evidence to support this claim, as…
Walls, Jill K.; Hall, Scott S.
Past research has drawn attention to the unique challenges for students of color attending predominantly white colleges and universities, yet few have focused on the classroom as a micro-context in which race-related discussions often occur. Using a focus group methodology, 22 African American undergraduate students from a variety of academic…
Hansford, Candace; Ely, Gretchen E.; Flaherty, Chris; Meyer-Adams, Nancy
The purpose of this article is to describe student perceptions of their experiences around social justice discussions in the social work classroom through a qualitative, grounded theory framework. Student responses from a qualitative section of a survey were analyzed and sorted into three categories: perceived discrimination, heightened…
Alshahrani, Hamed A.; Walker, David A.
This exploratory, descriptive study examined instructor and female student attitudes toward asynchronous online discussion (AOD) in Saudi Arabia. Preliminary results, derived from an attitudinal-based survey, indicated that, in aggregate, instructors and students had positive attitudes toward using AOD at a female institution of higher education…
Kohen, Andrew I.; Kipps, Paul H.
Reports results of a study of economics students to test the effect of time and other factors affecting retention, to develop an instrument to measure the rate of depreciation of the student's stock of economic knowledge, and to explore the implications of findings for the student's academic planning. (Author/KC)
de los Santos, Gilberto
A project to improve Pan American's recruitment efforts in student markets already being served, rather than seeking new markets, is described. The project had two target groups: students accepted but not enrolled, and students who had left the university in good academic standing before graduating. Favorable results were achieved at low cost.…
Ng, Kok-Mun; Smith, Shannon D.
This research partially replicated Nilsson and Anderson's "Professional Psychology: Research and Practice" (2004) study on training and supervising international students. It investigated the relationships among international counseling students' training level, acculturation, supervisory working alliance (SWA), counseling self-efficacy (COSE),…
Goldberg, Tsafrir; Schwarz, Baruch B.; Porat, Dan
A group of 64 Israeli twelfth-grade students of two different ethnic backgrounds participated in an experiment exploring the effects of argumentative design and social identity on the learning of a charged, ethnicity-related historical controversy. Students were divided into two learning conditions: an argumentative-disciplinary condition and a…
Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit
The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…
The literature on bullying is vast and this social phenomenon has been studied in depth in relation to schooling and the workplace. Between school and workplace lies higher education (HE), but there is a marked absence of published work regarding undergraduate student-to-student bullying in this setting. This theoretical paper explores possible…
Ensuring fair levels of executive directors’ remuneration: Regulation and use of principles against the use of detailed legal rules in determining the most effective approach for setting executive pay levels. A discussion
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present arguments concerning the fair levels of executive directors’ remuneration. It is argued that principles are a better way to achieve this goal. However, we also find arguments in support of detailed legal rules when dealing with this matter. Since both methods have their pros and cons the paper delivers a balanced discussion and also outlines how the executive pay is currently regulated in the UK, the United States as well as on the global scale.
Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P
For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J; Janke, Kristin K
To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought.
S. V. Dmitriev
Full Text Available At the present stage of development of education is clearly detected the movement of various social and humanitarian disciplines to interdisciplinary and Meta-study. The article is an attempt, based on an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the anthropic principles of educational technology. For the authors of the proposed theoretical and methodological basis of identified and described the basic components of the structuring of educational space and didactic methods of modeling specific professional activity in the sphere of physical culture. The article describes the principles developed by us anthropic technologies. Especially stresses the need and importance of nature conservation kulturotvoryaschego educational system and provide a subject position of students in the educational space of the university. In the latter case, a special place is given to reflexive stages of self-reflection and self-transformation of the creative person in the professional culture - the identification of "I" self-actualization "I" self-realization "I am."
The problem of basic principles of selecting materials for general courses on diverse subjects in chemical science is discussed. Relying on certain general rules and proceeding from specificity of radiochemistry, the author suggests a variant of syllabus including radiochemical and radioecological blocks intented for 48 academic hours. In methodical respect emphasis is made on theoretical material presentation in close combination with various nuclear methods used in chemical studies. 6 refs., 1 fig
Vamosi, Alexander R.; Pierce, Barbara G.; Slotkin, Michael H.
In this study, the authors employed a novel, dual approach toward the delivery of course material to assess students' satisfaction with distance learning and their perceptions of its efficacy. Students in two sections of an Introduction to Financial Accounting course received instruction that alternated between traditional, live lectures and live…
Taylor, S. A.; Goodwin, S. A.; Melton, H.; Hunter, G.
Student engagement is a significant challenge facing administrators and faculty at institutions of higher learning (Carle, Jafee, Vaughn, & Eder, 2009). While the research emphasis to this point has been on students' perceptions of overall engagement (macro-engagement) across all of their experiences within a university, the authors assert that it…
Herrera, Juan S.; Riggs, Eric M.
Sequence stratigraphy is a major research subject in the geosciences academia and the oil industry. However, the geoscience education literature addressing students' understanding of the basic concepts of sequence stratigraphy is relatively thin, and the topic has not been well explored. We conducted an assessment of 27 students' conceptions of…
Welborn, Cliff Alan; Lester, Don; Parnell, John
The American College Test (ACT) is utilized to determine academic success in business core courses at a midlevel state university. Specifically, subscores are compared to subsequent student grades in selected courses. The results indicate that ACT Mathematics and English subscores are a valid predictor of success or failure of business students in…
Gillespie, Treena L.; Parry, Richard O.
The student-as-employee metaphor emphasizes student accountability and participation in learning and provides instructors with work-oriented methods for creating a productive class environment. The authors propose that the tenets of performance management in work organizations can be applied to the classroom. In particular, they focus on three…
Full Text Available The combination of information security and criminal law in the case of usage of smart mobile phones among the students is a very relevant and current topic. Namely, the number of smart mobile phones’ users is rising daily, including among the student population, due to the need for perpetual communication and constant access to information. However, the lack of knowledge about recommendations on information security and safe use of smart mobile phone together with their disregard could lead to criminal responsibility of the users of smart mobile phones, including students. The purpose of this paper is therefore to represent the potential consequences of criminal responsibility and how to avoid it. The knowledge on safe use of smart mobile phones, their software, but also threats and safety solutions is very low among students, as the survey shows. Due to the loss, conveyance or disclosure of protected data, criminal responsibility of a user could therefore be relevant. In certain cases the juvenile criminal justice system is partly still relevant due to the students’ age, whereas in every case the students' culpability should be assessed precisely. This assessment namely distinguishes the cases, when the student is a perpetrator of a criminal act from the cases, when the student is only a victim of a criminal act due to his improper use of smart mobile phones.
Pulcini, C; Wencker, F; Frimodt-Møller, N
We surveyed European medical schools regarding teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing in the undergraduate curriculum. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 13 European countries (Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland...... the study design, these are probably optimistic results. Teaching of prudent antibiotic prescribing principles should be improved. National and European programmes for development of specific learning outcomes or competencies are urgently needed....... pharmacology. In-depth interviews were conducted with four lecturers. Thirty-five of 37 medical schools were included in the study. Prudent antibiotic use principles were taught in all but one medical school, but only four of 13 countries had a national programme. Interactive teaching formats were used less...
Jacob, Brian A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.
Education reform proposals are often based on high-profile or dramatic policy changes, many of which are expensive, politically controversial, or both. In this paper, we argue that the debates over these "flashy" policies have obscured a potentially important direction for raising student performance--namely, reforms to the management or…
Ozturk, Elif; Ucus, Sukran
Argumentation is highlighted as one of the most important activities of science education by many researchers. The main aim of this research is to examine primary school students' nature of science classes and argumentation skills in terms of their academic success in primary science classes. Thus, the main interest of the study is centered on the…
Ozturk, Elif; Ucus, Sukran
Argumentation is highlighted as one of the most important activities of science education by many researchers. The main aim of this research is to examine primary school students' nature of science classes and argumentation skills in terms of their academic success in primary science classes. Thus, the main interest of the study is centered on the…
Web based learning is considered as a breakthrough in the teaching of writing skill to the pre-service teachers at University of PGRI Semarang, Indonesia. The students should write argumentative, persuasive, and descriptive essays. This research offers significant contribution in term of the impact of web based learning on writing skill of English…
FINLAY, Nikki McIntyre; DEIS, Michael H.
The emergence of the speedily evolving world of technology has given many universities an interactive medium to facilitate teaching and learning. One such medium has been online courses, which have provided greater access to both traditional and non-traditional students. In quantitative courses such as economics, however, there are often concerns about whether students in online and on-campus sections of the same course receive equivalent educational experiences. This paper will compare stude...
The author discusses the use of the duality principle in combination with the hierarchy of algebraic operations in helping students to retain and use definitions and rules for arithmetic and geometric sequences and series. (MN)
Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan; Zhang, Zhihong
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of online assessment training, with synchronous group discussion as a key component, on subsequent web-based peer assessment results. Participants included 81 college students, mostly women, taking a business writing class. After initial submission of a draft counter-offer letter, they completed…
Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs
Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The world wide web opens up new opportunities to interconnect electronic and classroom teaching and to promote active student participation. In this project article we describe the use of internet discussion forums as part of a student-centred teaching concept of pharmacology and discuss its advantages and disadvantages based on evaluation data and current literature. Methods and Results: Final year medical students at the Technische Universität München (Munich, Germany with the elective pharmacology moderated an internet forum that allowed all students to discuss pharmacology-related questions. Evaluation results of forum participants and elective students demonstrated a learning benefit of internet forums in pharmacology teaching. Conclusion: Internet discussion forums offer an easy-to-implement and effective way to actively engage students and increase the learning benefit of electronic and classroom teaching in pharmacology. [german] Einleitung und Ziele: Das World Wide Web eröffnet neue Möglichkeiten, Online- und Präsenzlehre zu vernetzen und Studierende aktiv in die Lehre einzubinden. In dieser Projektvorstellung beschreiben wir den Einsatz von Internet-Diskussionsforen als Teil eines studentenzentrierten Lehrkonzepts in der Pharmakologie und diskutieren Vor- und Nachteile anhand von Evaluations- und Literaturdaten. Methode und Ergebnisse: Studierende im praktischen Jahr (PJ mit Wahlfach Pharmakologie übernahmen die Moderation eines Internetforums, das allen Studierenden die zeit- und ortsunabhängige Diskussion pharmakologischer Fragen aus Online- und Präsenzlehre ermöglichte. Evaluationsergebnisse von Forumsteilnehmern und PJ-Studierenden belegten den didaktischen Nutzen von Internetforen für die Pharmakologieausbildung. Schlussfolgerung: Internet-Diskussionsforen bieten eine effektive Möglichkeit, Studierende aktiv in die Lehre einzubinden und den Lernerfolg von Online- und Präsenzlehre zu fördern.
Brown, Dale; Bateman, David N.
Through the student activities of the Profession and Career Package (PAC), general principles taught in an introductory business course, "Principles of Management," are made relevant to students' future career plans. The development of the PAC approach, its objectives, and student reaction to this method are discussed. (JMD)
when they learn a disciplinary area and in this context design strategies for investigations and project writing. Due to the massification of education and research (Gibbons 1998, 2005) in most universities the tendency is that science and research have become oriented towards practice, partnerships...... is to discuss the role of theory of science in teaching and learning in the actual university context. It is to be discussed why a discussion of ontological complexity is relevant for the understanding of scientific work for both the researcher of today and the academics which are to apply research strategies......: European Educational Research Journal, Volume 6, no. 2, 2007 Nowotny, H. Scott, P., Gibbons, M. (2011). Re-Thinking Science, Cambridge: Polity Press Wittgenstein, L. (1984). Philosophische Untersuchungen. I: Wittgenstein, L. Werkausgabe Band 1. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp....
Walker, C. H
"Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...
Grimes, Paul W.
Examined the effect of demographic characteristics, academic endowments, course preparation, and course performance variables on the accuracy of pretest expectations when asking students to predict their performance on a regularly scheduled macroeconomics midterm examination. Finds overconfidence and misjudgments about the scope of the midterm…
Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak; Sheridan, Brandon J.
Ever since Becker and Watts (1996) found that economic educators rely heavily on "chalk and talk" as a primary teaching method, economic educators have been seeking new ways to engage students and improve learning outcomes. Recently, the use of social media as a pedagogical tool in economics has received increasing interest. The authors…
Tailab, Mohamed M.
Many studies by researchers and accounting educators explore various factors associated with the success or failure of accounting majors in college level accounting courses. This paper identifies and summarizes the main obstacles associated with low student academic achievement in introductory courses in the College of Accounting at Al-Jabal…
Hollenbeck, Candice R.; Mason, Charlotte H.; Song, Ji Hee
The design of a course has potential to help marketing students achieve their learning objectives. Marketing courses are increasingly turning to technology to facilitate teaching and learning, and pedagogical tools such as Blackboard, WebCT, and e-Learning Commons are essential to the design of a course. Here, the authors investigate the research…
This article presents an overview of a newly designed course in materials development at a teacher education institute in the Netherlands. It also includes an evaluation of the course by its participants, student teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Dutch secondary schools. The course overview describes the aims and objectives of the…
Graves, Philip E.; Sexton, Robert L.; Calimeris, Lauren M.
The surprise value of many economic observations makes the economics discipline quite interesting for many students. One such anomaly is that providing "free" education in an effort to reduce the number of dropouts can often result in a lower level of educational quality purchased. This result is easy to show with indifference curves, but many…
Finlay, Nikki McIntyre; Deis, Michael H.
The emergence of the speedily evolving world of technology has given many universities an interactive medium to facilitate teaching and learning. One such medium has been online courses, which have provided greater access to both traditional and non-traditional students. In quantitative courses such as economics, however, there are often concerns…
Okpala, Amon O.; Okpala, Comfort O.; Ellis, Richard
Students in a macroeconomics course (n=132) were compared on grade point average, academic efficacy, credit hours accumulated, and study hours/habits. Academic efficacy and study habits significantly explained achievement. The amount of study time had no significant impact. Scholastic Assessment Test scores and credit hours explained achievement…
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.
The manual is the first of six student manuals for use in a course on occupational health and safety for supervisory personnel. The manual contains lessons 1-3 of the 15 consecutively-numbered lessons, each of which contains study questions (and answers) interwoven with the text and review questions at the end of each section. Lesson 1 (three…
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.
The manual is the fifth of six student manuals for use in a course on occupational health and safety for supervisory personnel. The manual contains lessons 14 and 15 of the 15 consecutively-numbered lessons, each of which contains study questions (and answers) interwoven with the text and review questions at the end of each section. Lesson 14…
Carrington, Linda G.
Both students and instructors alike will generally agree that intermediate accounting courses are among the most difficult and demanding in an accounting or finance curriculum, and perhaps even on the college campus. Intermediate accounting contains subject matter which requires a higher level of thinking and a greater ability to process prior…
Marshall, Jon; Pritchard, Ruie; Gunderson, Betsey
The purpose of this study was to determine the congruence among W. E. Deming's 14 points for Total Quality Management (TQM), the organizational health of school districts, and student achievement. Based on Kanter's (1983) concept of a Culture of Pride with a Climate of Success, healthy districts were defined as having an organizational culture…
Baker, Ryan S.J.d.; Gobert, Janice D.; van Joolingen, Wouter
This symposium addresses how different classes of research methods, all based upon the use of log data from educational software, can facilitate the analysis of students’ learning strategies and behaviors. To this end, four multi-method programs of research are discussed, including the use of
Khieu, Tema Leah
The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth exploration and describe the nature of fourth graders' responses to nonfiction text in the context of small, peer-led literature discussion groups. This study took place in the teacher researcher's daily, forty-five minute, pull-out intervention time. The participants for this study consisted of…
Andreasen, Karen Egedal
Modern labour market is characterized by high educational demands. However, the opportunities for young people living in peripheral regions of countries of meeting such demands are reduced. Modern technology and improvements of video technology widened the possibilities of providing young people...... in these areas with education and has given rise to an increase in the interest of using video mediated teaching. Recent years several experiments have been implemented in Denmark and in the Nordic countries in general. In a Danish region a comprehensive innovation project including video mediated simultaneous...... teaching at two locations was implemented in years 2008 - 2010 (Andreasen, 2012). Drawing on theory of Etienne Wenger (2004) about learning and communities of practice this article discusses results from the dialogue research related to the project. The article will discuss problems and potentials...
Tam, Greta; Liu, Sida
Background Web-based public health courses are becoming increasingly popular. “Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response” is a unique Web-based course in Hong Kong. This course aimed to fill a public health training gap by reaching out to postgraduates who are unable to access face-to-face learning. Objective The aim of this paper was to use a structured framework to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based course according to Greenhalgh et al’s quality framework and the Donabedian model to make recommendations for program improvement. Methods An interim evaluation of the first cohort of students in 2014 was conducted according to the Donabedian model and a quality framework by Greenhalgh et al using objective and self-reported data. Results Students who registered for the first cohort (n=1152) from June 16, 2014 to December 15, 2014 (6 months) were surveyed. Two tutors and the course director were interviewed. The Web-based course was effective in using technology to deliver suitable course materials and assessment and to enhance student communication, support, and learning. Of the total number of students registered, 59.00% (680/1152) were nonlocal, originating from 6 continents, and 72.50% (835/1152) possessed a bachelor’s or postgraduate degree. The completion rate was 20.00% (230/1152). The chi-square test comparing students who completed the course with dropouts showed no significant difference in gender (P=.40), age (P=.98), occupation (P=.43), or qualification (P=.17). The cost (HK $272 per student) was lower than that of conducting a face-to-face course (HK $4000 per student). Conclusions The Web-based course was effective in using technology to deliver a suitable course and reaching an intended audience. It had a higher completion rate than other Web-based courses. However, sustainable sources of funding may be needed to maintain the free Web-based course. PMID:29374007
The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de
Kapotis, Efstratios; Kalkanis, George
According to the principle of equivalence, it is impossible to distinguish between gravity and inertial forces that a noninertial observer experiences in his own frame of reference. For example, let's consider an elevator in space that is being accelerated in one direction. An observer inside it would feel as if there was gravity force pulling him toward the opposite direction. The same holds for a person in a stationary elevator located in Earth's gravitational field. No experiment enables us to distinguish between the accelerating elevator in space and the motionless elevator near Earth's surface. Strictly speaking, when the gravitational field is non-uniform (like Earth's), the equivalence principle holds only for experiments in elevators that are small enough and that take place over a short enough period of time (Fig. 1). However, performing an experiment in an elevator in space is impractical. On the other hand, it is easy to combine both forces on the same observer, i.e., gravity and a fictitious inertial force due to acceleration. Imagine an observer in an elevator that falls freely within Earth's gravitational field. The observer experiences gravity pulling him down while it might be said that the inertial force due to gravity acceleration g pulls him up. Gravity and inertial force cancel each other, (mis)leading the observer to believe there is no gravitational field. This study outlines our implementation of a self-construction idea that we have found useful in teaching introductory physics students (undergraduate, non-majors).
Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Alameda Cuesta, Almudena; Albéniz Lizarraga, Carmen
In the nursing schools, the contrast between what is taught in the classrooms and what is practiced at the health care centers usually creates a great deal of confusion on the part of the students. The objective of this research is to ascertain the opinion of the students and of the professionals at the health care centers where they are doing their training with regard thereto in order to detect their problems and see what differences exist between primary and specialized care. This research was conducted throughout the first half of 2000 employing qualitative methodology, by means of four discussion groups comprised of students, former students, primary care training advisors and nursing professionals at the hospitals where the students of the school in question are doing their nursing training. The initial involvement employed was indirect. The comments of the nursing students and of their training advisors with regard to the practice nursing during the diploma studies reveal dissatisfaction on the part of both of these groups. In all of the groups point out anxiety as the leading factor involved in their teaching as well as learning activities and during professional training. The lack of identification as a group of professionals seems to be related to the lack of recognition on the part of the others, the demand for a degree being granted for their college studies and for the setting up of specialities would contribute to their social recognition and, as a result thereof, to their identification as a professional group. Until a solution is provided to the anxiety which the nursing professionals feel with regard to their professional practice, which they pass on to their students during nursing training, it will not be possible to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction with nursing training experiences either on the part of the training advisors or on the part of the students.
Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...
Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”
Diana J. Arya
Full Text Available Global efforts to prepare young developing minds for solving current and future challenges of climate change have advocated interdisciplinary, issues-based instructional approaches in order to transform traditional models of science education as delivering conceptual facts (UNESCO, 2014. This study is an exploration of the online interactions in an international social network of high school students residing in Norway, China, New Zealand and the United States (N=141. Students participated in classroom-based and asynchronous online discussions about adapted versions of seminal scientific studies with facilitative support from seven scientists across various fields. Grounded in a language-in-use frame for investigating facilitation and demonstrations of problem-based and evidence-based reasoning (Kelly & Chen, 1999, we traced the varied questions, assertions, and evidentiary sources within student-led online discussions. We found that questions from scientific experts in the form of unconstrained, open-ended invitations for exploration were followed by students’ acknowledgement and consideration of complex and, at times, conflicting sociopolitical and economic positions about climate change issues. These findings suggest that broadening science classroom discussions to include socially relevant, unsolved issues like climate change could open potential entry points for a dialogic approach that fosters a scientific community in the classroom.
Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael
, time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...
The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit
Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.
Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…
Silver, Mark S.
During the current period of rapid technological change, business students need to emerge from their introductory course in Information Systems (IS) with a set of fundamental principles to help them "think about Information Technology (IT)" in future courses and the workplace. Given the digital revolution, they also need to appreciate…
Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.
Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)
Tejaswani, K.; Madhuri, G. V.
Employability skills among engineering graduates have been a concern due to their inability to perform on a professional platform to the employer's expected level. As they are higher cognitive skills, they are to be nurtured during the graduation period. Keeping this in view, group discussions are identified as one of the methods to elicit…
Eun Young Kim
Full Text Available Medical students must understand the principles of ultrasonography (US, because US examinations are an important component of patient care in clinical practice. Pocket-sized ultrasound devices have the benefits of accessibility and ease of use. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the educational value of these devices in terms of improving medical student interest and understanding of US and sonographic anatomy.We added a US training program comprised of a self-study learning module and a hands-on training session to a two-week block curriculum of medical imaging for first year medical students (n = 40. Multiple pocket-sized US devices were used on a small-group basis during a single afternoon. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after the US training session; these two questionnaires contained 6 and 10 questions, respectively, which were rated by students using a five-point Likert scale. In addition, understanding of sonographic anatomy was tested before and after the training program.Forty students completed the two questionnaires and the anatomy-related tests. Students found the program educationally valuable (4.37 ± 0.54 of 5 and reported that US practice was useful for improving their understanding of the principles of US examinations (4.23 ± 0.66 of 5 and sonographic anatomy (4.40 ± 0.55 of 5. Overall confidence at performing US examinations and understanding of sonographic anatomy were significantly increased after US training (increased overall confidence score, 1.87 ± 0.91 and improvement in sonographic anatomy score, 6.55 ± 1.55, p values < 0.001.US training using pocket-sized ultrasound devices was found to be educationally valuable for medical students in terms of improving understanding of US principles and familiarizing students with sonographic anatomy.
Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.
Doris, Dennis A.
A nonindoctrinating, sound theoretical and practical base upon which to develop the teaching of moral education relies on several principles: discussion of moral conflict situations; knowledge of the student's stage of moral development; guidance of developmental matches; encouragement of role taking; and focus on rational thinking. (JMF)
Hetzroni, Orit E; Banin, Irit
People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often demonstrate difficulties in social skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive intervention program on the acquisition of social skills among students with mild IDD. Single subject multiple baseline design across situations was used for teaching five school-age children with mild IDD social skills embedded in school-based situations. Results demonstrate that the intervention program that included video modelling and games embedded with group discussions and simulations increased the level and use of adequate social behaviours within the school's natural environment. Results demonstrate the unique attribution of a comprehensive interactive program for acquisition and transfer of participants' social skills such as language pragmatics and social rules within the school environment. Group discussions and simulations were beneficial and enabled both group and personalized instruction through the unique application of the program designed for the study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arbatsky, D. A.
The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.
Do medical students generate sound arguments during small group discussions in problem-based learning?: an analysis of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to a framework of hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Yoon, Bo Young
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups. A set of three 2-hour discussion sessions from each of the two groups during a 1-week-long PBL unit on the cardiovascular system was audio-recorded. The arguments constructed by the students were analyzed using a coding scheme, which included four types of argumentation (Type 0: incomplete, Type 1: claim only, Type 2: claim with data, and Type 3: claim with data and warrant). The mean frequency of each type of argumentation according to each HDR phase across the two small groups was calculated. During small group discussions, Type 1 arguments were generated most often (frequency=120.5, 43%), whereas the least common were Type 3 arguments (frequency=24.5, 8.7%) among the four types of arguments. The results of this study revealed that the students predominantly made claims without proper justifications; they often omitted data for supporting their claims or did not provide warrants to connect the claims and data. The findings suggest instructional interventions to enhance the quality of medical students' arguments in PBL, including promoting students' comprehension of the structure of argumentation for HDR processes and questioning.
This book accompanies a poster series and allows the teacher to pre-plan a lesson or activity for students with the objectives shown for each element or principle of design to be presented. Along with a black-and-white reproduction of each poster, major concepts are discussed. Suggested student activities relating to a particular element or…
Brun, J L
I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle
Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.
This report summarizes several group discussions with parents of high school students, high school students, and nursing students regarding the world of work and the advantages and disadvantages of a youth apprenticeship program. Section I is an executive summary that describes the methodology, summarizes key attitudes toward youth apprenticeships…
Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)
Roohollah Datli Beigi
Full Text Available Â James Joyce's Ulysses is one of the hall-marks of modernism in the realm of the novel. In this novel, Joyce breaks away from old patterns, employs new techniques, and presents the modern state of man as well as his soul-lacking indeterminate communication with others. Freud's theories on the unique and private quality of man's mode of consciousness and the meddling of the past with present, stressed the twentieth-century man's ill-condition and his position among his fellow beings. Joyce portrays the modern man in his favorite chapter, âIthaca,â which has certain features that make the narrative structure in complete step with Joyce's themes regarding the modern man. This paper is an attempt to show how the human race is perceived by Joyce, revealing how the employed elements depict a modern picture of the modern man. This chapter contains many questions and answers that can be discussed in class and students can be engaged in novel-based dialogues and class discussion as an EFL practice.
A challenge facing physics education is how to encourage and support the adoption of evidence-based instructional practices that decades of physics education research has shown to be effective. Like many STEM departments, physics departments struggle to overcome the barriers of faculty knowledge, motivation and time; institutional cultures and reward systems; and disciplinary traditions. Research has demonstrated successful transformation of department-level approaches to instruction through local learning communities, in-house expertise, and department administrative support. In this talk, I will discuss how physics and other STEM departments can use a MOOC on evidence-based instruction together with in-person seminar discussions to create a learning community of graduate students and postdocs, and how such communities can affect departmental change in teaching and learning. Four university members of the 21-university network working to prepare future faculty to be both excellent researchers and excellent teachers collaborated on an NSF WIDER project to develop and deliver two massive open online courses (MOOCs) in evidence-based STEM instruction. A key innovation is a new blended mode of delivery where groups of participants engaged with the online content and then meet weekly in local learning communities to discuss content, communicate current experiences, and delve deeper into particular techniques of local interest. The MOOC team supported these so-called MOOC-Centered Learning Communities, or MCLCs, with detailed facilitator guides complete with synopses of online content, learning goals and suggested activities for in-person meetings, as well as virtual MCLC communities for sharing and feedback. In the initial run of the first MOOC, 40 MCLCs were created; in the second run this past fall, more than 80 MCLCs formed. Further, target audiences of STEM graduate students and postdocs completed at a 40-50% rate, indicating the value they place in building their
Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob
Student questioning is an important learning strategy, but rare in many classrooms, because teachers have concerns if these questions contribute to attaining curricular objectives. Teachers face the challenge of making student questioning effective for learning the curriculum. To address this
Kingry, Mary Ann
The effects of instructional fading using completion problems on student performance were investigated in this study. Instructional fading is the gradual withdrawal of the amount of assistance provided to the student and was accomplished in this study using completion problems. They were used to gradually transition the student from completely…
Contact spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors (Review). I - Physical and methodological principles of the contact spectroscopy of high-temperature superconductors. Experimental results for La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 and their discussion
Ianson, I. K.
Research in the field of high-temperature superconductors based on methods of tunneling and microcontact spectroscopy is reviewed in a systematic manner. The theoretical principles of the methods are presented, and various types of contacts are described and classified. Attention is given to deviations of the measured volt-ampere characteristics from those predicted by simple theoretical models and those observed for conventional superconductors. Results of measurements of the energy gap and fine structure of volt ampere characteristic derivatives are presented for La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4.
Full Text Available The aim of the present article was to study the question of do special exercises for the formation of students-psychologists skills determine the causes of deviant behavior of adolescents, based on the provisions of the causal approach in psycho-diagnostics A. F. Anufrieva, the principle of objectivity. The study involved 30 future psychologists. After performing the exercises in the course "Psychodiagnostics" the students solved the task, which simulates diagnostic work of the psychologist with decriminalised teenager with deviant behavior. Students were asked to solve a problem in professional discourse – to put forward hypotheses about the causes of deviant behavior in everyday life is to point out the culprits of the situation. Additionally, students assessed their similarity with the hero of the diagnostic event. The results show that students who have managed to build up diagnostic skills to identify psychological causes of deviant behavior, both professionally and in everyday discourse grappled with the task model, regardless of the number of subjective similarities with her character. Students who have not sufficiently developed diagnostic skills, to avoid bias failed.
de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona
Psychology is a required element in nursing education in many countries. It is particularly aimed at teaching nursing students to get a better understanding of patients, colleagues, health care organizations and themselves, and moreover to apply what they learn about psychology to optimise their care. A meaningful integration of psychology within nursing education requires an emphasis on its application in understanding aspects of care and skills development. However, its ultimate value is demonstrated when addressing problem areas in nursing and health care. In this paper the authors outline an approach to psychology education in nursing which emphasises its development as a problem solving support. An example is presented which focuses on the application of psychology to the challenge of care erosion and deficient critical nursing reflection. The discussion includes the organisational context, social pressure, social cognition, reflection and the role of inner conflict (cognitive dissonance). Nursing educators can contribute to the prevention of care erosion by a combined effort to teach awareness of psychological mechanisms, 'critical' reflection, mastery in practice, strong values and standards, and 'inoculation' against justifications of substandard care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
… ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En
Peterson, Donald R
Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat
This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...
Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs
The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)
Vinicius Coral Ghanem
Full Text Available Neste texto, os autores apresentam os diferentes aspectos do aprendizado da cirurgia de facoemulsificação pelo cirurgião iniciante. Discutem também o papel do professor e do aluno no ambiente da "Sala de Aula Cirúrgica", sugerindo alguns princípios que melhor fundamentam o aprendizado cirúrgico, reduzindo complicações e proporcionando maior segurança para o paciente.In this paper, the authors present different aspects of the phacoemulsification learning process by the new surgeon. They also discuss the professor's and student's role in the "Surgical Classroom", suggesting some principles to improve tutoring of the surgical learning, reducing complications and providing more safety for the patient.
Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison
This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.
Hallgren, Kenneth Glenn
A study investigated the relationship of students' cognitive level of development and teaching methodology with student achievement. The sample was composed of 79 students in two sections of the introductory marketing course at the University of Northern Colorado. The control group was taught by a lecture strategy, and the experimental group by a…
Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.
Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…
McCabe, Deborah Brown; Meuter, Matthew L.
There has been an explosion of classroom technologies, yet there is a lack of research investigating the connection between classroom technology and student learning. This research project explores faculty usage of classroom-based course management software, student usage and opinions of these software tools, and an exploration of whether or not…
Bowen, Shannon A.
Addresses public speaking students' preconceptions as they begin their study and the misconceptions to which they ascribe. Finds that students often enter the basic course unaware of a management focus, shocked by the level of strategic decision making required of practitioners, and surprised by the amount of research knowledge and activity…
Banks, James A.; Cookson, Peter; Gay, Geneva; Hawley, Willis D.; Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; Nieto, Sonia; Schofield, Janet Ward; Stephen, Walter G.
Discusses 12 essential principles to help schools teach democratic values in a multicultural society. Derived from findings of the Multicultural Education Consensus Panel to review and synthesize research on diversity, principles are organized into five categories: Teacher learning; student learning; intergroup relations; school governance,…
Shum, Mark Shiu-kee; Tai, Chung Pui; Shi, Dan
Non-Chinese-speaking (NCS) South Asian students, as ethnic minority group in Hong Kong, are the main disadvantaged social cohort in Chinese language learning. It has been a challenge for L1 Chinese teachers to conduct L2 Chinese teaching to NCS students with diversified native languages and socio-cultural backgrounds. "Reading to Learn,…
Fowler, Robin Revette
Collaborative learning, particularly in the context of team-based, project-based learning, is common in undergraduate engineering education and is associated with deeper learning and enhanced student motivation and retention. However, grouping students in teams for project-based learning sometimes has negative outcomes, which can include lowered…
Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.
This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective
Ben-Shlomo, Y; Fallon, U; Sterne, J; Brookes, S
With the advent of evidence-based medicine, medical students, doctors and other healthcare professionals are required to be more skilled in the interpretation and manipulation of numerical data. The authors observed that undergraduate students without A-level mathematics expressed concern as to their ability to cope with an epidemiology and biostatistics course. It was hypothesized that these anxieties reflected differences in attitudes to numerical manipulation rather than any real lack of competence. Mean exam performance scores were compared for 498 first-year medical students between 2000 and 2002 depending on whether the students did or did not have A-level mathematics. The data revealed no difference in performance. Students without mathematics A-level scored marginally worse (-1.1%, 95% CI -3.1% to 0.8%, p=0.20) but were no more likely to fail the exam (odds ratio=0.98, 95% CI 0.40 to 2.6, p=0.9). It is concluded that some students experience 'numerophobia'-- a perceived and, it is thought, disproportionate fear of numbers and simple mathematical manipulation. This may act as a psychological barrier for future evidence-based practitioners.
Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.
Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis
Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.
Priscilla França Fernandes
Full Text Available Introduction – The distance learning has an important role in social inclusion, training professionals for the job market. The same reasons that favor the entry of these students in distance courses act contrary and dropout rate remains high. The analysis of profiles of students and tutors it is important to understand the reasons for avoidance.Purpose – Knowing thecurrent profileand theexpected characteristicsof the tutorsand students of distance education, in order tocomparethe ideal andreal,to understand the permanenceof these actorsor notand thereforeassessmentof the directionof this mode of educationin the trainingof professionals in the XXI century.Material and Methods - Study literature review, held from the survey articles indexed in the SciELO database, Medline, Lilacs.Conclusion - We conclude thatthe challengesarevastfor the distance education,particularlyin regardto technologiesand profileof students and tutors involved, suggestingarethinkingofeducational practice, in orderto minimizethe negative effects ofthis process.
A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha
Discusses the application of principles and techniques derived from Gestalt therapy to education. Initial investigations of the results of these applications have noted significant benefits to both teachers and students, including personal control, self-knowledge and self-esteem. For journal availability, see SO 504 730. (Author/DB)
van Keulen, H.; van den Berg, I.; Ramaekers, S.
Students may benefit significantly from learning through authentic tasks. But how do we assess their learning outcomes, taking into account the specific characteristics of authentic tasks? In the second presentation of this symposium on design principles for authentic tasks we present and discuss
In response to social, political and educational imperatives, Australian universities are currently reviewing the way in which they provide for the growing number of students for whom English is not a first language. A document recently published by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations has increased the sense of urgency…
Basile, Anthony; D'Aquila, Jill M.
Accounting students received either traditional instruction (n=46) or used computer-mediated communication and WebCT course management software. There were no significant differences in attitudes about the course. However, computer users were more positive about course delivery and course management tools. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)
Anderson, Diana; Conning, D. M
Principles and methods are discussed in detail, covering experimental design, biochemical issues, animal husbandry, species differences, immunological issues, carcinogenesis, reproductive approaches...
This study, involving 154 undergraduate college students in China, was conducted to determine whether the surface structure of visual graphics affect content learning when the learner was a non-native English speaker and learning took place in a non-English speaking environment. Instruction with concrete animated graphics resulted in significantly higher achievement, when compared to instruction with concrete static, abstract static, abstract animated graphics or text only without any graphical illustrations. It was also found, unexpectedly, the text-only instruction resulted in the second best achievement, significantly higher than instruction with concrete static, abstract static, and abstract animated graphics. In addition, there was a significant interaction with treatment and test item, which indicated that treatment effects on graphic-specific items differed from those on definitional items. Additional findings indicated that relation to graphics directly or indirectly from the text that students studied had little impact on their performance in the posttests. Further, 51% of the participants indicated that they relied on some graphical images to answer the test questions and 19% relied heavily on graphics when completing the tests. In conclusion, concrete graphics when combined with animation played a significant role in enhancing ESL student performance and enabled the students to achieve the best learning outcomes as compared to abstract animated, concrete static, and abstract static graphics. This result suggested a significant innovation in the design and development of ESL curriculum in computer-based instruction, which would enable ESL students to perform better and achieve the expected outcomes in content area learning.
Shah, Lisa; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Bartoli, Monica; Rushton, Gregory T.
Instructional strategies that support meaningful student learning of complex chemical topics are an important aspect of improving chemistry education. Adequately assessing the success of these approaches can be supported with the use of aligned instruments with established psychometrics. Here, we report the implementation and assessment of one…
This paper examines whether a blended course that introduces lower-level education online learned by students before they come into class and after class online assignments and online discussions enhances student performance for an introductory principles of accounting course over the period 2009-2010. The blended course design includes (1)…
Discusses how reform affects students and how teachers can help them adapt to change. After explaining the principles of change and how they affect students, the paper examines the stages of change (comfortable dependence, anxiety, and comfortable independence); discusses students and the process of change; explains the supports that students need…
Debenham, Michael J
Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t
Knight, S A
Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v
Raff, Samuel J
Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo
Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin
Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai
Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...
Johannsen, Carl Gustav
The article examines problems concerning the introduction and future implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in libraries. It includes important conceptual distinctions and definitions, and it reviews the more controversial aspects of EBP, primarely based on experiences from Denmark. The ....... The purpose of the article is both to qualify existing scepticism and reservations and - maybe - to clarify misunderstandings and objections through the presentation of arguments and data....
... their application in team building, organizational management, and goal-setting methods. The literature review encapsulates the dominate theories and practices relating to leaders, groups, and goals...
Focusing on main principles of quantum mechanics and their immediate consequences, this graduate student-oriented volume develops the subject as a fundamental discipline, opening with review of origins of Schrödinger's equations and vector spaces.
Nov 2, 2010 ... As discussed later, the variance from budget relates to accounting ... projects or programs (see Note 10 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, page 76). ... is based on generally accepted management accounting principles ...
Shoop, Glenda Hostetter
Attention in medical education is turning toward instruction that not only focuses on knowledge acquisition, but on developing the medical students' clinical problem-solving skills, and their ability to critically think through complex diseases. Metacognition is regarded as an important consideration in how we teach medical students these higher-order, critical thinking skills. This study used a mixed-methods research design to investigate if concept mapping as an artifact may engender metacognitive thinking in the medical student population. Specifically the purpose of the study is twofold: (1) to determine if concept mapping, functioning as an artifact during problem-based learning, improves learning as measured by scores on test questions; and (2) to explore if the process of concept mapping alters the problem-based learning intragroup discussion in ways that show medical students are engaged in metacognitive thinking. The results showed that students in the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups used more metacognitive thinking patterns than those in the problem-based learning discussion-only group, particularly in the monitoring component. These groups also engaged in a higher level of cognitive thinking associated with reasoning through mechanisms-of-action and breaking down complex biochemical and physiologic principals. The students disclosed in focus-group interviews that concept mapping was beneficial to help them understand how discrete pieces of information fit together in a bigger structure of knowledge. They also stated that concept mapping gave them some time to think through these concepts in a larger conceptual framework. There was no significant difference in the exam-question scores between the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups and the problem-based learning discussion-only group.
Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.
Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun
Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…
Brocks, Dion R
Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Born, Max; Wolf, Emil
Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.
Eilks, Ingo; Witteck, Torsten; Pietzner, Verena
This paper discusses what chemistry students might see while working with animations found on the Internet and how these electronic illustrations can potentially interact to reinforce rather than resolve misconceptions about chemical principles that a student may possess. The Daniell voltaic cell serves as an example to illustrate the ways in…
Religious education of college students should be based on future social responsibility angle to cultivate their right religions and religious judgment.Accordingly,the university should offer required courses on religion.The content of the course should face the reality,pragmatic and effective.The first key is religious common sense,especially to teach the major religions basic doctrine.It can enhance the ability of students on identifying cult and make them understand the differences among religion,superstition and folk custom correctly.Understanding the relationship between religion and science,between materialism propaganda and the right to freedom of religious belief that the constitution to give citizens.Another key of the course is China's current religious policy,laws and regulations.University religious education is the foundation of religious healthy development.The religious healthy development is one of the supports to achieve social harmony.%在校大学生的宗教教育,应基于他们未来所肩负之社会责任角度,培养其正确的宗教观和宗教判断能力。据此,高等学校应当开设宗教教育的通识必修课。课程内容,应直面现实,务实、切实。其重点,首先是宗教常识,尤其是应重点讲授各主要宗教的基本教义,以增强学生识别邪教的能力,并能够正确认识宗教与迷信、民间习俗的区别;宗教与科学的关系;唯物主义宣传与宪法赋予公民宗教信仰自由权利的关系。我国现行的宗教政策、法律法规,应是该课程的另一个重点。高等学校宗教教育,是宗教健康发展的基石;而健康发展的宗教,则是实现社会和谐的支撑之一。
The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...
The Development of Media Activities by Undergraduate Students in Order to Promote Agricultural Tourism Community Enterprise According to the Principles of Social Service Learning and Community-Based Leaning
Thamwipat, Kuntida; Princhankol, Pornpapatsorn; Yampinij, Sakesun; Meejaleurn, Sopon
This research was aimed to develop media activities by undergraduate students to promote agricultural tourism community enterprise according to the principles of social service learning and community-based learning, 2) to evaluate the quality of such media activities, 3) to measure the income of the community after the development of media…
Moiseiwitsch, B L
This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha
V. A. Grinenko
Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.
Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.
Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution
Kamat, R. V.
A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)
Stüber, Gordon L
This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...
Stüber, Gordon L
This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...
The subject of this thesis is the uncertainty principle (UP). The UP is one of the most characteristic points of differences between quantum and classical mechanics. The starting point of this thesis is the work of Niels Bohr. Besides the discussion the work is also analyzed. For the discussion of the different aspects of the UP the formalism of Davies and Ludwig is used instead of the more commonly used formalism of Neumann and Dirac. (author). 214 refs.; 23 figs
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...
Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W
Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.
Frontalunterricht oder interaktive Gruppenarbeit? Ein Vergleich des Lernerfolgs und der studentischen Evaluation für das Fach Biochemie [Didactic lecture or interactive group discussion? A comparison of the learning success and the student evaluation in biochemistry
Full Text Available [english] Aims: Interactive, student-centered teaching methods have replaced traditional teacher-centered didactic formats in many modern medical curricula in the past few years. However, in the natural sciences such as biochemistry, interactive teaching methods are not well proven. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of the teaching format on the performance of undergraduate students in biochemistry and their evaluation of the respective format. Methods: A total of 421 second-year students were randomized into two groups: The control group was taught in a traditional lecture-like format, whereas the study group dealt with the same topic in an interactive group discussion. At the end of each lesson, students performed a multiple-choice test and completed a questionnaire. The same MCQ test was repeated 4–6 weeks after the last lesson. Results: Students who were taught in a lecture-like format performed significantly better in the first MCQ test immediately after the lesson than students taught in the interactive format. However, in the second MCQ test, there was no difference between the two groups. In the questionnaire, students rated the lecture-based course significantly better than the interactive group discussion. Conclusion: One reason why students prefer a didactic lecture to an interactive group discussion might be due to the subject biochemistry, which is strongly knowledge-based. Students perceived that the transfer of knowledge by a professional lecturer was more effective than the knowledge obtained in a student-centered discussion group. Other reasons might be the method of assessment and the overall design of the curriculum. [german] Zielsetzung: Interaktive, Lerner-orientierte Unterrichtsmethoden werden vielfach mit moderner und guter Lehre in Verbindung gebracht und ersetzen zunehmend konventionellen, Lehrer-zentrierten Frontalunterricht. In naturwissenschaftlichen Fächern, wie Biochemie, sind interaktive
Wiggins, Suzanne, Ed.; Kress, Shirley, Ed.
Discussions and studies carried out by students enrolled in a year-long economics curriculum seminar are reported. The seminar was organized to study and make recommendations to an economics department about changing the content and teaching of principles of economics courses at a State university. Thirteen students, masters candidates-teaching…
Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia
of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....
Ziman, J M
Professor Ziman's classic textbook on the theory of solids was first pulished in 1964. This paperback edition is a reprint of the second edition, which was substantially revised and enlarged in 1972. The value and popularity of this textbook is well attested by reviewers' opinions and by the existence of several foreign language editions, including German, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Polish and Russian. The book gives a clear exposition of the elements of the physics of perfect crystalline solids. In discussing the principles, the author aims to give students an appreciation of the conditions which are necessary for the appearance of the various phenomena. A self-contained mathematical account is given of the simplest model that will demonstrate each principle. A grounding in quantum mechanics and knowledge of elementary facts about solids is assumed. This is therefore a textbook for advanced undergraduates and is also appropriate for graduate courses.
2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...
Ismail, Hamidah Mohd; Majid, Faizah Abd
One of the main issues often discussed among academics is how to encourage active participation by students during classroom discussions. This applies particularly to students at the tertiary level who are expected to possess creative and critical thinking skills. Hence, this paper reports on a study that examined how these skills were…
Jacobs, George; Seow, Peter
This paper describes eight principles that can be used to promote cooperative interactions among students working in online environments. The principles derive from a well-established approach to education, known variously as cooperative learning and collaborative learning. Each principle is explained as to what it means, why it is important and…
Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad
Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…
“Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.
Pykett, I.L.; Newhouse, J.H.; Buonanno, F.S.; Brady, T.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Kistler, J.P.; Pohost, G.M.
The physical principles which underlie the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are presented in this primer. The major scanning methods are reviewed, and the principles of technique are discussed. A glossary of NMR terms is included
Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…
Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana
Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.
Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E
Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660
Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV
To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…
Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.
After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)
Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Buck, George H.
Students in an introductory educational psychology course used two WebCT communication tools (synchronous chat and asynchronous discussion) to discuss four case studies. In response to the item, "I learned the case studies best when using," 39 students selected synchronous chat and 51 students selected asynchronous discussion. Students who…
N. Gregory Mankiw
In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.
Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Krajcik, Joseph; Reiser, Brian
We propose a process of contextualization based on seven empirically derived contextualization principles, aiming to provide opportunities for Indigenous Mexican adolescents to learn science in a way that supports them in fulfilling their right to an education aligned with their own culture and values. The contextualization principles we…
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720
James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam
This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Howell, Kenneth B
Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.
Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter
Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....
Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D
We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.
Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.
This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)
Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph
The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...
The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)
Boskin, Michael J.
Discusses the role of the textbook in the principles of economics course. Recognizing that textbooks are only one source of input for students, and that they substitute for lectures to a limited extent, Boskin recommends that texts should stress the basics and serve as a reference source to support classroom instruction. (GEA)
Gabrielsson, Jonas; Tell, Joakim; Politis, Diamanto
Recent calls to close the rigour-relevance gap in business school education have suggested incorporating principles and ideas from action learning in small business management education. In this paper we discuss how business simulation exercises can be used as a platform to trigger students' learning by providing them with a platform where they…
This research investigates student responses to two technologically different teaching methods for two sections of a Principles of Marketing course. A traditional method of teaching using lectures, in-class discussions, assignments, and exams is compared to a "Web-assisted" method in which 7 of the 14 class sessions met asynchronously online.…
House, James E
James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela
Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.
A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations
Hennink, Monique M
The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...
The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version
Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted
In this paper we explore recent developments in activity theoretical HCI with the purpose of preparing designers for action. The paper discusses two projects where students engaged in iterative design applying fundamental principles from Activity Theory. They had been introduced to these principles...
Nandakumaran, A K; George, Raju K
Written in a clear, logical and concise manner, this comprehensive resource allows students to quickly understand the key principles, techniques and applications of ordinary differential equations. Important topics including first and second order linear equations, initial value problems and qualitative theory are presented in separate chapters. The concepts of two point boundary value problems, physical models and first order partial differential equations are discussed in detail. The text uses tools of calculus and real analysis to get solutions in explicit form. While discussing first order linear systems, linear algebra techniques are used. The real-life applications are interspersed throughout the book to invoke reader's interest. The methods and tricks to solve numerous mathematical problems with sufficient derivations and explanation are provided. The proofs of theorems are explained for the benefit of the readers.
Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)
This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)
Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus
David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.
Hetherington, E. Mavis
Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…
Jeliazkova, Margarita I.
Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid
Full Text Available The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws and applying Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, this paper presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in different conditions: "certainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously; "uncertainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum cannot be known simultaneously; and neutral (fuzzy "indeterminacy principle", namely whether or not a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously is undetermined. The special cases of "certain ty-uncertainty principles" include the original uncertainty principle and Ozawa inequality. In addition, in accordance with the original uncertainty principle, discussing high-speed particle’s speed and track with Newton mechanics is unreasonable; but according to "certaintyuncertainty principles", Newton mechanics can be used to discuss the problem of gravitational defection of a photon orbit around the Sun (it gives the same result of deflection angle as given by general relativity. Finally, for the reason that in physics the principles, laws and the like that are regardless of the principle (law of conservation of energy may be invalid; therefore "certaintyuncertainty principles" should be restricted (or constrained by principle (law of conservation of energy, and thus it can satisfy the principle (law of conservation of energy.
The principle of least action originates in the idea that, if nature has a purpose, it should follow a minimum or critical path. This simple principle, and its variants and generalizations, applies to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics, and provides an essential guide to understanding the beauty of physics. This unique text provides an accessible introduction to the action principle across these various fields of physics, and examines its history and fundamental role in science. It includes - with varying levels of mathematical sophistication - explanations from historical sources, discussion of classic papers, and original worked examples. The result is a story that is understandable to those with a modest mathematical background, as well as to researchers and students in physics and the history of physics.
Hvejsel, Marie Frier
as a student, professional, or architectural researcher. It is the hypothesis of this paper that, in its initial questioning of the task of the Greek tekton (as a masterbuilder) capable of bringing together aesthetics and technique in a given context, tectonic theory has unique potential in this matter......, installations, and equipment threaten to undermine the primary spatial purpose and quality of architecture as a sensuous enrichment of everyday life. This calls for continuous critical positioning within the field as well as a systematic method for acquiring knowledge about an architectural problem, whether....... This potential is investigated through a rereading of the development of tectonic theory in architecture, which is done in relation to the present conditions and methodological challenges facing the discipline. As a result, this paper outlines a direction for the repositioning, development, and application...
Campbell, J. Arthur
One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)
This paper aims to find out the strategies, applied by students in classroom interaction particularly in discussion, to maintain their interpersonal rapport as well as to enhance their rapport management with their fellow students. There are five strategies based on Spencer-Oatey (2008) that the interactants apply in social interactions. The strategies are request, compliments, apologies, gratitude and disagreement. The research is done to see whether the students realize the management of ra...
Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)
This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.
Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.
This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs
A A Abbasova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.
Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.
This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)
Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.
IFA proof of principle experiments is discussed. Controlled beam front motion experiments are reported, which demonstrate that accurate IFA programming of the motion of the potential well at the head of an IREB has been achieved. The status of IFA ion experiments is also discussed
Aziz, F.; Rodgers, M.A.J.
The book attempts to present those fields of radiation chemistry which depend on the principles of radiation chemistry. The first four chapters are some prelude about radiation chemistry principles with respect to how ionizing radiation interacts with matter, and primary results from these interactions and, which kinetic laws are followed by these primary interactions and which equipment for qualitative studies is necessary. Following chapters included principles fields of radiation chemistry. The last six chapters discussed of principle of chemistry from physical and chemical point of view. In this connection the fundamentals of radiation on biological system is emphasised. On one hand, the importance of it for hygiene and safety as neoplasms therapy is discussed. on the other hand, its industrial importance is presented
Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.
The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)
Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs
The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake
The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.
The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model
Gates, S.J. Jr.
Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation
The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...
Krinov, E L
Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of
Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines
N. R. Golod
Full Text Available Purpose : to highlight the main provisions of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation program for students of special medical group based on violations of the motor capacity. Material : testing 24 students of special medical group and the same number of their healthy peers on standardized tests of physical qualities. To reflect the movement disorders applied functional movement screen. Results : a program of rehabilitation of the students included: lifestyle modification; morning hygienic gymnastics; kinesitherapy (using yoga fitness, functional training; aerobic exercise (swimming, Nordic Walking, jogging, aerobics wellness; massage. First presented a unified approach to working with students of special medical groups - selection based on load capacity motor disorders according to the results of tests of functional movement screen. The complexity of the impact of the program involves the impact on the physical, social and mental health components. Conclusions : the author's program of physical rehabilitation of students of special medical group is complex.
JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz
We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...
Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.
This is the student's text of one unit of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters contain basic information about rockets, space, and principles of physics, as well as activities related to the subject and optional excursions. A section of introductory notes to the student discusses how the…
Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language
A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…
Beck, Henry J.; Parrish, Roy James, Jr.
A package of instructional materials for an undergraduate principles of accounting course at Danville Community College was developed based upon the following assumptions: (1) the principles of accounting student does not need to be able to write computer programs; (2) computerized accounting concepts should be presented in this course; (3)…
Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.
This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…
The purpose of the study is to examine positions of students and a teacher in dialogic discussion. In this study, dialogic discussion was defined with Bakhtin's (1981) dialogism, Nystrand's (1997) explanation of dialogically organized instruction, and Mercer's (1995) explanation of Exploratory Talk. Studies about literature discussion in…
Valizadeh, Sousan; Feizalahzadeh, Hossein; Avari, Mina; Virani, Faza
Introduction Medication errors are risk factors for patients? health and may have irrecoverable effects. These errors include medication miscalculations by nurses and nursing students. This study aimed to design a multimedia application in the field of education for drug calculations in order to compare its effectiveness with the lecture method. Methods This study selected 82 nursing students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in their second and third semesters in 2015. They were pre-t...
McLean, Sarah; Attardi, Stefanie M.; Faden, Lisa; Goldszmidt, Mark
The flipped classroom is a relatively new approach to undergraduate teaching in science. This approach repurposes class time to focus on application and discussion; the acquisition of basic concepts and principles is done on the students' own time before class. While current flipped classroom research has focused on student preferences and…
Quinn, John J
This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.
Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael
We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.
Full Text Available We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET, for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.
Business files compilation for an enterprise is a distillation and recreation of its spiritual wealth, from which the applicable information can be available to those who want to use it in a fast, extensive and precise way. Proceeding from the effects of business files compilation on scientific researches, productive constructions and developments, this paper in five points discusses the way how to define topics, analyze historical materials, search or select data and process it to an enterprise archives collection. Firstly, to expound the importance and necessity of business files compilation in production, operation and development of an company; secondly, to present processing methods from topic definition, material searching and data selection to final examination and correction; thirdly, to define principle and classification in order to make different categories and levels of processing methods available to business files compilation; fourthly, to discuss the specific method how to implement a file compilation through a documentation collection upon principle of topic definition gearing with demand; fifthly, to address application of information technology to business files compilation in view point of widely needs for business files so as to level up enterprise archives management. The present discussion focuses on the examination and correction principle of enterprise historical material compilation and the basic classifications as well as the major forms of business files compilation achievements. (author)
Okolo, Cynthia M; Ferretti, Ralph P; MacArthur, Charles A
In this study, we examined the nature of whole-class discussion and teachers' instruction during discussion about historical topics in one inclusive, middle-grade classroom. We videotaped and analyzed 4 lessons to determine the nature of discussion sequences, rates of participation, and instructional challenges encountered by the teacher and students. We triangulated our analysis of observational data with teacher interviews. The results showed high rates of student participation, with no differences between students with and without disabilities. The teacher initiated and controlled the discussion, and nearly all student responses were from teacher to student rather than from student to student. The teacher encountered three challenges in developing students' understanding, and we identify specific practices she used to address these challenges. Based on students' response to measures administered by project staff and on their scores on statewide tests, this teacher's practices seemed to be highly effective.
Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...
Lindstrom, P.; Gulz, A.; Haake, M.; Sjoden, B.
The article reports and discusses a long-term qualitative study of forty 8-10-year-old students who regularly played a math game during math lessons for 9 weeks. The goal was to explore the relations between (i) some of the "pedagogical principles" that underlie the game and (ii) the "playing practice" in terms of what actually takes place when…
The treatment of ideal experiments connected with the uncertainty principle is continued. The author analyzes successively measurements of momentum and position, and discusses the common reason why the results in all cases differ from the conventional ones. A similar difference exists for the measurement of field strengths. The interpretation given by Weizsaecker, who tried to interpret Bohr's complementarity principle by introducing a multi-valued logic is analyzed. The treatment of the uncertainty principle ΔE Δt is deferred to a later paper as is the interpretation of the method of variation of constants. Every ideal experiment discussed shows various lower limits for the value of the uncertainty product which limits depend on the experimental arrangement and are always (considerably) larger than h. (Auth.)
Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.
The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.
The MINOS (mine operating system), which is used in the majority of British collieries, provides central control at the surface for the machinery and environmental equipment distributed throughout the mine. Installed equipment, including face machinery, conveyors, pumps, fans and sensors are connected to local outstations which all communicate with the control system via a single run of signal cable. The article discusses the system particularly its use in the Automated Control System of Underground Mining Locomotives (ACSUML). The discussion includes the use of MINOS to improve wagon identification, the operating principle of ACSUML and the possibilities of a driverless locomotive. 2 figs.
Full Text Available The article deals with the model of teaching 1-st year students of foreign languages’ faculties discussion based on problematic situations and the ways of implementing such a model in the teaching process at the English language classes. The author defines and describes principles and stages of teaching discussion, hours for students’ class and individual work (autonomous learning, techniques and methods of teaching. Such notions as “model”, “communicative-discussion skills” and “method of teaching” have been defined. The gradual implementation of the model of learning process in terms of credit-modular system of training is described. The purpose, object and subjects of study that are important for creating a model of teaching discussion to future philologists based on problematic situations have been singled out.
Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...
For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....
Graham D Barr
Full Text Available This paper uses the game of roulette in a simulation setting to teach students in an introductory Stats course some basic issues in theoretical and empirical probability. Using an Excel spreadsheet with embedded VBA (Visual Basic for Applications, one can simulate the empirical return and empirical standard deviation for a range of bets in Roulette over some predetermined number of plays. In particular, the paper illustrates the difference between different playing strategies by contrasting a low payout bet (say a bet on “red” and a high payout bet (say a bet on a particular number by considering the expected return and volatility associated with the bets. The paper includes an Excel VBA based simulation of the Roulette wheel where students can make bets and monitor the return on the bets for one play or multiple plays. In addition it includes a simulation of the casino house advantage for repeated multiple plays; that is, it allows students to see how casinos may derive a new certain return equal to the house advantage by entertaining large numbers of bets which will systematically drive the volatility of the house advantage down to zero. This simulation has been shown to be especially effective at theUniversityofCape Townfor teaching first year Statistics students the subtler points of probability, as well as encouraging discussions around the risk-return trade-off facing gamblers. The program has also been shown to be useful for teaching students the principles of theoretical and empirical probabilities as well as an understanding of volatility.
Lewis, Alison; Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue
Protein synthesis is a complex process and students find it difficult to understand. This article describes an interactive discussion "game" used by first year biology students at the University of Sydney. The students, in small groups, use the game in which the processes of protein synthesis are actioned by the students during a…
Eichholz, G.G.; Poston, J.W.
This book covers the transistorization of equipment and provides an introduction into practice of semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors. It discusses the principles of radiation detectors most widely used in nuclear technology, medical practice and radiation protection. It stresses the alternative detectors available and discusses practical considerations in choosing and setting up detector systems for actual use. Traditional materials, including semiconductors, TLD's and modern data handling facilities are covered
The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question
Blado, Gardo; Owens, Constance; Meyers, Vincent
The finite and infinite square wells are potentials typically discussed in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses. In this paper, we discuss these potentials in the light of the recent studies of the modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) as a consequence of attempts to formulate a quantum theory of gravity. The fundamental concepts of the minimal length scale and the GUP are discussed and the modified energy eigenvalues and transmission coefficient are derived. (paper)
Hansen, Eric W
Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods. Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.
Yustanti, W.; Anistyasari, Y.
The government has issued the regulation number 55 of 2013 about the enactment of a single tuition fee based on the socio-economic conditions of each student. All public universities are required to implement this policy. Therefore, each university needs to create a formulation that can be used to categorize a student into which cost group. The results of the data collection found that the parameters used to determine the classification of tuition fees between one universities with another are different. In this research, taken a sampling of student data at one public university which is using 43 predictor variables and 8 categories of single tuition. The sample data used are socioeconomic data of students of 2016 and 2017 classes received through public university entrance selections. The results of this study reveal that from 43 variables, there are 16 variables which are the most significant in influencing single tuition category with goodness-of-fit index is 0.866. This value means that the proposed model can indicate student’s ability to pay the tuition fee.
Keith, Philip M.
Developmental education courses have become a standard in community colleges in the United States. An overwhelming majority of these public two-year schools offer developmental courses to a wide array of students. At the same time, developmental programs are under a constant barrage of attacks from a variety of stakeholder organizations that view…
Hotaling, Liesl; Lowes, Susan; Stolkin, Rustam; Lin, Peiyi; Bonner, James; Kirkey, William; Ojo, Temitope
This paper describes the structure and impact of an NSF-funded ITEST project designed to enrich science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education using educational modules that teach students to construct, program, and test a series of sensors used to monitor water quality. During the two years of the SENSE IT project, over 30…
Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel
This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…
Wickware, Carmen L.; Day, Charles T.C.; Adams, Michael; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Snyder, Abigail B.
The opportunities for outreach activities for professionals and academics in food science are extensive, as too are the range of participants' experience levels and platforms for delivery. Here, we present a set of activities that are readily adaptable for a range of students (ages 10 to 18) in multiple platforms (demonstration table and hands-on…
Durston, A J
While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.
A. J. Durston
Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.
The principle of proportionality is one of the core principles of international humanitarian law. The principle is not easy to apply on the battlefield, but is even harder to apply retrospectively, in the courtroom. This article discusses the challenges in applying the principle during international
Saxena, A K
Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...
This paper will discuss the importance in recognizing the unique aspects of nuclear power generation in an industry facing deregulation, competitiveness, and commercialization. While exciting times of opportunity are again ahead for the nuclear industry, the excitement has to consider that there are differences between general nuclear and general commerce. These differences are driven by some fundamental principles that impact nuclear reactor operation and examples are given of how these principles must be protected to ensure that nuclear generation can be of continued benefit to the public. (author)
Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.
Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru
Full Text Available Despite increasing use, little is known about the effectiveness of web-based instructional material. This study assesses the effectiveness of supplementary web-based materials and activities in introductory economics courses. We have collected data on 66 students from three principles sections that describe demographic characteristics, use of web-based instructional resources, and performance on graded quizzes and examinations. We use this data to statistically assess the effectiveness of the web-based material. Student utilization of web-based material was extensive. Students frequently used on-line practice quizzes and accessed the web-based material often. A sizable fraction of the students actively posted and read threaded discussions on the course bulletin board. The statistical analysis shows that both on-line computer graded practice quizzes and posting to the class bulletin board are positively correlated with student performance on the quizzes and exams, but use of web-based content and passive reading of bulletin board posts ("lurking" is not. These results suggest that faculty should focus more on developing self-test quizzes and effective bulletin board discussion projects and less on generating on-line content.
Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.
Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…
We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.
Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…
Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel
This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…
Wang, Yu-mei; Chen, Der-Thanq
This article reports a holistic approach to assessing online discussions. This holistic approach integrates three assessment methods: assessment of learning, assessment for learning, and assessment as learning. Assessment of learning directly examines students' learning products to decide whether they have achieved the expected learning through…
Watanabe, T.; Lee, Y.C.; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Hojo, H.; Yoshida, Y.
Variation principle is derived which determines stationary nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in the self-consistent density profile. Example is given for lower-hybrid waves and the relation to the variation principle for the Lagrangian density of electromagnetic fluids is discussed
In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.
Benson, Robert T.
Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…
This study combines the perspective of students (n = 137) and sales instructors (n = 248). It compares how well selling and sales management simulation games, case discussions, and traditional lectures are perceived to conform to the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. The study further compares each method's performance…
Gonzalo, Julio A
The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.
The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.
Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon
The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…
Colley, J. R.; And Others
Using 1989-92 student records from three colleges accepting large numbers of transfers from junior schools into accounting, regression analyses compared grades of transfer and nontransfer students. Quality of accounting principle grades of transfer students was not equivalent to that of nontransfer students. (SK)
One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.
It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.
Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey
Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.
The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle