WorldWideScience

Sample records for students dependent variables

  1. The Relationship of Field Dependent/Independent Cognitive Styles, Stimuli Variability and Time Factor on Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atang, Christopher I.

    The effects of black and white and color illustrations on student achievement were studied to investigate the relationships between cognitive styles and instructional design. Field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI) were chosen as the cognitive style variables. Subjects were 85 freshman students in the Iowa State University Psychology…

  2. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  3. Variables That Can Affect Student Ratings of Their Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Attribution theory was applied to help predict the results of an experiment that examined the effects of three independent variables on students' ratings of their professors. The dependent variables were students' perceptions of whether the professor caused the students' grades and student satisfaction with their professor. The results suggest…

  4. Reward-dependent modulation of movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekny, Sarah E; Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2015-03-04

    Movement variability is often considered an unwanted byproduct of a noisy nervous system. However, variability can signal a form of implicit exploration, indicating that the nervous system is intentionally varying the motor commands in search of actions that yield the greatest success. Here, we investigated the role of the human basal ganglia in controlling reward-dependent motor variability as measured by trial-to-trial changes in performance during a reaching task. We designed an experiment in which the only performance feedback was success or failure and quantified how reach variability was modulated as a function of the probability of reward. In healthy controls, reach variability increased as the probability of reward decreased. Control of variability depended on the history of past rewards, with the largest trial-to-trial changes occurring immediately after an unrewarded trial. In contrast, in participants with Parkinson's disease, a known example of basal ganglia dysfunction, reward was a poor modulator of variability; that is, the patients showed an impaired ability to increase variability in response to decreases in the probability of reward. This was despite the fact that, after rewarded trials, reach variability in the patients was comparable to healthy controls. In summary, we found that movement variability is partially a form of exploration driven by the recent history of rewards. When the function of the human basal ganglia is compromised, the reward-dependent control of movement variability is impaired, particularly affecting the ability to increase variability after unsuccessful outcomes. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354015-10$15.00/0.

  5. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  6. Benford's law and continuous dependent random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thealexa; Burt, David; Corcoran, Taylor C.; Greaves-Tunnell, Alec; Iafrate, Joseph R.; Jing, Joy; Miller, Steven J.; Porfilio, Jaclyn D.; Ronan, Ryan; Samranvedhya, Jirapat; Strauch, Frederick W.; Talbut, Blaine

    2018-01-01

    Many mathematical, man-made and natural systems exhibit a leading-digit bias, where a first digit (base 10) of 1 occurs not 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but rather 30%. This phenomenon is known as Benford's Law. Analyzing which datasets adhere to Benford's Law and how quickly Benford behavior sets in are the two most important problems in the field. Most previous work studied systems of independent random variables, and relied on the independence in their analyses. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, we study the dependent random variables that emerge from models of decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow, and give several conjectures for other fragmentation processes. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent. We handle this by using tools from Fourier analysis and irrationality exponents to obtain quantified convergence rates as well as introducing and developing techniques to measure and control the dependencies. The construction of these tools is one of the major motivations of this work, as our approach can be applied to many other dependent systems. As an example, we show that the n ! entries in the determinant expansions of n × n matrices with entries independently drawn from nice random variables converges to Benford's Law.

  7. Student throughput variables and properties: Varying cohort sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C.A. Stoop

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent research paper described how student throughput variables and properties combine to explain the behaviour of stationary or simplified throughput systems. Such behaviour can be understood in terms of the locus of a point in the triangular admissible region of the H-S plane, where H represents headcounts and S successful credits, each depending on the system properties at that point. The efficiency of the student throughput process is given by the ratio S/H. Simplified throughput systems are characterised by stationary graduation and dropout patterns of students as well as by annual intakes of student cohorts of equal size. The effect of varying the size of the annual intakes of student cohorts is reported on here. The observations made lead to the establishment of a more generalised student throughput theory which includes the simplified theory as a special case. The generalised theory still retains the notion of a triangular admissible region in the H-S plane but with the size and shape of the triangle depending on the size of the student cohorts. The ratio S/H again emerges as the process efficiency measure for throughput systems in general with unchanged roles assigned to important system properties. This theory provides for a more fundamental understanding of student throughput systems encountered in real life. Significance: A generalised stationary student throughput theory through varying cohort sizes allows for a far better understanding of real student throughput systems.

  8. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  9. Teachers' classroom management variables and students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' classroom management variables and students' academic achievement in French in Cross River State, Nigeria. JU Emeh, CA Agbor. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Humanities Vol. 4(1&2) 2005: 25-27. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  10. Future-dependent Flow Policies with Prophetic Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    future-dependent flow policies- policies that can depend on not only the current values of variables, but also their final values. The final values are referred to using what we call prophetic variables, just as the initial values can be referenced using logical variables in Hoare logic. We develop...... and enforce a notion of future-dependent security for open systems, in the spirit of "non-deducibility on strategies". We also illustrate our approach in scenarios where future-dependency has advantages over present-dependency and avoids mixtures of upgradings and downgradings....

  11. Validity of a Residualized Dependent Variable after Pretest Covariance Adjustments: Still the Same Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors empirically examined whether the validity of a residualized dependent variable after covariance adjustment is comparable to that of the original variable of interest. When variance of a dependent variable is removed as a result of one or more covariates, the residual variance may not reflect the same meaning. Using the pretest-posttest…

  12. Stress Testing with Student's t Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we propose the use of the Student's t dependence function to model dependence between asset returns when conducting stress tests. To properly include stress testing in a risk management system, it is important to have accurate information about the (joint) probabilities of

  13. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  14. Fixed transaction costs and modelling limited dependent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    As an alternative to the Tobit model, for vectors of limited dependent variables, I suggest a model, which follows from explicitly using fixed costs, if appropriate of course, in the utility function of the decision-maker.

  15. Hoeffding’s Inequality for Sums of Dependent Random Variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelekis, Christos; Ramon, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 243. ISSN 1660-5446 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dependent random variables * Hoeffding’s inequality * k-wise independent random variables * martingale differences Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2016

  16. Student Engagement and Classroom Variables in Improving Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Young

    2005-01-01

    The study explored how much student engagement and classroom variables predicted student achievement in mathematics. Since students were nested within a classroom, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed for the analysis. The results indicated that student engagement had positive effects on student academic growth per month in math after…

  17. Statistical Dependence of Pipe Breaks on Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gómez-Martínez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging infrastructure is the main challenge currently faced by water suppliers. Estimation of assets lifetime requires reliable criteria to plan assets repair and renewal strategies. To do so, pipe break prediction is one of the most important inputs. This paper analyzes the statistical dependence of pipe breaks on explanatory variables, determining their optimal combination and quantifying their influence on failure prediction accuracy. A large set of registered data from Madrid water supply network, managed by Canal de Isabel II, has been filtered, classified and studied. Several statistical Bayesian models have been built and validated from the available information with a technique that combines reference periods of time as well as geographical location. Statistical models of increasing complexity are built from zero up to five explanatory variables following two approaches: a set of independent variables or a combination of two joint variables plus an additional number of independent variables. With the aim of finding the variable combination that provides the most accurate prediction, models are compared following an objective validation procedure based on the model skill to predict the number of pipe breaks in a large set of geographical locations. As expected, model performance improves as the number of explanatory variables increases. However, the rate of improvement is not constant. Performance metrics improve significantly up to three variables, but the tendency is softened for higher order models, especially in trunk mains where performance is reduced. Slight differences are found between trunk mains and distribution lines when selecting the most influent variables and models.

  18. Effects of Webquest on the achievement and motivation on Jordanian university students of (Independent & Dependent cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamah Mohammad Ameen Aldalalah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of webquest on the jordanian students’ of different cognitive style. The independent variables were the instruction (conventional & webquest. The dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. The instructionrating variable is cognitive style (independent & dependent. The study sample consisted of 72 undergraduate educational technology students, information and communication technology students and graphic design students. Inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the data. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and T-TEST was carried out to examine the main effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that students using the webquest instruction performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than students using the conventional instruction. Independent cognitive style students performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than dependent cognitive style students. The webquest instruction was found to help students with dependent cognitive style on achievement and motivation

  19. How a dependent's variable non-randomness affects taper equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to apply the least squares method in regression analysis, the values of the dependent variable Y should be random. In an example of regression analysis linear and nonlinear taper equations, which estimate the diameter of the tree dhi at any height of the tree hi, were compared. For each tree the diameter at the ...

  20. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya, E-mail: sunyh92@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ∼10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  1. Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2017-01-01

    Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green’s function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton–Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei–Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü–Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems. - Highlights: • Exact unitary transformation reducing time dependent quadratic quantum Hamiltonian to zero. • New separation of variables method and simultaneous uncoupling of modes. • Explicit examples of transformations for one to four dimensional problems. • New general evolution equation for quadratic form in the action, respectively Green’s function.

  2. Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2017-06-01

    Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green's function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton-Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei-Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü-Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems.

  3. Variables influencing medical student learning in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Cathy J; Boehler, Margaret L; Rogers, David A; Williams, Reed G; Dunnington, Gary; Folse, Roland; Markwell, Stephen J

    2004-02-01

    The operating room (OR) is an important venue where surgeons do much of medical student teaching and yet there has been little work evaluating variables that influence learning in this unique environment. We designed this study to identify variables that affected medical student learning in the OR. We developed a questionnaire based on surgery faculty observations of learning in the OR. The medical students completed the questionnaire on 114 learning episodes in the OR. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to establish the strength of association between various variables and the student's overall perception of learning. The students evaluated 27 variables that might impact their learning in the OR. Strong correlations were identified between the attending physician's attitude, interactions and teaching ability in the OR and the environment being conducive to learning. Surgical faculty behavior is a powerful determinant of student perceptions of what provides for a favorable learning environment in the OR.

  4. Exercise training improves heart rate variability after methamphetamine dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Brett Andrew; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent participants with age-matched, drug-free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the methamphetamine-dependent participants. In 50 participants (MD = 28; DF = 22), resting heart rate (HR; R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice-weekly exercise training (ME = 14) or equal attention without training (MC = 14) over 8 wk. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups (mean ± SD): age = 33 ± 6 yr; body mass = 82.7 ± 12 kg, body mass index = 26.8 ± 4.1 kg·min. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting HR (P HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase in HRV, representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.

  5. Value of Construction Company and its Dependence on Significant Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítková, E.; Hromádka, V.; Ondrušková, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the value of the construction company assessment respecting usable approaches and determinable variables. The reasons of the value of the construction company assessment are different, but the most important reasons are the sale or the purchase of the company, the liquidation of the company, the fusion of the company with another subject or the others. According the reason of the value assessment it is possible to determine theoretically different approaches for valuation, mainly it concerns about the yield method of valuation and the proprietary method of valuation. Both approaches are dependant of detailed input variables, which quality will influence the final assessment of the company´s value. The main objective of the paper is to suggest, according to the analysis, possible ways of input variables, mainly in the form of expected cash-flows or the profit, determination. The paper is focused mainly on methods of time series analysis, regression analysis and mathematical simulation utilization. As the output, the results of the analysis on the case study will be demonstrated.

  6. Instructional Variables and Students' Acquisition of Employable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the impact of teacher quality, teaching methods, and access to training materials on students' acquisition of employable skills in vocational technical subjects, for self employment in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study.

  7. Motivation as an independent and a dependent variable in medical education: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; van Asperen, M; Croiset, G

    2011-01-01

    Motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched in general education, but less in medical education. To answer two research questions, 'How has the literature studied motivation as either an independent or dependent variable? How is motivation useful in predicting and understanding processes and outcomes in medical education?' in the light of the Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation. A literature search performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO and ERIC databases resulted in 460 articles. The inclusion criteria were empirical research, specific measurement of motivation and qualitative research studies which had well-designed methodology. Only studies related to medical students/school were included. Findings of 56 articles were included in the review. Motivation as an independent variable appears to affect learning and study behaviour, academic performance, choice of medicine and specialty within medicine and intention to continue medical study. Motivation as a dependent variable appears to be affected by age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, personality, year of medical curriculum and teacher and peer support, all of which cannot be manipulated by medical educators. Motivation is also affected by factors that can be influenced, among which are, autonomy, competence and relatedness, which have been described as the basic psychological needs important for intrinsic motivation according to SDT. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education influencing important outcomes and is also a dependent variable influenced by autonomy, competence and relatedness. This review finds some evidence in support of the validity of SDT in medical education.

  8. Emotional variables, dropout and academic performance in Spanish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther

    2016-02-01

    The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  10. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  11. Problems of harmful habits and dependences of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorobey Nikolaj Petrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data of modern scientific literature is conducted on issue of harmful habits and dependences of students. It is shown that considerable part of student young people have harmful habits and dependences. Negative influence of harmful habits and dependences of students is exposed on the state of their health. Importance of delivering is well-proven from addiction behavior in practice of healthy way of life of students. It is set that one of foreground jobs of present time there is an increase of level of education of student young people on questions abandonment from harmful habits and dependences. The ways of decision of problem of addiction behavior of students are offered as an effective condition of improvement of the state of their health.

  12. Causal Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...

  13. Teacher and Student Variables Affecting Special Education Evaluation and Referral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Lorenzo Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Past research has revealed that African American/Black boys are referred for special education evaluation at disproportionately higher rates than boys of other racial/ethnic groups. This correlational study used survey methodology to examine whether student and teacher demographic variables predicted how likely a teacher would refer boy students…

  14. Variables Impacting Dispositional Empathy in Doctoral Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Amelia C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…

  15. Demographic Variables and Recreational Substance Use Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. Robert; Davis, Jaime L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined relationship between demographic variables and recreational substance use in college students (N=832). Results revealed that persons using certain recreational substances differed significantly from nonusers. Marijuana users differed from nonusers on parental income, high school grade point average, and political orientation. No…

  16. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  17. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  18. Solute transport modelling with the variable temporally dependent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pintu Das

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... in a finite domain with time-dependent sources and dis- tance-dependent dispersivities. Also, existing ... solute transport in multi-layered porous media using gen- eralized integral transform technique with .... methods for solving the fractional reaction-–sub-diffusion equation. To solve numerically the Eqs.

  19. Field Dependence and Vocational Choice of Interior Design Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane M.; And Others

    One hundred ninety-three interior design college students were administered the Group Embedded Figures Test, a measure of field dependence, in order to evaluate two of Witkin's hypotheses regarding career choice. The career-differentiation hypothesis predicted that students electing to major in interior design would be field independent because…

  20. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  1. On Direction of Dependence in Latent Variable Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to determining direction of dependence in nonexperimental data are based on the relation between higher-than second-order moments on one side and correlation and regression models on the other. These approaches have experienced rapid development and are being applied in contexts such as research on partner violence, attention deficit…

  2. Understanding the variable effect of instructional innovations on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.

    2012-02-01

    As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.

  3. Learning Bayesian Dependence Model for Student Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina COCU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning a Bayesian network from a numeric set of data is a challenging task because of dual nature of learning process: initial need to learn network structure, and then to find out the distribution probability tables. In this paper, we propose a machine-learning algorithm based on hill climbing search combined with Tabu list. The aim of learning process is to discover the best network that represents dependences between nodes. Another issue in machine learning procedure is handling numeric attributes. In order to do that, we must perform an attribute discretization pre-processes. This discretization operation can influence the results of learning network structure. Therefore, we make a comparative study to find out the most suitable combination between discretization method and learning algorithm, for a specific data set.

  4. Burnout and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Among U.S. Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.

  5. Gadget Dependency among Medical College Students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gadget holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Gadgets usage has both pros and cons. Objective: To assess the magnitude of gadget utilization among medical college students in Delhi and to estimate the burden of gadget dependency. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in three medical colleges. The participants were 957 medical students selected by systematic random sampling, interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. Result: The sample consisted of 485 (50.7% males and 472 (49.3% females, aged 17-25 years. Gadgets of at least one variety were uniformly used by all the students, 22.4% of the students surveyed were found to be gadget dependent.  Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of gadget dependency among medical students. There is need to create awareness regarding the problem of gadget dependency and its social and health effects.  

  6. Relationship between dependence on modern communication tools and psychological well-being in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Afradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays due to technological advance and its direct impact on the quality of human life, addressing the issue of health and its determinants is very important. Maintaining public health is one of the most fundamental issues in each community. The aim of the study was to survey relationship between dependence on modern communication tools (internet and mobile phones and psychological well-being. 300 university students was selected according to cluster sampling method. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and 141 completed questionnaires were collected. The Young Internet addiction test and mobile phone addiction index were used to measure the predictor variables and the Ryff psychological well-being scale was used for the criterion variable. Multiple regression analysis gave a multiple correlation coefficient (R of 0.347 and adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.120. According to the calculated Beta values, the variable of dependence on mobile phones with the value of 0.196 showed the greatest power for explaining the autonomy component. The results showed a significant negative relationship between independent variables, i.e. dependence on the Internet and mobile phones, and dependent variables, i.e. psychological well-being and its components.

  7. Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Emigh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.

  8. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  9. Non-uniform approximations for sums of discrete m-dependent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Vellaisamy, P.; Cekanavicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform estimates are obtained for Poisson, compound Poisson, translated Poisson, negative binomial and binomial approximations to sums of of m-dependent integer-valued random variables. Estimates for Wasserstein metric also follow easily from our results. The results are then exemplified by the approximation of Poisson binomial distribution, 2-runs and $m$-dependent $(k_1,k_2)$-events.

  10. Using k-dependence causal forest to mine the most significant dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    Full Text Available Numerous data mining models have been proposed to construct computer-aided medical expert systems. Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs are more distinct and understandable than other models. To graphically describe the dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis and ensure the rationality of the diagnosis results, the proposed k-dependence causal forest (KCF model generates a series of submodels in the framework of maximum spanning tree (MST and demonstrates stronger dependence representation. Friedman test on 12 UCI datasets shows that KCF has classification accuracy advantage over the other state-of-the-art BNCs, such as Naive Bayes, tree augmented Naive Bayes, and k-dependence Bayesian classifier. Our extensive experimental comparison on 4 medical datasets also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of KCF in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Student understanding of control of variables: Deciding whether or not a variable influences the behavior of a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Shaffer, Peter S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; McDermott, Lillian C.

    2008-02-01

    The ability of adult students to reason on the basis of the control of variables was the subject of an extended investigation. This paper describes the part of the study that focused on the reasoning required to decide whether or not a given variable influences the behavior of a system. The participants were undergraduates taking introductory Physics and K-8 teachers studying physics and physical science in inservice institutes and workshops. Although most of the students recognized the need to control variables, many had significant difficulty with the underlying reasoning. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the preparation of future scientists and in the education of a scientifically literate citizenry. There are also strong implications for the professional development of teachers, many of whom are expected to teach control of variables to young students.

  12. An assessment of the impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on student success in a community college science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Audrey Leroy

    The impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on academic success among community college science students was studied. Demographic variables included gender, employment status, and ethnicity. Cognitive variables included college grade point average, assessment status, course prerequisites, college course success ratios, final course grade, withdrawal patterns, and curriculum format. Non-cognitive variables included enrollment status, educational objectives, academic expectations, and career goals. The sample population included students enrolled in human anatomy courses (N = 191) at a large metropolitan community college located in central Texas. Variables that potentially influence attrition and achievement in college level science courses were examined. Final course grade and withdrawal phenomena were treated as dependent variables, while all other variables were treated as independent variables. No significant differences were found to exist between any of the demographic variables studied and the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. A difference was shown to be associated with the ethnicity variable and achievement levels. Educational objectives and career goals were shown to have an impact on the number of students who withdrew failing. The career goals variable and the academic expectations variable were shown to have an impact on achievement among daytime and evening students. College grade point average and course success ratios were shown to make a difference among students who withdrew passing. None of the other cognitive variables studied were shown to influence the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. College grade point average and course prerequisites, however, were shown to make a difference in achievement. The collaborative learning instructional format was found to have no impact on attrition or achievement, however, mean scores earned by students experiencing the collaborative learning format

  13. Punishment induced behavioural and neurophysiological variability reveals dopamine-dependent selection of kinematic movement parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Joseph M.; Ruge, Diane; Buijink, Arthur; Bestmann, Sven; Rothwell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Action selection describes the high-level process which selects between competing movements. In animals, behavioural variability is critical for the motor exploration required to select the action which optimizes reward and minimizes cost/punishment, and is guided by dopamine (DA). The aim of this study was to test in humans whether low-level movement parameters are affected by punishment and reward in ways similar to high-level action selection. Moreover, we addressed the proposed dependence of behavioural and neurophysiological variability on DA, and whether this may underpin the exploration of kinematic parameters. Participants performed an out-and-back index finger movement and were instructed that monetary reward and punishment were based on its maximal acceleration (MA). In fact, the feedback was not contingent on the participant’s behaviour but pre-determined. Blocks highly-biased towards punishment were associated with increased MA variability relative to blocks with either reward or without feedback. This increase in behavioural variability was positively correlated with neurophysiological variability, as measured by changes in cortico-spinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. Following the administration of a DA-antagonist, the variability associated with punishment diminished and the correlation between behavioural and neurophysiological variability no longer existed. Similar changes in variability were not observed when participants executed a pre-determined MA, nor did DA influence resting neurophysiological variability. Thus, under conditions of punishment, DA-dependent processes influence the selection of low-level movement parameters. We propose that the enhanced behavioural variability reflects the exploration of kinematic parameters for less punishing, or conversely more rewarding, outcomes. PMID:23447607

  14. Equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for sequences of identically distributed extended negatively dependent random variables. As a result, we extend and generalize some results of complete moment convergence obtained by Chow (Bull. Inst. Math. Acad. Sin. 16:177-201, 1988 and Li and Spătaru (J. Theor. Probab. 18:933-947, 2005 from the i.i.d. case to extended negatively dependent sequences.

  15. Symptoms of exercise dependence and physical activity in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A

    2007-12-01

    Health professionals recognize the benefits of moderate physical activity and encourage clients to engage in some form of activity on a regular basis. In spite of these recognized benefits, there are growing concerns that some may exercise at levels detrimental to health. The term exercise dependence refers to those individuals whose extreme exercise schedules interfere with their social, occupational, and family lives. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weekly exercise habits and scores on the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire in a sample of undergraduate students (213 women and 79 men). Overall, participants who reported high activity scored higher than those reporting low activity on subscales measuring interference with family and social life, positive reward, withdrawal, exercise for social reasons, exercise for health reasons, and stereotyped behavior.

  16. SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND DEPENDENCE IN THE FACEBOOK USE BY ROMANIAN AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The time spent on Facebook by university students is continuously increasing. This fact is raising many questions as regards the relation between the social networking websites and the university. The educators are challenged to understand the factors that are driving the adoption of social networking websites, the characteristics of the daily use as well as the positive and negative effects on the university work. The social influence has been recognized as one of the factors that are driving the adoption of information systems. On another hand, the excessive use may lead to addiction. The first objective of this research is to explore the correlation between the social influence and the Facebook dependence. A model with these latent variables has been specified and tested on two samples of university students, the first from Romania and the second from Lithuania. The second objective of the research is to comparatively discuss the measures in each country. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis has been carried on to test the configural and metric invariance. The comparison of means shows that university students reporting higher social influence have a higher risk of Facebook dependence. The comparative analysis revealed that for both variables, the mean values are higher for the Romanian sample.

  17. Construction of adjoint operators for coupled equations depending on different variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for the construction of the adjoint operator matrix in case of coupled equations defining quantities that depend on different sets of variables. This case is not properly treated in the literature. From this procedure a simple rule can be deduced for the construction of such adjoint operator matrices

  18. Panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable. In particular, it focuses on the specification and estimation of four panel data models commonly used in applied research: the fixed effects model, the random effects model, the

  19. Human Performance Technology (HPT): An Examination of Definitions through Dependent and Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbeck, Sonja A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a chronological perspective of human performance technology (HPT) definitions and an evaluation of them in terms of independent and dependent variables. Discusses human competence and performance technology and compares the definitions with the goals that have been articulated for HPT. (Author/LRW)

  20. Central limit theorem for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrovskij, V.A.; Ermakov, S.V.; Ostrovskij, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables is proved. In proving CLT convergence of finite-measured (i.e. cylindrical) distributions is established. A weak compactness of the family of measures generated by a certain sequence is confirmed. The continuity of the limiting field is checked

  1. Waterpipe dependence in university students and effect of normative beliefs: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2014-02-14

    The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities. Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria. sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated. Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); pinfluence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (β=-1.09(-1.79 to -0.28); p1; pinfluenced by parents' and friends' opinions, and idols' smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence.

  2. Investigation of High School Students' Environmental Attitudes in Terms of Some Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruoglu, Nergiz; Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin

    2015-01-01

    Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the…

  3. Predicting Student Success from Non-Cognitive Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    In order to identify the relationship among social support networks, depression, life events, and student progress in medical school, 96 students completed a questionnaire. The results indicated good social support, a high number of recent life events, slight depression and a continuum of not quite passing to doing extremely well in medical…

  4. The Perceived Success of Tutoring Students with Learning Disabilities: Relations to Tutee and Tutoring Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of two types of variables to the perceived success of a tutoring project for college students with learning disabilities (LD): tutoring-related variables (the degree of engagement in different tutoring activities and difficulties encountered during tutoring), and tutee-related variables (learning…

  5. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  6. Variables Influencing Credit Card Balances of Students at a Midwestern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Lucretia; Sahlhoff, Kathleen; Blackstone, Judith; Peden, Blaine; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2004-01-01

    This research used a Web-based survey of students at a Midwest regional university to measure the extent of credit card use by first-year students and seniors. The results indicate that the variables influencing credit card use and the carrying of a balance from one month to the next include the number of cards held by the student, the student's…

  7. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow

  8. TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissowski Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

  9. An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Soo Rhee

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,…,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+α (0<α≦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of Sσ−1(S=X1+X2+…+Xn, σ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it Sσ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.

  10. ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Barratt, Daniel T; Dahlen, Karianne; Loennechen, Morten H; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-12-01

    The most common treatment for opioid dependence is substitution therapy with another opioid such as methadone. The methadone dosage is individualized but highly variable, and program retention rates are low due in part to nonoptimal dosing resulting in withdrawal symptoms and further heroin craving and use. Methadone is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein transporter, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, which regulates central nervous system exposure. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of ABCB1 genetic variability on methadone dose requirements. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from opioid-dependent subjects (n = 60) and non-opioid-dependent control subjects (n = 60), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 61, 1199, 1236, 2677, and 3435. ABCB1 haplotypes were inferred with PHASE software (version 2.1). There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes between the 2 populations. ABCB1 genetic variability influenced daily methadone dose requirements, such that subjects carrying 2 copies of the wild-type haplotype required higher doses compared with those with 1 copy and those with no copies (98.3 +/- 10.4, 58.6 +/- 20.9, and 55.4 +/- 26.1 mg/d, respectively; P = .029). In addition, carriers of the AGCTT haplotype required significantly lower doses than noncarriers (38.0 +/- 16.8 and 61.3 +/- 24.6 mg/d, respectively; P = .04). Although ABCB1 genetic variability is not related to the development of opioid dependence, identification of variant haplotypes may, after larger prospective studies have been performed, provide clinicians with a tool for methadone dosage individualization.

  11. causal variables and academic performance of students in cross

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic ... parents in the immediate daily aspect of education ... This study employed the descriptive .... on cognitive development. Journal of.

  12. BAYESIAN TECHNIQUES FOR COMPARING TIME-DEPENDENT GRMHD SIMULATIONS TO VARIABLE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios, E-mail: junhankim@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. Moreover, neglecting the variability in the data and the models often leads to erroneous model selections. We finally apply our method to the early EHT data on Sgr A*.

  13. Do Student Evaluations of Teaching Depend on the Distribution of Expected Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Diaz, Horacio; Ragan, James F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research suggests that student evaluations of teaching may depend on the average grade expected in a class. We hypothesize that, because of risk aversion, student ratings also depend on the distribution of expected grades. As predicted, student ratings at the University of Puerto Rico at Bayamon are significantly and negatively related to…

  14. Students' Dependence on Smart Phones: The Influence of Social Needs, Social Influences and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether social needs, social influences and convenience of smart phones affects students' dependence on them. This research also examines whether students' dependence on smart phones influences their purchase behaviour. This investigation is conducted among the students in a public university in the…

  15. Smoking dependence and common psychiatric disorders in medical students: Cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashor, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Exploring the variable effect of the degree of smoking dependence on the level of anxiety and depression symptoms among medical students. Methodology: This cross-section study, conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-Iraq from December 2010 to May 2011, involving 300 medical students selected by cluster random sampling techniques. Those students completed the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Zung self-report depression scale and the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence with a value of six or more regarded as heavy smokers, and a value less than six considered as light smokers. Results: The response rate was 89%, heavy smokers were significantly older and start smoking at an earlier age than non- and light smokers (p=0.001). Heavy smokers associated with high chance of depressive symptoms in comparison with non-smokers (OR=4.8, C.I.=1.752-13.677) and light smokers (OR=4.2, C.I.=1.042-17.161). Regarding anxiety symptoms, heavy smokers demonstrate high chance of anxiety symptoms in comparison with non-smokers (OR=5.2, C.I.=1.826-15.176), and light smokers (OR=4.5, C.I.=1.318-15.526). Conclusions: Heavy smokers differ from non- and light smokers, associated with high risk of anxiety and depression, therefore heavy smoking tends to deteriorate rather than ameliorate these symptoms. (author)

  16. Variables Affecting Secondary School Students' Willingness to Eat Genetically Modified Food Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Jasmien; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Gheysen, Godelieve; Valcke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale cross-sectional study (N = 4002) was set up to determine Flemish secondary school students' willingness to eat genetically modified food (WTE) and to link students' WTE to previously identified key variables from research on the acceptance of genetic modification (GM). These variables include subjective and objective knowledge about genetics and biotechnology, perceived risks and benefits of GM food crops, trust in information from different sources about GM, and food neophobia. Differences between WTE-related variables based on students' grade level, educational track, and gender were analyzed. The students displayed a rather indecisive position toward GM food and scored weakly on a genetics and biotechnology knowledge test. WTE correlated most strongly with perceived benefits and subjective and objective knowledge. The results have clear implications for education, as they reiterate the need to strengthen students' scientific knowledge base and to introduce a GM-related debate at a much earlier stage in their school career.

  17. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra

    2016-06-21

    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a large Mw 7.8 ShakeOut scenario. We include the geometrical fault complexity and consider different 1D velocity–density profiles for the Landers simulations and a 3D heterogeneous Earth structure for the ShakeOut scenario. For the Landers earthquake, the computed waveforms are validated using strong‐motion recordings. We analyze the simulated ground‐motion data set in terms of distance and azimuth dependence of peak ground velocity (PGV). Our simulations reveal that intraevent ground‐motion variability Graphic is higher in close distances to the fault (<20  km) and decreases with increasing distance following a power law. This finding is in stark contrast to constant sigma‐values used in empirical ground‐motion prediction equations. The physical explanation of a large near‐field Graphic is the presence of strong directivity and rupture complexity. High values of Graphic occur in the rupture‐propagation direction, but small values occur in the direction perpendicular to it. We observe that the power‐law decay of Graphic is primarily controlled by slip heterogeneity. In addition, Graphic, as function of azimuth, is sensitive to variations in both rupture speed and slip heterogeneity. The azimuth dependence of the ground‐motion mean μln(PGV) is well described by a Cauchy–Lorentz function that provides a novel empirical quantification to model the spatial dependency of ground motion. Online Material: Figures of slip distributions, residuals to ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs), distance and azimuthal dependence, and directivity predictor of ground‐motion variability for different source models.

  18. An Investigation of Selected Variables Related to Student Algebra I Performance in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Undray

    2016-01-01

    This research study attempted to determine if specific variables were related to student performance on the Algebra I subject-area test. This study also sought to determine in which of grades 8, 9, or 10 students performed better on the Algebra I Subject Area Test. This study also investigated the different criteria that are used to schedule…

  19. Teachers' and Students' Work-Culture Variables Associated with Positive School Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Orna D.; Nutt, Roberta L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether goodness of fit between teachers' and students' backgrounds is associated with subjective grading and objective achievement at school. One hundred one seventh graders and twenty of their teachers completed the Self-Report Family Inventory. Similarity between teachers' and students' work-culture variables was associated with…

  20. A Survey on Turkish Elementary School Students' Environmental Friendly Behaviours and Associated Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental knowledge and attitudes, and how self-reported environmentally friendly behaviour is related to environmental knowledge, behavioural intentions, environmental affects, and the students' locus of…

  1. Predicting Eight Grade Students' Equation Solving Performances via Concepts of Variable and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on how two algebraic concepts- equality and variable- predicted 8th grade students' equation solving performance. In this study, predictive design as a correlational research design was used. Randomly selected 407 eight-grade students who were from the central districts of a city in the central region of Turkey participated in…

  2. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  3. Analysis of 4th Grade Students' Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Several Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…

  4. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  5. The dependence of J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section on the Feynman variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Chungui; Liu Na; Miao Wendan

    2011-01-01

    By means of two typical sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, meanwhile taking account of the energy loss of the beam proton and the nuclear absorption of the charmonium states traversing the nuclear matter in the uniform framework of the Glauber model, a leading order phenomenological analysis is given in the color evaporation model of the E866 experimental data on J/ψ production differential cross section ratios R Fe/Be (x F ). It is shown that the energy loss effect of beam proton on R Fe/Be (x F ) is more important than the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions in the high Feynman variable x F region. It is found that the J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section depends on the Feynman variable x F and increases linearly with x F in the region x F > 0.2. (authors)

  6. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  7. The Salience of Selected Variables on Choice for Movie Attendance among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A questionnaire was designed for a study assessing both the importance of 28 variables in movie attendance and the importance of movie-going as a leisure-time activity. Respondents were 130 ninth and twelfth grade students. The 28 variables were broadly organized into eight categories: movie production personnel, production elements, advertising,…

  8. Variability in Pretest-Posttest Correlation Coefficients by Student Achievement Level. NCEE 2011-4033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…

  9. Using the University Student Depression Inventory to Investigate the Effect of Demographic Variables on Students' Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Duncanson, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a problem in the student population and may impact students of any age, gender and ethnicity. Previous studies have indicated student demographic characteristics are associated with depression; however, these studies have not utilised scales specifically designed to measure depression in the student population. The aim of the present…

  10. Building the nodal nuclear data dependences in a many-dimensional state-variable space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Abstract and Introduction are revised to reflect reviewers' comments. → Section is revised and simplified. → The third paragraph in Section is revised. → All typos are fixed. - Abstract: We present new methods for building the polynomial-regression based nodal nuclear data models. The data models can reflect dependences on a large number of state variables, and they can consider various history effects. Suitable multivariate polynomials that approximate the nodal data dependences are identified efficiently in an iterative manner. The history effects are analysed using a new sampling scheme for lattice calculations where the traditional base burnup and branch calculations are replaced by a large number of diverse burnup histories. The total number of lattice calculations is controlled so that the data models are built to a required accuracy.

  11. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  12. An Analysis of Some Variables Affecting the Internet Dependency Level of Turkish Adolescents by Using Decision Tree Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri, Murat; Gunuc, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Internet dependency is going to expand into social life in wide area whereas it has been accepted as a pathological and psychological disease. Knowing the basic effects of internet dependency is an inevitable approach to use the internet technology healthy. In this study, internet dependency levels of 754 students were examined with the Internet…

  13. Population and prehistory III: food-dependent demography in variable environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2009-11-01

    The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use a perturbation approach to analyze the effects of random environmental variation on this nonlinear, age-structured system. We show that in expanding populations, direct environmental effects dominate induced population fluctuations, so environmental variability has little effect on mean hunger levels, although it does decrease population growth. The growth rate determines the time until population is limited by space. This limitation introduces a tradeoff between population density and well-being, so population effects become more important than the direct effects of the environment: environmental fluctuation increases mortality, releasing density dependence and raising average well-being for survivors. We discuss the social implications of these findings for the long-term fate of populations as they transition from expansion into limitation, given that conditions leading to high well-being during growth depress well-being during limitation.

  14. Numerical Solution of the Time-Dependent Navier–Stokes Equation for Variable Density–Variable Viscosity. Part I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Xin, H.; Neytcheva, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 232-260 ISSN 1392-6292 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : variable density * phase-field model * Navier-Stokes equations * preconditioning * variable viscosity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.468, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3846/13926292.2015.1021395

  15. University students' context-dependent conscious attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the results of an empirical investigation of overt language attitudes held by students attending North-West University, South Africa. Attitudes elicited from 325 students with mainly Setswana, Sesotho, Afrikaans and English as home languages are analysed comparatively. The study explores the ...

  16. Uncovering state-dependent relationships in shallow lakes using Bayesian latent variable regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitense, Kelsey; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Zimmer, Kyle D; Fieberg, John

    2018-03-01

    Ecosystems sometimes undergo dramatic shifts between contrasting regimes. Shallow lakes, for instance, can transition between two alternative stable states: a clear state dominated by submerged aquatic vegetation and a turbid state dominated by phytoplankton. Theoretical models suggest that critical nutrient thresholds differentiate three lake types: highly resilient clear lakes, lakes that may switch between clear and turbid states following perturbations, and highly resilient turbid lakes. For effective and efficient management of shallow lakes and other systems, managers need tools to identify critical thresholds and state-dependent relationships between driving variables and key system features. Using shallow lakes as a model system for which alternative stable states have been demonstrated, we developed an integrated framework using Bayesian latent variable regression (BLR) to classify lake states, identify critical total phosphorus (TP) thresholds, and estimate steady state relationships between TP and chlorophyll a (chl a) using cross-sectional data. We evaluated the method using data simulated from a stochastic differential equation model and compared its performance to k-means clustering with regression (KMR). We also applied the framework to data comprising 130 shallow lakes. For simulated data sets, BLR had high state classification rates (median/mean accuracy >97%) and accurately estimated TP thresholds and state-dependent TP-chl a relationships. Classification and estimation improved with increasing sample size and decreasing noise levels. Compared to KMR, BLR had higher classification rates and better approximated the TP-chl a steady state relationships and TP thresholds. We fit the BLR model to three different years of empirical shallow lake data, and managers can use the estimated bifurcation diagrams to prioritize lakes for management according to their proximity to thresholds and chance of successful rehabilitation. Our model improves upon

  17. Investigating the Impact of Internet Dependency on Student-Teachers' Loneliness of Adiyaman University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, Kürsat Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of internet dependency on student- teachers' loneliness of Admiyaman University. The study also examined the differences in internet dependency and loneliness among students and teachers of Adiyaman University of Turkey. The standard questionnaire of Jung (1996) was used to measure the internet…

  18. Predictors of International Graduate Student Success in U.S. Universities: Analysis of Noncognitive Student Variables and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between Sedlacek's (2004b) student noncognitive variables (positive self-concept, realistic self-appraisal, successfully handling the system, preference for long-term goals, leadership experience, presence of a strong support person, community service, and knowledge of the…

  19. Effects of exercise dependence on psychological health of Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglong; Nie, Jingsong; Ren, Yujia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise dependence on the psychological health of Chinese college students. A total of 1601 college students from three universities in Hunan, China, were selected as research subjects. Several measurement scales, including the Exercise Addiction Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Subjective Well-being Scale, were used to survey the psychological health problem of these students and to analyze the effects of exercise dependence on their psychological health. Exercise dependence, based on the structural equation model analysis, can positively influence state anxiety (Pexercise dependence negatively influences students' self-satisfaction (PExercise dependence adversely affects the psychological health of college students. Further research using multi-dimensional exercise addiction scales should be conducted to identify all the negative effects of exercise addiction factors on psychological health.

  20. [Correlation coefficient-based classification method of hydrological dependence variability: With auto-regression model as example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu Xi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Wu, Zi Yi

    2018-04-01

    Hydrological process evaluation is temporal dependent. Hydrological time series including dependence components do not meet the data consistency assumption for hydrological computation. Both of those factors cause great difficulty for water researches. Given the existence of hydrological dependence variability, we proposed a correlationcoefficient-based method for significance evaluation of hydrological dependence based on auto-regression model. By calculating the correlation coefficient between the original series and its dependence component and selecting reasonable thresholds of correlation coefficient, this method divided significance degree of dependence into no variability, weak variability, mid variability, strong variability, and drastic variability. By deducing the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient in each order of series, we found that the correlation coefficient was mainly determined by the magnitude of auto-correlation coefficient from the 1 order to p order, which clarified the theoretical basis of this method. With the first-order and second-order auto-regression models as examples, the reasonability of the deduced formula was verified through Monte-Carlo experiments to classify the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient. This method was used to analyze three observed hydrological time series. The results indicated the coexistence of stochastic and dependence characteristics in hydrological process.

  1. The relationship between problematic internet use, violence trend and some demographic variables among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Babacan Gumus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate relations between problematic internet use, violence trend and some demographic variables in university students. Methods: The study was conducted with students studying at a state university. The sample consisted of 375 university students as 201 female and 174 male. The data were collected using Demographic Information Form, Internet Addiction Scale (IAS and Violence Proneness Scale (VPS. In the analysis of the data; descriptive statistics student t test, ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey HSD test, pearson correlation analysis and stepwise hierarchical regression analysis were used. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.04+/-1.65 years (age range 18-28 years. It was found that 82.7% of the students in the study group use internet with the purpose of information, and 78.4% of the students use internet for social and entertainment purposes. According to IAS points; 3.7% of the students are problematic internet use, whereas 30.4% show borderline indications in terms of problematic internet use. According to VPS points; 40% of students have high trend of violence and 2.7% of the students have very high trend of violence. A positive relationship was determined between IAS and VPS mean scores (r=0.346, p<0.01. Duration of internet use, violence trend, internet use for social and entertainment purposes and gender are the variables that predict problematic internet use level. Problematic internet use, friend relationships, duration of mother education, gender and duration of internet use are significant predictors of violence trend. Conclusion: The research findings indicate that a significant portion of university students are at risk of problematic internet use and high violence trend. It is believed that the findings obtained in this research will be beneficial in terms of taking necessary measures for groups at risk and of raising awareness among university students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 460-467

  2. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  3. Students' Ways of Thinking about Two-Variable Functions and Rate of Change in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eric David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of four students' ways of thinking about functions of two variables and rate of change of those two-variable functions. Most secondary, introductory algebra, pre-calculus, and first and second semester calculus courses do not require students to think about functions of more than one variable. Yet…

  4. Ranking Practice Variability in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation: So Bad, It's "Good".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen Osborn, Megan; Mattson, James; Yanuck, Justin; Anderson, Craig; Tekian, Ara; Fox, John Christian; Harris, Ilene B

    2016-11-01

    To examine the variability among medical schools in ranking systems used in medical student performance evaluations (MSPEs). The authors reviewed MSPEs from U.S. MD-granting medical schools received by the University of California, Irvine emergency medicine and internal medicine residency programs during 2012-2013 and 2014-2015. They recorded whether the school used a ranking system, the type of ranking system used, the size and description of student categories, the location of the ranking statement and category legend, and whether nonranking schools used language suggestive of rank. Of the 134 medical schools in the study sample, the majority (n = 101; 75%) provided ranks for students in the MSPE. Most of the ranking schools (n = 63; 62%) placed students into named category groups, but the number and size of groups varied. The most common descriptors used for these 63 schools' top, second, third, and lowest groups were "outstanding," "excellent," "very good," and "good," respectively, but each of these terms was used across a broad range of percentile ranks. Student ranks and school category legends were found in various locations. Many of the 33 schools that did not rank students included language suggestive of rank. There is extensive variation in ranking systems used in MSPEs. Program directors may find it difficult to use MSPEs to compare applicants, which may diminish the MSPE's value in the residency application process and negatively affect high-achieving students. A consistent approach to ranking students would benefit program directors, students, and student affairs officers.

  5. The Attentional Dependence of Emotion Cognition is Variable with the Competing Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between emotion and attention has fascinated researchers for decades. Many previous studies have used eye-tracking, ERP, MEG and fMRI to explore this issue but have reached different conclusions: some researchers hold that emotion cognition is an automatic process and independent of attention, while some others believed that emotion cognition is modulated by attentional resources and is a type of controlled processing. The present research aimed to investigate this controversy, and we hypothesized that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition is variable with the competing task. Eye-tracking technology and a dual-task paradigm were adopted, and subjects’ attention was manipulated to fixate at the central task to investigate whether subjects could detect the emotional faces presented in the peripheral area with a decrease or near-absence of attention. The results revealed that when the peripheral task was emotional face discrimination but the central attention-demanding task was different, subjects performed well in the peripheral task, which means that emotional information can be processed in parallel with other stimuli, and there may be a specific channel in the human brain for processing emotional information. However, when the central and peripheral tasks were both emotional face discrimination, subjects could not perform well in the peripheral task, indicating that the processing of emotional information required attentional resources and that it is a type of controlled processing. Therefore, we concluded that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition varied with the competing task.

  6. Inside Student Government: The Variable Quality of High School Student Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel; Starmanns, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Student governments are the first direct experience that youth have of representative government. However, very little research has been done on student councils in spite of their ubiquity in American high schools and consistent references to their positive effects on the political socialization of youth.…

  7. Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction: An Investigation of Agriscience Students' Content Knowledge Based on Student Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous researchers in science education have reported student improvement in areas of scientific literacy resulting from socioscientific issues (SSI)-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to describe student agriscience content knowledge following a six-week SSI-based instructional unit focusing on the introduction of cultured meat…

  8. The Role of Student Publications Depends on Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibluk, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Notes two very different reactions to school shootings--Westside Middle School has no memorials and no media coverage of the four classmates and a teacher who were killed, whereas Columbine High School has erected memorials and is subject to ongoing media coverage. Concludes that the student media's role in covering tragic events is unique to each…

  9. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the transactional…

  10. Education and Health Matters: School Nurse Interventions, Student Outcomes, and School Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a quantitative, correlational study that examined selected school nursing services, student academic outcomes, and school demographics. Ex post facto data from the 2011-2012 school year of Delaware public schools were used in the research. The selected variables were school nurse interventions provided to students…

  11. Psychosocial Variables as Predictors of School Adjustment of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakolade, O. A.; Oyedokun, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considered several psychosocial variables as predictors of school adjustment of 40 gifted students with learning disabilities in Junior Secondary School in Ikenne Local Government Council Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposeful random sampling was employed to select four schools from 13 junior secondary schools in the area, six…

  12. Predicting Students' Skills in the Context of Scientific Inquiry with Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociodemographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger

    2015-06-01

    Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.

  13. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  14. Time-dependence in relativistic collisionless shocks: theory of the variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitkovsky, A

    2004-02-05

    We describe results from time-dependent numerical modeling of the collisionless reverse shock terminating the pulsar wind in the Crab Nebula. We treat the upstream relativistic wind as composed of ions and electron-positron plasma embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, flowing radially outward from the pulsar in a sector around the rotational equator. The relativistic cyclotron instability of the ion gyrational orbit downstream of the leading shock in the electron-positron pairs launches outward propagating magnetosonic waves. Because of the fresh supply of ions crossing the shock, this time-dependent process achieves a limit-cycle, in which the waves are launched with periodicity on the order of the ion Larmor time. Compressions in the magnetic field and pair density associated with these waves, as well as their propagation speed, semi-quantitatively reproduce the behavior of the wisp and ring features described in recent observations obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. By selecting the parameters of the ion orbits to fit the spatial separation of the wisps, we predict the period of time variability of the wisps that is consistent with the data. When coupled with a mechanism for non-thermal acceleration of the pairs, the compressions in the magnetic field and plasma density associated with the optical wisp structure naturally account for the location of X-ray features in the Crab. We also discuss the origin of the high energy ions and their acceleration in the equatorial current sheet of the pulsar wind.

  15. Academic stress in master’s students and its modulatory variables: a between-groups design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation tries to establish the descriptive profile of the academic stress of the students of the masters in education and to identify which sociodemographic and situational variables play a modulator role. This investigation is based on the Person-Surroundings Research Program and the systemical cognitive model of academic stress. The study can be characterized as transectional, correlational and non experimental. The collection of the information was made through the SISCO inventory of Academic Stress which was applied to 152 students. The main results suggest that 95% of the master students report having felt academic stress a few times but with medium-high intensity. Variables gender, civil state, attending masters and institutional support of the attending masters act as modulators in academic stress.

  16. Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with temperature-dependent variable viscosity in a muscular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.

  17. Identity and intimacy crises and their relationship to internet dependence among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Rong

    2006-10-01

    In an attempt to test Kandell's proposition that internet dependents used the internet as a coping mechanism against underlying psychological issues, this study investigated the extent to which the fifth and sixth Eriksonian crises (identity, intimacy), were related to internet dependence (online chatting, gaming) among college students. Students spending more than 10 hours per week on chatting/gaming were classified as dependents. On the basis of a national sample of freshmen in Taiwan, this study found that the dependents scored significantly lower on most of the measures that reflected the successful resolution of the crises, and higher on the measures that reflected unsuccessful resolution of the crises. Kandell's proposition was supported.

  18. The relationship between phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout in students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Noruzi Kuhdasht; Zahra Ghayeninejad; Naser Nastiezaie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of mobail phones in Iranian students, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and its consequences have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cell phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout among nursing and midwifery students. In this study, 169 students were chosen through stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools included mobile phone addiction index, sympt...

  19. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mishra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m−2, 2–166 kg m−2, and 0–232 kg m−2, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were found to be land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth system models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high-resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the

  20. Differences between immigrant and national students in motivational variables and classroom-motivational-climate perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Simón, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to see whether Immigrant (IM) and Spanish (National) students (SP) need different kinds of help from teachers due to differences in motivation, family expectancies and interests and classroom-motivational-climate perception. A sample of Secondary Students -242 Spanish and 243 Immigrants- completed questionnaires assessing goal orientations and expectancies, family attitudes towards academic work, perception of classroom motivational climate and of its effects, satisfaction, disruptive behavior and achievement. ANOVAs showed differences in many of the motivational variables assessed as well as in family attitudes. In most cases, Immigrant students scored lower than Spanish students in the relevant variables. Regression analyses showed that personal and family differences were related to student's satisfaction, achievement and disruptive behavior. Finally, multi-group analysis of classroom-motivational-climate (CMC) showed similarities and differences in the motivational value attributed by IM and SP to each specific teaching pattern that configure the CMC. IM lower self-esteem could explain these results, whose implications for teaching and research are discussed.

  1. MIRU-VNTR allelic variability depends on Mycobacterium bovis clonal group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Amandine; Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Branger, Maxime; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2016-11-01

    The description of the population of M. bovis strains circulating in France from 1978 to 2013 has highlighted the discriminating power of the MLVA among predominant spoligotype groups. In the present study we aimed to characterize clonal groups via MLVA and to better understand the strain's population structure. MLVA was performed with eight MIRU-VNTR loci, most of them defined by the Venomyc European consortium. The discriminatory index of each MLVA loci was calculated for SB0120, SB0134, SB0121 and the "F4-family", the main spoligotype groups in France. Differences in global DI per spoligotype, but also by locus within each spoligotype, were observed, which strongly suggest the clonal complex nature of these major groups. These MLVA results were compared to those of other European countries where strain collections had been characterized (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Northern Ireland and Belgium). Overall, QUB 3232 and ETR D are respectively the most and the least discriminative loci, regardless of the strains geographical origin. However, marked DI differences are observed in the rest of the MIRU-VNTR loci, again highlighting that strain genetic variability in a country depends on the dominant existing clonal complexes. A web application for M. bovis, including spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing data, was developed to allow inter-laboratory comparison of field isolates. In conclusion, combination of typing methods is required for M. bovis optimum discrimination and differentiation of groups of strains. Thus, the loci employed for MLVA in a country should be those which are the most discriminative for the clonal complexes which characterize their M. bovis population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  3. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  4. Internet Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Students at a Southeastern Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortson, Beverly L.; Scotti, Joseph R.; Chen, Yi-Chuen; Malone, Judith; Del Ben, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess Internet use, abuse, and dependence. Participants: 411 undergraduate students. Results: Ninety percent of participants reported daily Internet use. Approximately half of the sample met criteria for Internet abuse, and one-quarter met criteria for Internet dependence. Men and women did not differ on the mean amount of time…

  5. The Association of Selected Conative Variables to Field-Dependence with Inferences for Reasoning Characteristics in Marketing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Robert L.

    A study examined the association between field-dependence and its related information processing characteristics, and educational cognitive style as a model of conative influence. Data were collected from 145 secondary marketing education students in nothern Georgia during spring 1991. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations,…

  6. An Examination of Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes towards Social Studies Course in Terms of Severable Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Selçuk

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the 5th grade students' attitude towards social studies course regarding several variables. The population of the study consisted of 4435 fifth grade students studying in public schools in Malatya, Yesilyurt. The sample group consisted of 362 students from 10 schools in the same district. The data used in…

  7. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and Their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Monge, Islande C.; Espinoza González, Johan; Fonseca Castro, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such…

  8. Relevance of student and contextual school variables in explaining a student’s severity of violence experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating

  9. Influence of school-level and family-level variables on Chinese college students' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Wang, Lin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Sui, Hong; Yang, Yanjie

    2017-08-01

    With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data. Females reported lower levels of aggression than males (p aggression, and the model was highly significant (R 2  = .233, Ad R 2  = .230, p aggression is affected by gender, family-level and school-level variables. Aggression scores are significantly correlated with not only family-level or school-level variables independently, but their combination as well. We find that the risk factors for aggression include a dissatisfying profession, higher levels of study pressure, poor parental relationships, poor interpersonal relationships, the presence of siblings, punishment, health maladjustment, less subjective support, and lower levels of utilization of social support.

  10. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. What are the predictor variables of social well-being among the medical science students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.

  12. Family context variables and the development of self-regulation in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strage, A A

    1998-01-01

    While researchers have begun to specify how features of students' immediate learning environments affect the development and use of self-regulation skills, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of the family context in fostering or impeding the development of these skills. This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on attachment theory (Ainsworth et al., 1978; Bowlby, 1982) and Baumrind's parenting styles typology (Baumrind, 1967, 1991) for examining the relationship between family context variables and the development of self-regulation skills. It also presents initial findings from a study of the parental practices and values associated with academic self-regulation in college students. A sample of 465 students completed the 104-item Student Attitudes and Perceptions Survey, which consists of 4 personal profile scales, 7 family background scales, 2 course characteristics scales, and 2 study habits scales. Perceptions of parents as authoritative and of family as emotionally close were found to be predictive of (1) general confidence and positive sense of self, (2) positive goal-orientation at school, (3) general concern about preparation for the future, and (4) positive adjustment to college. These family profiles were also predictive of (1) students' rating their introductory psychology course as interesting and supportive, (2) favorable ratings of their time and effort management and note-taking skills, and (3) strong agreement with a series of items reflecting components of self-regulated learning. Perceptions of parents as authoritarian and of family as nagging or enmeshed were also predictive of concern about preparation for the future. These family profiles were generally predictive of students' rating their introductory psychology course as difficult, and of time and effort management difficulties. The patterns linking family background profiles with course perceptions, study habits, and individual indices of self-regulated learning

  13. The Impact of Mobile Phone Dependency on Health and Biomarkers in a Greek University Student Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Minasidou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile phone use can be addictive for the young. However, little is known about the behavioral and biological effects of this addiction among the student population. Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of mobile phone use on the health behaviors and specific biomarkers in a sample of Greek students. Methods: Sample included 104 Nursing students from a stratified randomised sample. In 30 ran- domly selected out of the 104 students, melatonin and total antioxidant levels in saliva were also measured. Mobile phone dependence was estimated with the Mobile Phone Dependence Question- naire by Toda et al and general health with the GHQ-28. We used the Antioxidant assay kit-SIGMA to measure the total antioxidant levels and the anosoenzymic method ELISA (IBL kit to measure melatonine levels. Analysis was performed with SPSS v15.0 software. All hypothesis were tested at a p<0,05 level. Results: No statistical difference between genders was detected (p=0.182. High dependence was apparent in 13.5% of the sample, which correlated with worse general health (p=0.004, greater alcohol consumption (p=0.007, sleep disturbances (p=0.02 and worse nutritional habits (p=0.032. Moreover, high mobile dependent students exhibited higher concentration of early morning mel- atonin (p=0.07 and lower antioxidant concentration (p=0.333 in saliva, compared to low mobile dependent students. Conclusions: Excessive use of mobiles among students seems to correlate with unhealthy habits and impaired health. The effect in well known biomarkers may suggest the burden of the health of the student population. However, the long term effects on health require further investigation.

  14. Patterns, Attitudes, and Dependence toward WhatsApp among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhan Sampath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: WhatsApp (WA, a free cross-platform smartphone application has revolutionized social communication over the virtual world. It enables information sharing, both personal and professional, individually and across social groups. Despite these positive changes, there have been concerns about excessive WA use, especially among college students, resulting in the neglect of important social and academic commitments. However, there is lack of quality research on WA use in this vulnerable population. Aims: The aim of this study is to understand the patterns and attitudes toward WA use and measure the level of dependence among college students. Materials and Methods: In a sample of 150 undergraduate medical college students who provided informed consent, comprehensive questionnaires were administered to assess the patterns, attitudes, and dependence toward WA use. Results: WA was the most common social media platform used (70% which eclipsed the time spend on other apps (Facebook, Twitter, etc. While half of the students spent 1–2 h/day, a significant minority (10.67% spent almost 6–7 h/day on WA. Nearly 12% (n = 18 of students qualified for WA dependence. There were no significant differences in patterns of WA use between students with or without WA dependence. Students with WA dependence had significantly lesser negative attitudes toward its use compared to the rest. Scores on all dimensions of WA addiction, namely, salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse were significantly higher in students with WA dependence. Conclusion: WA dependence is an emerging behavioral addiction among college students. With no specific pattern of use to distinguish dependent users, it is difficult to recognize this problem. Changing the attitudes towards WA use by creating awareness about it's addictive potential, monitoring and restricting the use of mobile phones especially during class hours, encouraging face to face

  15. Time-Dependent Drug Administration in Hypertension and its Effect on Blood Pressure Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdás Annamária

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimizing blood pressure variability seems to represent a new therapeutic target in the management of hypertension. It is emphasized that scheduling at least one antihypertensive agent at bedtime, has the ability to reduce blood pressure.

  16. Time-Dependent Drug Administration in Hypertension and its Effect on Blood Pressure Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Magdás Annamária; Podoleanu Cristian; Tusa Anna-Boróka; Găburoi Adina; Incze Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Optimizing blood pressure variability seems to represent a new therapeutic target in the management of hypertension. It is emphasized that scheduling at least one antihypertensive agent at bedtime, has the ability to reduce blood pressure.

  17. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  18. Mobile Phone Dependence, Social Support and Impulsivity in Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Songli; Chai, Jingxin; Wang, Shi-Bin; Ng, Chee H; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the frequency of mobile phone dependence in Chinese university students and explored its association with social support and impulsivity. Altogether, 909 university students were consecutively recruited from a large university in China. Mobile phone use, mobile phone dependence, impulsivity, and social support were measured with standardized instruments. The frequency of possible mobile phone use and mobile phone dependence was 78.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with no mobile phone dependence, possible mobile phone dependence was significantly associated with being male ( p = 0.04, OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4-0.98), excessive mobile phone use ( p phone dependence was associated with length of weekly phone use ( p = 0.01, OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0), excessive mobile phone use ( p phone dependence and mobile phone dependence was high in this sample of Chinese university students. A significant positive association with impulsivity was found, but not with social support.

  19. Mobile Phone Dependence, Social Support and Impulsivity in Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Songli; Chai, Jingxin; Wang, Shi-Bin; Ng, Chee H.; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of mobile phone dependence in Chinese university students and explored its association with social support and impulsivity. Altogether, 909 university students were consecutively recruited from a large university in China. Mobile phone use, mobile phone dependence, impulsivity, and social support were measured with standardized instruments. The frequency of possible mobile phone use and mobile phone dependence was 78.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with no mobile phone dependence, possible mobile phone dependence was significantly associated with being male (p = 0.04, OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4–0.98), excessive mobile phone use (p mobile phone dependence was associated with length of weekly phone use (p = 0.01, OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–5.0), excessive mobile phone use (p mobile phone dependence and mobile phone dependence was high in this sample of Chinese university students. A significant positive association with impulsivity was found, but not with social support. PMID:29533986

  20. Assessment of Scientific Reasoning: the Effects of Task Context, Data, and Design on Student Reasoning in Control of Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Han, Jing; Koenig, Kathleen; Raplinger, Amy; Pi, Yuan; Li, Dan; Xiao, Hua; Fu, Zhao; Bao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Scientific reasoning is an important component under the cognitive strand of the 21st century skills and is highly emphasized in the new science education standards. This study focuses on the assessment of student reasoning in control of variables (COV), which is a core sub-skill of scientific reasoning. The main research question is to investigate the extent to which the existence of experimental data in questions impacts student reasoning and performance. This study also explores the effects of task contexts on student reasoning as well as students' abilities to distinguish between testability and causal influences of variables in COV experiments. Data were collected with students from both USA and China. Students received randomly one of two test versions, one with experimental data and one without. The results show that students from both populations (1) perform better when experimental data are not provided, (2) perform better in physics contexts than in real-life contexts, and (3) students have a tendency to equate non-influential variables to non-testable variables. In addition, based on the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, a possible progression of developmental levels of student reasoning in control of variables is proposed, which can be used to inform future development of assessment and instruction.

  1. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Cross-sectional study. College sports medicine departments. Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that institutions should screen for a range of mental health disorders and risk behaviors. However, at some institutions, staffing deficits may need to

  2. Personality, emotion-related variables, and media pressure predict eating disorders via disordered eating in Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria Jose; El-Jor, Claire; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya; Zeeni, Nadine

    2017-04-18

    Disordered eating behaviors are on the rise among youth. The present study investigates psychosocial and weight-related variables as predictors of eating disorders (ED) through disordered eating (DE) dimensions (namely restrained, external, and emotional eating) in Lebanese university students. The sample consisted of 244 undergraduates (143 female) aged from 18 to 31 years (M = 20.06; SD = 1.67). Using path analysis, two statistical models were built separately with restrained and emotional eating as dependent variables, and all possible direct and indirect pathways were tested for mediating effects. The variables tested for were media influence, perfectionism, trait emotional intelligence, and the Big Five dimensions. In the first model, media pressure, self-control, and extraversion predicted eating disorders via emotional eating. In the second model, media pressure and perfectionism predicted eating disorders via restrained eating. Findings from this study provide an understanding of the dynamics between DE, ED, and key personality, emotion-related, and social factors in youth. Lastly, implications and recommendations for future studies are advanced.

  3. Investigation of the Aggression Tendency Observed in University Students in Terms of Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih CAMADAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out whether or not the observed level of aggression in university students varies according to different demographic variables. These variables include grade level, gender, perceived parenting styles, the place where students lived before the university and monthly economic income level of family. The study group consists of the students studying at seven state universities located in different regions of Turkey: Cumhuriyet University [Central Anatolia Region], Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University [Marmara Region], Çukurova University [Mediterranean Region], Dicle University [South Eastern Anatolia Region], Dokuz Eylül University [Aegean Region], İnönü University [Eastern Anatolia Region] and Ondokuz Mayıs University [Black Sea Region]. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to determine the validity of the scale for this research, ‘Deterministic Finite Automat (DFA’ was recalculated again. Also, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient was recalculated again for the reliability. The obtained results revealed that the factor structures in the original scale are validated for this study and the measurement instrument was found to be reliable for this research. In addition, the Personal Information Form was prepared and given to the participants by the researchers in order to obtain different demographics about them. Various statistical analyses were performed with the data obtained through the form and scale. As a result of the analyses, the aggression level of male students was found to be significantly higher than the females. The level of aggression of the students who perceive their parents’ attitudes as authoritarian was found to be significantly higher than those who are exposed to protective and democratic parenting attitudes. In addition, the students who perceive their fathers as indifferent yielded higher aggression scores than those perceiving their

  4. The Variability of Atmospheric Deuterium Brightness at Mars: Evidence for Seasonal Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Chaffin, Michael; Thiemann, Edward; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    The enhanced ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on Mars has been widely interpreted as indicating the loss of a large column of water into space, and the hydrogen content of the upper atmosphere is now known to be highly variable. The variation in the properties of both deuterium and hydrogen in the upper atmosphere of Mars is indicative of the dynamical processes that produce these species and propagate them to altitudes where they can escape the planet. Understanding the seasonal variability of D is key to understanding the variability of the escape rate of water from Mars. Data from a 15 month observing campaign, made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph high-resolution echelle channel, are used to determine the brightness of deuterium as observed at the limb of Mars. The D emission is highly variable, with a peak in brightness just after southern summer solstice. The trends of D brightness are examined against extrinsic as well as intrinsic sources. It is found that the fluctuations in deuterium brightness in the upper atmosphere of Mars (up to 400 km), corrected for periodic solar variations, vary on timescales that are similar to those of water vapor fluctuations lower in the atmosphere (20-80 km). The observed variability in deuterium may be attributed to seasonal factors such as regional dust storm activity and subsequent circulation lower in the atmosphere.

  5. Field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao

    2006-06-01

    Field-independent individuals, compared with field-dependent individuals, have higher sports potential and advantages in sport-related settings. Little research, however, has been conducted on the association of field dependence-independence and participation in physical activity. The study examined this association for college students who participated in physical activities in and beyond physical education classes. The Group Embedded Figures Test distinguished 40 field-dependent from 40 field-independent participants. Activity logs during one semester showed that field-independent participants were significantly more physically active and their physical activity behaviors were more sport-related than those of field-dependent participants.

  6. Examining of social skill levels of university students in terms of certain Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim GÜLLÜ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and social skill levels of university students. Material and Methods: There were 100 participants (n=51 female, n=49 male in the study group who were the students at the department of Sport Sciences Faculty of Istanbul University in the 2015-2016 academic year. Of the study group 28 participants were between 18-20 years old, 27 participants were between 21-23 years old, 23 participants were between 24-26 years old and 22 participants were above 27 years old. After the demographic information of the participants was formed, the Social Skill Scale was applied which was developed by Matson, Rotarory and Hessel (1983 and adopted to Turkish. In order to measure their social skill levels, the reliability analysis of that scale was done. Cronbach Alpha value is 0.777; about the subscales, the results were found as such; positive social behaviour subscale 0.924, negative social behaviour subscale 0.904. Significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: Gender, age, class, whether or not to play sports with a licence, education level of parents, how many years they have been doing sports, and the level of social skills and subscales of their students were not significantly different. Conclusion: As a result; the demographic variables examined within our study did not make a difference in the level of social skills of the participants.

  7. On history dependence of stress-strain diagrams and creep curves under variable repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhfeld, D.A.; Sadakov, O.S.; Martynenko, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of structural alloys to 'keep in memory' the loading prehistory becomes of special importance when inelastic variable repeated loading is considered. There are two main approaches to the development of the mathematical description of this phenomenon: the inclusion of hidden state variables in the incremental theory constitutive equations (a) and construction of proper hereditary functionals (b). In this respect the assumption that the 'memory' regarding the previous deformation history is due to structural nonhomogeneity of actual materials proves to be fruitful. (orig.)

  8. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra; Mai, Paul Martin; Galis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a

  9. The relationship between phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Noruzi Kuhdasht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of mobail phones in Iranian students, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and its consequences have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cell phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout among nursing and midwifery students. In this study, 169 students were chosen through stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools included mobile phone addiction index, symptom check list-90- Revision and academic burnout inventory. Correlation coefficients of mobile phone dependency with psychological disorders was 0.487 and according results from regression analysis mobile phone dependency predicted 23.8% of the variance of psychological disorders. Correlation coefficients of mobile phone dependency with academic burnout was 0.677 and results from regression analysis mobile phone dependency explained 47.6 of the variance academic burnout. Considering the positive and significant relationship between cell phone usage with psychological disorders and students' academic burnout, identifying the people at risk and holding mobile phone injury training workshops is recommended.

  10. Phase dependence of transport-aperture coordination variability reveals control strategy of reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Y P; Hossain, Abul B M I; Stelmach, George E

    2010-11-01

    Based on an assumption of movement control optimality in reach-to-grasp movements, we have recently developed a mathematical model of transport-aperture coordination (TAC), according to which the hand-target distance is a function of hand velocity and acceleration, aperture magnitude, and aperture velocity and acceleration (Rand et al. in Exp Brain Res 188:263-274, 2008). Reach-to-grasp movements were performed by young adults under four different reaching speeds and two different transport distances. The residual error magnitude of fitting the above model to data across different trials and subjects was minimal for the aperture-closure phase, but relatively much greater for the aperture-opening phase, indicating considerable difference in TAC variability between those phases. This study's goal is to identify the main reasons for that difference and obtain insights into the control strategy of reach-to-grasp movements. TAC variability within the aperture-opening phase of a single trial was found minimal, indicating that TAC variability between trials was not due to execution noise, but rather a result of inter-trial and inter-subject variability of motor plan. At the same time, the dependence of the extent of trial-to-trial variability of TAC in that phase on the speed of hand transport was sharply inconsistent with the concept of speed-accuracy trade-off: the lower the speed, the larger the variability. Conversely, the dependence of the extent of TAC variability in the aperture-closure phase on hand transport speed was consistent with that concept. Taking into account recent evidence that the cost of neural information processing is substantial for movement planning, the dependence of TAC variability in the aperture-opening phase on task performance conditions suggests that it is not the movement time that the CNS saves in that phase, but the cost of neuro-computational resources and metabolic energy required for TAC regulation in that phase. Thus, the CNS

  11. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adman Câmara Soares Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables.METHOD: cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected.RESULTS: the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000, age (p=0.004 and marital status (p=0.012, as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018 and marital status (p=0.007 and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033.CONCLUSION: distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight.

  12. Statistical analysis of morphometric indicators and physical readiness variability of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Gainullin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the interaction of morphometric characteristics with the reactions of the cardiorespiratory system and the indices of physical training during the process of physical exercise training at the university. Material: The students of the first course (n = 91, aged 17-18 took part in the survey. The students were divided into 6 groups. All students were engaged in physical training. All the studied indicators were conditionally divided into two groups. The first group of studies included indicators of physical fitness. The second group was formed by morphofunctional indices. Results: The indicators of the physical preparedness of students demonstrate a wide range and heterogeneity. This should be taken into account when staffing training groups. When using the technique of development of local regional muscular endurance, the values of orthostatic test and the Skibinski index show significant variability. Also high and significant correlation interactions are shown by indicators: manual dynamometry; strength endurance; the values of the Skibinski index. Also, in the orthotropic test, the same effect was observed: age, body length, heart rate. A similar analysis of morphofunctional indices shows significant correlation links: the Skibinski index and orthotropic tests; age and the Skibinski index; weight and body length. Conclusions: from the point of view of physical fitness, groups of sports training (the second group and hypertensive groups (group 5 proved to be the most stable. A group of volunteers turned out to be the most stable relative to the morphofunctional indicators.

  13. Investigation of the Relationship between Psychological Variables and Sleep Quality in Students of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Najafi Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Students of medical sciences are exposed to many emotional and mental problems. In light of the importance of sleep quality in learning and liveliness, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between psychological variables (stress, anxiety, and depression and sleep quality of students. Design. This research is a cross-sectional analytical study, where all students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in 2012-2013 year were selected. To examine the students’ stress, anxiety, and depression values, the standardized 21-item DASS-21 was used, and to examine their sleep quality, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used. Results. The results of the study demonstrated that 73% of the students have moderate and severe stress, and 46.4% of them have PSQ scores ≥ 5. The students’ mean sleep quality score was 4.65±2.37, and their stress score was 8.09±5.14. A statistically significant relationship was found between the students’ stress levels and sleep quality (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high stress levels decrease students’ sleep quality. High stress levels and also the significant relationship between stress value and decrease in students’ sleep quality call for more attention to and care for students’ emotional and mental issues and timely proper interference on the part of authorities.

  14. Level of Self-confidence among Female Students of Hail University in Saudi Arabia in Relationship with some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Mohammad Saleh Alkferi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the level of self-confidence among female students of Hail University, and whether there were significant differences at the level of the students' self-confidence attributed to the variables of age and specialization. The study sample, which was randomly selected, consisted of 802 students from various disciplines at the university (medicine, engineering, psychology, and Islamic culture enrolled for the second semester of the academic year (2015/2016. To achieve the objectives of the study a confidence Scale developed by Kawasmeh and Farah (1996. The scale was checked for its validity and reliability. The statistical package SPSS was used to extract the results. Results of the study revealed a low level of self-confidence for the students of the university, whereas there were no statistically significant differences due to the variables of age and specialization. Keywords: Self-confidence, Students of Hail University, Saudi Arabia, Some variables.

  15. Morphometric variability of mandible linear characteristics depending on level of teeth alveolus position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Aleshkina

    2017-05-01

    Results and Conclusion ― The highest altitude was marked at levels of incisors and 3rd molar, the smallest one – at level of 1st and 2nd molars; maximum mandible thickness was defined at level of 2nd molar, minimum – at levels of canine and 1st – 2nd premolars on both sides of mandible; average thickness was revealed at levels of incisors, 1st and 2nd molars and had the same statistical values. Bilateral variability of thickness was significantly dominating on the right side and only at levels of 1st – 2nd premolars and 1st molar. Average values of altitude and thickness from both sides of mandible and at all levels had medium degree of variability.

  16. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, James J.; Evans, Martin G.; Lindsay, John B.; Allott, Timothy E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably. - Multiple peat cores are required for accurate peatland Pb inventories

  17. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James J; Evans, Martin G; Lindsay, John B; Allott, Timothy E H

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably.

  18. Natural variability of biochemical biomarkers in the macro-zoobenthos: Dependence on life stage and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduelli, Lucia; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo; Migliorati, Sonia; Di Brisco, Agnese Maria; Vighi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding whether the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proven to be relevant across both space and time. In the present study, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters. The experimental design considered sampling sites in 2 different rivers, 8 sampling dates covering the whole seasonal cycle, 4 species from 3 different taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Perla grandis; Ephemeroptera, Baetis alpinus and Epeorus alpicula; Tricoptera, Hydropsyche pellucidula), different life stages for each species, and 4 enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase). Biomarker levels were related to environmental (physicochemical) parameters to verify any kind of dependence. Data were statistically elaborated using hierarchical multilevel Bayesian models. Natural variability was found to be relevant across both space and time. The results of the present study proved that care should be paid when interpreting biomarker results. Further research is needed to better understand the dependence of the natural variability on environmental parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3158-3167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Student's vacation travel: a reference dependent model of airline fares preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigolon, A.B.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of student vacation travel choice analysis using a reference dependent model of airline fare preferences. Findings suggests, as expected, that the preferences/utility decreases with increasing levels of cost. The evaluation of the airfare, however, becomes

  20. The Influence of Student and School Variables on Student Performance on the New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge in Grade 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the strength and the direction of the relationships between student (i.e., socioeconomic status, attendance, and gender) and school variables (i.e., formative assessment usage and ASI classification) found in the extant literature to influence student achievement in language arts and mathematics. Analyses were conducted using…

  1. Assessment of variability in the hydrological cycle of the Loess Plateau, China: examining dependence structures of hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating variability in dependence structures of hydrological processes is of critical importance for developing an understanding of mechanisms of hydrological cycles in changing environments. In focusing on this topic, present work involves the following: (1) identifying and eliminating serial correlation and conditional heteroscedasticity in monthly streamflow (Q), precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) series using the ARMA-GARCH model (ARMA: autoregressive moving average; GARCH: generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity); (2) describing dependence structures of hydrological processes using partial copula coupled with the ARMA-GARCH model and identifying their variability via copula-based likelihood-ratio test method; and (3) determining conditional probability of annual Q under different climate scenarios on account of above results. This framework enables us to depict hydrological variables in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity and to examine dependence structures of hydrological processes while excluding the influence of covariates by using partial copula-based ARMA-GARCH model. Eight major catchments across the Loess Plateau (LP) are used as study regions. Results indicate that (1) The occurrence of change points in dependence structures of Q and P (PE) varies across the LP. Change points of P-PE dependence structures in all regions almost fully correspond to the initiation of global warming, i.e., the early 1980s. (3) Conditional probabilities of annual Q under various P and PE scenarios are estimated from the 3-dimensional joint distribution of (Q, P and PE) based on the above change points. These findings shed light on mechanisms of the hydrological cycle and can guide water supply planning and management, particularly in changing environments.

  2. MODELO ESTADÍSTICO PARA ASOCIAR VARIABLES DEL ALUMNO CON SU RENDIMIENTO ESCOLAR I STATISTICAL MODEL TO ASSOCIATE VARIABLES OF THE STUDENT WITH HIS SCHOOL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Rosas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine associations between categorical variables pertaining to the student and his school performance, at governmental schools of the municipalities Gómez and Marcano of Nueva Esparta state, by adjusting the effects of column partnership model. The investigation was correlational in nature, with field design, based on applications to a reality of the educational context. As main results, obtained by adjusting the model in reference, the variables associated with school performance in Gómez municipality were: recreational activities, frequent use of computer at home and the use of Internet outside home to do homework. While in Marcano Municipality, they were: to have Internet at home, the place where the student is watching videogames and the number of times he eats in the day. In both municipalities, the characteristics: good feeling of the student when going to school and mastering of mathematical operations, were also linked to school performance.

  3. Predicting Middle School Students' Use of Web 2.0 Technologies out of School Using Home and School Technological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joan E.; Read, Michelle F.; Jones, Sara; Mahometa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study used multiple regression to identify predictors of middle school students' Web 2.0 activities out of school, a construct composed of 15 technology activities. Three middle schools participated, where sixth- and seventh-grade students completed a questionnaire. Independent predictor variables included three demographic and five computer…

  4. Turkish College Students' Subjective Wellbeing in Regard to Psychological Strengths and Demographic Variables: Implications for College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish college students' subjective wellbeing in regard to psychological strength and demographic variables. A sample of Turkish college students (N?=?1,052) aged 17-32 (mean age = 21, SD = 1.79) was administered various psychological strength instruments--the Gratitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, the…

  5. Time-dependent inelastic analysis of metallic media using constitutive relations with state variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-03-01

    A computational technique in terms of stress, strain and displacement rates is presented for the solution of boundary value problems for metallic structural elements at uniform elevated temperatures subjected to time varying loads. This method can accommodate any number of constitutive relations with state variables recently proposed by other researchers to model the inelastic deformation of metallic media at elevated temperatures. Numerical solutions are obtained for several structural elements subjected to steady loads. The constitutive relations used for these numerical solutions are due to Hart. The solutions are discussed in the context of the computational scheme and Hart's theory.

  6. SECOND ORDER LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION ON ARCH(1 MODEL WITH BOX-COX TRANSFORMED DEPENDENT VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herni Utami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox transformation is often used to reduce heterogeneity and to achieve a symmetric distribution of response variable. In this paper, we estimate the parameters of Box-Cox transformed ARCH(1 model using second-order leastsquare method and then we study the consistency and asymptotic normality for second-order least square (SLS estimators. The SLS estimation was introduced byWang (2003, 2004 to estimate the parameters of nonlinear regression models with independent and identically distributed errors

  7. THE DIFFERENCES IN MORAL, GROUP IDENTITY AND THE PERCON’S VARIABILITY DEPENDING ON THE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrobna Kolinichenko

    2017-06-01

    Results. The results of the study have revealed the dominance of all specified assessment parameters in the group of test subjects with incomplete higher education: higher level of moral development in all dilemmas (the opposition of life values (compassion and following the law, self-interest – the interests of the city (law, business (benefit and law, personal interests (career and the freedom of another person, except for the dilemma of the opposition between the interests of a majority and a single person. The differences have also been revealed between the two groups of test subjects according to the group identity, group variability, the desirability of the common categories of identity.

  8. The roles of family, culture, and social cognitive variables in the career interests and goals of Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Although family and cultural factors have been assumed to play important roles in the career development of Asian Americans, theory-driven research on this topic remains limited. We examined culturally relevant factors that may contribute to Asian Americans' consideration of fields in which they are overrepresented (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and underrepresented (e.g., education, social science). Drawing from social cognitive career theory, a culture-specific, social cognitive model of career interests and choice was tested in Holland's (1997) Investigative (I) and Social (S) themes. A sample of 802 Asian American undergraduates completed measures of family support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interest, and career choice consideration in relation to both Holland themes. Two indicators of acculturation/enculturation (adherence to Asian values and generation status in the United States) were also obtained. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in Asian American college students' career consideration in both themes. Family support and acculturation played varying roles, depending on the Holland theme. For example, family support was linked to career choice consideration both directly (in the S theme) and indirectly, via other predictors (in both themes). Contrary to expectations, the acculturation variables did not moderate the relation of family support or interest to career consideration in either theme. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to understand and facilitate the career development of Asian American college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Dependence of conductivity on thickness within the variable-range hopping regime for Coulomb glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caravaca

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide some computational evidence concerning the dependence of conductivity on the system thickness for Coulomb glasses. We also verify the Efros–Shklovskii law and deal with the calculation of its characteristic parameter as a function of the thickness. Our results strengthen the link between theoretical and experimental fields. Keywords: Coulomb glass, Conductivity, Density of states, Efros–Shklovskii law

  10. Temperature-dependent behaviours are genetically variable in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Gregory W; de Mesquita, Matthew Bueno; Ryu, William S; Cutter, Asher D

    2013-03-01

    Temperature-dependent behaviours in Caenorhabditis elegans, such as thermotaxis and isothermal tracking, are complex behavioural responses that integrate sensation, foraging and learning, and have driven investigations to discover many essential genetic and neural pathways. The ease of manipulation of the Caenorhabditis model system also has encouraged its application to comparative analyses of phenotypic evolution, particularly contrasts of the classic model C. elegans with C. briggsae. And yet few studies have investigated natural genetic variation in behaviour in any nematode. Here we measure thermotaxis and isothermal tracking behaviour in genetically distinct strains of C. briggsae, further motivated by the latitudinal differentiation in C. briggsae that is associated with temperature-dependent fitness differences in this species. We demonstrate that C. briggsae performs thermotaxis and isothermal tracking largely similar to that of C. elegans, with a tendency to prefer its rearing temperature. Comparisons of these behaviours among strains reveal substantial heritable natural variation within each species that corresponds to three general patterns of behavioural response. However, intraspecific genetic differences in thermal behaviour often exceed interspecific differences. These patterns of temperature-dependent behaviour motivate further development of C. briggsae as a model system for dissecting the genetic underpinnings of complex behavioural traits.

  11. Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zeqin; Jhoja, Jaspreet; Klein, Jackson; Wang, Xu; Liu, Amy; Flueckiger, Jonas; Pond, James; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2017-05-01

    This work develops an enhanced Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methodology to predict the impacts of layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variations on the performance of photonics integrated circuits (PICs). First, to enable such performance prediction, we demonstrate a simple method with sub-nanometer accuracy to characterize photonics manufacturing variations, where the width and height for a fabricated waveguide can be extracted from the spectral response of a racetrack resonator. By measuring the spectral responses for a large number of identical resonators spread over a wafer, statistical results for the variations of waveguide width and height can be obtained. Second, we develop models for the layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation. Our models use netlist extraction to transfer physical layouts into circuit simulators. Spatially correlated physical variations across the PICs are simulated on a discrete grid and are mapped to each circuit component, so that the performance for each component can be updated according to its obtained variations, and therefore, circuit simulations take the correlated variations between components into account. The simulation flow and theoretical models for our layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation are detailed in this paper. As examples, several ring-resonator filter circuits are studied using the developed enhanced MC simulation, and statistical results from the simulations can predict both common-mode and differential-mode variations of the circuit performance.

  12. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  13. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.

  14. Saddlepoint expansions for sums of Markov dependent variables on a continuous state space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the conjugate kernel studied in Iscoe et al. (1985) we derive saddlepoint expansions for either the density or distribution function of a sum f(X1)+...+f(Xn), where the Xi's constitute a Markov chain. The chain is assumed to satisfy a strong recurrence condition which makes the results...... here very similar to the classical results for i.i.d. variables. In particular we establish also conditions under which the expansions hold uniformly over the range of the saddlepoint. Expansions are also derived for sums of the form f(X1, X0)+f(X2, X1)+...+f(Xn, Xn-1) although the uniformity result...

  15. Effects of Variable Production Rate and Time-Dependent Holding Cost for Complementary Products in Supply Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a major trend is going to redesign a production system by controlling or making variable the production rate within some fixed interval to maintain the optimal level. This strategy is more effective when the holding cost is time-dependent as it is interrelated with holding duration of products and rate of production. An effort is made to make a supply chain model (SCM to show the joint effect of variable production rate and time-varying holding cost for specific type of complementary products, where those products are made by two different manufacturers and a common retailer makes them bundle and sells bundles to end customers. Demand of each product is specified by stochastic reservation prices with a known potential market size. Those players of the SCM are considered with unequal power. Stackelberg game approach is employed to obtain global optimum solution of the model. An illustrative numerical example, graphical representation, and managerial insights are given to illustrate the model. Results prove that variable production rate and time-dependent holding cost save more than existing literature.

  16. Context dependence of students' views about the role of equations in understanding biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica; Elby, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Students' epistemological views about biology--their ideas about what "counts" as learning and understanding biology--play a role in how they approach their courses and respond to reforms. As introductory biology courses incorporate more physics and quantitative reasoning, student attitudes about the role of equations in biology become especially relevant. However, as documented in research in physics education, students' epistemologies are not always stable and fixed entities; they can be dynamic and context-dependent. In this paper, we examine an interview with an introductory student in which she discusses the use of equations in her reformed biology course. In one part of the interview, she expresses what sounds like an entrenched negative stance toward the role equations can play in understanding biology. However, later in the interview, when discussing a different biology topic, she takes a more positive stance toward the value of equations. These results highlight how a given student can have diverse ways of thinking about the value of bringing physics and math into biology. By highlighting how attitudes can shift in response to different tasks, instructional environments, and contextual cues, we emphasize the need to attend to these factors, rather than treating students' beliefs as fixed and stable.

  17. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-01-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  18. Dark focus of accommodation as dependent and independent variables in visual display technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sherrie; Kennedy, Robert; Harm, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    When independent stimuli are available for accommodation, as in the dark or under low contrast conditions, the lens seeks its resting position. Individual differences in resting positions are reliable, under autonomic control, and can change with visual task demands. We hypothesized that motion sickness in a flight simulator might result in dark focus changes. Method: Subjects received training flights in three different Navy flight simulators. Two were helicopter simulators entailed CRT presentation using infinity optics, one involved a dome presentation of a computer graphic visual projection system. Results: In all three experiments there were significant differences between dark focus activity before and after simulator exposure when comparisons were made between sick and not-sick pilot subjects. In two of these experiments, the average shift in dark focus for the sick subjects was toward increased myopia when each subject was compared to his own baseline. In the third experiment, the group showed an average shift outward of small amount and the subjects who were sick showed significantly less outward movement than those who were symptom free. Conclusions: Although the relationship is not a simple one, dark focus changes in simulator sickness imply parasympathetic activity. Because changes can occur in relation to endogenous and exogenous events, such measurement may have useful applications as dependent measures in studies of visually coupled systems, virtual reality systems, and space adaptation syndrome.

  19. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  20. Single genome retrieval of context-dependent variability in mutation rates for human germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2017-01-13

    Accurate knowledge of the core components of substitution rates is of vital importance to understand genome evolution and dynamics. By performing a single-genome and direct analysis of 39,894 retrotransposon remnants, we reveal sequence context-dependent germline nucleotide substitution rates for the human genome. The rates are characterised through rate constants in a time-domain, and are made available through a dedicated program (Trek) and a stand-alone database. Due to the nature of the method design and the imposed stringency criteria, we expect our rate constants to be good estimates for the rates of spontaneous mutations. Benefiting from such data, we study the short-range nucleotide (up to 7-mer) organisation and the germline basal substitution propensity (BSP) profile of the human genome; characterise novel, CpG-independent, substitution prone and resistant motifs; confirm a decreased tendency of moieties with low BSP to undergo somatic mutations in a number of cancer types; and, produce a Trek-based estimate of the overall mutation rate in human. The extended set of rate constants we report may enrich our resources and help advance our understanding of genome dynamics and evolution, with possible implications for the role of spontaneous mutations in the emergence of pathological genotypes and neutral evolution of proteomes.

  1. INTERNET DEPENDENCE IN CHINESE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SEX, SELF-ESTEEM, AND SOCIAL SUPPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiping

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships among self-esteem, social support, and Internet dependence. A sample of young people aged between 15 and 18 years old (M age = 16.3 yr., SD = 0.7; 470 boys, 441 girls) completed measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Internet Dependence Test. According to the cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use, social support should mediate the relationship between self-esteem and Internet dependence. Furthermore, based on previous research it was predicted that boys would score higher on Internet dependence than women. Support for this model was obtained. Internet dependent students were more likely to be boys. Self-esteem and social support were negatively correlated with Internet dependence. The relationship between self-esteem and Internet dependence was mediated by social support. Although the effect sizes were small, the findings of the present study are of significance in investigating adolescents' Internet dependence.

  2. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyńska-Gulij, Beata; Cybulski, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  3. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyńska-Gulij Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  4. The Dependencies of Ecosystem Pattern, Structure, and Dynamics on Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Rourke, O.

    2012-12-01

    A robust understanding of the sensitivity of the pattern, structure, and dynamics of ecosystems to climate, climate variability, and climate change is needed to predict ecosystem responses to current and projected climate change. We present results of a study designed to first quantify the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate through the use of climate and ecosystem data, and then use the results to test the sensitivity of the climate data in a state-of the art ecosystem model. A database of available ecosystem characteristics such as mean canopy height, above ground biomass, and basal area was constructed from sources like the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD). The ecosystem characteristics were then paired by latitude and longitude with the corresponding climate characteristics temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and dew point that were retrieved from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The average yearly and seasonal means of the climate data, and their associated maximum and minimum values, over the 1979-2010 time frame provided by NARR were constructed and paired with the ecosystem data. The compiled results provide natural patterns of vegetation structure and distribution with regard to climate data. An advanced ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), was then modified to allow yearly alterations to its mechanistic climate lookup table and used to predict the sensitivities of ecosystem pattern, structure, and dynamics to climate data. The combined ecosystem structure and climate data results were compared to ED's output to check the validity of the model. After verification, climate change scenarios such as those used in the last IPCC were run and future forest structure changes due to climate sensitivities were identified. The results of this study can be used to both quantify and test key relationships for next generation models. The sensitivity of ecosystem characteristics to climate data

  5. Extracellular vesicles have variable dose-dependent effects on cultured draining cells in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Saray; Schreiber-Avissar, Sofia; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2018-03-01

    The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological fields. How many EVs are needed to deliver the desired physiological signal is yet unclear. Using a normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) cell culture exposed to non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived EVs, a relevant model for studying the human ocular drainage system, we addressed the EVs dose-response effects on the Wnt signaling. The objective of the study was to investigate the dosing effects of NPCE-derived EVs on TM Wnt signaling. EVs were isolated by PEG 8000 method from NPCE and RPE cells (used as controls) conditioned media. Concentrations were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing method. Various exosomes concentration were incubated with TM cells, for the determination of mRNA (β-Catenin, Axin2 and LEF1) and protein (β-Catenin, GSK-3β) expression using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Exposure of NTM cells for 8 hrs to low EVs concentrations was associated with a significant decreased expression of β-Catenin, GSK-3β, as opposed to exposure to high exosomal concentrations. Pro-MMP9 and MMP9 activities were significantly enhanced in NTM cells treated with high EV concentrations of (X10) as compared to low EV concentrations of either NPCE- or RPE-derived EVs and to untreated control. Our data support the concept that EVs biological effects are concentration-dependent at their target site. Specifically in the present study, we described a general dose-response at the gene and MMPs activity and a different dose-response regarding key canonical Wnt proteins expression. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. A Study on Nomophobia - Mobile Phone Dependence, Among Students of a Medical College in Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra MB, Suwarna Madhukumar, Mahadeva Murthy TS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smart phones today have become an important part of our techno-culture, especially among the younger population. Discomfort, anxiety, nervousness or anguish caused by being out of contact with a mobile phone is termed as "Nomophobia"- no mobile phobia. Nomophobia is on the rise across the globe. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of Nomophobia and mobile phone dependence among the students of a medical college. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was ca...

  7. The association of nursing students' mobile phone dependence with their health behaviors: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Avramika; Maria Gkrizioti; Athanasios Mastrokostas; Thalia Bellali; Kyriaki Tileniki

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phone use is such a common phenomenon nowadays, that many researchers refer to children and adolescents as a 'mobile generation'. Several studies associate mobile phone use (in terms of voice communication, text sending and internet use with psychological, social and physiological outcomes. Aim: The aim of this study was the exploration of the association of mobile phone dependence with health behaviors in a population οf students of nursing. Material-Method: This study, which follows ...

  8. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    clamps, pp nonesterified fatty acid concentrations did not reach the ap levels. The study demonstrated a minor influence of different degrees of body fat mobilization on insulin metabolism in cows during the transition period. The distinct decrease in the glucose-dependent release of insulin pp is the most striking finding that explains the impaired insulin action after calving, but does not explain differences in body fat mobilization between HLFC and LLFC cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misek, Jakub; Belyaev, Igor; Jakusova, Viera; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Barabas, Jan; Jakus, Jan

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the possible effect of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect of RF EMF on ANS activity was studied by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during ortho-clinostatic test (i.e., transition from lying to standing and back) in 46 healthy grammar school students. A 1788 MHz pulsed wave with intensity of 54 ± 1.6 V/m was applied intermittently for 18 min in each trial. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR 10 ) value was determined to 0.405 W/kg. We also measured the respiration rate and estimated a subjective perception of EMF exposure. RF exposure decreased heart rate of subjects in a lying position, while no such change was seen in standing students. After exposure while lying, a rise in high frequency band of HRV and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences was observed, which indicated an increase in parasympathetic nerve activity. Tympanic temperature and skin temperature were measured showing no heating under RF exposure. No RF effect on respiration rate was observed. None of the tested subjects were able to distinguish real exposure from sham exposure when queried at the end of the trial. In conclusion, short-term RF EMF exposure of students in a lying position during the ortho-clinostatic test affected ANS with significant increase in parasympathetic nerve activity compared to sham exposed group. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:277-288, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Variable School Start Times and Middle School Student's Sleep Health and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Daniel S; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Yao I; Skora, Elizabeth; Hoehn, Jessica; Baylor, Allison; Wang, Jichuan

    2017-08-01

    Improving sleep health among adolescents is a national health priority and implementing healthy school start times (SSTs) is an important strategy to achieve these goals. This study leveraged the differences in middle school SST in a large district to evaluate associations between SST, sleep health, and academic performance. This cross-sectional study draws data from a county-wide surveillance survey. Participants were three cohorts of eighth graders (n = 26,440). The school district is unique because SST ranged from 7:20 a.m. to 8:10 a.m. Path analysis and probit regression were used to analyze associations between SST and self-report measures of weekday sleep duration, grades, and homework controlling for demographic variables (sex, race, and socioeconomic status). The independent contributions of SST and sleep duration to academic performance were also analyzed. Earlier SST was associated with decreased sleep duration (χ 2  = 173, p academic performance, and academic effort. Path analysis models demonstrated the independent contributions of sleep duration, SST, and variable effects for demographic variables. This is the first study to evaluate the independent contributions of SST and sleep to academic performance in a large sample of middle school students. Deficient sleep was prevalent, and the earliest SST was associated with decrements in sleep and academics. These findings support the prioritization of policy initiatives to implement healthy SST for younger adolescents and highlight the importance of sleep health education disparities among race and gender groups. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability in colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency of improved and unimproved soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, M S; Guzzo, M C; Velazquez, M S; Sagadin, M B; Luna, C M

    2016-12-01

    Breeding selection of germplasm under fertilized conditions may reduce the frequency of genes that promote mycorrhizal associations. This study was developed to compare variability in mycorrhizal colonization and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency (MD) in improved soybean genotypes (I-1 and I-2) with differential tolerance to drought stress, and in unimproved soybean genotypes (UI-3 and UI-4). As inoculum, a mixed native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was isolated from soybean roots, showing spores mostly of the species Funneliformis mosseae. At 20 days, unimproved genotypes followed by I-2, showed an increase in arbuscule formation, but not in I-1. At 40 days, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in nodulation, this effect being more evident in unimproved genotypes. Mycorrhizal dependency, evaluated as growth and biochemical parameters from oxidative stress was increased in unimproved and I-2 since 20 days, whereas in I-1, MD increased at 40 days. We cannot distinguish significant differences in AMF colonization and MD between unimproved and I-2. However, variability among improved genotypes was observed. Our results suggest that selection for improved soybean genotypes with good and rapid AMF colonization, particularly high arbuscule/hyphae ratio could be a useful strategy for the development of genotypes that optimize AMF contribution to cropping systems.

  12. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. An Examination of Elementary School Students' Parental Style and Parental Internet Style with Respect to Various Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz, Metin; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Ayas, Tuncay; Koç, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between parental style and internet parental style and find out whether student's parental style and parental internet style differ according to various variables. In this study, survey model was used. The study was performed with 296 students, attending at an elementary school in the second period of 2011-2012 academic years in Sakarya, Turkey. Parental style and parental internet style scales were used. Results indicated ...

  14. Psychoactive substance use and dependence among Spanish university students: prevalence, correlates, polyconsumption, and comorbidity with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando L

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and dependence was estimated among students at a Spanish university, together with associated factors, polyconsumption, and comorbidity with depression, using a 554-member sample stratified by sex, degree year, and discipline. 86.5% had consumed some potentially addictive psychoactive substance in the past month, and 10.5% satisfied DSM-IV criteria for dependence on nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, or cannabis. Polyconsumers (90.4%) consumed an average 3.2 different substances. Current depression implied increased likelihood of having consumed tobacco or psychoactive pharmaceutical drugs in the past month, and DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode were shown by 8.6% of 58 substance-dependent participants, 8.7% of 540 past-month legal substance consumers, and 12.1% of 140 past-month illegal substance consumers.

  15. The impact of lecture attendance and other variables on how medical students evaluate faculty in a preclinical program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stanley I; Way, David P; Verbeck, Nicole; Nagel, Rollin; Davis, John A; Vandre, Dale D

    2013-07-01

    High-quality audiovisual recording technology enables medical students to listen to didactic lectures without actually attending them. The authors wondered whether in-person attendance affects how students evaluate lecturers. This is a retrospective review of faculty evaluations completed by first- and second-year medical students at the Ohio State University College of Medicine during 2009-2010. Lecture-capture technology was used to record all lectures. Attendance at lectures was optional; however, all students were required to complete lecturer evaluation forms. Students rated overall instruction using a five-option response scale. They also reported their attendance. The authors used analysis of variance to compare the lecturer ratings of attendees versus nonattendees. The authors included additional independent variables-year of student, student grade/rank in class, and lecturer degree-in the analysis. The authors analyzed 12,092 evaluations of 220 lecturers received from 358 students. The average number of evaluations per lecturer was 55. Seventy-four percent (n = 8,968 evaluations) of students attended the lectures they evaluated, whereas 26% (n = 3,124 evaluations) viewed them online. Mean lecturer ratings from attendees was 3.85 compared with 3.80 by nonattendees (P ≤ .05; effect size: 0.055). Student's class grade and year, plus lecturer degree, also affected students' evaluations of lecturers (effect sizes: 0.055-0.3). Students' attendance at lectures, year, and class grade, as well as lecturer degree, affect students' evaluation of lecturers. This finding has ramifications on how student evaluations should be collected, interpreted, and used in promotion and tenure decisions in this evolving medical education environment.

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Antibiotic Exposures as Time-Dependent Variables on the Acquisition of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Rosa, Rossana; Castro, Jose G; Laowansiri, Panthipa; Latibeaudiere, Rachel; Namias, Nicholas; Tarima, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    To determine the time-dependent effect of antibiotics on the initial acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Retrospective cohort study. Forty-bed trauma ICU in Miami, FL. All consecutive patients admitted to the unit from November 1, 2010, to November 30, 2011. None. Patients underwent surveillance cultures at admission to the unit and weekly thereafter. The primary outcome was the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii on surveillance cultures. Daily antibiotic exposures during the time of observation were used to construct time-dependent variables, including cumulative exposures (in grams and daily observed doses [defined daily doses]). Among 360 patients, 45 (12.5%) became colonized with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Adjusted Cox models showed that each additional point in the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation score increased the hazard by 4.8% (hazard ratio, 1.048; 95% CI, 1.010-1.087; p = 0.0124) and time-dependent exposure to carbapenems quadrupled the hazard (hazard ratio, 4.087; 95% CI, 1.873-8.920; p = 0.0004) of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Additionally, adjusted Cox models determined that every additional carbapenem defined daily dose increased the hazard of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii by 5.1% (hazard ratio, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.007-1.093; p = 0.0243). Carbapenem exposure quadrupled the hazards of acquiring A. baumannii even after controlling for severity of illness.

  17. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  18. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriev, Dimitriy A; Saperova, Elena V; Dimitriev, Aleksey D

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate. A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA. Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA. The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

  19. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriy A Dimitriev

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate.A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA.Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE, and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2, and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1 during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2, and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure, entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA.The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

  20. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  1. Resistor capacitor, primitive variable solution of buoyant fluid flow within an enclosure with highly temperature dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A numerical solution for buoyant natural convection within a square enclosure containing a fluid with highly temperature dependent viscosity is presented. Although the fluid properties employed do not represent any real fluid, the large variation in the fluid viscosity with temperature is characteristic of turbulent flow modeling with eddy-viscosity concepts. Results are obtained using a primitive variable formulation and the resistor method. The results presented include velocity, temperature and pressure distributions within the enclosure as well as shear stress and heat flux distributions along the enclosure walls. Three mesh refinements were employed and uncertainty values are suggested for the final mesh refinement. These solutions are part of a contributed benchmark solution set for the subject problem.

  2. Which variables relate to the attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to

  3. Pearson's Correlation between Three Variables; Using Students' Basic Knowledge of Geometry for an Exercise in Mathematical Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    When studying correlations, how do the three bivariate correlation coefficients between three variables relate? After transforming Pearson's correlation coefficient r into a Euclidean distance, undergraduate students can tackle this problem using their secondary school knowledge of geometry (Pythagoras' theorem and similarity of triangles).…

  4. An Investigation of the Variables Predicting Faculty of Education Students' Speaking Anxiety through Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozpolat, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Education students' levels of speaking anxiety are predicted by the variables of gender, department, grade, such sub-dimensions of "Speaking Self-Efficacy Scale for Pre-Service Teachers" as "public speaking," "effective speaking,"…

  5. Developing Students' Reasoning about Samples and Sampling Variability as a Path to Expert Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Joan; Le, Laura; Zieffler, Andrew; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of developing students' reasoning about samples and sampling variability as a foundation for statistical thinking. Research on expert-novice thinking as well as statistical thinking is reviewed and compared. A case is made that statistical thinking is a type of expert thinking, and as such, research…

  6. A Spreadsheet-Based Visualized Mindtool for Improving Students' Learning Performance in Identifying Relationships between Numerical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…

  7. Examination of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Achievement in Foreign Language in Turkish University Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Tuncer, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This correlational survey study aimed to investigate whether the Turkish prep-class students' foreign language classroom anxiety levels and foreign language achievement significantly differ in terms of such variables as their gender, their experience abroad, perceived level of income and any third language (other than Turkish and English) they…

  8. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  9. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  10. Qualitative Evaluation of the Design Variables of a Teaching Intervention to Expose Accounting Students to Pervasive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviers, Herman Albertus

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to evaluate the design variables of a newly developed teaching intervention, "The Amazing Tax Race". It comprises a race against time in which accounting students participate within teams in multiple tax-related activities so that they are exposed to pervasive skills. The findings provide…

  11. Latent variables underlying the memory beliefs of Chartered Clinical Psychologists, Hypnotherapists and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, James; Easton, Simon; Hope, Lorraine; French, Christopher C; Wright, Daniel B

    2017-01-01

    In courts in the United Kingdom, understanding of memory phenomena is often assumed to be a matter of common sense. To test this assumption 337 UK respondents, consisting of 125 Chartered Clinical Psychologists, 88 individuals who advertised their services as Hypnotherapists (HTs) in a classified directory, the Yellow Pages TM , and 124 first year undergraduate psychology students, completed a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of 10 memory phenomena about which there is a broad scientific consensus. HTs' responses were the most inconsistent with the scientific consensus, scoring lowest on six of these ten items. Principal Components Analysis indicated two latent variables - reflecting beliefs about memory quality and malleability - underlying respondents' responses. In addition, respondents were asked to rate their own knowledge of the academic memory literature in general. There was no significant relationship between participants' self reported knowledge and their actual knowledge (as measured by their responses to the 10-item questionnaire). There was evidence of beliefs among the HTs that could give rise to some concern (e.g., that early memories from the first year of life are accurately stored and are retrievable).

  12. Outer membrane targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins shows variable dependence on the components of Bam and Lol machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hanh H; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Lee, Vincent T; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol and Bam machineries direct the targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins, respectively, to the outer membrane (OM). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with depleted levels of specific Bam and Lol proteins, we demonstrated a variable dependence of different OM proteins on these targeting pathways. Reduction in the level of BamA significantly affected the ability of the β-barrel membrane protein OprF to localize to the OM, while the targeting of three secretins that are functionally related OM proteins was less affected (PilQ and PscC) or not at all affected (XcpQ). Depletion of LolB affected all lipoproteins examined and had a variable effect on the nonlipidated proteins. While the levels of OprF, PilQ, and PscC were significantly reduced by LolB depletion, XcpQ was unaffected and was correctly localized to the OM. These results suggest that certain β-barrel proteins such as OprF primarily utilize the complete Bam machinery. The Lol machinery participates in the OM targeting of secretins to variable degrees, likely through its involvement in the assembly of lipidated Bam components. XcpQ, but not PilQ or PscC, was shown to assemble spontaneously into liposomes as multimers. This work raises the possibility that there is a gradient of utilization of Bam and Lol insertion and targeting machineries. Structural features of individual proteins, including their β-barrel content, may determine the propensity of these proteins for folding (or misfolding) during periplasmic transit and OM insertion, thereby influencing the extent of utilization of the Bam targeting machinery, respectively. Targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins to the outer membrane (OM) compartment in Gram-negative bacteria involves the transfer across the periplasm utilizing the Lol and Bam machineries, respectively. We show that depletion of Bam and Lol components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not lead to a general OM protein translocation defect

  13. Relations of some sociocultural variables and attitudes and motivations of young Arab students learning English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, A A; al-Ansari, S H

    2001-02-01

    This paper examined a number of variables pertaining to the sociocultural outlooks of 412 young Arab students learning English as a foreign language and the relation of their attitudes and motivations prior to their learning of the language. Analysis indicated clearly that certain variables appeared to be correlated with their attitudes and motivations more than others. Most of the students had maids in their homes, and the presence of a maid was associated with most of the psycholinguistic variables tested. Their previous learning experience of the language was positively correlated as was their knowledge of English stories. Having some sort of English games had the highest correlations (.25 to .41). Potential pedagogical implications of these results were discussed.

  14. Effects of a Dependent Group Contingency on the Verbal Interactions of Middle School Students with Emotional Disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, S.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a dependent group contingency to increase positive verbal interactions among nine middle school-aged males in a self-contained classroom. Prior to implementing the group contingency, the students received social skills instruction. A withdrawal experimental design was then used to evaluate the effects of the dependent group contingency. Students' positive verbal interactions increased and negative verbal interactions decreased with the implementation of the ...

  15. Student's Second-Language Grade May Depend on Classroom Listening Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Anders; Sörqvist, Patrik; Ljung, Robert; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students' score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants' baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores-and hence students' grade in English-may depend on students' classroom listening position.

  16. Does dependency make a difference? The role of convenience, social influence, facilitating condition and self-efficacy on student's purchase behaviour of smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Mathivannan; Mustapa, Azrain Nasyrah; Hasan, Wan Azlina Wan; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik; Alekam, Jamal Mohammed Esmail

    2014-12-01

    It is an undeniable fact that penetration level and usage and sales of Smartphone dramatically increased past few years, whereby; it has increased to almost 60 percent of total population. Despite the high penetration of smartphone, previous studies have exhibited inconsistent findings towards understanding the behavioural intention to use smartphone especially among university students. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine purchasing behaviour of Smartphone among students. From the literature, five antecedents of purchasing behaviour were identified. Each variable is measured using 7-point Likert scale: convenience (10 items), social influence (6 items), self-efficacy (10 items), facilitating condition (11 items), dependency (14 items) and purchasing behaviour (4 items). Using the primary data collection method, 400 questionnaires were distributed to the target respondents of one of the public higher education in the northern region. The responses collected were 350 completed questionnaires representing 87.5 percent response rate. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS. Confirmatory factor analysis of measurement models indicates adequate goodness or fit after few items were eliminated through modification indices verifications. Therefore, goodness of fit for the generated structural model shows the adequate fit. This study has established four direct significant causal effects and two significant mediating effects: (1) convenience and dependency, (2) social influence and dependency, (3) facilitating condition and purchase behaviour, (4), dependency and purchase behaviour. The significant mediating results are: (1). Dependency mediates the relationship between convenience and purchase behaviour; (2) dependency mediates social influence and purchase behaviour. Thus, findings suggested that convenience, social influence and dependency play a role in determining students purchase behaviour of smartphone. The researchers

  17. Zmienne komunikacyjne nauczyciela w percepcji studentow [Teachers' communication variables in higher education students' perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sztejnberg, A.; Brok, den P.J.; Hurek, J.; Karczmarek, Z.; Jankowski, K.; Sitarska, B.; Tkaczuk, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students¿ perceptions of their best teachers in higher education. Teacher behaviour was conceptualised in terms of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship and described in terms of eight behavioural sectors ¿ leadership, helpful/friendly, understanding, student

  18. Variability in University Students' Use of Technology: An "Approaches to Learning" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimirinis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the results of a cross-case study analysis of how students' approaches to learning are demonstrated in blended learning environments. It was initially propositioned that approaches to learning as key determinants of the quality of student learning outcomes are demonstrated specifically in how students utilise technology in…

  19. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  20. Variability of Pinus halepensis Mill. Essential Oils and Their Antioxidant Activities Depending on the Stage of Growth During Vegetative Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrad, Zineb; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Kadik, Leila

    2017-04-01

    The impact of growth stages during vegetative cycle (B 0  - B 5 ) on chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Pinus halepensis Mill. needles essential oils was investigated for the first time. GC and GC/MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (8.5 - 12.9%), myrcene (17.5 - 21.6%), p-cymene (7.9 - 11.9%) and (Z)-β-caryophyllene (17.3 - 21.2%) as major components, decreased from 88.9% at B 0 growth stage to 66.9% at B 5 growth stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by caryophyllene oxide (5.4 - 12.6%) and terpinen-4-ol (0.4 - 3.3%) as major components, increased from 7% at B 0 growth stage to 28.4% at B 5 growth stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that essential oil of P. halepensis needles collected at B 5 growth stage possess higher antioxidant activities by four different testing systems than those collected at B 0  - B 4 growth stages. This highlighted variability led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on growth stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. The extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering among undergraduate nursing students: Implications for pedagogy in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, S E; Liu, L; van den Akker, O; O'Driscoll, Mike

    2017-03-01

    In the aftermath of the Francis Report nurses are being called to account for an apparent lack of care and compassion, leading to debate around pedagogy in nurse education. Absent from this debate is a consideration of student volunteering within undergraduate nursing programmes and its potential to promote student nurses self-esteem and to enhance the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the extent of and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students. A mixed methods approach using a specifically developed questionnaire, followed by in-depth interviews to ascertain extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering revealed low levels of volunteering among nursing students. Limited time, limited access, and lack of academic support were cited as reasons. Nevertheless, students displayed positive attitudes towards volunteering. While volunteering has been shown to impact upon students abilities to think critically, to develop personal values and respond to the needs of others, volunteering within the UK undergraduate nursing programme considered here is neither structured nor formalized. Nurse educators should pay attention to the positive benefits of volunteering for nursing students and consider ways in which volunteering might be incorporated into the curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islande C. Delgado Monge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such course was collected and the instrument of Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare and Hunt was adjusted to it (2003. Data collected were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS applying the corresponding hypothesis tests. According with the results, students showed a medium level of math anxiety and women showed a math anxiety significantly higher than men, while student graduated from private schools showed a significantly lower level of math anxiety than those from public schools or from the modality “General Equivalency Diploma”. Besides, the higher the math anxiety of the student is, the lower their academic achievement will be. Finally, there were no statistically significant differences between math anxiety and the number of times students have taken the course.

  3. Influence of Flow Sequencing Attributed to Climate Change and Climate Variability on the Assessment of Water-dependent Ecosystem Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Nathan, R.; Horne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional approaches to characterize water-dependent ecosystem outcomes in response to flow have been based on time-averaged hydrological indicators, however there is increasing recognition for the need to characterize ecological processes that are highly dependent on the sequencing of flow conditions (i.e. floods and droughts). This study considers the representation of flow regimes when considering assessment of ecological outcomes, and in particular, the need to account for sequencing and variability of flow. We conducted two case studies - one in the largely unregulated Ovens River catchment and one in the highly regulated Murray River catchment (both located in south-eastern Australia) - to explore the importance of flow sequencing to the condition of a typical long-lived ecological asset in Australia, the River Red Gum forests. In the first, the Ovens River case study, the implications of representing climate change using different downscaling methods (annual scaling, monthly scaling, quantile mapping, and weather generator method) on the sequencing of flows and resulting ecological outcomes were considered. In the second, the Murray River catchment, sequencing within a historic drought period was considered by systematically making modest adjustments on an annual basis to the hydrological records. In both cases, the condition of River Red Gum forests was assessed using an ecological model that incorporates transitions between ecological conditions in response to sequences of required flow components. The results of both studies show the importance of considering how hydrological alterations are represented when assessing ecological outcomes. The Ovens case study showed that there is significant variation in the predicted ecological outcomes when different downscaling techniques are applied. Similarly, the analysis in the Murray case study showed that the drought as it historically occurred provided one of the best possible outcomes for River Red Gum

  4. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  5. Neural and psychological characteristics of college students with alcoholic parents differ depending on current alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Scholl, Jamie L; Fercho, Kelene A; Pearson, Kami; Kallsen, Noah A; Davies, Gareth E; Ehli, Erik A; Olson, Seth; Schweinle, Amy; Baugh, Lee A; Forster, Gina L

    2018-02-02

    A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiological factors that distinguish resilient and vulnerable college-aged ACoAs. To do so, scholastic performance and psychological health were measured in ACoA college students not engaged in hazardous alcohol use (resilient) and those currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use (vulnerable). Neural activity (as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging) in response to performing working memory and emotion-based tasks were assessed. Furthermore, the frequency of polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with substance use, risk taking and stress reactivity were compared between the two ACoA groups. College ACoAs currently engaged in hazardous alcohol use reported more anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and increased risky nicotine and marijuana use as compared to ACoAs resistant to problem alcohol use. ACoA college students with current problem alcohol showed greater activity of the middle frontal gyrus and reduced activation of the posterior cingulate in response to visual working memory and emotional processing tasks, which may relate to increased anxiety and problem alcohol and drug behaviors. Furthermore, polymorphisms of cholinergic receptor and the serotonin transporter genes also appear to contribute a role in problem alcohol use in ACoAs. Overall, findings point to several important psychobiological variables that distinguish ACoAs based on their current alcohol use that may be used in the future for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inference for binomial probability based on dependent Bernoulli random variables with applications to meta‐analysis and group level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We study bias arising as a result of nonlinear transformations of random variables in random or mixed effects models and its effect on inference in group‐level studies or in meta‐analysis. The findings are illustrated on the example of overdispersed binomial distributions, where we demonstrate considerable biases arising from standard log‐odds and arcsine transformations of the estimated probability p^, both for single‐group studies and in combining results from several groups or studies in meta‐analysis. Our simulations confirm that these biases are linear in ρ, for small values of ρ, the intracluster correlation coefficient. These biases do not depend on the sample sizes or the number of studies K in a meta‐analysis and result in abysmal coverage of the combined effect for large K. We also propose bias‐correction for the arcsine transformation. Our simulations demonstrate that this bias‐correction works well for small values of the intraclass correlation. The methods are applied to two examples of meta‐analyses of prevalence. PMID:27192062

  7. HEART RATE VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN DEPENDENCE ON THE TYPE OF DAILY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. B. K. Gorantla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violation of functioning of the autonomic nervous system is an important factor in the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH. Abnormal nocturnal blood pressure (BP reduction is regarded as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular complications in patients with AH. One of the possible factors that determine the violation of BP circadian rhythm can be imbalance of different parts of autonomic nervous system. The aim of our study was to study heart rate variability (HRV in patients with AH, dependently of BP profile. 72 patients with AH were examined. Average age was 57 ± 11 years. All patients underwent ambulatory BP (ABPM and ECG monitoring. To define the daily profile the nocturnal BP dip was quantified and for HRV evaluation the frequency analysis method was used. HRV changes in patients with AH present with reduced total power and with a violation in the ratio of the powers of very low, low and high frequencies, enhanced sympathycotension and influence of humoral factors. Violations of systolic BP (SBP daily profile was mainly characterized by an increase in the power of low frequency waves, which indicates an intensification of sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic influences. Violations of diastolic BP (DBP daily profile were mainly characterized by a relative increase in the power of very low frequency waves. The obtained results showed that in the management of patients with AH it is important not only to control the circadian SBP and DBP profiles, but the evaluation of HRV also.

  8. Inference for binomial probability based on dependent Bernoulli random variables with applications to meta-analysis and group level studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We study bias arising as a result of nonlinear transformations of random variables in random or mixed effects models and its effect on inference in group-level studies or in meta-analysis. The findings are illustrated on the example of overdispersed binomial distributions, where we demonstrate considerable biases arising from standard log-odds and arcsine transformations of the estimated probability p̂, both for single-group studies and in combining results from several groups or studies in meta-analysis. Our simulations confirm that these biases are linear in ρ, for small values of ρ, the intracluster correlation coefficient. These biases do not depend on the sample sizes or the number of studies K in a meta-analysis and result in abysmal coverage of the combined effect for large K. We also propose bias-correction for the arcsine transformation. Our simulations demonstrate that this bias-correction works well for small values of the intraclass correlation. The methods are applied to two examples of meta-analyses of prevalence. © 2016 The Authors. Biometrical Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. A numerical model for density-and-viscosity-dependent flows in two-dimensional variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Suidan, Makram T.; Venosa, Albert D.

    1999-04-01

    We present a formulation for water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media that accounts for the effects of the solute on water density and viscosity. The governing equations are cast in a dimensionless form that depends on six dimensionless groups of parameters. These equations are discretized in space using the Galerkin finite element formulation and integrated in time using the backward Euler scheme with mass lumping. The modified Picard method is used to linearize the water flow equation. The resulting numerical model, the MARUN model, is verified by comparison to published numerical results. It is then used to investigate beach hydraulics at seawater concentration (about 30 g l -1) in the context of nutrients delivery for bioremediation of oil spills on beaches. Numerical simulations that we conducted in a rectangular section of a hypothetical beach revealed that buoyancy in the unsaturated zone is significant in soils that are fine textured, with low anisotropy ratio, and/or exhibiting low physical dispersion. In such situations, application of dissolved nutrients to a contaminated beach in a freshwater solution is superior to their application in a seawater solution. Concentration-engendered viscosity effects were negligible with respect to concentration-engendered density effects for the cases that we considered.

  10. Exploring Variability Sources in Student Evaluation of Teaching via Many-Facet Rasch Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü BÖRKAN

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating quality of teaching is important in nearly every higher education institute. The most common way of assessing teaching effectiveness takes place through students. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) is used to gather information about students’ experiences with a course and instructor’s performance at some point of semester. SET can be considered as a type of rater mediated performance assessment where students are the raters and instructors are the examinees. When performance as...

  11. Exploring Variability Sources in Student Evaluation of Teaching via Many-Facet Rasch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü BÖRKAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating quality of teaching is important in nearly every higher education institute. The most common way of assessing teaching effectiveness takes place through students. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET is used to gather information about students’ experiences with a course and instructor’s performance at some point of semester. SET can be considered as a type of rater mediated performance assessment where students are the raters and instructors are the examinees. When performance assessment becomes a rater mediated assessment process, extra measures need to be taken into consideration in order to create more reliable and fair assessment practices. The study has two main purposes; (a to examine the extent to which the facets (instructor, student, and rating items contribute to instructors’ score variance and (b to examine the students’ judging behavior in order to detect any potential source of bias in student evaluation of teaching by using the Many-Facet Rasch Model. The data set includes one thousand 235 students’ responses from 254 courses. The results show that a students greatly differ in the severity while rating instructors, b students were fairly consistent in their ratings, c students as a group and individual level are tend to display halo effect in their ratings, d students are clustered at the highest two categories of the scale and e the variation in item measures is fairly low. The findings have practical implications for the SET practices by improving the psychometric quality of measurement.

  12. Healthy Life Style Behaviors of University Students of School of Physical Education and Sports in Terms of Body Mass Index and Other Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlar, Volkan; Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of students in the Schools of Physical Education and Sport (SPES) utilizing Body Mass Index (BMI) and other various variables. The study is composed of 1,695 students studying in SPES, in 14 different universities across Turkey. It is made up of 1,067 male and 624 female students.…

  13. Creativity of Field-dependent and Field-independent Students in Posing Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlina, N.; Amin, S. M.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the creativity of elementary school students with different cognitive styles in mathematical problem-posing. The posed problems were assessed based on three components of creativity, namely fluency, flexibility, and novelty. The free-type problem posing was used in this study. This study is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. Data collections were conducted through written task and task-based interviews. The subjects were two elementary students. One of them is Field Dependent (FD) and the other is Field Independent (FI) which were measured by GEFT (Group Embedded Figures Test). Further, the data were analyzed based on creativity components. The results show thatFD student’s posed problems have fulfilled the two components of creativity namely fluency, in which the subject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, and flexibility, in whichthe subject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas. Meanwhile,FI student’s posed problems have fulfilled all three components of creativity, namely fluency, in which thesubject posed at least 3 mathematical problems, flexibility, in which thesubject posed problems with at least 3 different categories/ideas, and novelty, in which the subject posed problems that are purely the result of her own ideas and different from problems they have known.

  14. The dynamics of variability in introductory physics students' thinking: Examples from kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Brian W.

    Physics education research has long emphasized the need for physics instruction to address students' existing intuitions about the physical world as an integral part of learning physics. Researchers, however, have not reached a consensus-view concerning the nature of this intuitive knowledge or the specific role that it does (or might) play in physics learning. While many early characterizations of student misconceptions cast students' intuitive thinking as largely static, unitary in structure, and counter-productive for the purpose of learning correct physics, much of contemporary research supports a conceptualization of intuitive thought as dynamic, manifold in structure, and generative in the development of expertise. This dissertation contributes to ongoing inquiry into the nature of students' intuitive thought and its role in learning physics through the pursuit of dynamic systems characterizations of student reasoning, with a particular focus on how students settle into and shift among multiple patterns of reasoning about motion. In one thread of this research, simple experimental designs are used to demonstrate how individual students can be predictably biased toward and away from different ways of thinking about the same physical situation when specific parameters of questions posed to students are varied. I qualitatively model students' thinking in terms of the activations and interactions among fine-grained intuitive knowledge and static features of the context. In a second thread of this research, case studies of more dynamic shifts in students' conceptual reasoning are developed from videos of student discussions during collaborative classroom activities. These show multiple local stabilities of students' thinking as well, with evidence of group-level dynamics shifting on the time scale of minutes. This work contributes to existing research paradigms that aim to characterize student thinking in physics education in two important ways: (1) through the

  15. Oxygen-Dependent Cell-to-Cell Variability in the Output of the Escherichia coli Tor Phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Escherichia coli senses and responds to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the environment through the TorT-TorS-TorR signal transduction system. The periplasmic protein TorT binds TMAO and stimulates the hybrid kinase TorS to phosphorylate the response regulator TorR through a phosphorelay. Phosphorylated TorR, in turn, activates transcription of the torCAD operon, which encodes the proteins required for anaerobic respiration via reduction of TMAO to trimethylamine. Interestingly, E. coli respires TMAO in both the presence and absence of oxygen, a behavior that is markedly different from the utilization of other alternative electron acceptors by this bacterium. Here we describe an unusual form of regulation by oxygen for this system. While the average level of torCAD transcription is the same for aerobic and anaerobic cultures containing TMAO, the behavior across the population of cells is strikingly different under the two growth conditions. Cellular levels of torCAD transcription in aerobic cultures are highly heterogeneous, in contrast to the relatively homogeneous distribution in anaerobic cultures. Thus, oxygen regulates the variance of the output but not the mean for the Tor system. We further show that this oxygen-dependent variability stems from the phosphorelay. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is utilized by numerous bacteria as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. In E. coli, expression of the proteins required for TMAO respiration is tightly regulated by a signal transduction system that is activated by TMAO. Curiously, although oxygen is the energetically preferred electron acceptor, TMAO is respired even in the presence of oxygen. Here we describe an interesting and unexpected form of regulation for this system in which oxygen produces highly variable expression of the TMAO utilization proteins across a population of cells without affecting the mean expression of these proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of a stimulus

  16. A Diagrammatic Exposition of Regression and Instrumental Variables for the Beginning Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gigi

    2009-01-01

    Some beginning students of statistics and econometrics have difficulty with traditional algebraic approaches to explaining regression and related techniques. For these students, a simple and intuitive diagrammatic introduction as advocated by Kennedy (2008) may prove a useful framework to support further study. The author presents a series of…

  17. Investigation of High School Students' Attitude and Anxiety Levels towards Mathematics in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…

  18. Students' daily emotions in the classroom : Intra-individual variability and appraisal correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; van der Werf, Greetje; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent literature on emotions in education has shown that competence- and value-related beliefs are important sources of students' emotions; nevertheless, the role of these antecedents in students' daily functioning in the classroom is not yet well-known. More importantly, to date we

  19. Is Critical Thinking a Mediator Variable of Student Performance in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Christel; Walter, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The study explores the influences of critical thinking and interests on students' performance at school. The tested students attended German grammar schools ("Gymnasien"). Separate regression analyses showed the expected moderate positive influences of critical thinking and interests on school performance. But analyzed simultaneously,…

  20. Noncognitive Variables to Predict Academic Success among Junior Year Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen M. T.

    2017-01-01

    An equitable predictor of academic success is needed as nursing education strives toward comprehensive preparation of diverse nursing students. The purpose of this study was to discover how Sedlacek's (2004a) Noncognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and Duckworth & Quinn's (2009) Grit-S predicted baccalaureate nursing student academic performance and…

  1. Negative Automatic Thoughts, Emotional Intelligence and Demographical Different Variables Affecting University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direktor, Cemaliye; Simsek, Angelika H.; Serin, Nerguz Bulut

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of negative automatic thoughts, emotional intelligence subscales, gender, and department of university students. The participants are 291 students (170 female and 121 male) of Department of Psychology, Department of Counselling and Department of Preschool Education, of Private University in North Cyprus.…

  2. Republication of "Functional Analysis of Classroom Variables for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; dePerczel, Maria; Clarke, Shelley; Wilson, Diane; Childs, Karen E.; White, Ronnie; Falk, George D.

    2018-01-01

    Functional assessment and functional analysis are processes that have been applied successfully in work with people who have developmental disabilities, but they have been used rarely with students who experience emotional or behavioral disorders. In the present study, five students in elementary school programs for severe emotional disturbance…

  3. School-Related Variables in the Dimensions of Anger in High School Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyez, Digdem M.

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of perceived social support from teachers, expectation of academic achievement, school control, and gender on anger dimensions in high school students in Izmir, Turkey. In total, 446 high school students (234 girls, 212 boys) participated in the study. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analyses…

  4. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  5. Alternative Personality Variables and the Relationship to Holland's Personality Types in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Fox, Daniel J.; Tunick, Roy H.

    2003-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory, two personality questionnaires, and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were completed by 126 college students. Younger students had undifferentiated vocational profiles. Men tended toward Realistic, Enterprising, and Investigative occupations, women toward Social, Enterprising, and Artistic. Significant convergence…

  6. Diurnal and seasonal variability in size-dependent atmospheric deposition fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Staebler, Ralf; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric gaseous and size-segregated particle samples were collected from urban Guangzhou at the heights of 100 and 150 m above the ground in daytime and at night in August and December 2010, and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particulate PAHs were more abundant at night than in daytime, and significantly higher in winter than in summer. The observed vertical, diurnal, and seasonal variability in the occurrences of PAH were attributed to varying meteorological conditions and atmospheric boundary layers. More than 60% of the particulate PAHs were contained in particles in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic diameter (Dp) in the range of 0.1-1.8 μm. Different mass transfer velocities by volatilization and condensation are considered the main causes for the different particle size distributions among individual PAHs, while combustion at different temperatures and atmospheric transport were probable causes of the observed seasonal variation in the size distribution of PAHs. Based on the modeled size-dependent dry deposition velocities, daily mean dry deposition fluxes of particulate PAHs ranged from 604 to 1190 ng m-2 d-1, with PAHs in coarse particles (Dp > 1.8 μm) accounting for 55-95% of the total fluxes. In addition, gaseous PAHs were estimated to contribute 0.6-3.1% to the total dry deposition fluxes if a conservative dry deposition velocity for gaseous species (2 × 10-4 m s-1) were used. Finally, disequilibrium phase partitioning, meteorological conditions and atmospheric transport were regarded as the main reasons for the variances in dry deposition velocities of individual PAHs.

  7. Temperature-dependent, behavioural, and transcriptional variability of a tritrophic interaction consisting of bean, herbivorous mite, and predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Rika; Nishimura, Osamu; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Muroi, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Different organisms compensate for, and adapt to, environmental changes in different ways. In this way, environmental changes affect animal-plant interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of temperature on a tritrophic system of the lima bean, the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. In this system, the plant defends itself against T. urticae by emitting volatiles that attract P. persimilis. Over 20-40 °C, the emission of volatiles by infested plants and the subsequent attraction of P. persimilis peaked at 30 °C, but the number of eggs laid by T. urticae adults and the number of eggs consumed by P. persimilis peaked at 35 °C. This indicates that the spider mites and predatory mites performed best at a higher temperature than that at which most volatile attractants were produced. Our data from transcriptome pyrosequencing of the mites found that P. persimilis up-regulated gene families for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ubiquitin-associated proteins, whereas T. urticae did not. RNA interference-mediated gene suppression in P. persimilis revealed differences in temperature responses. Predation on T. urticae eggs by P. persimilis that had been fed PpHsp70-1 dsRNA was low at 35 °C but not at 25 °C when PpHsp70-1 expression was very high. Overall, our molecular and behavioural approaches revealed that the mode and tolerance of lima bean, T. urticae and P. persimilis are distinctly affected by temperature variability, thereby making their tritrophic interactions temperature dependent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH IN STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL DEPENDING ON THEIR MODE OF LIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mirskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 405 students of secondary school in Moscow, Kaliningrad and Murmansk took part in the testing. The correlation between poor health in students and mode of their living was shown. It's recommended to create unified standard of students education in the field of hygiene, breeding and healthy life style.Key words: secondary school students, health, life style.

  9. The Assessment of Primary Education First Grade Turkish Coursebook, Student's Workbook and Teacher's Book Depending on Teachers' Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Ayfer ŞAHİN

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish coursebook, student's workbook and the teacher's book that is delivered unpaid by the Ministry of Education to the teachers and students in primary education, first classes in 2007-2008 educational year; It is assessed depending on the teachers' opinions, the scale developed according to the criterias that has to be in the coursebooks which are determined in the instruction relating to the study and evaluation of Ministry of Education coursebooks and educational mea...

  10. Assessment of Object Permanence in Severely Handicapped Students as a Function of Motor and Prompting Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The study assessed object permanence construct performance in 20 severely handicapped students (4 to 14 years old) who were differentiated by treatment (prompt) condition and motor ability level. Results revealed a trait (motor ability) x treatment interaction. (Author/SB)

  11. The Analysis of the School Burnout in Secondary Education Students in Terms of Various Variables

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    İsmail Seçer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the burnout levels of the secondary education students was analyzed if the burnout levels differentiate according to sex, high school type, academic success, academic department and taking private teaching institutions’ classes or not. The study group of this study that is aimed to analyze school burnout in secondary education students is formed of 282 females and 221 males, in total 503 students who get educated in secondary schools in Erzurum Yakutiye and Palandöken counties. School burnout inventory developed by Aypay (2011 and personal data form were used to collect data. t test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used in the analysis of the data.According to the evidence obtained from the study, the burnout levels of secondary education students differentiate in a meaningful level according to sex, school type, academic success, academic department and taking private teaching institutions’ classes or not.

  12. [Corrective effect of aromatherapy on indices of heart rate variability in students under exam stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, H T; Minasyan, S M

    2016-01-01

    There were investigated changes in indices of the activity of regulatory mechanisms of heart rhythm in student under exam stress conditions and the possibility of their correction with aid of aromatherapy. The examination stress was established to be accompanied by pronounced shifts of integral and spectral indices of heart rhythm in students, indicating to the activation of the sympathetic circuit of Autonomic Nervous System in conditions of examination stress. A positive, relaxation impact of the essential oil of orange on the investigated indices was also recorded. The latter is expressed by weakly pronounced changes or lack of them in data of integral and spectral heart rate indices in students from the experimental group, that indicates to the stabilizing effect of used ethereal oil on the psycho-physiological state of students in conditions of exam stress

  13. Combined Effect of Levels in Personal Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching on Meta-Cognitive, on Meta-Motivational, and on Academic Achievement Variables in Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore

    2017-01-01

    The Theory of Self- vs . Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes.

  14. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  15. CALIDAD DE RED COMO VARIABLE MODULADORA DE DEPRESIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES ESTUDIANTES DE NIVEL MEDIO/ QUALITY NETWORK AS MODERATOR VARIABLE OF DEPRESSION IN TEENAGERS HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Soria Trujano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn un estudio previo (Nava & Vega, 2008 quisimos probar si alguna alteración emocional (depresión podía seratribuida a la lejanía de la red familiar, los análisis mostraron que sí era posible encontrar diferencias entre jóvenes recluidosy estudiantes universitarios. Sin embargo, los resultados del estudio anterior dejaban una duda, ¿sería posible encontrardepresión aun cuando no hay ausencia de familia de origen? Y, ¿qué variables explicarían tal fenómeno, en caso de encontrardiferencias? Por lo anterior, decidimos realizar un estudio en el cual los participantes fueran adolescentes sin ningunacarencia de familia o alteración psicológica aparente. Evaluamos diferentes variables: apoyo social, estrés, calidad de redy depresión. Los resultados mostraron que sí fue posible replicar los resultados del primer estudio, a pesar de que noexistieron alteraciones emocionales o de red graves. Las conclusiones son discutidas a la luz de los hallazgos empíricos yteóricos correspondientes.ABSTRACTIn a previous study (Nava & Vega, 2008 we wanted to prove if some emotional alterations (depression could beattributed to the remoteness of the family network, the analyses showed that it was possible to find differences betweenyoung adults to imprison and university students. Nevertheless, the results of the previous study left a doubt, would it bepossible to find depression even though there is no absence of origin of family? And what variable would explain suchphenomenon, in case of finding differences? By the previous thing, we decided to make a study where the participants wereadolescents without deficiency of family or apparent psychological alteration. We evaluated different variables, socialsupport, stress, quality of network and depression. The results showed that it was possible to talk back the results of the firststudy, although emotional alterations or of network did not exist seriously. The conclusions are discussed to the

  16. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  17. Fixed versus variable practice for teaching medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, David; Truchot, Jennifer; Fabbro, Eleonora; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Plaisance, Patrick; Tesnière, Antoine; Hadchouel, Alice

    2018-02-01

    Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations (PAEs). In this study, we compared two pedagogical approaches, training students once on three different scenarios of PAEs versus training students three times on the same scenario of PAE. Eighty-five third-year medical students, novice learners for the management of PAEs, were randomized and trained. Students were assessed twice, 1 week and 4 months after the training, on a scenario of PAE new to both groups and on scenarios used during the training. The main outcome was the performance score on the new scenario of PAE at 1 week, assessed on a checklist custom-designed for the study. All students progressed rapidly and acquired excellent skills. One week after the training, there was no difference between the two groups on all the scenarios tested, including the new scenario of PAE (median performance score (IQR) of 8.3 (7.4-10.0) in the variation group versus 8.0 (6.0-10.0) in the repetition group (p = 0.16)). Four months later, the performance of the two groups remained similar. Varying practice with different scenarios was equivalent to repetitive practice on the same scenario for novice learners, with both methods leading to transfer and long-term retention of the skills acquired during the training. What is known: • Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations. • It is unclear whether students would benefit more from repetitive practice on the same scenario of asthma exacerbation or from practice on different scenarios in terms of transfer of skills. What is new: • An individual 30-min training on the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations using simulation allows transfer and long-term retention of the skills acquired. • Varying practice with different scenarios is equivalent to repetitive practice on the same

  18. The Impact of Mobile Phone Dependency on Health and Biomarkers in a Greek University Student Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Minasidou; Athanasios Mastrokostas; Maria Gkrizioti; Faidra Eleftheriou; Thalia Bellali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phone use can be addictive for the young. However, little is known about the behavioral and biological effects of this addiction among the student population. Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of mobile phone use on the health behaviors and specific biomarkers in a sample of Greek students. Methods: Sample included 104 Nursing students from a stratified randomised sample. In 30 ran- domly selected out of the 104 students, melatonin and total antiox...

  19. Predicting health literacy of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016: The role of demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ziapoor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Health literacy is a key outcome measures of health education that should be in the context of broader health promotion. This study aims to predict the health literacy of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 1395: the role of demographic variables was performed. Methods: A descriptive correlational study on 350 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences was done. Sampling was random. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire of health literacy Montazeri et al. Information collected through software SPSS 23 and using t-tests, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient were analyzed. Results: The mean (SD total score of health literacy in students was 4.04 ± 0.43. T-test and ANOVA between health literacy by gender, age, profession, education level and location have a significant relationship. Pearson correlation coefficient between the components of health literacy in research samples showed high correlation was statistically significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: The importance and need for attention to students' health literacy for health promotion as an essential factor in the impact-transition seems to be. Paper Type: Research Article.

  20. Investigation Faculty of Education Students' Cyberloafing Behaviors in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, I. Bakir

    2017-01-01

    Today, internet-based information technologies are sine qua non of effective learning and teaching. By the use of multiple multi-media tools in education, learning environment is enriched, persistence of learning is ensured and the boringness of the course is prevented. However, the purposeless use of internet in classrooms leads students to get…

  1. Determining the Variables That Affect the Reading Motivation of Educational Faculty Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Vafa; Özdemir, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Reading motivation has a significant contribution to acquire the necessary reading skills, and it has an indisputable effect on continuing to read. When the importance of the role model effect of school teachers in acquiring reading skills is considered, it is expected that reading motivation of the students will be high whose teachers also have a…

  2. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  3. Examination of the 8th grade students' TIMSS mathematics success in terms of different variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli-Yılmaz, Gül; Hanci, Alper

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the TIMSS mathematics success of the 8th grade students differentiates according to the school type, gender, mathematics report mark, parents' education level, cognitive domains and cognitive domains by gender. Relational survey method was used in the study. Six-hundred fifty two 8th grade students studying in the same city in Turkey participated in this study. In this study, a 45 question test that was made up by choosing TIMSS 2011 mathematics questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Quantitative data analysis methods were used in the data analysis, frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, independent sample test, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests were applied to data by using SPSS packaged software. At the end of the study, it was determined that the school type, mathematics school mark, parents' education level and cognitive domains influenced the students' TIMSS mathematics success but their gender was a neutral element. Moreover, it was seen that schools which are really successful in national exams are more successful in TIMSS exam; students whose mathematics school marks are 5 and whose parents graduated from university are more successful in TIMSS exams than others. This study was produced from Alper HANCİ's master thesis that is made consulting Asst. Prof. Gül KALELİ YILMAZ.

  4. The Bilingual Advantage for Immigrant Students in French Immersion in Canada: Linking Advantages to Contextual Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather…

  5. Influence of Family and Socio-Demographic Variables on Students with Low Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Pedro F.; Garcia-Linares, M. Cruz; de la Torre, Manuel J.; Carpio, M. de la Villa

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compare the distribution of parental educational styles and the scores reported both by parents and students for various family characteristics (acceptance, control, involvement, and expectations) and socio-demographic factors (socio-economic status, family structure, number of children, and order of birth of the children) in a…

  6. Variables Associated With Reading and Math Achievement among a Heterogeneous Group of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Stern, William

    1989-01-01

    Delineated characteristics of over- and under-achievers within a sample of 372 randomly selected public school students aged 6 through 17 years from 3 racial-ethnic groups and 2 levels of socioeconomic status. Found discrepant achievement not to be unique to particular race, intelligence, gender, age, family size, or degree of family intactness.…

  7. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  8. What are the predictor variables of social well-being among the medical science students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Javadi-Pashaki

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that the different effects of the demographic factors on social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.

  9. Examination of the 8th Grade Students' TIMSS Mathematics Success in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli-Yilmaz, Gül; Hanci, Alper

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the TIMSS mathematics success of the 8th grade students differentiates according to the school type, gender, mathematics report mark, parents' education level, cognitive domains and cognitive domains by gender. Relational survey method was used in the study. Six-hundred fifty two 8th grade students…

  10. Assessing Students' Understanding of Control of Variables across Three Grade Levels and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairab, Hassan H.

    2016-01-01

    Research studies that deal with student ability to investigate and carry out inquiry oriented investigations often call for educational practitioners to pay particular attention to incorporating the skills of scientific inquiry in the process of teaching and learning. This has the aim of helping learners acquire the skills needed to become problem…

  11. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  12. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  13. Disability and Adult Life: Dependence on Social Security among Former Students with Special Educational Needs in Their Late Twenties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Jon Olav

    2013-01-01

    This article, by Jon Olav Myklebust from Volda University, Norway, presents analyses of social security dependence among students with special educational needs in Norway who at the start of upper secondary school had various disabilities--of a somatic, psychological and/or social nature. They were all educated in ordinary schools, in special or…

  14. Effects of Example Variability and Prior Knowledge in How Students Learn to Solve Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently demonstrated that multiple examples are better than one example in facilitating learning because the comparison evoked by multiple examples supports learning and transfer. However, research outcomes are unclear regarding the effects of example variability and prior knowledge on learning from comparing multiple…

  15. Using Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedules to Support Students in the Classroom: An Introduction with Illustrative Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulac, David; Benson, Nicholas; Nesmith, Matthew C.; Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    When behaviors are reinforced with a variable interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is available only after an unknown period of time. These types of reinforcement schedules are most useful for reinforcing slow and steady responding and for differentially reinforcing behaviors that are incompatible with some problematic behaviors. This…

  16. Analysis of Primary School Student's Science Learning Anxiety According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ferhat; Avgin, Sakine Serap; Kumperli, Ethem

    2016-01-01

    On this research, it is analyzed if the science learning anxiety level shows difference according to variables which are gender, grade level, science lesson grade, mother education, father education level. Scanning Design is used for this study. Research working group is consisted of 294 primary school from 6th, 7th and 8th graders on 2015-2016…

  17. Time dependent analysis of assay comparability: a novel approach to understand intra- and inter-site variability over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiwarter, Susanne; Middleton, Brian; Jones, Barry; Courtney, Paul; Lindmark, Bo; Page, Ken M.; Clark, Alan; Landqvist, Claire

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate here a novel use of statistical tools to study intra- and inter-site assay variability of five early drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vitro assays over time. Firstly, a tool for process control is presented. It shows the overall assay variability but allows also the following of changes due to assay adjustments and can additionally highlight other, potentially unexpected variations. Secondly, we define the minimum discriminatory difference/ratio to support projects to understand how experimental values measured at different sites at a given time can be compared. Such discriminatory values are calculated for 3 month periods and followed over time for each assay. Again assay modifications, especially assay harmonization efforts, can be noted. Both the process control tool and the variability estimates are based on the results of control compounds tested every time an assay is run. Variability estimates for a limited set of project compounds were computed as well and found to be comparable. This analysis reinforces the need to consider assay variability in decision making, compound ranking and in silico modeling.

  18. Understanding Turkish students' preferences for distance education depending on financial circumstances: A large-scale CHAID analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    In the past, distance education was used as a method to meet the educational needs of citizens with limited options to attend an institution of higher education. Nowadays, it has become irreplaceable in higher education thanks to developments in instructional technology. But the question of why students choose distance education is still important. The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish students' reasons for choosing distance education and to investigate how these reasons differ depending on their financial circumstances. The author used a Chi squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis to determine 18,856 Turkish students' reasons for choosing distance education. Results of the research revealed that Turkish students chose distance education not because of geographical limitations, family-related problems or economic difficulties, but for such reasons as already being engaged in their profession, increasing their knowledge, and seeking promotion to a better position.

  19. Time dependence of the UV resonance lines in the cataclysmic variables SU UMa, RX And and 0623+71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.A.; Drew, J.E.; Verbunt, Frank

    1990-01-01

    We present IUE observations of the dwarf novae SU UMa and RX And, and of the nova-like variable 0623 + 71. At the time of observation, SU UMa and RX And were in outburst. All three systems show variability in the wind-formed UV resonance lines of N v λ 1240, Si IV λ 1397 and C IV λ 1549 on timescale of hours. The amplitude of variation is smallest in RX And and largest in 0623 + 71. There is evidence that the variations observed in SU UMa's UV spectrum repeat on the orbital period. Our observations of SU UMa also reveal variability in the continuum flux during the decline from outburst maximum that is much more marked in the UV than at optical wavelengths. (author)

  20. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José Alonso; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Arroyo, Karen J; Solís-Visscher, Rodrigo; Paredes-Yauri, Stephania; Mego-Aquije, Karina; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0%) were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5) years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%-11.3%), whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%-59.8%). A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04-1.67) after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed.

  1. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

    OpenAIRE

    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old) who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness ...

  2. Procrastination and predictor variables among a group of dental students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Kayrak, Gul

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of procrastination among a group of Turkish dental students and to determine the predictors and consequences of procrastination. A total number of 273 females and 179 males (aged between 18 and 28) were included in the study. Tuckman procrastination scale, Academic Life Satisfaction Scale, Concern over Mistake Scale, Poor Time Management Scale, Self-Doubt Scale, Irrational Beliefs about Studying Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Life Satisfaction Scale were used to gather data. Results indicated that 50% of participants were more likely to procrastinate their academic assignments or tasks. Procrastination score did not differ according to gender. The findings suggested that procrastinating students had a higher level of poor time management, self-doubt and irrational beliefs about studying, and poor academic performance and well-being than their non-procrastinating counterparts. Preventive strategies are necessary to overcome procrastination which affects the academic achievement, satisfaction, and well-being of dental students.

  3. The Level of Test-Wiseness for the Students of Arts and Science Faculty at Sharourah and Its Relationship with Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoum, Abedalqader; Khalaf, Hisham Bani; Bajbeer, Abedalqader; Hamad, Hassan Bani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the level of using Test-wiseness strategies for the students of arts and sciences Faculty at Sharourah and its relationship with some variables. a questionnaire was designed which consisted of (29) items measuring three domains of Test-wiseness strategies. It was applied on a sample which consisted of (299) students.…

  4. Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekmezci, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Kiray, Ahmet; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    In this research, students' scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents' educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are…

  5. Supplemental Instruction: The Effect of Demographic and Academic Preparation Variables on Community College Student Academic Achievement in STEM-Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitoy, Eric R.; Hoffman, John L.; Person, Dawn R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for…

  6. Altered gray matter volume and white matter integrity in college students with mobile phone dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone dependence (MPD is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Gray matter volume (GMV and white matter (WM integrity (four indexes: fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD; axial diffusivity, AD; and radial diffusivity, RD were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female were enrolled and separated into two groups (MPD group, N=34; control group, N=34 based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG, and bilateral thalamus (Thal. In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of white matter integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH. Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with phone-overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation with other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  7. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  8. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders. PMID:27199831

  9. Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence: modeling of two-stage variables using the CCC approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A; Neale, M C; Jacobson, K C; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2005-06-01

    Drug use and abuse/dependence are stages of a complex drug habit. Most genetically informative models that are fit to twin data examine drug use and abuse/dependence independent of each other. This poses an interesting question: for a multistage process, how can we partition the factors influencing each stage specifically from the factors that are common to both stages? We used a causal-common-contingent (CCC) model to partition the common and specific influences on drug use and abuse/dependence. Data on use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, sedatives, stimulants and any illicit drug was obtained from male and female twin pairs. CCC models were tested individually for each sex and in a sex-equal model. Our results suggest that there is evidence for additive genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences that are common to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Furthermore, we found substantial evidence for factors that were specific to abuse/dependence. Finally, sexes could be equated for all illicit drugs. The findings of this study emphasize the need for models that can partition the sources of individual differences into common and stage-specific influences.

  10. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: The Problem of Selection Bias and Limited Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Jones, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Single equation regression models have been used rather extensively to test the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI). This approach, however, fails to account for the possibility that SI attendance and the outcome of SI attendance are jointly determined endogenous variables. Moreover, the standard approach fails to account for the fact…

  11. High-Rate Pacing Reduces Variability of Repolarization and Prevents Repolarization-Dependent Arrhythmias in Dogs With Chronic AV Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterhoff, Peter; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Maas, Joep N

    2010-01-01

    -term variability of repolarization (STV) as a feedback parameter of arrhythmic risk. Methods and Results: The minimal signal sampling frequency required for measuring STV was determined through computer simulation. Arrhythmogenic response to dofetilide (25 µg/kg/5minutes) was tested at two different paced heart...

  12. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  13. The Level of Psychological Burnout at the Teachers of Students with Autism Disorders in Light of a Number of Variables in Al-Riyadh Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyat, Omar Khalil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…

  14. Analysis of Students' Online Information Searching Strategies, Exposure to Internet Information Pollution and Cognitive Absorption Levels Based on Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Adile Askim; Emiroglu, Bülent Gürsel

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine students' online information searching strategies, their cognitive absorption levels and the information pollution levels on the Internet based on different variables and to determine the correlation between these variables. The study was designed with the survey model, the study group included 198…

  15. Effects of energy drink consumption on corrected QT interval and heart rate variability in young obese Saudi male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed; Majeed, Farrukh; Yar, Talay; AlRahim, Ahmed; Alhawaj, Ali Fouad; Alzaki, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has adverse effects on the heart that might be potentiated in obese individuals. Since the incidence of obesity and use of energy drinks is high among Saudi youth, we used non-invasive tests to study hemodynamic changes produced by altered autonomic cardiac activ.ity following consumption of energy drinks in obese male students. This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, over a one-year period from December 2013 to December 2014. In Saudi male university students we measured continuous ECG recordings and a one-minute deep breathing maneuver to measure the expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio, the mean heart rate range (MHRR), the mean percentage variability. (M%VHR) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) at 0, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of energy drink. We enrolled 31 students (18 overweight/obese and 13 normal weights. QTc was significantly in.creased at 60 min as compared with the resting state in overweight/obese subjects (P=.006). Heart rate variability was significantly less in obese as compared with normal weight subjects at 60 minutes as indicated by E:I ratio, (P=.037), MHRR (P=.012), M%VHR (P=.040) after energy drink consumption. Significant increases in diastolic (P=.020) and mean arterial blood pressure (P=.024) were observed at 30 minutes in the obese group. Hemodynamic changes after intake of energy drinks in obese subjects indicate that obesity and energy drinks could synergistically induce harmful effects. This finding warrants efforts to caution the obese on intake of energy drinks and timely intervention to motivate changes in lifestyle.

  16. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  17. Structure and correlating variables of attitudes of students, future helping professionals, towards persons with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glintić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the structure and the correlates of students attitudes towards persons with hearing impairments. The sample consisted of 103 first year students of The Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation (F-93; M-10, divisions Prevention and treatment of conduct disorders and Speech therapy. These attitudes were assessed by The revised version of Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities, Empathy by Empathy Quotient, dimensions of personality by The Big Five Inventory, the attachment by Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the motivation for studying the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation by the scale assembled for this research. It was found that in the domain of basic dimensions of personality only tendency to collaborate with others negatively correlates with absence of pro-social thoughts (-0.204, scale of anxiety in close relationships, in attachment domain, positively correlates with inhibiting thoughts and feelings (0.220, while the empathy quotient negatively correlates with the absence of pro-social thoughts (-0.226. The motivation for studying Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation was not associated with components of the attitude towards people with hearing impairment. Future researches should try to identify predictors of negative emotional and behavioral which lead to ignoring and rejecting of persons with disability.

  18. University students' context-dependent conscious attitudes towards the official South African languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, Nanna Haug

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the results of an empirical investigation of overt language attitudes held by students attending North-West University, South Africa. Attitudes elicited from 325 students with mainly Setswana, Sesotho, Afrikaans and English as home languages are analysed comparatively. The study

  19. In Peer Matters, Teachers Matter: Peer Group Influences on Students' Engagement Depend on Teacher Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…

  20. Exploring whether Students' Use of Labelling Depends upon the Type of Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bures, Eva Mary; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a labelling feature designed to support higher-level online dialogue. It investigates whether students use labels less often during a structured online dialogue than during an unstructured one, and looks at students' reactions to labelling and to both types of tasks. Participants are from three successive course offerings of a…

  1. The Dependence of Coping Behavior of the Students on Peculiarity of Subjective Reflection of the Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tashimova; Zukhra, Ismagambetova; Rima, Dzhansaraeyva; Alma, Mirsabekova; Aliya, Karabayeva; Farisa, Oskenbai

    2013-01-01

    The representation level of the teacher in the inner world of the students is influencing the success in the study activities (Liimets H. I.). Because they are real accompaniers to students in the learning process, as in the temporal aspect, as well as in content, the question arises about the possibility of their impact on particular coping…

  2. Back in the USSR: Path Dependence Effects in Student Representation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikov, Igor; Gruzdev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current state of student representation in Russia as deeply rooted in the institutional structure of the Soviet higher education system. The study traces the origins of existing institutional arrangements for student representation at the level of university governance and analyses how representation practices have been…

  3. Upper and lower solutions for BVPs on the half-line with variable coefficient and derivative depending nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Djebali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem with a derivative depending nonlinearity and posed on the positive half-line. The derivative operator is time dependent. Upon a priori estimates and under a Nagumo growth condition, the Schauder's fixed point theorem combined with the method of upper and lower solutions on unbounded domains are used to prove existence of solutions. A uniqueness theorem is also obtained and some examples of application illustrate the obtained results.

  4. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″(0, Nusselt number (heat flux -θ′(0 and free surface temperature θ(1 are presented graphically and in tabular form. Keywords: Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, Thermocapillary number, Magnetic field, Thin film, Unsteady stretching surface

  5. The IL--6 dependent effect of oral warfarin in heart valve replacement patients by measuring interacting clinical and demographic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, H.; Rashid, A.; Majeed, A.; Razah, S.; Asghar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine an inflammatory effect of warfarin and comparing with IL-6 levels along with different demographic and clinical variables. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Center of Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM), Army Medical College/National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad from Oct 2013 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: The study design was Quasi Experimental study. Samples were collected by Non probability convenience sampling. Total 76 patients were included according to warfarin dose response in warfarin therapy patients, i.e. 32(42 percent) were taking 10mg/day of warfarin dose. Patient's demographic and clinical variables were noted i.e. age, gender, BMI, duration of therapy, INR history, hepatic, gastrointestinal and diabetic complications. Human IL-6 ELISA assay was performed. Results: The statistically significant difference was found between age groups (in years) and different levels of warfarin dose (p=0.046) along with IL-6 production. There is a negative correlation between warfarin dose and age group i.e. as age increases, the dose of warfarin decreases. Among the inter and intra-patient variability age and serum IL-6 levels were found to be statistically significant with warfarin dose response. BMI and warfarin dose were found to be weak positively correlated. Conclusion: A marked immunomodulatory response of warfarin was noted by measuring IL-6 levels. IL-6 levels retained a significant association with warfarin dose. (author)

  6. Variability of photovoltaic panels efficiency depending on the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon. For the purpose of experimental research have been done tests on the photovoltaic modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. The experiment consisted of measurement of the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panels at a known value of solar radiation and a specified resistance value determined by using resistor with variable value of resistance and known value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon.

  7. SU-F-T-113: Inherent Functional Dependence of Spinal Cord Doses of Variable Irradiated Volumes in Spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L; Braunstein, S; Chiu, J [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spinal cord tolerance for SBRT has been recommended for the maximum point dose level or at irradiated volumes such as 0.35 mL or 10% of contoured volumes. In this study, we investigated an inherent functional relationship that associates these dose surrogates for irradiated spinal cord volumes of up to 3.0 mL. Methods: A hidden variable termed as Effective Dose Radius (EDR) was formulated based on a dose fall-off model to correlate dose at irradiated spinal cord volumes ranging from 0 mL (point maximum) to 3.0 mL. A cohort of 15 spine SBRT cases was randomly selected to derive an EDR-parameterized formula. The mean prescription dose for the studied cases was 21.0±8.0 Gy (range, 10–40Gy) delivered in 3±1 fractions with target volumes of 39.1 ± 70.6 mL. Linear regression and variance analysis were performed for the fitting parameters of variable EDR values. Results: No direct correlation was found between the dose at maximum point and doses at variable spinal cord volumes. For example, Pearson R{sup 2} = 0.643 and R{sup 2}= 0.491 were obtained when correlating the point maximum dose with the spinal cord dose at 1 mL and 3 mL, respectively. However, near perfect correlation (R{sup 2} ≥0.99) was obtained when corresponding parameterized EDRs. Specifically, Pearson R{sup 2}= 0.996 and R{sup 2} = 0.990 were obtained when correlating EDR (maximum point dose) with EDR (dose at 1 mL) and EDR(dose at 3 mL), respectively. As a result, high confidence level look-up tables were established to correlate spinal cord doses at the maximum point to any finite irradiated volumes. Conclusion: An inherent functional relationship was demonstrated for spine SBRT. Such a relationship unifies dose surrogates at variable cord volumes and proves that a single dose surrogate (e.g. point maximum dose) is mathematically sufficient in constraining the overall spinal cord dose tolerance for SBRT.

  8. Psychometric properties of sleep quality scale and sleep variables questionnaire in Turkish student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Önder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a physiological need that affects physical and mental performances. However, the number of individuals who experience problems DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY RELATED TO sleep is increasing in VARIOUS countries. Therefore, it is important to have a short, reliable and valid measure to assess both sleep quality and sleep related variables in school-age children. This study aims to carry out the validity and reliability studies for the Sleep Quality Scale and Sleep Variables Questionnaire (SQS-SVQ used to determine sleep quality, parental control, total sleep time, mid-point of sleep and sleep efficiency and to adapt it into Turkish. The SQS-SVQ consists of seven scale items to measure sleep quality and eight questionnaire items. The validity and reliability studies of the instrument were carried out on data acquired from 4th-8th graders. Factorial validity for SQS and criterion related validity analyses were carried out for the validity of the SQS-SVQ and correlations ranged from 0.51 to 0.73. These analysis results put forth that the scale is a valid measurement tool. Internal consistency coefficient of the SQS was 0.72 and test-retest correlations of the SQS-SVQ ranged from 0.67 to 0.88. These acquired results indicated that the scale WAS reliable. Meanwhile, gender measurement invariance was tested for SQS and results indicated that gender measurement invariance was established. These results have shown that the SQS-SVQ can be used in social researches and especially in educational studies.

  9. The role of self-dependence in modern health improvemental technologies of physical students' education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumakov O.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A normative base is considered on the problems of physical education, physical culture and independent work of students. An analysis is conducted scientifically-methodical and special literature on issue of research. Basic features and modern going are selected near independent work in health technologies of physical education of students. A concept «Independent work» is examined as activity of man and as a teaching method. A teaching method plugs in itself independent employments by physical exercises. During correct organization they can substantially increase motive activity of students.

  10. Dependence of outcomes of executing of sports exercises on mental condition of students which go in for sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titovich A.O.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of outcomes of executing of concrete sports exercise on mental condition of the sportsman is construed. 24 students participated in research. Sportsmen discharged six kinds of competitive exercises: run 100г, run of 110 meters with barriers, broad jumps, in height with the sixth and a jolting of a nucleus. It is exhibited, that before exercises of the relevant direction diagnostic parameters at sportsmen vary adequately to the basic demands. It is established, that outcomes of executing of physical exercises depend on adequacy of setting.

  11. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, M.; Rehman, Sajid; Shah, Rehan Ali; Ullah, M.; Abbas, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″ (0) , Nusselt number (heat flux) -θ‧ (0) and free surface temperature θ (1) are presented graphically and in tabular form.

  12. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

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    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness tests included:running in 60 meter; vertical jump; board jump; medicine ball throw; Harvard step test. The statistical analysis ofcorrelation coefficient has best reflected the conception that there are meaningful relationships betweenectomorph component and aerobic fitness .The relationship Between body fat, body weight and aerobic fitnesswas negative; The relationship between body weight and feet power, hand power was negative .The relationshipsbetween skin fold fat, foot power and body’s general speed were considered being as negative. Finally therelationship between girth arm and hand power was considered being as meaningful. Thus somatotype andanthropometry are two indicators for predict physical fitness of adult men.and They can also help coaches inidentifying and choosing new sport athletes.

  13. Prediction of Internet Addiction of University Students Based on Various Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atma Gizem Karaoglan Yilmaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available That internet is developing fast and its cost is becoming cheaper rapidly increases the number of people using this technology. Although internet provides miscellaneous benefits for the users, it also causes them to encounter certain difficulties. Particularly, those young people, who leave their families to study at a university spend most of their time on the internet because of such personal and social problems as having low satisfaction from life, having social anxiety, not being able to communicate or establish relationships and feeling lonely. And this could lead to internet addiction in young people. The aim of this study is to discuss the internet addiction levels of freshmen and sophomores at university within the scope of educational theories and to predict addiction according to various variables. Survey method is used in the study. The study was carried out on 329 freshmen and sophomores studying at economics, science teaching, primary school mathematics education, primary school teaching and social sciences teaching departments of Bartın University in the second term of 2012-2013 academic year. As an end of the study, factors that cause to internet addiction and what can be done to remove these factors are discussed within theoretical framework.

  14. Association between Facebook Dependence and Poor Sleep Quality: A Study in a Sample of Undergraduate Students in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José Alonso; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Arroyo, Karen J.; Solís-Visscher, Rodrigo; Paredes-Yauri, Stephania; Mego-Aquije, Karina; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people’s life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0%) were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5) years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%–11.3%), whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%–59.8%). A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04–1.67) after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. Conclusions There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed. PMID:23554978

  15. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Wolniczak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0% were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5 years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%-11.3%, whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%-59.8%. A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04-1.67 after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed.

  16. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  17. Field Dependence-Independence and Physical Activity Engagement among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose

    2009-01-01

    Background: Field dependence-independence (FDI) is a tendency to rely on external frames (given situations and authoritative people) or internal frames (oneself, including one's own body) for one's information processing and behavior. Literature has constantly reported that field-dependent (FD) individuals, who are less autonomous in…

  18. The juggling act: Do student nurses who care for dependants need an adapted course? An applied policy research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Matthew D; Proud, Carole; Jackson, Sue

    2015-11-01

    In line with many countries worldwide, the Department of Health mandate to Health Education England seeks to promote the diversity of applicants by widening participation in nurse education. A number of studies have explored the experience of non-traditional students undertaking nursing courses. This study aimed to explore and understand the experiences of student nurses undertaking their nurse education whilst caring for dependant family. The study used an applied qualitative research approached based on methods developed for applied social policy research. The study was undertaken in an institution of higher education in the North East of England. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of 14 respondents, 13 female and 1 male. Ten respondents lived with partners and 3 had disabled dependants within the family. The age range of dependent children ranged from 3months to 19years. Data was collected through focus groups and telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Three superordinate themes were identified, Altruism and Commitment, Maturity and Family and Social Mobility, that best encapsulate the characteristics that enable this group to function well and complete their nurse education. Analysis identified a highly motivated group of students who's individual accounts showed that their lives, whilst in nurse education, were a constant series of compromises and 'juggling' between the demands of the course and the demands of their families. This group of students do not need an adapted course, but instead wish for a realistic nursing course where expectations are managed in an honest way. Basic common sense and good management of nursing courses will help ensure that this motivated group of people achieve their goals with minimum hardship or difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Variability and Asymmetric Expansion of the Hippocampal Spatial Representation in a Distal Cue-Dependent Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Beom; Lee, Inah

    2016-08-01

    Place cells in the hippocampus fire at specific positions in space, and distal cues in the environment play critical roles in determining the spatial firing patterns of place cells. Many studies have shown that place fields are influenced by distal cues in foraging animals. However, it is largely unknown whether distal-cue-dependent changes in place fields appear in different ways in a memory task if distal cues bear direct significance to achieving goals. We investigated this possibility in this study. Rats were trained to choose different spatial positions in a radial arm in association with distal cue configurations formed by visual cue sets attached to movable curtains around the apparatus. The animals were initially trained to associate readily discernible distal cue configurations (0° vs. 80° angular separation between distal cue sets) with different food-well positions and then later experienced ambiguous cue configurations (14° and 66°) intermixed with the original cue configurations. Rats showed no difficulty in transferring the associated memory formed for the original cue configurations when similar cue configurations were presented. Place field positions remained at the same locations across different cue configurations, whereas stability and coherence of spatial firing patterns were significantly disrupted when ambiguous cue configurations were introduced. Furthermore, the spatial representation was extended backward and skewed more negatively at the population level when processing ambiguous cue configurations, compared with when processing the original cue configurations only. This effect was more salient for large cue-separation conditions than for small cue-separation conditions. No significant rate remapping was observed across distal cue configurations. These findings suggest that place cells in the hippocampus dynamically change their detailed firing characteristics in response to a modified cue environment and that some of the firing

  20. Managing medical equipment used by technology-dependent children: evaluation of an instructional tool for pediatric residents and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer M; Radulovic, Andrea; Nageswaran, Savithri

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a workshop on managing medical devices used in technology-dependent children. Study participants included residents and medical students rotating in the pediatrics department at the time of the study. A workshop was conducted consisting of learning stations for common medical devices, including brief presentations and opportunities for hands-on practice with each device. Participants completed surveys before and after the workshop assessing their perceived ability to manage medical equipment before and after the workshop and their ongoing learning needs. All participants indicated a substantial need for training on how to manage medical devices used by technology-dependent patients. Scores for perceived ability to manage the devices improved significantly after workshop participation for nearly all devices taught. Medical trainees have significant learning needs for managing devices used by technology-dependent patients. Hands-on, small-group training can be an effective instructional tool for improving confidence in these skills.

  1. Optimization of the Method of Active Ingredients Adding to the Base of Medicinal Films Depending on Certain Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Davtian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of variables of pharmaceutical factors on the technological processes of drugs manufacturing is incredibly important. Thus, in the development of a new drug in the form of medicinal films, the relevance and necessity of determining the effect of the methods of active substances adding on the effectiveness of the drug was determined. The aim is rationalization of the method of the active pharmaceutical ingredients adding into the composition of the developed drug. Materials and methods. As experimental samples we used medicinal films, which were made using various methods of active ingredients adding. The quality of the samples was evaluated by the antimicrobial activity against Clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, which was determined by the diffusion method in agar. Results. The study of the antimicrobial activity of medicinal films with various methods of active ingredients adding showed that the adding of metronidazole as an aqueous solution increases the antimicrobial activity of the films by 21.23%, 16.89%, 28.59%, respectively, compared with films of similar composition, in which metronidazole was added as a suspension, and the remaining ingredients were added by the same way. The introduction of chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride in the film-forming solution lastly together with the solution of metronidazole increases the antimicrobial activity by 24.67%, which is probably due to the absence of contact between thermolabile ingredients and solutions of film-forming substances having a high dissolution temperature. Conclusions. The most rational is adding of metronidazole to the medicinal films in the form of a 0.01% aqueous solution in a mixture with the chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride solution to the final film-forming solution.

  2. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  3. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  4. How choosing science depends on students' individual fit to 'science culture'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taconis, R.; Kessels, U.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose that the unpopularity of science in many industrialised countries is largely due to the gap between the subculture of science, on the one hand, and students' self-image, on the other. We conducted a study based on the self-to-prototype matching theory, testing whether the

  5. College Graduation Rates Depend Mainly on the Students--But Colleges Matter Too. Here's How Much.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    College graduation rates are a source of concern; many students fail to complete degree programs and therefore miss out on the socioeconomic benefits accruing to college graduates. Some have proposed that colleges be evaluated based on their graduation rates, with financial aid dollars directed away from poor performers. However, none of these…

  6. How Choosing Science Depends on Students' Individual Fit to "Science Culture"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconis, Ruurd; Kessels, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose that the unpopularity of science in many industrialised countries is largely due to the gap between the subculture of science, on the one hand, and students' self-image, on the other. We conducted a study based on the self-to-prototype matching theory, testing whether the perceived mismatch between the typical…

  7. Group Counselling on College Students' Internet Dependency and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaci, Hatice; Çelik, Çigdem Berber

    2017-01-01

    The limited number of programs of tested efficacy in the literature such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and family-based prevention of internet addiction is striking. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of reality therapy-based group counselling on college students' problematic internet use and life satisfaction. In order to…

  8. Postgraduate Students' Level of Dependence on Supervisors in Coping with Academic Matters and Using Digital Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Kaur, Sarjit; Fook, Chan Yuen

    2016-01-01

    In order to build and empower human capital development, the Malaysian Ministry of Education devised a plan referred to as "MyBrain15". Under this plan, Malaysia hopes to produce a total of 60,000 doctoral degree holders by 2023. However, high attrition and low completion rates among postgraduate students to date have hindered the noble…

  9. Academic Progress Depending on the Skills and Qualities of Learning in Students of a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús, Araiza Vázquez María; Claudia, Dörfer; Rosalinda, Castillo Corpus

    2015-01-01

    This research was to establish the relationship between qualities of learning; learning skills and academic performance in undergraduate students. 310 undergraduates participated in this research of which 72% are female and 28% male. All responded Scale Learning Strategies of Roman and Gallego (1994) and Questionnaire Learning Styles of…

  10. Systematic spatial bias in DNA microarray hybridization is caused by probe spot position-dependent variability in lateral diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Doris; Berry, David; Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random spatial variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic spatial bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-dependent variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a strong influence of microarray well geometry on the spatial bias. Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization.

  11. Variability of the 2014-present inflation source at Mauna Loa volcano revealed using time-dependent modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.; Miklius, A.; Okubo, P.; Montgomery-Brown, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Loa volcano is the largest active volcano on earth and in the 20thcentury produced roughly one eruption every seven years. The 33-year quiescence since its last eruption 1984 has been punctuated by three inflation episodes where magma likely entered the shallow plumbing system, but was not erupted. The most recent began in 2014 and is ongoing. Unlike prior inflation episodes, the current one is accompanied by a significant increase in shallow seismicity, a pattern that is similar to earlier pre-eruptive periods. We apply the Kalman filter based Network Inversion Filter (NIF) to the 2014-present inflation episode using data from a 27 station continuous GPS network on Mauna Loa. The model geometry consists of a point volume source and tabular, dike-like body, which have previously been shown to provide a good fit to deformation data from a 2004-2009 inflation episode. The tabular body is discretized into 1km x 1km segments. For each day, the NIF solves for the rates of opening on the tabular body segments (subject to smoothing and positivity constraints), volume change rate in the point source, and slip rate on a deep décollement fault surface, which is constrained to a constant (no transient slip allowed). The Kalman filter in the NIF provides for smoothing both forwards and backwards in time. The model shows that the 2014-present inflation episode occurred as several sub-events, rather than steady inflation. It shows some spatial variability in the location of the inflation sub-events. In the model, opening in the tabular body is initially concentrated below the volcano's summit, in an area roughly outlined by shallow seismicity. In October, 2015 opening in the tabular body shifts to be centered beneath the southwest portion of the summit and seismicity becomes concentrated in this area. By late 2016, the opening rate on the tabular body decreases and is once again under the central part of summit. This modeling approach has allowed us to track these

  12. Cognitive profile of emotional dependence in University Students from Medellín, Colombia [Perfil cognitivo de la dependencia emocional en estudiantes universitarios en Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonia Lemos Hoyos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the cognitive profile of university students with emotional dependency. This is considered as a pattern oriented to another person as a source of satisfaction and personal safety, where the cognitive profile will make them to interpret the facts in a different way in order to cover their unsatisfied emotional needs. We use a random sample of 569 university students. The results showed a characteristic profile which explains 89.3% of the variability and a high predictive model capacity (sensitivity 91.4% and specificity 97.7%, formed by the schema of mistrust/abuse, the cores beliefs of paranoid and dependent personality disorders, fallacy of change as cognitive distortion and underdeveloped autonomy as a coping skill.

  13. A variable-order time-dependent neutron transport method for nuclear reactor kinetics using analytically-integrated space-time characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A. J.; Lee, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new time-dependent neutron transport method based on the method of characteristics (MOC) has been developed. Whereas most spatial kinetics methods treat time dependence through temporal discretization, this new method treats time dependence by defining the characteristics to span space and time. In this implementation regions are defined in space-time where the thickness of the region in time fulfills an analogous role to the time step in discretized methods. The time dependence of the local source is approximated using a truncated Taylor series expansion with high order derivatives approximated using backward differences, permitting the solution of the resulting space-time characteristic equation. To avoid a drastic increase in computational expense and memory requirements due to solving many discrete characteristics in the space-time planes, the temporal variation of the boundary source is similarly approximated. This allows the characteristics in the space-time plane to be represented analytically rather than discretely, resulting in an algorithm comparable in implementation and expense to one that arises from conventional time integration techniques. Furthermore, by defining the boundary flux time derivative in terms of the preceding local source time derivative and boundary flux time derivative, the need to store angularly-dependent data is avoided without approximating the angular dependence of the angular flux time derivative. The accuracy of this method is assessed through implementation in the neutron transport code DeCART. The method is employed with variable-order local source representation to model a TWIGL transient. The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and more efficient than the discretized method. (authors)

  14. Patterns, Attitudes, and Dependence toward WhatsApp among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Harshavardhan Sampath; Sai Kalyani; Geeta Soohinda; Sanjiba Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Background: WhatsApp (WA), a free cross-platform smartphone application has revolutionized social communication over the virtual world. It enables information sharing, both personal and professional, individually and across social groups. Despite these positive changes, there have been concerns about excessive WA use, especially among college students, resulting in the neglect of important social and academic commitments. However, there is lack of quality research on WA use in this vulnerable...

  15. A study of the relationship between variables from the model of human occupation and subjective well-being among university students in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.

  16. Analysis of arterial pressure variability in patients with acute cerebral stroke depending on the time of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosovets A.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension can cause a pronounced negative influence on the state of the cerebral vascular system and lead to significant microtraumatization of the walls of the vessels and disruption of vascular autoregulation. This predictor has the greatest influence on the onset of ischemic stroke of atherothrombotic and lacunar subtypes, however, hypertension occurs almost in all patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Interesting and not at all presented in modern scientific literature is the question of the relationship of oscillation of blood pressure with the period of the onset of the focus of ischemia, which predetermined the purpose of our work. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between deformation of the profile of fluctuations in blood pressure of patients in the acute period of ischemic stroke, depending on the time of the occurrence of cerebrovascular accident. We examined 300 patients who suffered acute ischemic stroke (men - 196, women - 104 aged 42 to 84 years (average age - 65.2 ± 8.7 years. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to the period of the day when an ischemic stroke occurred: 1 group (n=146, patients suffering from cerebral ischemia during the day (8.00-14.59; In group 2 (n=107, patients stroke was observed in the evening (15.00-21.59; Group 3 (n=47, patients had an ischemic stroke at night (22.00-7.59. For the 1st group of patients who have had ischemic stroke during the day and as a rule with an increase in blood pressure, a marked increase in blood pressure was at 12.00 and 15.00 and a tendency towards compensatory parasympathetic effect in the form of blood pressure decrease at night (over-dipper was typical. At the same time, in the 2nd group of patients with stroke in the evening, elevated blood pressure at 18.00 and 21.00 and parasympathetic activity disorders with prevalence of insufficient reduction of blood pressure in the evening and during sleep (non-dipper was observed

  17. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  18. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  19. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  20. An Analysis of Students' Self-Efficacy and Motivation in Piano, Based on Different Variables and the Reasons for Their Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Hatice Onuray; Engur, Doruk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the self-efficacy and motivation of Zeki Muren Fine Arts High School piano students were examined based on different variables as well as the reasons for their failure. The data on their self-efficacy were obtained through self-efficacy scale of piano performance and the data on their motivation were obtained through motivation…

  1. Hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking in hostel-dwelling students at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Paulina; Botha, Julie; van Wyk, Michelle; Breytenbach, Jaco; Nel, Christiaan; van Niekerk, Michael; Breytenbach, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking among hostel-dwelling students on the main campus of the University of the Free State (UFS), and the influence of sex and academic year on the habit. A quarter of all hostel-dwelling students of UFS were selected by systematic random sampling. Willing participants completed a questionnaire comprising a demographic section and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Of the 339 participants with total AUDIT scores, 15.6% exhibited hazardous drinking, 4.1% harmful drinking and 5.6% alcohol dependence. Male students had a statistically significant higher prevalence (32.8%) of hazardous, harmful or dependent drinking than female students (18.9%). Women, however, are biologically more vulnerable to the ill effects of alcohol due to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alcohol. In addition, intoxicated women suffer more biological and social risks. When the cut-off point for hazardous drinking was adapted to account for the increased biological vulnerability of women, the difference between female and male participants was no longer significant. First year male students were less likely to engage in unsafe drinking than senior students. Female students in the alcohol dependent category showed an increasing trend over advancing academic year. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm whether a significant difference in hazardous drinking of first year male students compared to seniors reflects the influence of university policy or merely precedes drinking acculturation.

  2. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  3. Cognitive Styles Field Dependence/Independence and Scientific Achievement of Male and Female Students of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected…

  4. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d?Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional ...

  5. Mobile Phone Dependency among High School Students in Rural Area, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Ratih Dewi Yudhani

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Studies have shown that frequent use of mobile phone, either smartphone or non-smartphone, may cause at least 16 inadvertent health-related effects: serious addiction, painful withdrawal, back pro-blems, nerve damage, anxiety and depression, stress, weight problem and fitness level, disrupted sleep, source of bacteria, attention span, social effect, text claw, indirect injuries, eyesight, hearing, and radiation. This study aimed to compare level of dependency between use of smart...

  6. LACK OF OPTIMISM AMONG MARKETING STUDENTS VS. OTHER STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory S. BLACK; Angelica BAHL

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in American history, the current generation of college-age students may be destined for diminished financial opportunities than their parents. However, they may not realize that and may continue to have expectations higher than reality. Marketing students appear to be the least optimistic about their futures than students with other majors. This study utilizes a sample of 334 undergraduate students enrolled in marketing classes to find that dependent variables in three cate...

  7. Prediction of the Dimensions of the Spiritual Well-Being of Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran: The Roles of Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Jafari, Faranak; Kianipour, Neda

    2017-07-01

    Spiritual well-being is one of the aspects of well-being which organize the physical, psychological, and social aspects. Given the outstanding and unique roles of students in society, providing spiritual well-being as well as identifying and eliminating the negative factors affecting their mental well-being are of the essence. The present study aimed to predict the dimensions of the spiritual well-being of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences and to investigate the roles of demographic variables in this respect. In this descriptive and correlational study, the statistical population was comprised of 346 doctoral students in the for-profit Schools of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceuticals in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. For data collection, an instrument comprising the demographic questions and the 20-item spiritual well-being scale by Paloutzian and Ellison (1982) was utilized. To analyze data, the descriptive (frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-squared test) were employed in the SPSS Statistics Software Version 21.0. The results of the present study demonstrated that the spiritual well-being of students was average (71.86±4.84), and of all demographic variables under study, only the variable of gender significantly correlated with the mean score of spiritual well-being. Also, the results revealed that the students' score of religious well-being measured higher than that of their existential well-being. However, a significant correlation was found between spiritual well-being and its dimensions. Also, the religious and existential well-being were found to be significantly related (pspirituality among the students of the for-profit Schools at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate plans be laid by the culture and education policy makers to promote the spiritual well-being of university

  8. Phase variable expression of a single phage receptor in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 influences sensitivity toward several diverse CPS-dependent phages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Sørensen, Martine C.H.; Wenzel, Cory Q.

    2018-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 is sensitive to infection by many Campylobacter bacteriophages. Here we used this strain to investigate the molecular mechanism behind phage resistance development when exposed to a single phage and demonstrate how phase variable expression of one surface component...... influences phage sensitivity against many diverse C. jejuni phages. When C. jejuni NCTC12662 was exposed to phage F207 overnight, 25% of the bacterial cells were able to grow on a lawn of phage F207, suggesting that resistance develops at a high frequency. One resistant variant, 12662R, was further...... characterized and shown to be an adsorption mutant. Plaque assays using our large phage collection showed that seven out of 36 diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-dependent phages could not infect 12662R, whereas the remaining phages formed plaques on 12662R with reduced efficiencies. Analysis of the CPS...

  9. An alternative approach to exact wave functions for time-dependent coupled oscillator model of charged particle in variable magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.

  10. The effects of cigarette smoking on aerobic and anaerobic capacity and heart rate variability among female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chia-Lun Lee,1 Wen-Dien Chang21Physical Education Section for General Education, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanAim: In this study, the effects of cigarette smoking on maximal aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, and heart rate variability among female university students were investigated.Materials and methods: Twelve smokers and 21 nonsmokers participated in this study. All participants performed an intermittent sprint test (IST and a 20 m shuttle run test to measure their anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic capacity. The IST was comprised of 6 × 10-second sprints with a 60-second active recovery between each sprint. Heart rate variability was recorded while the participants were in a supine position 20 minutes before and 30 minutes after the IST.Results: The total work, peak power, and heart rate of the smokers and nonsmokers did not differ significantly. However, the smokers’ average power declined significantly during sprints 4 to 6 (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 95% confidence interval =6.2–7.2 joule/kg versus 6.8–7.6 joule/kg; P<0.05, and their fatigue index increased (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 35.8% ± 2.3% versus 24.5% ± 1.76%; P<0.05 during the IST. The maximal oxygen uptake of nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of the smokers (P<0.05. The standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals and the root mean square successive difference did not differ significantly between nonsmokers and smokers. However, the nonsmokers exhibited a significantly higher normalized high frequency (HF, and significantly lower normalized low frequency (LF, LF/HF ratio, and natural logarithm of the LF/HF when compared with those of the smokers (P<0.05.Conclusion: Smoking may increase female smokers’ exercise fatigue and decrease their average performance during an IST, while reducing their maximal aerobic

  11. Web-Based Instruction Systems: Correlation of First Year Online Student Acceptance and Use Variables Related to Intent to Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William T.

    2014-01-01

    The online education population is growing among all age groups but the connection that allows students to interface to the online classroom has been ignored as an issue for research. Web-based instructional systems are the key technology that enables students to enter the virtual classroom of the internet. The study of student perceptions of the…

  12. Self-Concept: A Comparison of Low Socioeconomic, Low Achieving Secondary Students Across Ethnic, Sex and Age Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Robert P.; And Others

    The self esteem of Anglo, Negro, and Mexican American secondary students was measured using the Self-Esteem Scale (SES). This instrument was administered to 144 students with equal representation from sex, ethnicity, and grade levels (i.e., each of 18 cells contained 8 students). A three-factor analysis of variance revealed a significant main…

  13. Origins of intersubject variability of blood oxygenation level dependent and arterial spin labeling fMRI: implications for quantification of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2012-12-01

    Accurate localization of brain activity using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been challenged because of the large BOLD signal within distal veins. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques offer greater sensitivity to the microvasculature but possess low temporal resolution and limited brain coverage. In this study, we show that the physiological origins of BOLD and ASL depend on whether percent change or statistical significance is being considered. For BOLD and ASL fMRI data collected during a simple unilateral hand movement task, we found that in the area of the contralateral motor cortex the centre of gravity (CoG) of the intersubject coefficient of variation (CV) of BOLD fMRI was near the brain surface for percent change in signal, whereas the CoG of the intersubject CV for Z-score was in close proximity of sites of brain activity for both BOLD and ASL. These findings suggest that intersubject variability of BOLD percent change is vascular in origin, whereas the origin of inter-subject variability of Z-score is neuronal for both BOLD and ASL. For longer duration tasks (12 s or greater), however, there was a significant correlation between BOLD and ASL percent change, which was not evident for short duration tasks (6 s). These findings suggest that analyses directly comparing percent change in BOLD signal between pre-defined regions of interest using short duration stimuli, as for example in event-related designs, may be heavily weighted by large-vessel responses rather than neuronal responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity of Photosynthetic Gas Exchange and Growth of Lodgepole Pine to Climate Variability Depends on the Age of Pleistocene Glacial Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, B.; Chapple, W.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between soil conditions and climate variability plays a central role in the ecohydrological functions of montane conifer forests. Although soil moisture availability to trees is largely dependent on climate, the depth and texture of soil exerts a key secondary influence. Multiple Pleistocene glacial events have shaped the landscape of the central Rocky Mountains creating a patchwork of soils differing in age and textural classification. This mosaic of soil conditions impacts hydrological properties, and montane conifer forests potentially respond to climate variability quite differently depending on the age of glacial till and soil development. We hypothesized that the age of glacial till and associated soil textural changes exert strong control on growth and photosynthetic gas exchange of lodgepole pine. We examined physiological and growth responses of lodgepole pine to interannual variation in maximum annual snow water equivalence (SWEmax) of montane snowpack and growing season air temperature (Tair) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across a chronosequence of Pleistocene glacial tills ranging in age from 700k to 12k years. Soil textural differences across the glacial tills illustrate the varying degrees of weathering with the most well developed soils with highest clay content on the oldest till surfaces. We show that sensitivity of growth and carbon isotope discrimination, an integrated measure of canopy gas exchange properties, to interannual variation SWEmax , Tair and VPD is greatest on young till surfaces, whereas trees on old glacial tills with well-developed soils are mostly insensitive to these interannual climate fluctuations. Tree-ring widths were most sensitive to changes in SWEmax on young glacial tills (p < 0.01), and less sensitive on the oldest till (p < 0.05). Tair correlates strongly with δ13C values on the oldest and youngest tills sites, but shows no significant relationship on the middle aged glacial till. It is clear that

  15. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154 + A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  17. Complex Dynamic Systems View on Conceptual Change: How a Picture of Students' Intuitive Conceptions Accrue from Dynamically Robust Task Dependent Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi; Nousiainen, Maiji

    2017-01-01

    We discuss here conceptual change and the formation of robust learning outcomes from the viewpoint of complex dynamic systems (CDS). The CDS view considers students' conceptions as context dependent and multifaceted structures which depend on the context of their application. In the CDS view the conceptual patterns (i.e. intuitive conceptions…

  18. The Relationship Between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables and Academic Performance of Students in the Science Enrichment Preparation (S.E.P.) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Paula D.

    This dissertation study concerned the lack of underrepresented minority students matriculating through the health professions pipeline. The term pipeline is "the educational avenue by which one must travel to successfully enter a profession" (Sullivan Alliance, 2004). There are a significant number of health professional pipeline programs based across the United States and, for the purposes of this study, a focus was placed on the Science Enrichment Preparation (S.E.P.) Program which is based at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The S.E.P. Program, is an eight-week residential summer experience, designed to support underrepresented minority pre-health students develop the competitive edge for successful admission into health professional school programs. The bedrock of this dissertation study concerned itself with the relationships between cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables and academic performance of students in the S.E.P. Program from 2005-2013. The study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding for the NC Health Careers Access Program's (NC-HCAP) leadership with regard to variables associated with the students' academic performance in the S.E.P. Program. The data outcomes were informative for NC-HCAP in identifying cognitive and non-cognitive variables associated with student academic performance. Additionally, these findings provided direction as to what infrastructures may be put into place to more effectively support the S.E.P. participants. It is the researcher's hope this study may serve as an educational model and resource to pipeline programs and others with similar educational missions. The consequences and implications of a non-diverse healthcare workforce are high and far reaching. Without parity representation in the healthcare workforce, health disparities between racial and economic groups will likely continue to grow.

  19. A new method to detect transitory signatures and local time/space variability structures in the climate system: the scale-dependent correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó, Xavier; Rodríguez-Arias, Miquel-Àngel

    2006-10-01

    The study of transitory signals and local variability structures in both/either time and space and their role as sources of climatic memory, is an important but often neglected topic in climate research despite its obvious importance and extensive coverage in the literature. Transitory signals arise either from non-linearities, in the climate system, transitory atmosphere-ocean couplings, and other processes in the climate system evolving after a critical threshold is crossed. These temporary interactions that, though intense, may not last long, can be responsible for a large amount of unexplained variability but are normally considered of limited relevance and often, discarded. With most of the current techniques at hand these typology of signatures are difficult to isolate because the low signal-to-noise ratio in midlatitudes, the limited recurrence of the transitory signals during a customary interval of data considered. Also, there is often a serious problem arising from the smoothing of local or transitory processes if statistical techniques are applied, that consider all the length of data available, rather than taking into account the size of the specific variability structure under investigation. Scale-dependent correlation (SDC) analysis is a new statistical method capable of highlighting the presence of transitory processes, these former being understood as temporary significant lag-dependent autocovariance in a single series, or covariance structures between two series. This approach, therefore, complements other approaches such as those resulting from the families of wavelet analysis, singular-spectrum analysis and recurrence plots. A main feature of SDC is its high-performance for short time series, its ability to characterize phase-relationships and thresholds in the bivariate domain. Ultimately, SDC helps tracking short-lagged relationships among processes that locally or temporarily couple and uncouple. The use of SDC is illustrated in the present

  20. Effect of short-term heart rate variability biofeedback on long-term abstinence in alcohol dependent patients - a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Barlinn, Kristian; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin; Siepmann, Timo

    2017-09-06

    A randomized controlled study (RCT) recently showed that short-term heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in addition to standard rehabilitation care for alcohol dependence can reduce craving, anxiety and improve cardiovascular autonomic function. In this one-year follow-up study we aimed to explore whether completion of 2-week HRV-Biofeedback training is associated with long-term abstinence. Furthermore, we sought to identify potential predictors of post-treatment abstinence. We conducted a survey on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence 1 year after completion of an RCT comparing HRV-biofeedback in addition to inpatient rehabilitation treatment alone (controls). Abstinence rates were compared and analysed for association with demographic data as well as psychometric and autonomic cardiac assessment before and after completion of the biofeedback training using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Out of 48 patients who participated in the RCT, 27 patients (9 females, ages 42.9 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) completed our one-year follow-up. When including in the analysis only patients who completed follow-up, the rate of abstinence tended to be higher in patients who underwent HRV-biofeedback 1 year earlier compared to those who received rehabilitative treatment alone (66.7% vs 50%, p = ns). This non-significant trend was also observed in the intention-to-treat analysis where patients who did not participate in the follow-up were assumed to have relapsed (46,7% biofeedback vs. 33.3% controls, p = ns). Neither cardiac autonomic function nor psychometric variables were associated with abstinence 1 year after HRV-biofeedback. Our follow-up study provide a first indication of possible increase in long-term abstinence after HRV-biofeedback for alcohol dependence in addition to rehabilitation. The original randomized controlled trial was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00004618 ). This one-year follow-up survey has not been

  1. Reminiscence therapy using odor in alcohol-dependent patients--psychophysiological evaluation and psychological evaluation; power spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, H; Morita, N; Iizuka, S; Satoh, S; Nakatani, Y

    2000-12-01

    This research was based on the hypothesis that when alcohol-dependent patients describe themselves, awakening of emotion by affirmative odor stimulation may facilitate memory reframing focusing on more affirmative emotion and memories. To prove the hypothesis, physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening were evaluated by measuring the autonomic activity. In addition, subjective evaluation by a self-report manner was examined to investigate the effectiveness of Reminiscence Therapy (RT) using odor in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-four patients who met the DSM-IV criteria of alcohol-related disorders and were hospitalized in a ward specialized to alcohol dependence therapy. Each patient underwent a one-to-one interview twice. For counterbalance, one interview was performed with odor stimulation using an odor with a relaxing effect that recall pleasant emotion, and the other was without odor stimulation. As the evaluation indices of physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening, index of autonomic function (HRV; Heart rate variability) for objective evaluation and psychological indices (STAI; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory VAS; Visual Analog Scale) for subjective evaluation were measured. 1) Objective evaluation: Regarding the evaluation index of the autonomic function, the sympathetic nervous system activity (LF/HF; low frequency component/high frequency component ratio) was significantly inhibited by odor stimulation (p Subjective evaluation: Compared to the state prior to interview, state anxiety judged by STAI was significantly decreased after interview (p subjective evaluation, but the objective evaluation suggested that the odor inhibited the sympathetic nervous system. Thus, it was suggested that odor can be used in RT, that is, emotional changes due to stimulation of odor may be applicable in RT.

  2. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moselewski, Fabian; Ferencik, Maros; Achenbach, Stephan; Abbara, Suhny; Cury, Ricardo C.; Booth, Sarah L.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM]) at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 ± 68.7 HU versus 295 ± 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT

  3. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moselewski, Fabian [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Booth, Sarah L. [Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: uhoffman@partners.org

    2006-03-15

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM] at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 {+-} 68.7 HU versus 295 {+-} 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT.

  4. Density dependence and climate effects in Rocky Mountain elk: an application of regression with instrumental variables for population time series with sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Creel, Michael

    2009-11-01

    1. Sampling error in annual estimates of population size creates two widely recognized problems for the analysis of population growth. First, if sampling error is mistakenly treated as process error, one obtains inflated estimates of the variation in true population trajectories (Staples, Taper & Dennis 2004). Second, treating sampling error as process error is thought to overestimate the importance of density dependence in population growth (Viljugrein et al. 2005; Dennis et al. 2006). 2. In ecology, state-space models are used to account for sampling error when estimating the effects of density and other variables on population growth (Staples et al. 2004; Dennis et al. 2006). In econometrics, regression with instrumental variables is a well-established method that addresses the problem of correlation between regressors and the error term, but requires fewer assumptions than state-space models (Davidson & MacKinnon 1993; Cameron & Trivedi 2005). 3. We used instrumental variables to account for sampling error and fit a generalized linear model to 472 annual observations of population size for 35 Elk Management Units in Montana, from 1928 to 2004. We compared this model with state-space models fit with the likelihood function of Dennis et al. (2006). We discuss the general advantages and disadvantages of each method. Briefly, regression with instrumental variables is valid with fewer distributional assumptions, but state-space models are more efficient when their distributional assumptions are met. 4. Both methods found that population growth was negatively related to population density and winter snow accumulation. Summer rainfall and wolf (Canis lupus) presence had much weaker effects on elk (Cervus elaphus) dynamics [though limitation by wolves is strong in some elk populations with well-established wolf populations (Creel et al. 2007; Creel & Christianson 2008)]. 5. Coupled with predictions for Montana from global and regional climate models, our results

  5. The Relationship between Intellectual Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence and some Demographic variables among Students of the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Tavan; Sajjad Tavan; Zahra Ahmadi; Fatemeh Zandnia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: There is a relationship between emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between intellectual intelligence and emotional intelligence and some demographic variables among students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Using a cross-correlation method of study, the standard 24-item questionnaire for spiritual intelligence and the standard 90-item que...

  6. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e

  7. Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement in Greek University Students: Differences Between Users and Non-Users in Social Cognitive Variables, Burnout, and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Ypsilanti, Antonia; Lamprou, Efthymios; Kontogiorgis, Christos

    2017-06-07

    Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use. Three hundred and forty-seven university students (mean age (M) = 22.15 years, SD = 1.69; 54% females) completed a battery of anonymous questionnaires on academic burnout, engagement with studies, social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use, and self-reported use of PCE substances and non-prescribed nutritional supplements. Three user groups emerged, namely non-users (51.9%, n = 180), single users of non-prescribed dietary supplements (25.4%, n = 88), and dual users of both non-prescribed dietary supplements and PCE (22.8%, n = 79). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the three user groups in intentions, attitudes, social norms, and anticipated regret toward PCE use. No significant differences were observed with respect to academic burnout and work engagement. The findings show that university students may engage in PCE use independent of their student experiences. Rather, a chemically assisted performance enhancement mindset seems to differentiate users from non-users of PCE substances.

  8. The relationship of document and quantitative literacy with learning styles and selected personal variables for aerospace technology students at Indiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Royce Ann

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that student scores on a researcher-constructed quantitative and document literacy test, the Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD), were associated with (a) learning styles (imaginative, analytic, common sense, dynamic, and undetermined), as identified by the Learning Type Measure, (b) program curriculum (aerospace administration, professional pilot, both aerospace administration and professional pilot, other, or undeclared), (c) overall cumulative grade point average at Indiana State University, and (d) year in school (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior). The Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD) was a three-part, 35 question survey that required students to interpret graphs, tables, and maps. Tasks assessed in the ADD included (a) locating, interpreting, and describing specific data displayed in the document, (b) determining data for a specified point on the table through interpolation, (c) comparing data for a string of variables representing one aspect of aircraft performance to another string of variables representing a different aspect of aircraft performance, (d) interpreting the documents to make decisions regarding emergency situations, and (e) performing single and/or sequential mathematical operations on a specified set of data. The Learning Type Measure (LTM) was a 15 item self-report survey developed by Bernice McCarthy (1995) to profile an individual's processing and perception tendencies in order to reveal different individual approaches to learning. The sample used in this study included 143 students enrolled in Aerospace Technology Department courses at Indiana State University in the fall of 1996. The ADD and the LTM were administered to each subject. Data collected in this investigation were analyzed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. Results of the study revealed that the variables, year in school and GPA, were significant predictors of the criterion variables, document

  9. Examining the Effects of School-Level Variables on Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement: The Use of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Matthew Robert

    2014-01-01

    School finance scholars have called for the alignment of accountability policies with state finance formulae to allocate resources toward student learning goals (Adams, 2008; Ryan, 2008; Superfine, 2009; Verstegen, 2002). With the presence of accountability policies that focus on improving students' academic achievement, state finance systems must…

  10. Examination of the Attitudes of School of Physical Education and Sports Students towards Teaching Profession in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Turan; Kirtepe, Abdurrahman; Ugurlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the attitudes of the students who are studying in the physical education and sports departments towards the teaching profession. 244 students attending Ahi Evran University School of Physical Education and Sports and Firat University Sports Sciences Faculty Physical Education and Sport Teacher Training,…

  11. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  12. Variables Affecting Students' Intrinsic Motivation for School Mathematics: Two Empirical Studies Based on Deci and Ryan's Theory on Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald; Sovik, Nils

    1993-01-01

    Effects of the controlling strategies of the mathematics teacher on student achievement, interest, and mathematics self-concept were demonstrated in a longitudinal study involving 161 seventh graders and 164 eighth graders. This empirical test of the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan provides insight into student motivation. (SLD)

  13. An Investigation on the Level of Conscious Consumerism of Primary School Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this is study is to analyze the level of conscious consumerism of primary school students. For that purpose, a 19-item scale consisting of three sub-dimensions was developed. In order to test conduct validity and reliability, the scale was administered on 113 students studying in Sakarya. In accordance with the data obtained, an…

  14. Examination of the Relation between Academic Procrastination and Time Management Skills of Undergraduate Students in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Gürbüz; Boyraz, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research. Students' academic procrastination is explained through frequencies and…

  15. A Pareto-Based Adaptive Variable Neighborhood Search for Biobjective Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from most researches focused on the single objective hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS problem, this paper investigates a biobjective HFS problem with sequence dependent setup time. The two objectives are the minimization of total weighted tardiness and the total setup time. To efficiently solve this problem, a Pareto-based adaptive biobjective variable neighborhood search (PABOVNS is developed. In the proposed PABOVNS, a solution is denoted as a sequence of all jobs and a decoding procedure is presented to obtain the corresponding complete schedule. In addition, the proposed PABOVNS has three major features that can guarantee a good balance of exploration and exploitation. First, an adaptive selection strategy of neighborhoods is proposed to automatically select the most promising neighborhood instead of the sequential selection strategy of canonical VNS. Second, a two phase multiobjective local search based on neighborhood search and path relinking is designed for each selected neighborhood. Third, an external archive with diversity maintenance is adopted to store the nondominated solutions and at the same time provide initial solutions for the local search. Computational results based on randomly generated instances show that the PABOVNS is efficient and even superior to some other powerful multiobjective algorithms in the literature.

  16. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH4+ + H2, HD and D2: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D.

    2004-01-01

    Reactions of methane cations, CH 4 + , with H 2 , HD and D 2 have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH 5 + in collisions with H 2 is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH 4 + with HD, the CH 5 + product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH 4 D + (32%). Reaction of CH 4 + with D 2 is found to be much slower than with H 2 or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH 4 + into CH 3 D + by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10 -12 cm 3 /s, indicating that scrambling in the CH 6 + complex is very unlikely

  17. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH{sub 4}{sup +} + H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2}: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D

    2004-03-08

    Reactions of methane cations, CH{sub 4}{sup +}, with H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in collisions with H{sub 2} is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with HD, the CH{sub 5}{sup +} product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH{sub 4}D{sup +} (32%). Reaction of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with D{sub 2} is found to be much slower than with H{sub 2} or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH{sub 4}{sup +} into CH{sub 3}D{sup +} by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3}/s, indicating that scrambling in the CH{sub 6}{sup +} complex is very unlikely.

  18. Vaccine induced antibodies to the first variable loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120, mediate antibody-dependent virus inhibition in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialuk, Izabela; Whitney, Stephen; Andresen, Vibeke; Florese, Ruth H; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Valeri, Valerio W; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Gordon, Shari; Parks, Robyn Washington; Montefiori, David C; Venzon, David; Demberg, Thorsten; Guroff, Marjorie Robert-; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2011-12-09

    The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R=-0.83, p=0.015), and ADCVI (R=-0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV(89.6P) variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV(89.6) and virus levels (R=-0.72 p=0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  20. Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among International Students at a Japanese University: With Special Reference to Their Financial Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-12-01

    We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.

  1. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  2. The dynamic relationship between current and previous severe hypoglycemic events: a lagged dependent variable analysis among patients with type 2 diabetes who have initiated basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Michael L; Li, Qian; Wintfeld, Neil S; Lee, Yuan-Chi; Sorli, Christopher; Huang, Joanna C

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have found episodes of severe hypoglycemia (SH) to be serially dependent. Those studies, however, only considered the impact of a single (index) event on future risk; few have analyzed SH risk as it evolves over time in the presence (or absence) of continuing events. The objective of this study was to determine the dynamic risks of SH events conditional on preceding SH events among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have initiated basal insulin. We used an electronic health records database from the United States that included encounter and laboratory data and clinical notes on T2D patients who initiated basal insulin therapy between 2008 and 2011 and to identify SH events. We used a repeated-measures lagged dependent variable logistic regression model to estimate the impact of SH in one quarter on the risk of SH in the next quarter. We identified 7235 patients with T2D who initiated basal insulin. Patients who experienced ≥1 SH event during any quarter were more likely to have ≥1 SH event during the subsequent quarter than those who did not (predicted probabilities of 7.4% and 1.0%, respectively; p history of SH before starting basal insulin (predicted probabilities of 1.0% and 3.2%, respectively; p history of SH during the titration period (predicted probabilities of 1.1% and 2.8%, respectively; p history of SH events and therefore the value of preventing one SH event may be substantial. These results can inform patient care by providing clinicians with dynamic data on a patient's risk of SH, which in turn can facilitate appropriate adjustment of the risk-benefit ratio for individualized patient care. These results should, however, be interpreted in light of the key limitations of our study: not all SH events may have been captured or coded in the database, data on filled prescriptions were not available, we were unable to adjust for basal insulin dose, and the post-titration follow-up period could have divided into time units other

  3. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Kahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007. Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235 were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007 were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI, and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85, alcohol misuse (OR 2.80, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13. Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%, anxiety (50%, and suicidal behaviours (50% generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%, anxiety (38%, suicidal behaviours (40%, and

  4. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  5. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-09-30

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  6. A Comparison of Field-Dependence Cognitive Styles of Professionals in Purchasing and Consumer Service and Secondary Marketing Education Students, with Implications for Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Robert L.; Stewart, Barbara; Norwood, Marcella

    2002-01-01

    The field-dependent cognitive styles of 44 professionals in customer service occupations provided a benchmark to interpret data for 239 secondary marketing education students. Results suggest that males have greater access to analytic traits such as restructuring skill, problem-solving interest, and skill with abstractions. (Contains 38…

  7. A Research on Attention Control Levels of the Students at Vocational School of Health Services in terms of Sports and Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ertuğrul ÖZTÜRK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that the high or low attention levels of students affect their achievements in their social, learning and professional lives equivalently. In this case, it is significant to determine the crucial elements for increasing attention control levels. The aim of this study was to examine attention control levels of university students in terms of different variables. In the study a total of 449 students 268 females and 181 males that are studying at services Vocational School of Health, Ataturk University Erzurum have been in cluded. With the aim of collecting data, the ‘Attention Control Scale’ was used. The techniques of frequency distribution, t test and Anova variance analysis have been used in data analysis. The difference between the views of the group has been reviewed c onsidering the 0.05 significance level of P. According to the findings it has been found out that gender, age and family structure do not make a significant difference with attention control levels. When examined in terms of sports participation of the stu dents, types of sports and weekly sporting duration, attention control averages have been found to be significant differences. It has emerged that the students that do sports have higher levels of attention control than those that do not. The fact that the students have high attention control levels in terms of their professions is an important factor. Studies thay may impact on different factors ought to be carried out in order to increase attention control levels of the students, encouraging sports.

  8. Comparing the attitudes toward obese persons of the students in Physical Education and Sports school in terms of classes and some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren ULUÖZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes toward obese persons scale (ATOP scores of the students in Physical Education and Sports School in terms of classes and some variables. Materials and Methods: Causal comparative Research method was used in this study. The study was performed 330 students (age:22.33±2.31 including 117 female and 213 male. In order to determine the attitudes toward obese persons ATOP scale developed by Alison et al. (1991 and validated for Turkish population (T-ATOP by Dedeli et al. (2014 was used. All result was summarised by means of descriptive statistical techniques. Independent Sample T Test, Anova Test and Pearson Correlation Test were used for the suitable situation (Accepted significance level: p0.05. As a result of the Anova test, the T-ATOP scores of the four classes showed significant differences F(3, 326=6.51, p<0.05. In relation to this result the T-ATOP scores of 4. class students was significantly higher than the other classes. This shows that 4. Class students have more positive attitudes towards obese than the other class. Conclusion: The main significant result of this study was that as the classes get higher, the attitude towards overweight and obese people changed positively. It can be considered that the students of Physical Education and Sports School have positive attitudes towards overweight and obese persons by being informed about the mechanism of obesity through their courses which directly or indirectly related to obesity during their undergraduate education. In addition to this courses, it can be thought that in the last year of undergraduate education, such as the practice of collective service application, internship, coaching practice, it is possible to create a chance to practice the theoretical knowledge practically, which may lead to students becoming more understanding of overweight obese persons they meet and to explain the sudden change of attitude in the

  9. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  10. An investigation of the relationships between junior high school students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables and structure of knowledge recall of biological content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Olive Joyce

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Junior High School students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables (e.g. cognitive factors, prior knowledge, preference for science versus non-science activities, formal and informal activities) and structure of information recall of biological content. In addition, this study will illustrate how flow maps, a graphic display, designed to represent the sequential flow and cross linkage of ideas in information recalled by the learner can be used as a tool for analyzing science learning data. The participants (46 junior high school students) were taught a lesson on the human digestive system during which they were shown a model of the human torso. Their pattern of information recall was determined by using an interview technique to elicit their understanding of the functional anatomy of the human digestive system. The taped responses were later transcribed for construction of the flow map. The interview was also used to assess knowledge recall of biological content. The flow map, science interest questionnaire and the cognitive operations (based on content analysis of student's narrative) were used to analyze data from each respondent. This is a case study using individual subjects and interview techniques. The findings of this study are: (1) Based on flow map data higher academic ability students have more networking of ideas than low ability students. (2) A large percentage of 9th grade low ability students intend to pursue science/applied science course work after leaving school but they lack well organized ways of representing science knowledge in memory. (3) Content analysis of the narratives shows that students with more complex ideational networks use higher order cognitive thought processes compared to those with less networking of ideas. If students are to make a successful transition from low academic performance to high academic performance it seems that more emphasis should be placed on

  11. The Effects of Educational Diversity in a National Sample of Law Students: Fitting Multilevel Latent Variable Models in Data With Categorical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Panter, A T; Daye, Charles E; Allen, Walter F; Wightman, Linda F

    2009-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the use of race-conscious admissions can be partially resolved with improved empirical knowledge of the effects of racial diversity in educational settings. We use a national sample of law students nested in 64 law schools to test the complex and largely untested theory regarding the effects of educational diversity on student outcomes. Social scientists who study these outcomes frequently encounter both latent variables and nested data within a single analysis. Yet, until recently, an appropriate modeling technique has been computationally infeasible, and consequently few applied researchers have estimated appropriate models to test their theories, sometimes limiting the scope of their research question. Our results, based on disaggregated multilevel structural equation models, show that racial diversity is related to a reduction in prejudiced attitudes and increased perceived exposure to diverse ideas and that these effects are mediated by more frequent interpersonal contact with diverse peers. These findings provide support for the idea that administrative manipulation of educational diversity may lead to improved student outcomes. Admitting a racially/ethnically diverse student body provides an educational experience that encourages increased exposure to diverse ideas and belief systems.

  12. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students' perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Jellesma, Francine C

    2015-12-01

    The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student measure Student Perception of Affective Relationship with Teacher Scale (SPARTS). Additional validity support was sought by examining gender differences and associations with (1) teacher relationship perceptions and (2) problem and prosocial behaviours in children. Factor structure was determined in a sample of 586 children (46.5% boys) from 26 regular elementary Dutch classrooms (grade 4-6). Associations with teacher relationship reports (n = 82) and child behaviours (n = 64) were analysed in random subsamples. Students' relationship perceptions were assessed with the SPARTS; teachers' relationship perceptions with the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; closeness, conflict, and dependency); and problem and prosocial behaviours in children with the teacher-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model of conflict, closeness, and a third factor, unexpectedly reflecting negative expectations of the student instead of dependency. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for all three scales. Additional validity evidence included the following: Substantial student-teacher agreement for conflict and closeness; meaningful associations with problem and prosocial behaviours in children; and expected gender differences showing that, compared to boys, girls share more favourable relationships (more closeness and less conflict) with teachers. The 3-dimensional SPARTS comes close to the attachment-derived teacher STRS, as far as conflict and closeness are concerned. The third dimension, negative expectations, represents a new and relevant attachment

  13. Using Data Mining Techniques Examination of the Middle School Students' Attitude towards Mathematics in the Context of Some Variables

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    Idil, Feriha Hande; Narli, Serkan; Aksoy, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine middle school students' attitude towards mathematics in the context of their mathematic learning preferences using data mining which is data analysis methodology that has been successfully used in different areas including educational domains. "How do I actually learn?" questionnaire and attitude scale…

  14. Non-Medical Prescription Stimulant Use in Graduate Students: Relationship With Academic Self-Efficacy and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. I Paid for It, So I Deserve It! Examining Psycho-Educational Variables and Student Consumerist Attitudes to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason E.; Fayombo, Grace; Marshall, Rasheda

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern among educators and university administrators that the high cost of tuition fees has encouraged tertiary level students to adopt a "consumerist view" of tertiary education, where education is seen as a service-for-payment. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this belief may cause lecturers to compromise the…

  16. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

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    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  17. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF TRAIT ANGER AND LEVEL OF ANGER EXPRESSION STYLES OF STUDENTS WHO STUDIED AT SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Çağatay Dereceli; Hüseyin Kırımoğlu; Mehmet Dallı

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on reviewing trait anger and level of anger expression styles of students who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports of Adnan Menderes University during 2016-2017 academic year in terms of some variables. As data collection tools; “Personal Information Form” and “Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scale” –designed by Spielberger et al. (1988) and adapted by Özer (1994) into Turkish- were employed. Participants’ trait anger and anger expression styles were compared...

  19. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  20. In-Between Fatalism and Leverage: The Different Effects of Socioeconomic Variables on Students' Civic and Political Experiences and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the classical relationship between socioeconomic status and political domains, and the need to include different variables (contextual and individual) to measure the effect of economic and cultural capitals on youth participation and knowledge. Method: A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on a sample…

  1. Foreign Language Learning in a "Monoglot Culture": Motivational Variables amongst Students of French and Spanish at an English University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The study on which this article is based investigated reasons for learning a foreign language at university in a predominantly English-speaking environment (the UK). It examined the relative importance of motivational variables as theorised in the field of second language (L2) motivation, and the effect of first language (L1) and linguistic…

  2. The Learning Outcomes of Students Meeting Their International Dimension Requirement through Courses Offered in a College of Agriculture: Did Student Learning Differ Depending on Mode of Instruction Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriba, Samba; Edwards, M. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many online courses have been developed in an effort to meet the needs of students who are either unable or less inclined to attend face-to-face classes. The College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Oklahoma State University has been preparing its students to attain international awareness and become globally competent…

  3. Genetic Variability of the Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Gene Is Involved in the Premature Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Population with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Xiaowei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP is closely related to diabetes and obesity, both of which are confirmed to increase the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Our study aimed to investigate whether the polymorphisms in GIP genes could affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients in the Chinese Han population. Methods. We selected and genotyped two haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs (rs2291725 C>T, rs8078510 G>A of GIP gene based on CHB data in HapMap Phase II database (r2<0.8. The case-control study of Chinese Han population involved 390 diabetic patients with CAD as positive group and 276 diabetic patients without CAD as control group. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between the two groups. Results. In dominant inheritance model, the carriers of T/T or T/C had a lower risk of CAD (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.463–0.872, p=0.005, even after adjustment other CAD risk factors (gender, age, BMI, smoking status, dyslipidemia, hypertension history, and diabetic duration (OR′ = 0.769, 95% CI′ = 0.626–0.945, p′=0.013. The allele A at rs8078510 was associated with decreased risk of CAD (OR = 0.732, p=0.039. p=0.018 in subgroup analysis, individuals with higher BMI (≥24 kg/m2 had increased risk for CAD when carrying C/C at rs2291725 (OR′ = 1.291, 95% CI′ = 1.017–1.639, p′=0.036. In age < 55 men and age < 65 women, the carriers of allele C at rs2291725 had a higher risk of CAD than noncarriers (OR = 1.627, p=0.015. Carriers of allele G in rs8078510 had higher susceptibility to CAD (OR = 2.049, 95% = CI 1.213–3.463, p=0.007. p=0.004; in addition, allele G in rs8078510 would bring higher CAD risk to the carriers who ever smoked (OR = 1.695, 95% CI = 1.080–2.660, p=0.021. Conclusion. The genetic variability of GIP gene is associated with CAD and it may play a role in the premature CAD in the

  4. Variability of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Flexibility Without Significant Change in the Initial Conformation of the Protein or Its Environment; a Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Goliaei, Bahram; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Protein flexibility, which has been referred as a dynamic behavior has various roles in proteins' functions. Furthermore, for some developed tools in bioinformatics, such as protein-protein docking software, considering the protein flexibility, causes a higher degree of accuracy. Through undertaking the present work, we have accomplished the quantification plus analysis of the variations in the human Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (hCDK2) protein flexibility without affecting a significant change in its initial environment or the protein per se. The main goal of the present research was to calculate variations in the flexibility for each residue of the hCDK2, analysis of their flexibility variations through clustering, and to investigate the functional aspects of the residues with high flexibility variations. Using Gromacs package (version 4.5.4), three independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the hCDK2 protein (PDB ID: 1HCL) was accomplished with no significant changes in their initial environments, structures, or conformations, followed by Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF) calculation of these MD trajectories. The amount of variations in these three curves of RMSF was calculated using two formulas. More than 50% of the variation in the flexibility (the distance between the maximum and the minimum amount of the RMSF) was found at the region of Val-154. As well, there are other major flexibility fluctuations in other residues. These residues were mostly positioned in the vicinity of the functional residues. The subsequent works were done, as followed by clustering all hCDK2 residues into four groups considering the amount of their variability with respect to flexibility and their position in the RMSF curves. This work has introduced a new class of flexibility aspect of the proteins' residues. It could also help designing and engineering proteins, with introducing a new dynamic aspect of hCDK2, and accordingly, for the other similar globular proteins. In

  5. Student Engagement with a Flipped Classroom Teaching Design Affects Pharmacology Examination Performance in a Manner Dependent on Question Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Som; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Short, Jennifer L.; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Larson, Ian C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between student engagement with the key elements of a flipped classroom approach (preparation and attendance), their attitudes to learning, including strategy development, and their performance on two types of examination questions (knowledge recall and providing rational predictions when faced with novel scenarios). Methods. This study correlated student engagement with the flipped classroom and student disposition to learning with student ability to solve novel scenarios in examinations. Results. Students who both prepared for and attended classes performed significantly better on examination questions that required analysis of novel scenarios compared to students who did not prepare and missed classes. However, there was no difference for both groups of students on examination questions that required knowledge and comprehension. Student motivation and use of strategies correlated with higher examination scores on questions requiring novel scenario analysis. Conclusion. There is a synergistic relationship between class preparation and attendance. The combination of preparation and attendance was positively correlated to assessment type; the relationship was apparent for questions requiring students to solve novel problems but not for questions requiring knowledge or comprehension. PMID:29302082

  6. Student Engagement with a Flipped Classroom Teaching Design Affects Pharmacology Examination Performance in a Manner Dependent on Question Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul J; Naidu, Som; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Short, Jennifer L; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Larson, Ian C

    2017-11-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between student engagement with the key elements of a flipped classroom approach (preparation and attendance), their attitudes to learning, including strategy development, and their performance on two types of examination questions (knowledge recall and providing rational predictions when faced with novel scenarios). Methods. This study correlated student engagement with the flipped classroom and student disposition to learning with student ability to solve novel scenarios in examinations. Results. Students who both prepared for and attended classes performed significantly better on examination questions that required analysis of novel scenarios compared to students who did not prepare and missed classes. However, there was no difference for both groups of students on examination questions that required knowledge and comprehension. Student motivation and use of strategies correlated with higher examination scores on questions requiring novel scenario analysis. Conclusion. There is a synergistic relationship between class preparation and attendance. The combination of preparation and attendance was positively correlated to assessment type; the relationship was apparent for questions requiring students to solve novel problems but not for questions requiring knowledge or comprehension.

  7. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.

  8. Is Acceptance of E-Textbooks Discipline-Dependent? Comparing Business and Non-Business Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Mark; Thrasher, Evelyn; Marston, Sean; Revels, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have looked extensively into the adoption and satisfaction level of academic electronic textbooks (e-textbooks) by students. The majority of research to date has indicated that either students prefer print textbooks to e-textbooks or the results are inconclusive. In this study a survey consisting of questions related to the use of an…

  9. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  10. Relationship between the Variables Self-Concept and Creativity in a Sample of Childhood-Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Franco Justo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we attempt to prove through experimentation that a relationship exists between affective factors and creative ability. We therefore believe that the expression of the creative capacity will have a positive bearing on the manifestation of self-concept. To this end, we designed a psychoeducational program based on children’s stories, aimed at increasing creative ability in a sample of early childhood education students, while simultaneously obtaining improved expression of their self-concept. To do this, we used a quasi-experimental design of nonequivalent control groups with double pretest. As evaluation instruments we used the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, and Villa and Azumendi’s PCSC test (Perception of Child Self Concept. The results of the study showed significant increases in the experimental group, both in their levels of verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility and originality, and in their self-concept, as compared with the control groups.

  11. Student Self-Assessment of Operative Dentistry Experiences: A Time-Dependent Exercise in Self-Directed Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Michael J; Durski, Marcelo T; O'Malley DeGaris, Megan; Daugherty, Timothy C; Vaught, Randall L; Cornelius, Celine Joyce; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of student self-assessment on operative dentistry skills across four years at the University of Louisville School of Dentistry. First, a retrospective analysis of the Class of 2016 students' self-assessment and faculty assessment grade sheets was conducted to determine mean differences and correlations across time. Both preclinical (D2: n=120) and clinical (D3: n=120; D4: n=120) grade sheets were evaluated. Second, 25 students from each of the D1, D2, D3, and D4 classes in 2016 were asked to evaluate dentoform work, and 25 operative calibrated faculty members graded the same two dentoforms. The results of the retrospective analysis were that the D2 students' self-assessment scores were significantly higher than the faculty scores (t-test; pself-assessment scores were also significantly higher than the faculty scores (t-test; pself-assessment scores were not significantly different from the faculty scores (t-test; p>0.05), and there was a positive correlation (r=0.408). In the prospective analysis, the D1, D2, and D3 students graded the dentoforms significantly higher (ANOVA; pself-assessment is a learned process through experiential and continual encounters across time. The summative goal for all dental schools is to provide students with the skills and knowledge to critically evaluate their work for self-directed learning.

  12. Random sets and random fuzzy sets as ill-perceived random variables an introduction for Ph.D. students and practitioners

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    Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...

  13. Internet Dependence in an Undergraduate Population: The Roles of Coping with Stress, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Sex Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaci, Hatice; Çelik, Çigdem B.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Internet dependence in university students and forms of coping with stress and self-efficacy and investigated whether Internet dependence varies according to such variables as sex roles, gender, and duration of Internet use. The study was performed with 632 university students. The Internet Addiction…

  14. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

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    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  15. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  16. Treating Nurses and Student Nurses with Chemical Dependency: Revising Policy in the United States for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Todd; Pearson, Frances

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, the US nursing profession has been aware of substance abuse problems among its practitioners and student nurses but has generally dealt with the issue by taking disciplinary action rather than pursuing nonpunitive options. The latter course would allow more healthcare providers, following successful rehabilitation, to…

  17. Men in Limbo: Former Students with Special Educational Needs Caught between Economic Independence and Social Security Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjong, Gerd; Myklebust, Jon Olav

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in their mid-thirties are expected to be employed and economically independent. However, people with disabilities and health problems--for example, former students with special educational needs (SEN)--may have problems in this domain of adult life. In Norway, individuals with SEN frequently rely on social security and support measures…

  18. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Anna-Lisa; Dorrian, Jillian; Chapman, Janine

    2015-11-01

    Nurses are often the first point of contact for patients hospitalized due to alcohol-related causes. Alcohol dependence is highly stigmatized and as a result healthcare professionals often have low behavioural intentions, meaning low willingness to care for these patients. This can have a direct influence on quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explore enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence and the antecedents, preliminary factors, that predict this within the Theory of Planned Behaviour; specifically attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two Technical and Further Education South Australia campuses across metropolitan Adelaide. n=86 enrolled nursing students completed the survey (62% response rate). Enrolled nursing students' intention, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability were measured using a Theory of Planned Behaviour Questionnaire. The Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire investigated attitudes in more detail and a short knowledge scale assessed alcohol-related knowledge. Subjective norms and attitudes had a significant, positive effect on intention to care within the final model, accounting for 22.6% of the variance, F2,83=12.12, pbehavioural change, in order to improve the quality of care for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Literacy in Madeira Island (Portugal): The Influence of Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Hélder

    2016-01-01

    Demographic factors are among those that influence environmental literacy and, particularly, environmentally responsible behaviours, either directly or due to an aggregation effect dependent on other types of variables. Present study evaluates a set of demographic variables as predictors for environmental literacy among 9th grade students from…

  20. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency on psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Siqi; Chung, Man Cheung; Watson, Clare

    2018-02-13

    Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.

  1. Differentiation of behavioral health factors among students depending on selected socio-demographic, environmental and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ślusarska

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Introduction. Behavioral factors of health are an important area of empirical cognition from the perspective of long-term individual as well as social investment in health. Aim. The assessment of health behaviors and their differentiation due to selected socio-demographic and environmental-cultural characteristics in a group of young adults. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional studies in the group of students of the city of Lublin were performed using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI by Z. Juczyński. The study also included the survey questions in the field of socio-demographic and cultural- environmental indicators. Results. The analysis concerned data on 1,593 randomly selected people (63.53% women, 36.47% men, aged 20-35 years (x = 22.16, SD =2.81. In the group, at 45.07% of students, the rate of intensity of health behaviors according to HBI was low, at 39.60% - was the average, and in only 11.30% -it was high. Conclusions. In the group, low rates of health behaviors intensity predominated. Among women, the students of medical university, non-smokers and those characterized by regular physical activity a higher level of health behaviors was shown.   Key words: behavioral factors, socio-demographic indicators, health status, young adults.

  2. Perceived boundary of 'differences' and 'sameness' by Japanese students in Australia : Is difference in cultures a significant variable for constructing interpersonal relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    小柳, 志津

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one Japanese undergraduate and postgraduate students in Australian universities participated in semi-structured interviews to examine the interpersonal relationships between Japanese students and other nationalities in Australia, in particular, Australians and other international students. It was found that the Japanese students tended to form closer relationships and feel more comfortable in communicating with other Asian students than Australians, and that many regard Asian students ...

  3. Disciplinary Action as an Intervention That Supports Students: Lessons from a Large Comprehensive High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharrams, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify if there was a relationship between student or administrator characteristics (Independent variables) and the application of various disciplinary actions (Dependent variables). This study examined student's gender, race, grade point average, number of credits, and disciplinary…

  4. Menstrual Cycle Dependent Variability for Serum Tumor Markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Binnur Erbağci

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day of the same menstrual cycle. Tumor marker and hormone concentrations were determined with chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence EIA methods. A significant phase-dependent difference was observed for CA 15-3, midluteal concentrations (mean ± SEM; 26.33 ± 1.56 U/ml higher than the midfollicular (mean ± SEM; 19.27 ± 1.49 U/ml concentrations (p < 0.001. But an obvious difference for other tumor markers investigated did not exist. Significant correlations of follicular and luteal CA 125 levels with body mass index of the subjects were observed (r:0.52, p < 0.05 and r:0.57, p < 0.005, respectively.

  5. Using Example Generation to Explore Students' Understanding of the Concepts of Linear Dependence/Independence in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Linear algebra is a basic mathematical subject taught in mathematics and science depar-tments of universities. The teaching and learning of this course has always been difficult. This study aims to contribute to the research in linear algebra education, focusing on linear dependence and independence concepts. This was done by introducing…

  6. Thermo-Mechanical Calculations of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding at Equal Diameter Copper Bars and Effects of Essential Parameters on Dependent Special Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, M. H.; Davari, H.; Hadian, A. M.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding is a modified type of common rotary friction welding processes. In this welding method parameters such as pressure, angular velocity and time of welding control temperature, stress, strain and their variations. These dependent factors play an important rule in defining optimum process parameters combinations in order to improve the design and manufacturing of welding machines and quality of welded parts. Thermo-mechanical simulation of friction welding has been carried out and it has been shown that, simulation is an important tool for prediction of generated heat and strain at the weld interface and can be used for prediction of microstructure and evaluation of quality of welds. For simulation of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding, a commercial finite element program has been used and the effects of pressure and rotary velocity of rotary part on temperature and strain variations have been investigated

  7. Thermo-Mechanical Calculations of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding at Equal Diameter Copper Bars and Effects of Essential Parameters on Dependent Special Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, M. H.; Davari, H.; Hadian, A. M.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2007-05-01

    Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding is a modified type of common rotary friction welding processes. In this welding method parameters such as pressure, angular velocity and time of welding control temperature, stress, strain and their variations. These dependent factors play an important rule in defining optimum process parameters combinations in order to improve the design and manufacturing of welding machines and quality of welded parts. Thermo-mechanical simulation of friction welding has been carried out and it has been shown that, simulation is an important tool for prediction of generated heat and strain at the weld interface and can be used for prediction of microstructure and evaluation of quality of welds. For simulation of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding, a commercial finite element program has been used and the effects of pressure and rotary velocity of rotary part on temperature and strain variations have been investigated.

  8. Ethnic Variables and Negative Life Events as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behaviors in Latino College Students: On the Centrality of "Receptivo a los Demás"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Tina; Kahle, Emma R.; Hernandez, Viviana; Kim, Jean M.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined ethnic variables (viz., multigroup ethnic identity and other group orientation) along with negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in a sample of 156 (38 male and 118 female) Latino college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the…

  9. Thermal- and pH-Dependent Size Variable Radical Nanoparticles and Its Water Proton Relaxivity for Metal-Free MRI Functional Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Kosuke; Murayama, Shuhei; Araki, Takeru; Aoki, Ichio; Karasawa, Satoru

    2016-09-16

    For development of the metal-free MRI contrast agents, we prepared the supra-molecular organic radical, TEMPO-UBD, carrying TEMPO radical, as well as the urea, alkyl group, and phenyl ring, which demonstrate self-assembly behaviors using noncovalent bonds in an aqueous solution. In addition, TEMPO-UBD has the tertiary amine and the oligoethylene glycol chains (OEGs) for the function of pH and thermal responsiveness. By dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy imaging, the resulting self-assembly was seen to form the spherical nanoparticles 10-150 nm in size. On heating, interestingly, the nanoparticles showed a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior having two-step variation. This double-LCST behavior is the first such example among the supra-molecules. To evaluate of the ability as MRI contrast agents, the values of proton ((1)H) longitudinal relaxivity (r1) were determined using MRI apparatus. In conditions below and above CAC at pH 7.0, the distinguishable r1 values were estimated to be 0.17 and 0.21 mM(-1) s(1), indicating the suppression of fast tumbling motion of TEMPO moiety in a nanoparticle. Furthermore, r1 values became larger in the order of pH 7.0 > 9.0 > 5.0. Those thermal and pH dependencies indicated the possibility of metal-fee MRI functional contrast agents in the future.

  10. Examining Student-Adult Relationships during K-12 School Age Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Shelly J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dependent and independent variables and the effects relationships have on K-12 students as they struggle through life stressors. Thus, the research study was based upon this over arching question: How does having positive student-adult relationships impact a student's ability to cope with life…

  11. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected

  12. Distintas Modalidades de Aproximar la Educacion al Mundo Productivo: Efectos sobre Variables Psico-Sociales en los Alumnos (Distinct Modalities in Approaching Education for the Productive World: Effects of Socio-psychological Variables on Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez; Alegria, Jorge Alegria; Elevancini, Cecilia Maldonado

    2000-01-01

    States that since the 1990s, professional technical education has produced profound transformations in the relationship between education and work in Chile. Examines in a study how modalities of bringing students to the world of work have affected students' socio-psychological characteristics in comparison to training received from traditional…

  13. VARIABILITY IN LEVELS OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA DEPENDING ON AGE AND SEX AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network.  Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range  of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends  for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50

  14. Recognition of the Emotional Content of Music Depending on the Characteristics of the Musical Material and Experience of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazeva T.S.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of the factors affecting the recognition of the emotional content of the music. We tested hypotheses about the influence of the valence of the music, ethnic style and the listening experience on the success of music recognition. The empirical study involved 26 Russian musicians (average age of 25,7 years. For the study of musical perception we used bipolar semantic differential. We revealed that the valence of music material affects the recognition of the emotional content of music, and the ethno style does not. It was found that senior students recognize the emotional context of the music more effectively. The results show the universal nature of emotional and musical ear, equally successfully recognizing music of different ethnic style, as well as support the notion of higher significance of negative valence of emotional content in the process of musical perception. A study of factors influencing the emotional understanding of music is important for the development of models of emotion recognition, theoretical constructs of emotional intelligence, and for the theory and practice of music education.

  15. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  16. Loyalty, Trust, Satisfaction and Participation in Universitas Terbuka Ambiance: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting the loyalty of students in Universitas Terbuka are investigated in this paper. The aim was to elucidate how all the variables such as trust, satisfaction and participation interrelate with one another. Loyalty was the dependent variable; trust, satisfaction and participation were the independent variables. Data were accumulated…

  17. Encouraging Students to Engage with Native Speakers during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadd, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Students, their parents, and educators trust that a study-abroad experience is the best way to increase linguistic proficiency. The professional literature, however, shows a much more complex picture. Gains in linguistic proficiency appear to depend on variables such as whether the students experience a homestay or dormitory, the length of time…

  18. Gender Differences in High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the interests of high school students in Physics and variable of how the influential factors on their interests depending on gender. The research sample included 154 (F:78 M:76) high school students. A structured interview form was used as the data collection tool in the study. The research data were…

  19. The Contours of Inequality: The Links between Socio-Economic Status of Students and Other Variables at the University of Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, André

    2016-01-01

    The low level of student success in South Africa is an intractable problem, with levels of success differing between the various groups that make up South African society. One of the major constraints influencing student success involves the socio-economic status (SES) of newly entering students. In the South African context, with its very high…

  20. Pre-Service Identification of Talented Teachers through Non-Traditional Measures: A Study of the Role of Affective Variables as Predictors of Success in Student Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basom, Margaret; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Researchers examined relationships between the SRI Gallup Pre-Professional Teacher Interview and performance-based student teaching evaluations and between SRI Interview and California Student Achievement Test (CAT) scores. A relationship between SRI Interview scores and performance-based student teaching evaluations surfaces. CAT scores did not…

  1. The Relation of College Student Self-Efficacy toward Writing and Writing Self-Regulation Aptitude: Writing Feedback Perceptions as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Eric; Zumbrunn, Sharon; Conklin, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the powerful effect feedback often has on student writing success more research is needed on how students emotionally react to the feedback they receive. This study tested the predictive and mediational roles of college student writing self-efficacy beliefs and feedback perceptions on writing self-regulation aptitude. Results suggested…

  2. Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Wesley H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

  3. Field Dependence/Independence in College Nonmusic Majors and Their Ability to Discern Form in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark C.; McCoy, Clair W.

    1990-01-01

    Measures the effects of cognitive-style field dependence/field independence on students' ability to discern form in music. Applies tests to 119 nonmusic majors enrolled in an introductory music course. Finds field-independent subjects scored significantly higher than field-dependent subjects. Identifies variables affecting learning for both…

  4. Self-Esteem of Junior High and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimberly E.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the self-esteem of junior high and high school students. The independent variables investigated were quality of family life, birth order, family size, maternal employment, grade level and family structure. The dependent variables were the self-esteem scores from the following sub-scales of the Texas…

  5. The Relationship between Parent-Child Interactions and Prosocial Behavior among Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Students: Gratitude as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ho-Tang; Tseng, Shu-Feng; Wu, Pai-Lu; Chen, Chun-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child interaction, gratitude and prosocial behavior have a crucial impact on psychological development. According to our literature review, these three variables are positively related to one another. Therefore, the authors created a model that treats parent-child interaction as an exogenous variable, gratitude as a mediating variable, and…

  6. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Student, Home, Teacher, and School Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TIMSS 2011 data files that are based on background questionnaire variables. These variables were used to report background data in the TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics and TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science reports, and are made available…

  7. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  8. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  9. Development of relative body mass (BMI of students from Łódź, depending on the selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska Paulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human height-to-weight ratio is an important parameter of the body homeostasis. Currently, the most popular measurement determining the relationship between body mass and height is the Quetelet II indicator, called Body Mass Index (BMI. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the differences in the height-to-weight ratios, depending on selected environmental, psychological and sociological factors in people studying at higher education institutions in Łódź. The research was conducted among students of higher education institutions in Łódź, by electronic means or with the use of an anonymous survey. It consisted of 28 closed single or multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was made of complete results of the research involving 135 people, both males and females, aged between 19-26. It was revealed that the factors related to higher BMI values in students are the following: the presence of a tendency in the students to gain weight themselves, and a tendency to gain weight present in their mothers, an evaluation of their own body mass as excessive, regularly smoking cigarettes and rarely undergoing medical check-ups. Among the factors connected with lower BMI values are: regular coffee consumption, perception of their own body mass as being too low, and also obtaining systolic pressure values below 110 mm Hg. Additionally, a positive correlation between taking up physical activity and higher values of systolic blood pressure (p<0.05 was shown. Among the subjects, it was found that 92% of the underweight women declared that their body mass and figure were normal. In the case of women with optimal BMI values, 40% stated that their body mass was excessive. In the case of men the problem was reverse: 50% of the subjects who were either overweight or obese claimed that their body mass was within the norm. The factors that significantly influence body proportion differences among students include the subject’s and the subject

  10. The learning environment as a mediating variable between self-directed learning readiness and academic performance of a sample of saudi nursing and medical emergency students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Khaled N

    2016-01-01

    There has been some ground-breaking research on self-directed learning (SDL) in nursing education which reveals the superiority of SDL to traditional learning methods in terms of students' academic performance and the development of positive attitudes toward the learning process on the part of both students and teachers. The relationship between students' self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and students' academic performance, and the mediating role of students' perceptions of the learning environment needs further investigation. In this study, it is proposed that students' perceptions of their learning environment could enhance their SDLR and thus boost their academic performance (in terms of their GPA). A descriptive design was used to examine the relationships between the domains of SDLR, which are self-management, desire to learn and self-control and students' perceptions of the learning environment (SPLE) and students' GPA. A survey involving 342 [Corrected] Saudi students from nursing and emergency medical services undergraduate programs in King Saud University was used for this research. The results showed that SDLR level positively influenced students' academic performance positively, and that students' perceptions of their learning environment played a significant role in determining their level of SDLR and academic performance. It is recommended that nursing and emergency medical services educators provide a supportive learning environment in terms of good teaching, clear goals and standards, appropriate assessment, appropriate workload, and emphasis on independence to encourage students to engage in the process of SDL which can, in turn, enhance their academic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  12. Analysis According to Certain Variables of Scientific Literacy among Gifted Students That Participate in Scientific Activities at Science and Art Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömek, Emre; Yagiz, Dursun; Kurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze scientific literacy levels relevant to science and technology classes among gifted students that participate in scientific activities at science and art centers. This study investigated whether there was a significant difference in scientific literacy levels among gifted students according to the areas of…

  13. The Relationship between Student Attitude toward the VOE Program and Selected Demographic Variables in Six Fort Bend County High Schools in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Students enrolled in high school beginning typing classes were asked to complete a researcher-developed attitudinal assessment instrument containing 20 statements about Vocational Office Education (VOE) and a short intelligence test. Scores on the VOE instrument were correlated with students' intelligence level, sex, race, grade level, after-high…

  14. A prospective survey of chiropractic student experiences with pediatric care and variability of case mix while on clinical placement in Rarotonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela J; Carroll, Matthew T; Russell, David G; Mitchell, Eleanor K L

    2017-03-01

    To compare chiropractic students' perceptions of preparedness for practice before and after a clinical placement in Rarotonga and to report demographics from these experiences. The students completed deidentified pre- and postplacement surveys assessing pediatric practice preparedness. Students tallied the patient numbers, age, and chiropractic techniques used per visit for each day of clinic placement. On completion of the program, participating students (27/34, or 79% of the student cohort) did a postplacement survey on their perception of practice preparedness. Data were analyzed with the Spearman rho correlation, the Mann-Whitney U test, and regression analysis. There was an increase in perceived preparedness for pediatric practice, ranging from 24.1% of the student cohort at the start of the study to 82.1% following clinical placement in Rarotonga. The change in student preparedness to practice with children was positively correlated with the total number of children managed (r s = .05, p = .01) and the number of children managed who were under 10 years of age (r s = .60, p = .001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a medium positive effect for postprogram preparedness (F [4, 20] = 3.567, p = .024). Clinical outreach to Rarotonga provided a broad case mix of patients and a change in student perceptions of preparedness to practice with children, which was positively affected by the total number of children managed and the number of children managed who were under 10 years of age.

  15. Sociocultural Variables That Impact High School Students' Perceptions of Native Fauna: A Study on the Species Component of the Biodiversity Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.; Battistón, Luisina V.; García Capocasa, María C.; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school sector (private versus state schools) and student gender on knowledge of native fauna. Our main objectives were (a) to describe the knowledge of high school students from the province of Cordoba, Argentina with respect to native animal species, (b) to determine if any exotic species (introduced or…

  16. Which Are the Determinants of Online Students' Efficiency in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Merino, David; Serradell-Lopez, Enric; González-González, Inés

    International literature shows that the positive effect on students performance from the adoption of innovations in the technology of teaching and learning do not affect all teaching methods and learning styles equally, as it depends on university strategy and policy towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) adoption, students abilities, technology uses in the educational process by teachers and students, or the selection of a methodology that matches with digital uses. This paper provides empirical answers to these questions with data from online students at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC). An empirical model based on structural equations has been defined to explain complex relationships between variables. Our results show that motivation is the main variable affecting online students' performance. It appears as a latent variable influenced by students' perception of efficiency, a driver for indirect positive and significant effect on students' performance from students' ability in ICT uses.

  17. Predictive model of nicotine dependence based on mental health indicators and self-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kazemi Zahrani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to investigate the predictive power of anxiety, depression, stress and self-concept dimensions (Mental ability, job efficiency, physical attractiveness, social skills, and deficiencies and merits as predictors of nicotine dependency among university students in Isfahan. Methods: In this correlational study, 110 male nicotine-dependent students at Isfahan University were selected by convenience sampling. All samples were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, self-concept test and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and stepwise regression. Results: The result showed that anxiety had the highest strength to predict nicotine dependence. In addition, the self-concept and its dimensions predicted only 12% of the variance in nicotine dependence, which was not significant. Conclusion: Emotional processing variables involved in mental health play an important role in presenting a model to predict students’ dependence on nicotine more than identity variables such as different dimensions of self-concept.

  18. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  19. Dipendenza-Indipendenza dal Campo e Linguaggio Scritto: Uno Studio su Gruppi di Studenti di Scuola Media Superiore (Field Dependence-Field Independence and the Written Language: A Study of Groups of Senior High School Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletto, Anna Maria

    1995-01-01

    This article describes research carried out with 389 Italian senior high school students to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between one's written language and cognitive style. This study takes previous research in the area of field dependence and field independence in a new direction. (CFM)

  20. Master's Thesis Supervision: Relations between Perceptions of the Supervisor-Student Relationship, Final Grade, Perceived Supervisor Contribution to Learning and Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Mainhard, M. Tim; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis supervision is a complex task given the two-fold goal of the thesis (learning and assessment). An important aspect of supervision is the supervisor-student relationship. This quantitative study (N = 401) investigates how perceptions of the supervisor-student relationship are related to three dependent variables: final grade,…

  1. Study of the Factors Affecting the Mathematics Achievement of Turkish Students According to Data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Eser, Mehmet Taha; Aksu, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the factors affecting the mathematics achievement of students in Turkey based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2012 and the correct classification ratio of the established model. The study used mathematics achievement as a dependent variable while sex, having a study room, preparation…

  2. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. A Study of the Ways of Spending Leisure Time and Its Related Variables in the Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Sarraf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Leisure time is an opportunity allowing a person to fill his/her time with mental or entertaining activity according to his/her interest and incentive, when he/she is relatively free. The current study aimed to assess and prioritize the activities of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in their leisure time. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 325 students were selected using random stratified sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire, which its reliability and validity had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: Ninety percent of the students had leisure time during the day, which was more than 1 hour in 78% of them. The most important priorities of the students for spending their leisure time was recreation and having fun in 261 subjects (70.5%, rest in 239 (64.6%, using social networks in 239 (64.6%, reading non-school related materials in 229 (61.9%, reading school related materials in 220 (59.5%, sport in 201 (54.3%, and using game software in 193 (52.2%, among which, reading school related materials was significantly different between males and females (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences do not make effective use of cell phone, social networks, and computer games. Also, sport and studying activities have not considerable place in their leisure activities, which necessitates providing accurate planning.

  5. Learning Styles of the Students of Biology Department and Prospective Biology Teachers in Turkey and Their Relationship with Some Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, M. Handan

    2018-01-01

    This study has been carried out with the aim of researching dominant learning styles of the students studying at the biology departments of the faculty of science or the faculty of arts and sciences as well as the dominant learning styles of the prospective biology teachers studying at the faculty of education of universities in Turkey, by taking…

  6. The Influence of Mathematics Professional Development, School-Level, and Teacher-Level Variables on Primary Students' Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Martin, Christie; Lambert, Richard; Pugalee, David; Middleton, Catherina

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of a professional development project about an internet-based mathematics formative assessment tool and related pedagogies on primary teachers' instruction and student achievement. Teachers participated in 72 h of professional development during the year. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses of…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relation with the Social Skills and Religious Behaviour of Female Students at Dammam University in the Light of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Eman Mohammad Reda Ali; Al-Khawaldeh, Naseer Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The study has examined the correlation between emotional intelligence, social skills, and religious behavior among university female students, since it had been noticed that there was escalation in the frequency of some behavioral and emotional problems such as vandalism, aggression, social withdrawal, weakness of social relations, patterns of…

  8. Variables Related to Attitudes toward Domestic Violence and Use of Reasoning, Verbal Aggression, and Violent Conflict Tactics in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shannon R.; Gardner, Scott P.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 122 high school students investigated how gender, self-esteem, attitudes toward cohabitation, family openness, parents' annual income, and race were related to attitude towards dating violence. More family openness correlated with use of reasoning in dating conflicts. Low self-esteem correlated with high verbal aggression. (Contains 67…

  9. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  10. Estudo da ansiedade como variável no relacionamento aluno-paciente Estudio de la ansiedad como variable en el relacionamiento alumnos y pacientes A study of anxiety as a variablein the student-patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Araújo Sadala

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a ansiedade como variável na comunicação de alunas de graduação em enfermagem ao prestarem assistência aos pacientes. Os dados foram obtidos pela pesquisadora através da observação participante, estratégia que se constituiu simultaneamente de três procedimentos: registro das interações aluno-paciente pela pesquisadora, registro das mesmas pelos alunos e entrevistas dos alunos pela pesquisadora imediatamente após os dois primeiros procedimentos. A população da pesquisa constituiu-se de 10 alunos de enfermagem , acompanhados durante atividades de estágios curriculares nos 3°, 4° e 6° semestre do curso. A ansiedade, tanto dos alunos como dos pacientes, aparece como variável interferindo no uso da comunicação terapêutica pelos alunos.El estudio tiene por objetivo el análisis de la ansiedad como variable en la comunicación de los alumnos de graduación de enfermería, en actividades relacionadas a cuidados de pacientes. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de la observación participante, estrategia esta que constituida por tres procedimientos simultáneos: registro por la investigadora de las interacciones entre alumnos y pacientes; registro por los alumnos de esas mismas interacciones y entre vista de los alumnos por la autora mediatamente después de los dos primeros procedimientos. La populación se constituyó de 10 alumnos de enfermería acompañados durante sus actividades prácticas curriculares en los 3°, 4° e 6° semestres del curso básico (enfermería. La ansiedad de los estudiantes como la de los pacientes , aparece como variable interferente en el uso de la comunicación terapéutica entre ellos.The aim of this study was to analyze the anxiety as a variable in the nursing students communication with patients. Data was obtained through interviews, reports and observations of 10 students during 3 moments: 3th, 4th, and 6th, periods of undergraduate nursing course. Both

  11. A Scholarship Workshop Program to Improve Underrepresented Student Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a scholarship workshop program to better prepare low socio-economic and minority students to compete for collegiate scholarships. The study involves 1,367 high risk 9th to 12th grade students in Texas. Analysis of the pre- and post tests, using a t-test for dependent variables, indicates a statistically…

  12. The association between dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphisms and second language learning style and behavioral variability in undergraduate students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras Atabay, Meltem; Safi Oz, Zehra; Kurtman, Elvan

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) encodes a receptor for dopamine, a chemical messenger used in the brain. One variant of the DRD4 gene, the 7R allele, is believed to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between repeat polymorphisms in dopamine DRD4 and second language learning styles such as visual (seeing), tactile (touching), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving) and group/individual learning styles, as well as the relationships among DRD4 gene polymorphisms and ADHD in undergraduate students. A total of 227 students between the ages of 17-21 years were evaluated using the Wender Utah rating scale and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Additionally, Reid's perceptual learning style questionnaire for second language learning style was applied. In addition, these students were evaluated for social distress factors using the list of Threatening Events (TLE); having had no TLE, having had just one TLE or having had two or more TLEs within the previous 6 months before the interview. For DRD4 gene polymorphisms, DNA was extracted from whole blood using the standard phenol/chloroform method and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Second language learners with the DRD4.7+ repeats showed kinaesthetic and auditory learning styles, while students with DRD4.7-repeats showed visual, tactile and group learning, and also preferred the more visual learning styles [Formula: see text]. We also demonstrated that the DRD4 polymorphism significantly affected the risk effect conferred by an increasing level of exposure to TLE.

  13. Towards Learning for Employment: A Study of Effect of Different Variables on Employment Readiness of Students Enrolled in Professional Programmes Delhi-NCR, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Puja; Raina, Khushboo

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Indian Higher Education system has got 70 million students enrolled in different technical and professional courses, which is highest in world. Being the fastest growing economy, India has got global attention also. Despite such strong foundation, the nation lacks a skilled workforce. The expectations of the industry don’t match with what they receive as a workforce. There has been a continuous effort in instilling technical, communication, spiritual, leadership skills ...

  14. Effects of ICT Assisted Real and Virtual Learning on the Performance of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Monisha; Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of ICT assisted real and virtual learning performance over the traditional approach of secondary school students. Non-Equivalent Pretest-Posttest Quasi Experimental Design used to assess and relate the effects of independent variables virtual learning on dependent variables (i.e. learning performance).…

  15. Academic Achievement and Perceived Peer Support among Turkish Students: Gender and Preschool Education Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings…

  16. CSCOPE and Impact on Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Korelich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum models number many in the world of education. One particular curriculum SCOPE, a comprehensive web based curriculum management program, implemented in Texas schools, has drawn the interest of various educators throughout the state. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a quasi-experimental study to test that the CSCOPE curriculum will improve math TAKS scores for eleventh grade students in a south central Texas urban school district. This paper reviewed three studies in particular pertaining to CSCOPE and its effects on improving math TAKS scores of eleventh grade students in south central Texas urban school districts. The independent variable(s were the curriculum used by the districts. The dependent variable(s are the TAKS math scores. The results were mixed. Ultimately, the studies should expand by further disaggregating commended performance, college career and readiness, dig deeper into the subpopulations and subjects of English and Spanish language arts, and social studies.

  17. CSCOPE and Impact on Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Korelich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum models number many in the world of education. One particular curriculum SCOPE, a comprehensive web based curriculum management program, implemented in Texas schools, has drawn the interest of various educators throughout the state. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a quasi-experimental study to test that the CSCOPE curriculum will improve math TAKS scores for eleventh grade students in a south central Texas urban school district. This paper reviewed three studies in particular pertaining to CSCOPE and its effects on improving math TAKS scores of eleventh grade students in south central Texas urban school districts. The independent variable(s were the curriculum used by the districts. The dependent variable(s are the TAKS math scores. The results were mixed. Ultimately, the studies should expand by further disaggregating commended performance, college career and readiness, dig deeper into the subpopulations and subjects of English and Spanish language arts, and social studies.  

  18. Does the school performance variable used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study reflect students' school grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and grading systems, has contained an item assessing perceived school performance (PSP) since 1986. Whereas the test-retest reliability of this item has been reported previously, we determined its convergent and discriminant validity. This cross-sectional study used anonymous self-report data from Austrian (N = 266), Norwegian (N = 240), and Canadian (N = 9,717) samples. Students were between 10 and 17 years old. PSP responses were compared to the self-reported average school grades in 6 subjects (Austria) or 8 subjects (Norway), respectively, or to a general, 5-category-based appraisal of most recent school grades (Canada). Correlations between PSP and self-reported average school grade scores were between 0.51 and 0.65, representing large effect sizes. Differences between the median school grades in the 4 categories of the PSP item were statistically significant in all 3 samples. The PSP item showed predominantly small associations with some randomly selected HBSC items or scales designed to measure different concepts. The PSP item seems to be a valid and useful question that can distinguish groups of respondents that get good grades at school from those that do not. The meaning of PSP may be context-specific and may have different connotations across student populations from different countries with different school systems. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  19. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  20. Psychological and Educational Variables in University Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethencourt, Jose Tomas; Cabrera, Lidia; Hernandez, Juan Andres; Alvarez-Perez, Pedro; Gonzalez-Afonso, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research is to demonstrate that on the perceptions of university students, the student variables are seen as most important than the context variables to dropout their university studies. Method: The used methodology was cross-sectional or of cut, of retrospective type. 558 undergraduates were interviewed by…

  1. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  2. Sleep and optimism: A longitudinal study of bidirectional causal relationship and its mediating and moderating variables in a Chinese student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Hui, C Harry; Lam, Jasmine; Cheung, Shu-Fai

    2017-01-01

    While both sleep and optimism have been found to be predictive of well-being, few studies have examined their relationship with each other. Neither do we know much about the mediators and moderators of the relationship. This study investigated (1) the causal relationship between sleep quality and optimism in a college student sample, (2) the role of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as mediators, and (3) how circadian preference might moderate the relationship. Internet survey data were collected from 1,684 full-time university students (67.6% female, mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.66) at three time-points, spanning about 19 months. Measures included the Attributional Style Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Composite Scale of Morningness, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Moderate correlations were found among sleep quality, depressive mood, stress symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and optimism. Cross-lagged analyses showed a bidirectional effect between optimism and sleep quality. Moreover, path analyses demonstrated that anxiety and stress symptoms partially mediated the influence of optimism on sleep quality, while depressive mood partially mediated the influence of sleep quality on optimism. In support of our hypothesis, sleep quality affects mood symptoms and optimism differently for different circadian preferences. Poor sleep results in depressive mood and thus pessimism in non-morning persons only. In contrast, the aggregated (direct and indirect) effects of optimism on sleep quality were invariant of circadian preference. Taken together, people who are pessimistic generally have more anxious mood and stress symptoms, which adversely affect sleep while morningness seems to have a specific protective effect countering the potential damage poor sleep has on optimism. In conclusion, optimism and sleep quality were both cause and effect of each other. Depressive mood partially explained the effect of sleep quality on optimism

  3. Tabagismo em estudantes de Medicina: tendências temporais e fatores associados Smoking among medical students: temporal trends and related variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Após o declínio observado na prevalência de tabagismo entre estudantes de Medicina entre as décadas de 1960 e 1980, parece estar ocorrendo, atualmente, uma estabilização nessa prevalência. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências temporais de tabagismo entre estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (RS nos últimos dezessete anos, e alguns dos fatores associados ao hábito de fumar desses estudantes. MÉTODO: Estudos transversais com metodologias comparáveis foram conduzidos em 1986, 1991, 1996 e 2002. Questionários auto-aplicáveis foram utilizados. Definiu-se como fumante o indivíduo que fumava mais de um cigarro por dia há mais de um mês. Foram realizadas análises descritivas iniciais, análises brutas com utilização dos testes de qui-quadrado para heterogeneidade e tendência linear, e regressão de Poisson para avaliar o efeito do ano cursado sobre a freqüência de tabagismo, com controle para a idade do estudante. RESULTADOS: A prevalência atual de tabagismo entre os estudantes foi de 10,1%, valor estatisticamente similar ao dos levantamentos de 1991 e 1996. Não foram encontradas diferenças na prevalência de tabagismo por sexo, idade, tabagismo materno ou paterno. A freqüência de tabagismo aumentou durante a faculdade. CONCLUSÕES: A tendência de declínio na prevalência de tabagismo em estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Pelotas parece estar sendo substituída por uma estabilização em torno de 10% a 15%. O combate ao fumo ainda parece indispensável em ambientes universitários, especialmente nas escolas de Medicina.BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of smoking among medical students declined steadily between the 1960s and 1980s, it seems to have stabilized in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends, over the last 17 years, in the smoking habits of medical students at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to identify

  4. Relationship Model of Personality, Communication, Student Engagement, and Learning Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Ariani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the engagement as a mediating variable of the relationship between personality and communication with satisfaction. This study was conducted at business school in Indonesia with 307 students who are still active as a respondent. Survey research was conducted over four months by questionnaire that has been well-established that was taken and modified from previous studies. The results of this study indicate that student engagement mediates the relationship between personality and communication as independent variables and satisfaction as the dependent variable. Extroversion personality and communication significantly positive effect on student engagement in all three dimensions (vigor, dedication, and absorption. In addition, this study also showed that engagement and satisfaction are two different variables, but correlated, and there was no difference in terms of gender differences involvement.

  5. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  6. Effectiveness of Game and Poem Enhanced Instructional Strategies and Verbal Ability on Students' Interest in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick-Jonah, Toinpere Mercy; Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of game and poem-enhanced instructional strategies on students' interest in mathematics. The moderating effects of verbal ability were also examined on the dependent variable. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred and forty four students in the sixth year of their primary education (primary 6…

  7. The Effect of Health Education based on Health Belief Model on Preventive Actions of Synthetic Drugs Dependence in Male Students of Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Findings indicated that by increase of HBM components' average scores, the average score of synthetic drug dependence preventive actions increased too. Therefore, results of the research confirm the effect and efficiency of HBM in making preventive actions of drug dependence

  8. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  9. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  10. Work Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…

  11. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  12. A Quantitative Study on Burnout for Teachers Who Work with Students Who Have Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Elizabeth G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative research was to examine what relationships, if any, exist between the independent variable of burnout and dependent variables of job satisfaction for special education teachers who work with students who have moderate to severe disabilities ages 5 to 22 in a Southern California school district.…

  13. Variable stars in the classroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F [Departamento de Electronica e IngenierIa Electromecanica, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vaquero, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-05-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research.

  14. Variable stars in the classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F; Vaquero, J M

    2006-01-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research

  15. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  16. Does the Association between Depressive Symptomatology and Physical Activity Depend on Body Image Perception? A Survey of Students from Seven Universities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the association between depression and PA in university students of both genders and the role of body image perception as a potential effect modifier. Undergraduate students (N = 3706 from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic information; a range of health, health behaviour and health awareness related factors; the modified version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (M-BDI; educational achievement, and different levels of physical activity (PA, such as moderate PA (at least 5 days per week moderate exercise of at least 30 minutes, and vigorous PA (at least 3 days per week vigorous exercise of at least 20 minutes. Only 12.4% of the sample achieved the international recommended level for moderate PA, and 33.1% achieved the recommendations for vigorous PA. Both moderate and vigorous PA were inversely related to the M-BDI score. Physically active students, regardless of the type of PA, were significantly more likely to perceive their health as good, to have higher health awareness, to perform strengthening exercises, and to be males. The stratified analyses indicated that the association between depression and PA differed by body image. In students perceiving their body image as ‘just right’, moderate (>4th percentile and high (>5th percentile M-BDI scores were inversely related to vigorous PA. However, in students who perceived their body image as ‘overweight’, the inverse association was only significant in those with high M-BDI scores. We conclude that the positive effect of PA on depression could be down modulated by the negative impact of a ‘distorted’ body image on depression. The practical implications of these findings are that PA programmes targeting persons with depressive symptoms should include effective components to enhance body image perception.

  17. Several real variables

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    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  18. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  19. Influência das características sociodemográficas e clínicas e do nível de dependência na qualidade de vida de pacientes com DPOC em oxigenoterapia domiciliar prolongada Influence that sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and level of dependence have on quality of life in COPD patients on long-term home oxygen therapy

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    Simone Cedano

    2012-06-01

    of dependence. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study involving COPD patients on LTOT followed at the Oxygen Therapy Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo Hospital São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical data were collected. We assessed QoL and level of dependence using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the Katz index, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were constructed in order to determine the influence of these variables on QoL. RESULTS: We included 80 patients in the study. The mean age was 69.6 ± 9.1 years, and 51.3% were female. The lowest SF-36 scores were for the physical functioning and role-physical domains. All sociodemographic characteristics (except gender were found to correlate significantly with the SF-36 domains mental health, vitality, role-physical, and social functioning. We also found that body mass index, PaO2, post-bronchodilator FEV1, hemoglobin, and Katz index correlated significantly with the physical functioning, mental health, role-physical, and bodily pain domains. In addition, oxygen flows were found to correlate negatively with the physical functioning, mental health, vitality, and role-emotional domains. CONCLUSIONS: Low scores for SF-36 domains, as well as the variables that negatively influence them, should be considered and analyzed during the development and implementation of strategies for improving the QoL of COPD patients on LTOT.

  20. Sustained effects of interprofessional shared learning on student attitudes to communication and team working depend on shared learning opportunities on clinical placement as well as in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Sue; Jenkins, John

    2007-06-01

    Delivering high quality healthcare increasingly requires effective team working, and interprofessional shared learning (SL) is crucial to this. This study compares the attitudes, 1 year after experience of an undergraduate SL programme, of students who had participated in the programme with their peers who had not. 207 students were invited to complete a questionnaire to assess the impact of SL on attitudes to clinical competence and behaviour. Responses were received from 171 students (83%) who had either had no experience of SL, SL in lectures only, or SL in lectures and clinical placement. Significantly different responses were found between the three groups for a number of the statements, and these were further developed in responses to the open-ended questions. Only group 3 had developed and sustained a less exclusive attitude and were better able to appreciate that SL can make an important contribution to learning communication skills and understanding patient problems. This raises important questions about the approach taken to undergraduate SL if it is to have a contributory effect to attitudes about professional identity, and a significant effect in improving the quality of care provided by the doctors and nurses of tomorrow.